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1

Genetic network of the eye in Platyhelminthes: expression and functional analysis of some players during planarian regeneration.  

PubMed

Planarians are the free-living members (order Tricladida) of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are triploblastic, acoelomate, unsegmented and located at the base of the Lophotrochozoa clade. Besides their huge regenerative capacity, planarians have simple eyes, considered similar to the prototypic eye suggested by Charles Darwin in his book 'On the Origin of Species'. The conserved genetic network that determines the initial steps of eye development across metazoans supports a monophyletic origin of the various eye types present in the animal kingdom. Here we summarise the pattern of expression of certain genes involved in the eye network that have been isolated in planarians, such as Otx, Pax-6, Six, Rax and opsin. We describe the effects of RNA interference-mediated loss of function on eye regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these findings for the evolution of the eye gene network. PMID:11992724

Saló, Emili; Pineda, David; Marsal, Maria; Gonzalez, Javier; Gremigni, Vittorio; Batistoni, Renata

2002-04-01

2

Investigation of the ultrastructure of Dendrocoelum constrictum (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) spermatogenesis and mature spermatozoa.  

PubMed

To add to our understanding of dendrocoelid spermatozoa and to describe additional phylogenetic characters, the ultrastructure of the testis was investigated in the subterranean freshwater planarian Dendrocoelum constrictum. This is the first study investigating spermatogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure in a subterranean freshwater planarian species. We found that the basic structure of spermatozoa in D. constrictum is similar to that of other Tricladida that have been studied previously. In fact, D. constrictum spermatozoa possess an elongated nucleus, one giant mitochondrion, and two subterminal flagella with a 9+'1' pattern. The flagella emerge together from one side of the spermatozoon. However, D. constrictum has some characteristics that have not yet been described for other freshwater planarians. In fact, the number of cortical microtubules reaches the maximum number in the anterior and middle part of region I, and then decrease until they disappear towards the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon. The extreme tip of the anterior region of the spermatozoon exhibits a specific external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. PMID:25242690

Harrath, Abdel Halim; Gammoudi, Mehrez; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Ibrahim, Khalid E; Alwasel, Saleh H

2014-09-01

3

Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Although most freshwater planarias are well known photonegative organisms, their diel rhythms have never been quantified.\\u000a Differences in daily activity rhythms may be particularly important for temperate-climate, freshwater planarias, which tend\\u000a to overlap considerably in spatial distribution and trophic requirements.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Activity of stress-free, individually tested young adults of three common planarian species was recorded at 3-h intervals\\u000a in a 10-d

Paola Lombardo; Marco Giustini; Francesco Paolo Miccoli; Bruno Cicolani

2011-01-01

4

Prey-tracking behavior in the invasive terrestrial planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate with the mucus trail of a single species and a control plate without the trail were placed side by side at the exit of cages housing P. manokwari. All trials were then videotaped overnight. The flatworms moved along plates with mucus trails, but did not respond to plates without trails, blank control (distilled water), or with conspecific flatworm trails. When presented at the midpoint of a snail mucus trail, the flatworms followed the trail in a random direction. The flatworms showed a preference when choosing between two plates, each with a mucus trail of different land snail species. Our results suggest that P. manokwari follows snail mucus trails based on chemical cues to increase the chance of encountering prey; however, trail-tracking behavior showed no directionality.

Iwai, Noriko; Sugiura, Shinji; Chiba, Satoshi

2010-11-01

5

Prey-tracking behavior in the invasive terrestrial planarian Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida).  

PubMed

Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate with the mucus trail of a single species and a control plate without the trail were placed side by side at the exit of cages housing P. manokwari. All trials were then videotaped overnight. The flatworms moved along plates with mucus trails, but did not respond to plates without trails, blank control (distilled water), or with conspecific flatworm trails. When presented at the midpoint of a snail mucus trail, the flatworms followed the trail in a random direction. The flatworms showed a preference when choosing between two plates, each with a mucus trail of different land snail species. Our results suggest that P. manokwari follows snail mucus trails based on chemical cues to increase the chance of encountering prey; however, trail-tracking behavior showed no directionality. PMID:20853096

Iwai, Noriko; Sugiura, Shinji; Chiba, Satoshi

2010-11-01

6

Dugesia sicula (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida): the colonizing success of an asexual Planarian  

PubMed Central

Background Dugesia sicula is the only species of its genus not presenting an endemic or restricted distribution within the Mediterranean area. It mostly comprises fissiparous populations (asexual reproduction by body division and regeneration), most likely sexually sterile, and characterized by an extremely low genetic diversity interpreted as the consequence of a recent anthropic expansion. However, its fissiparous reproduction can result in an apparent lack of diversity within the species, since genetic variation within individuals can be as large as between them because most individuals within a population are clones. We have estimated haplotype and nucleotide diversity of cytochrome oxidase I within and among individuals along the species distribution of a broad sample of D. sicula, including asexual and the two only sexual populations known today; and predicted its potential distribution based on climatic variables. Our aim was to determine the centre of colonisation origin, whether the populations are recent, and whether the species is expanding. Results The species presents 3 most frequent haplotypes, differing in a maximum of 11 base pairs. As expected from their fissiparous mode of reproduction, in half of all the analysed localities many individuals have multiple heteroplasmic haplotypes. The distribution of haplotypes is not geographically structured; however, the distribution of haplotypes and heteroplasmic populations shows higher diversity in the central Mediterranean region. The potential distribution predicted by climatic variables based modelling shows a preference for coastal areas and fits well with the observed data. Conclusions The distribution and frequency of the most frequent haplotypes and the presence of heteroplasmic individuals allow us to gain an understanding of the recent history of the species, together with previous knowledge on its phylogenetic relationships and age: The species most probably originated in Africa and dispersed through the central Mediterranean. After one or multiple populations became triploid and fissiparous, the species colonized the Mediterranean basin, likely both by its own means and helped by human activities. Its present distribution practically fulfils its potential distribution as modelled with climatic variables. Its prevalence in coastal regions with higher water temperatures predicts a likely future expansion to northern and more interior areas following the increase in temperatures due to climate change. PMID:24330464

2013-01-01

7

A new and aberrant species of Dugesia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae) from Madagascar.  

PubMed

In this paper we report a new species of Dugesia of the family Dugesiidae from Madagascar, representing the fourth species of freshwater planarian known from this global biodiversity hotspot. In some respects the new species is aberrant, when compared with its congeners, being characterized by a head with smoothly rounded auricles, a peculiar course of the oviducts, including the presence of a common posterior extension, and by the asymmetrical openings of the vasa deferentia at about halfway along the seminal vesicle. Further, it is characterized by a ventral course of the ejaculatory duct with a terminal opening, very long spermiducal vesicles and unstalked cocoons. Its diploid chromosome complement with 18 chromosomes represents an uncommon feature among fissiparous species of Dugesia. PMID:25147450

Stocchino, Giacinta Angela; Sluys, Ronald; Manconi, Renata

2014-01-01

8

Planarian homeobox gene Dtprd-1 is expressed in specific gland cells and belongs to a new family within the paired -like class  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome of the planarian (Platyhelminthes; Turbellaria; Tricladida) Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina includes a paired-like type of homeobox gene. The Dtprd-1 gene encodes a protein of 382 amino acids. The open reading frame of Dtprd-1 is interrupted by two short introns of 65 and 56 bp, and one long intron of 4.8 kb. The intron positions are not located in\\u000a the

A. M. Muñoz-Mármol; Jose Ramon Bayascas; Estela Castillo; Andreu Casali; Emili Saló

1997-01-01

9

Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida)  

PubMed Central

Background Although most freshwater planarias are well known photonegative organisms, their diel rhythms have never been quantified. Differences in daily activity rhythms may be particularly important for temperate-climate, freshwater planarias, which tend to overlap considerably in spatial distribution and trophic requirements. Methods Activity of stress-free, individually tested young adults of three common planarian species was recorded at 3-h intervals in a 10-d experiment under natural sunlight and photoperiod during autumnal equinox (D:L ~12:12). Individual activity status was averaged over the 10-d experiment, each tested individual thus serving as a true replicate. Twelve individuals per species were tested. Food was provided every 36 h, resulting in alternating day- and nighttime feeding events. Activity during the first post-feeding h was recorded and analyzed separately. Statistical procedures included ANOVAs, correlations, and second-order analyses of angles. Results Dugesia (= Girardia) tigrina Girard 1850 exhibited clear nocturnal behavior, Dugesia (= Schmidtea) polychroa Schmidt 1861 was predominantly but not exclusively nocturnal, and Polycelis tenuis Ijima 1884 was relatively more active from midnight through noon. Species-specific activity peaks were statistically similar, with peaks at dawn for P. tenuis and just before midnight for the two dugesiids; however, D. tigrina was comparatively more active in the early night hours, while D. polychroa was more active than D. tigrina during daytime. D. tigrina also responded less readily to daytime food addition. P. tenuis remained poorly active and unresponsive throughout the experiment. Individual variability in diel behavior was highest for D. polychroa and lowest for D. tigrina. P. tenuis's general low degree of activity and late activity peak in the experiment may be related to a strong reliance on external stimuli. Conclusions The tested species are mainly nocturnal, consistent with their photonegative characteristics. The fine-scale differences in diel behavior among these three triclad species may not be sufficient to allow coexistence in the wild, with the nonnative D. tigrina eventually displacing D. polychroa and P. tenuis in many European waters. The link between planarian diel rhythms and ecological characteristics are worth of further, detailed investigation. PMID:21477354

2011-01-01

10

Reproductive strategies, karyology, parasites, and taxonomic status of Dugesia populations from Yemen (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Dugesiidae).  

PubMed

We present new data on the distribution, reproductive strategies, karyology, and taxonomic status of populations of freshwater planarians from Yemen. Nine populations were sampled and significant differences in their reproductive strategies and karyology are reported. The present study presents the first fully documented record of a naturally sexual, diploid (2n = 18) population of a Dugesia species in the eastern part of the Afrotropical region. Morphological characters combined with karyological data suggest that these Dugesia populations from Yemen represent a new species, which is herein described as Dugesia arabica Harrath and Sluys, sp. nov. This new species is mainly distinguishable from other Dugesia species that are distributed exclusively in the Mediterranean basin and in the eastern part of the Afrotropical region by the presence of the following features: well-developed and cone-shaped penis papilla, housing an ejaculatory duct that runs ventrally and has a subterminal and ventral opening; a considerably expanded and folded section of the bursal canal at the level of the oviducal openings; absence of a layer of longitudinal muscles on the copulatory bursa and the bursal canal. Specimens from two populations from Yemen were infested with a gregarine Protozoon. PMID:23721474

Harrath, Abdul Halim; Sluys, Ronald; Aldahmash, Waleed; Al-Razaki, Abdulkarim; Alwasel, Saleh

2013-06-01

11

Comparative transcriptome analysis between planarian Dugesia japonica and other platyhelminth species  

PubMed Central

Background Planarians are considered to be among the extant animals close to one of the earliest groups of organisms that acquired a central nervous system (CNS) during evolution. Planarians have a bilobed brain with nine lateral branches from which a variety of external signals are projected into different portions of the main lobes. Various interneurons process different signals to regulate behavior and learning/memory. Furthermore, planarians have robust regenerative ability and are attracting attention as a new model organism for the study of regeneration. Here we conducted large-scale EST analysis of the head region of the planarian Dugesia japonica to construct a database of the head-region transcriptome, and then performed comparative analyses among related species. Results A total of 54,752 high-quality EST reads were obtained from a head library of the planarian Dugesia japonica, and 13,167 unigene sequences were produced by de novo assembly. A new method devised here revealed that proteins related to metabolism and defense mechanisms have high flexibility of amino-acid substitutions within the planarian family. Eight-two CNS-development genes were found in the planarian (cf. C. elegans 3; chicken 129). Comparative analysis revealed that 91% of the planarian CNS-development genes could be mapped onto the schistosome genome, but one-third of these shared genes were not expressed in the schistosome. Conclusions We constructed a database that is a useful resource for comparative planarian transcriptome studies. Analysis comparing homologous genes between two planarian species showed that the potential of genes is important for accumulation of amino-acid substitutions. The presence of many CNS-development genes in our database supports the notion that the planarian has a fundamental brain with regard to evolution and development at not only the morphological/functional, but also the genomic, level. In addition, our results indicate that the planarian CNS-development genes already existed before the divergence of planarians and schistosomes from their common ancestor. PMID:22747887

2012-01-01

12

Fluvial basin history in the northeastern Mediterranean region underlies dispersal and speciation patterns in the genus Dugesia (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae).  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of eastern Mediterranean freshwater planarians of the genus Dugesia, estimated divergence times for the various clades, and correlated their phylogeographic patterns with geological and paleoclimatic events, in order to discover which evolutionary processes have shaped the present-day distribution of these animals. Specimens were collected from freshwater courses and lakes in continental and insular Greece. Genetic divergences and phylogenetic relationships were inferred by using the mitochondrial gene subunit I of cytochrome oxidase (COI) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) from 74 newly collected individuals from Greece. Divergence time estimates were obtained under a Bayesian framework, using the COI sequences. Two alternative geological dates for the isolation of Crete from the mainland were tested as calibration points. A clear phylogeographic pattern was present for Dugesia lineages in the Eastern Mediterranean. Morphological data, combined with information on genetic divergences, revealed that eight out of the nine known species were represented in the samples, while additional new, and still undescribed species were detected. Divergence time analyses suggested that Dugesia species became isolated in Crete after the first geological isolation of the island, and that their present distribution in the Eastern Mediterranean has been shaped mainly by vicariant events but also by dispersal. During the Messinian salinity crisis these freshwater planarians apparently were not able to cross the sea barrier between Crete and the mainland, while they probably did disperse between islands in the Aegean Sea. Their dependence on freshwater to survive suggests the presence of contiguous freshwater bodies in those regions. Our results also suggest a major extinction of freshwater planarians on the Peloponnese at the end of the Pliocene, while about 2Mya ago, when the current Mediterranean climate was established, these Peloponnese populations probably began to disperse again. At the end of the Pliocene or during the Pleistocene, mainland populations of Dugesia colonized the western coast, including the Ionian Islands, which were then part of the continent. PMID:23182762

Solà, Eduard; Sluys, Ronald; Gritzalis, Konstantinos; Riutort, Marta

2013-03-01

13

[Interspecific variability of telomeric DNA length in some Siberian and endemic Ba?kal planarians (Plathelminthes, Tricladida)].  

PubMed

The length of the telomeric DNA in nine species of planarians inhabiting Lake Baikal and one Siberian species from Baikal rivers was determined using Southern hybridization. According to preliminary estimations, it varied in the range of 25-30 kb (Rimacephalus arecepta, Rimacephalus pulvinar, Sorocelis hepatizon, Sorocelis nigrofasciata, Protocotylus sp., Baikalobia guttata, Bdellocephala baikalensis, Phagocata sibirica) and 50 kb (Baikaloplana valida, Baikalobia copulatrix). It is the first estimation of the values of telomeric region lengths for Baikal free-living flat worms. PMID:21061625

Koroleva, A G; Kiril'chik, S V; Timoshkin, O A

2010-09-01

14

Planarian homeobox genes: cloning, sequence analysis, and expression.  

PubMed

Freshwater planarians (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, and Tricladida) are acoelomate, triploblastic, unsegmented, and bilaterally symmetrical organisms that are mainly known for their ample power to regenerate a complete organism from a small piece of their body. To identify potential pattern-control genes in planarian regeneration, we have isolated two homeobox-containing genes, Dth-1 and Dth-2 [Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina homeobox], by using degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to the most conserved amino acid sequence from helix-3 of the homeodomain. Dth-1 and Dth-2 homeodomains are closely related (68% at the nucleotide level and 78% at the protein level) and show the conserved residues characteristic of the homeodomains identified to data. Similarity with most homeobox sequences is low (30-50%), except with Drosophila NK homeodomains (80-82% with NK-2) and the rodent TTF-1 homeodomain (77-87%). Some unusual amino acid residues specific to NK-2, TTF-1, Dth-1, and Dth-2 can be observed in the recognition helix (helix-3) and may define a family of homeodomains. The deduced amino acid sequences from the cDNAs contain, in addition to the homeodomain, other domains also present in various homeobox-containing genes. The expression of both genes, detected by Northern blot analysis, appear slightly higher in cephalic regions than in the rest of the intact organism, while a slight increase is detected in the central period (5 days) or regeneration. PMID:1714599

Garcia-Fernàndez, J; Baguñà, J; Saló, E

1991-08-15

15

Identification of Reissner's fiber-like glycoproteins in two species of freshwater planarians (Tricladida), by use of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using one polyclonal antiserum raised against bovine Reissner's fiber and seven monoclonal antibodies raised against bovine Reissner's fiber and against immunopurified bovine subcommissural organ glycoproteins, we have investigated two freshwater planarian species (Girardia tigrina, Schmidtea mediterranea) by light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry. ELISA probes showed that the monoclonal antibodies recognized different, nonoverlapping, unrepeated, proteinaceous epitopes present in the same compounds

P. M. Arrabal; G. Estivill-Torrús; E. Miranda; J. Pérez; P. Fernández-Llebrez

2000-01-01

16

INTRODUCTION The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) consists of  

E-print Network

sexual and asexual strategies for their reproduction (Brusca and Brusca, 1990; Hyman, 1951). Yet completely from small body fragments has been known for over two centuries (Morgan, 1898; Randolph, 1897, asexual form of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria, Tricladida), along with the isolation

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

17

Reflections on the genus Amaga Ogren and Kawakatsu 1990, and description of a new genus of land planarian (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Geoplanidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amaga amagensis, the type species of the genus Amaga, and Amaga bogotensis are re-described. Detailed analysis of the morphology of A. amagensis revealed important taxonomic features, such as testes located dorsally to the supraintestinal parenchymal muscular layer, and secretory accumulations opening through the lateral margins of the body. These characters, as well as other morphological features, are discussed, culminating in

José Horacio Grau; Ronald Sluys; Eudóxia Maria Froehlich; Fernando Carbayo

2012-01-01

18

High Copy Number of Highly Similar mariner-like Transposons in Planarian ( Platyhelminthe ) : Evidence for a Trans-Phyla Horizontal Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several DNA sequences similar to the mariner element were isolated and characterized in the platyhelminthe Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina. They were 1,288 bp long, flanked by two 32 bp-inverted repeats, and contained a single 339 amino acid open-reading frame (ORF) encoding the transposase. The number of copies of this element is approximately 8,000 per haploid genome, constituting a member of the

Jordi Garcia-Ferndndez; Andreu Casali

19

Planarians sense simulated microgravity and hypergravity.  

PubMed

Planarians are flatworms, which belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. They have been a classical subject of study due to their amazing regenerative ability, which relies on the existence of adult totipotent stem cells. Nowadays they are an emerging model system in the field of developmental, regenerative, and stem cell biology. In this study we analyze the effect of a simulated microgravity and a hypergravity environment during the process of planarian regeneration and embryogenesis. We demonstrate that simulated microgravity by means of the random positioning machine (RPM) set at a speed of 60?°/s but not at 10?°/s produces the dead of planarians. Under hypergravity of 3?g and 4?g in a large diameter centrifuge (LDC) planarians can regenerate missing tissues, although a decrease in the proliferation rate is observed. Under 8?g hypergravity small planarian fragments are not able to regenerate. Moreover, we found an effect of gravity alterations in the rate of planarian scission, which is its asexual mode of reproduction. No apparent effects of altered gravity were found during the embryonic development. PMID:25309918

Adell, Teresa; Saló, Emili; van Loon, Jack J W A; Auletta, Gennaro

2014-01-01

20

Planarians Sense Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity  

PubMed Central

Planarians are flatworms, which belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. They have been a classical subject of study due to their amazing regenerative ability, which relies on the existence of adult totipotent stem cells. Nowadays they are an emerging model system in the field of developmental, regenerative, and stem cell biology. In this study we analyze the effect of a simulated microgravity and a hypergravity environment during the process of planarian regeneration and embryogenesis. We demonstrate that simulated microgravity by means of the random positioning machine (RPM) set at a speed of 60?°/s but not at 10?°/s produces the dead of planarians. Under hypergravity of 3?g and 4?g in a large diameter centrifuge (LDC) planarians can regenerate missing tissues, although a decrease in the proliferation rate is observed. Under 8?g hypergravity small planarian fragments are not able to regenerate. Moreover, we found an effect of gravity alterations in the rate of planarian scission, which is its asexual mode of reproduction. No apparent effects of altered gravity were found during the embryonic development.

Adell, Teresa; Salo, Emili; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

2014-01-01

21

Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

1991-05-01

22

Structure and expression of Spk-1, an src-related gene product found in the planarian Dugesia (G) tigrina.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding a 497 amino acid protein 75% similar to most Src proteins has been isolated from the planarian Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina (Platyhelminthes; Turbellaria) by PCR followed by screening procedures. This gene product has been designated Spk-1 as it is the first Src-related kinase isolated in a planarian. The predicted amino acid sequence of Spk-1 suggest that it is anchored to the plasma membrane and that it interacts with other phosphotyrosine proteins. Spk-1 is expressed in both intact and regenerating organisms as an mRNA transcript of about 1.9 kb. Planarians, which conserve most features of the common ancestor to protostomian and deuterostomian phyla, are the most primitive triploblastic organisms from which a protein tyrosine kinase gene product has been isolated. The presence of this gene product in such a primitive organism, and its presumed role, are discussed. PMID:7510865

Burgaya, F; Garcia-Fernàndez, J; Riutort, M; Baguñà, J; Saló, E

1994-04-01

23

The use of planarians to dissect the molecular basis of metazoan regeneration.  

PubMed

Freshwater planarians possess remarkable regenerative abilities that make them one of the classic model organisms for the study of regeneration. These free-living members of the phylum Platyhelminthes are representatives of the simplest triploblastic organisms possessing bilateral symmetry and cephalization. Furthermore, planarians occupy an important position in the evolution of Metazoa, which allows for the possibility of vertically integrating molecular studies of regeneration in this organism to other, more widely studied animal model systems. Because of their relative simplicity, developmental plasticity, and evolutionary position, planarians are an attractive system to dissect the molecular processes underlying regeneration. The objective of this article is to present a molecular strategy to identify and functionally manipulate genes involved in the process of blastema-derived regeneration. Ultimately, the genes identified in planarians and their interactions during regeneration will define a series of useful molecular templates that may help unravel the more complex epigenetic processes of vertebrate regeneration and may perhaps uncover the factors that make regeneration permissive in some, but not all, metazoans. PMID:9824561

Sánchez Alvarado, A; Newmark, P A

1998-01-01

24

Triploid planarian reproduces truly bisexually with euploid gametes produced through a different meiotic system between sex.  

PubMed

Although polyploids are common among plants and some animals, polyploidization often causes reproductive failure. Triploids, in particular, are characterized by the problems of chromosomal pairing and segregation during meiosis, which may cause aneuploid gametes and results in sterility. Thus, they are generally considered to reproduce only asexually. In the case of the Platyhelminthes Dugesia ryukyuensis, populations with triploid karyotypes are normally found in nature as both fissiparous and oviparous triploids. Fissiparous triploids can also be experimentally sexualized if they are fed sexual planarians, developing both gonads and other reproductive organs. Fully sexualized worms begin reproducing by copulation rather than fission. In this study, we examined the genotypes of the offspring obtained by breeding sexualized triploids and found that the offspring inherited genes from both parents, i.e., they reproduced truly bisexually. Furthermore, meiotic chromosome behavior in triploid sexualized planarians differed significantly between male and female germ lines, in that female germ line cells remained triploid until prophase I, whereas male germ line cells appeared to become diploid before entry into meiosis. Oocytes at the late diplotene stage contained not only paired bivalents but also unpaired univalents that were suggested to produce diploid eggs if they remained in subsequent processes. Triploid planarians may therefore form euploid gametes by different meiotic systems in female and male germ lines and thus are be able to reproduce sexually in contrast to many other triploid organisms. PMID:24402417

Chinone, Ayako; Nodono, Hanae; Matsumoto, Midori

2014-06-01

25

Planarian resistance to blades and bugs.  

PubMed

Planarians famously can regenerate after decapitation. In this issue, Abnave et al. (2014) find they resist infection by multiple bacterial species pathogenic to humans, Drosophila and C. elegans, including M. tuberculosis. These results identify a conserved gene controlling phagocytosis and establish planarians as a powerful system for analyzing host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25211069

Petersen, Christian P

2014-09-10

26

Complete Functional Segregation of Planarian ?-Catenin-1 and -2 in Mediating Wnt Signaling and Cell Adhesion*  

PubMed Central

?-Catenin is a bifunctional protein participating in both cell adhesion and canonical Wnt signaling. In cell adhesion, it bridges the transmembrane cadherin and the actin-binding protein ?-catenin and is essential for adherens junction formation, whereas in canonical Wnt signaling, it shuttles between the cytosol and nucleus and functions as an essential transcriptional activator. Schmidtea mediterranea ?-catenin-1 was identified as a determinant of antero-posterior polarity during body regeneration by mediating Wnt signaling. Here we show that S. mediterranea ?-catenin-2 is specifically expressed in epithelial cells in the gut and pharynx, where it has a putative role in mediating cell adhesion. We show evidence that planarian ?-catenin-1 and -2 have distinct biochemical properties. ?-Catenin-1 can interact with the components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway but not with ?-catenin, whereas ?-catenin-2 interacts with cell adhesion molecules, including E-cadherin and ?-catenin, but not with Wnt signaling components. Consistent with their specific function, ?-catenin-1 is a potent transcriptional activator, whereas ?-catenin-2 has no transcriptional activity. Protein sequence alignment also indicates that the planarian ?-catenin-1 and -2 retain distinct critical residues and motifs, which are in agreement with the differences in their biochemical properties. At last, phylogenetic analysis reveals a probable Platyhelminthes- specific structural and functional segregation from which the monofunctional ?-catenins evolved. Our results thus identify the first two monofunctional ?-catenins in metazoans. PMID:20511647

Chai, Guoliang; Ma, Changxin; Bao, Kai; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Xinquan; Sun, Zhirong; Salo, Emili; Adell, Teresa; Wu, Wei

2010-01-01

27

Cadmium neurotoxicity to a freshwater planarian.  

PubMed

Although freshwater planarians are evolutionarily primitive, they are some of the simplest bilateral animals possessing integrated neural networks similar to those in vertebrates. We attempted to develop planarian Dugesia japonica as a model for investigating the neurotoxicity of environmental pollutants such as cadmium (Cd). This study was therefore designed to study the effects of Cd on the locomotor activity, neurobehavior, and neurological enzymes of D. japonica. After planarians were exposed to Cd at high concentrations, altered neurobehavior was observed that exhibited concentration-dependent patterns. Morphological alterations in Cd-treated planarians included irregular shape, body elongation, screw-like hyperkinesia, and bridge-like position. To study the direct effects of Cd on neurological enzymes, tissue homogenates of planarians were incubated in vitro with Cd before their activity was measured. Results showed that acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) activities were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. MAO-B activity was significantly induced by Cd at low concentrations and inhibited at high concentrations. Changes in the in vivo activity of AChE and ATPase were also found after planarians were treated with Cd at a sublethal concentration (5.56 ?M). These observations indicate that neurotransmission systems in planarians are disturbed after Cd exposure. PMID:24996536

Wu, Jui-Pin; Lee, Hui-Ling; Li, Mei-Hui

2014-11-01

28

Muscle Cells Provide Instructions for Planarian Regeneration  

E-print Network

Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration ...

Witchley, Jessica N.

29

Asexual reproduction of planarians: Metric studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship was studied between fission and restoration of body and its individual parts under different experimental conditions\\u000a in planarians of the Dugesia tigrina asexual race. The body and its fragments were studied morphomterically. After fission, the growth of planarians demonstrated\\u000a topographic differences. The separated tail fragments and postpharyngeal area, in which the zone of fission is formed, were\\u000a growing

I. M. Sheiman; Z. V. Sedel’nikov; M. F. Shkutin; N. D. Kreshchenko

2006-01-01

30

Allometric Scaling and Proportion Regulation in the Freshwater Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Allometric Scaling and Proportion Regulation in the Freshwater Planarian Schmidtea relationships. We chose to investigate the freshwater planarian, a commonly used model system for the study scale and proportion regulation during regeneration, growth and degrowth in the freshwater planarian

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

31

Muscle Cells Provide Instructions for Planarian Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs) that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region. PMID:23954785

Witchley, Jessica N.; Mayer, Mirjam; Wagner, Daniel E.; Owen, Jared H.; Reddien, Peter W.

2014-01-01

32

Muscle cells provide instructions for planarian regeneration.  

PubMed

Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs) that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region. PMID:23954785

Witchley, Jessica N; Mayer, Mirjam; Wagner, Daniel E; Owen, Jared H; Reddien, Peter W

2013-08-29

33

The nervous system of Tricladida. I. Neuroanatomy of Procerodes littoralis (Maricola, Procerodidae): An immunocytochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of the nervous system ofProcerodes littoralis (Tricladida, Maricola, Procerodidae) was studied by immunocytochemistry, using antibodies to authentic flatworm neuropeptide\\u000a F (NPF) (Moniezia expansa). Compared to earlier investigations of the neuroanatomy of tricladid flatworms, the pattern of NPF immunoreactivity inProcerodes littoralis reveals differences in the following respects: 1. Shape and structure of the brain. 2. Number and composition of

Maria Reuter; Margaretha K. S. Gustafsson; Cecilia Sahlgren; David W. Halton; Aaron G. Maule; Chris Shaw

1995-01-01

34

Exotic freshwater planarians currently known from Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical and taxonomic information on the four non-indigenous freshwater planarians of Japan is reviewed, viz. Dugesia austroasiatica Kawakatsu, 1985, Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850), G. dorotocephala (Woodworth, 1897), and Rhodax evelinae? Marcus, 1947. The occurrence of Girardia dorotocephala in Japan is unequivocally demonstrated. New karyological data are presented for populations of D. austroasiatica (chromosome complement: 2x=16, 3x=24), G. tigrina ( 2x=16,

R. Sluys; M. Kawakatsu; K. Yamamoto

2010-01-01

35

Neuropharmacology and behavior in planarians: Translations to mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarians are the simplest animals to exhibit a body plan common to all vertebrates and many invertebrates, characterized by bilateral rather than radial symmetry, dorsal and ventral surfaces, and a rostrocaudal axis with a head and a tail, including specialized sense organs and an aggregate of nerve cells in the head. Neurons in planarian more closely resemble those of vertebrates

Francesca R. Buttarelli; Clelia Pellicano; Francesco E. Pontieri

2008-01-01

36

Collecting Planarians: A Good Choice for a Field Trip.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a field trip to collect planarians as successful in generating interest in the sciences. This activity is suitable for all grade levels as a field trip or biology lab. Planarians can be easily collected from streams across the United States. Once in the classroom, planaria are easily fed and cared for. (SAH)

Cha, Heeyoung

2001-01-01

37

Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require a population of stem cells known as neoblasts. In response to wounding, or during the course of cell turnover, neoblasts are signaled to divide and\\/or differentiate, thereby replacing lost cell types. The study of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported inability of

Phillip A. Newmark; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2000-01-01

38

Recent identification of an ERK signal gradient governing planarian regeneration.  

PubMed

Planarians have strong regenerative abilities derived from their adult pluripotent stem cell (neoblast) system. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in planarian regeneration have long remained a mystery. In particular, no anterior-specifying factor(s) could be found, although Wnt family proteins had been successfully identified as posterior-specifying factors during planarian regeneration (Gurley et al., 2008; Petersen and Reddien, 2008). A recent textbook of developmental biology therefore proposes a Wnt antagonist as a putative anterior factor (Gilbert, 2013). That is, planarian regeneration was supposed to be explained by a single decreasing gradient of the ?-catenin signal from tail to head. However, recently we succeeded in demonstrating that in fact the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK) form a decreasing gradient from head to tail to direct the reorganization of planarian body regionality after amputation (Umesono et al., 2013). PMID:24854393

Agata, Kiyokazu; Tasaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Elizabeth; Umesono, Yoshihiko

2014-06-01

39

On-chip immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging.  

PubMed

Planarians are an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. A complete understanding of stem cell and regeneration dynamics in these animals requires time-lapse imaging in vivo, which has been difficult to achieve due to a lack of tissue-specific markers and the strong negative phototaxis of planarians. We have developed the Planarian Immobilization Chip (PIC) for rapid, stable immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging without injury or biochemical alteration. The chip is easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and worms can be mounted for and removed after imaging within minutes. We show that the PIC enables significantly higher-stability immobilization than can be achieved with standard techniques, allowing for imaging of planarians at sub-cellular resolution in vivo using brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. We validate the performance of the PIC by performing time-lapse imaging of planarian wound closure and sequential imaging over days of head regeneration. We further show that the device can be used to immobilize Hydra, another photophobic regenerative model organism. The simple fabrication, low cost, ease of use, and enhanced specimen stability of the PIC should enable its broad application to in vivo studies of stem cell and regeneration dynamics in planarians and Hydra. PMID:25227263

Dexter, Joseph P; Tamme, Mary B; Lind, Christine H; Collins, Eva-Maria S

2014-01-01

40

On-chip immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging  

PubMed Central

Planarians are an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. A complete understanding of stem cell and regeneration dynamics in these animals requires time-lapse imaging in vivo, which has been difficult to achieve due to a lack of tissue-specific markers and the strong negative phototaxis of planarians. We have developed the Planarian Immobilization Chip (PIC) for rapid, stable immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging without injury or biochemical alteration. The chip is easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and worms can be mounted for and removed after imaging within minutes. We show that the PIC enables significantly higher-stability immobilization than can be achieved with standard techniques, allowing for imaging of planarians at sub-cellular resolution in vivo using brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. We validate the performance of the PIC by performing time-lapse imaging of planarian wound closure and sequential imaging over days of head regeneration. We further show that the device can be used to immobilize Hydra, another photophobic regenerative model organism. The simple fabrication, low cost, ease of use, and enhanced specimen stability of the PIC should enable its broad application to in vivo studies of stem cell and regeneration dynamics in planarians and Hydra. PMID:25227263

Dexter, Joseph P.; Tamme, Mary B.; Lind, Christine H.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

2014-01-01

41

Regeneration and maintenance of the planarian nervous system  

E-print Network

Planarians can regenerate all tissues, including the central nervous system and the eyes. This process depends on a population of cells in the adult, the neoblasts, that includes pluripotent stem cells. Whether the neoblast ...

Lapan, Sylvain William

2012-01-01

42

Berberine exposure triggers developmental effects on planarian regeneration  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of action underlying the pharmacological properties of the natural alkaloid berberine still need investigation. Planarian regeneration is instrumental in deciphering developmental responses following drug exposure. Here we report the effects of berberine on regeneration in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Our findings demonstrate that this compound perturbs the regenerative pattern. By real-time PCR screening for the effects of berberine exposure on gene expression, we identified alterations in the transcriptional profile of genes representative of different tissues, as well as of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Although berberine does not influence cell proliferation/apoptosis, our experiments prove that this compound causes abnormal regeneration of the planarian visual system. Potential berberine-induced cytotoxic effects were noticed in the intestine. Although we were unable to detect abnormalities in other structures, our findings, sustained by RNAi-based investigations, support the possibility that berberine effects are critically linked to anomalous ECM remodeling in treated planarians. PMID:24810466

Balestrini, Linda; Isolani, Maria Emilia; Pietra, Daniele; Borghini, Alice; Bianucci, Anna Maria; Deri, Paolo; Batistoni, Renata

2014-01-01

43

Characterization of innexin gene expression and functional roles of gap-junctional communication in planarian regeneration  

E-print Network

in planarian regeneration Taisaku Nogi, Michael Levin * Department of Cytokine Biology, The Forsyth Institute remarkable powers of regeneration. After bisection, one blastema regenerates a head, while the other forms family during planarian regeneration. Planarian innexins fall into 3 groups according to both sequence

Levin, Michael

44

Not your father's planarian: a classic model enters the era of functional genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater planarians were a classic model for studying the problems of development and regeneration. However, as attention shifted towards animals with more rigid developmental processes, the planarians, with their notoriously plastic ontogeny, declined in significance as a model system. This trend was exacerbated with the introduction of genetic and molecular approaches, which did not work well in planarians. More recently,

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado; Phillip A. Newmark

2002-01-01

45

The distribution of New Zealand and Australian terrestrial flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria: Tricladida: Terricola) in the British Isles—the Scottish survey and MEGALAB WORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand flatworm, Artioposthia triangulata, and the Australian flatworm, Caenoplana alba, have become quite widespread in the British Isles since their introduction, probably in the early 1960s. They are considered as pest species since they eat earthworms and consequently may affect soil structure and fertility. The distribution of the two species has been recorded by two surveys: a Scottish

H. D. Jones; B. Boag

1996-01-01

46

Toxic effects of selenium and copper on the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala  

SciTech Connect

Aquatic toxicologists have become increasingly concerned with the effects of sublethal concentrations of toxicants on aquatic organisms. Sublethal effects of toxicants on freshwater invertebrates were reviewed. Selenium (Se) and copper (Cu) are both essential trace elements and toxicants. Se has been reported to alter the toxicity of heavy metals. Planarians, Dugesia dorotocephala, were used as test animals. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) acute toxicity of Se on planarians and the effect of the number of planarians per test chamber, (2) interaction of the acute toxicity of Se and Cu on planarians, and (3) sublethal effects of Se and Cu on planarians.

Rauscher, J.D.

1988-01-01

47

Optical coherence tomography: A new strategy to image planarian regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planarian is widely used as a model for studying tissue regeneration. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the real-time, high-resolution imaging of planarian tissue regeneration. Five planaria were sliced transversely to produce 5 head and 5 tail fragments. During a 2-week regeneration period, OCT images of the planaria were acquired to analyze the signal attenuation rates, intensity ratios, and image texture features (including contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, and entropy) to compare the primitive and regenerated tissues. In the head and tail fragments, the signal attenuation rates of the regenerated fragments decreased from -0.2 dB/?m to -0.05 dB/?m, between Day 1 and Day 6, and then increased to -0.2 dB/?m on Day 14. The intensity ratios decreased to approximately 0.8 on Day 6, and increased to between 0.8 and 0.9 on Day 14. The texture parameters of contrast, correlation, and homogeneity exhibited trends similar to the signal attenuation rates and intensity ratios during the planarian regeneration. The proposed OCT parameters might provide biological information regarding cell apoptosis and the formation of a mass of new cells during planarian regeneration. Therefore, OCT imaging is a potentially effective method for planarian studies.

Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

2014-09-01

48

Reactivating head regrowth in a regeneration-deficient planarian species.  

PubMed

Species capable of regenerating lost body parts occur throughout the animal kingdom, yet close relatives are often regeneration incompetent. Why in the face of 'survival of the fittest' some animals regenerate but others do not remains a fascinating question. Planarian flatworms are well known and studied for their ability to regenerate from minute tissue pieces, yet species with limited regeneration abilities have been described even amongst planarians. Here we report the characterization of the regeneration defect in the planarian Dendrocoelum lacteum and its successful rescue. Tissue fragments cut from the posterior half of the body of this species are unable to regenerate a head and ultimately die. We find that this defect originates during the early stages of head specification, which require inhibition of canonical Wnt signalling in other planarian species. Notably, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of Dlac-?-catenin-1, the Wnt signal transducer, restored the regeneration of fully functional heads on tail pieces, rescuing D. lacteum's regeneration defect. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparative studies towards the reactivation of regenerative abilities in regeneration-deficient animals. Furthermore, the availability of D. lacteum as a regeneration-impaired planarian model species provides a first step towards elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms that ultimately determine why some animals regenerate and others do not. PMID:23883932

Liu, S-Y; Selck, C; Friedrich, B; Lutz, R; Vila-Farré, M; Dahl, A; Brandl, H; Lakshmanaperumal, N; Henry, I; Rink, J C

2013-08-01

49

High-resolution profiling and discovery of planarian small RNAs  

PubMed Central

Freshwater planarian flatworms possess uncanny regenerative capacities mediated by abundant and collectively totipotent adult stem cells. Key functions of these cells during regeneration and tissue homeostasis have been shown to depend on PIWI, a molecule required for Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) expression in planarians. Nevertheless, the full complement of piRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in this organism has yet to be defined. Here we report on the large-scale cloning and sequencing of small RNAs from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, yielding altogether millions of sequenced, unique small RNAs. We show that piRNAs are in part organized in genomic clusters and that they share characteristic features with mammalian and fly piRNAs. We further identify 61 novel miRNA genes and thus double the number of known planarian miRNAs. Sequencing, as well as quantitative PCR of small RNAs, uncovered 10 miRNAs enriched in planarian stem cells. These miRNAs are down-regulated in animals in which stem cells have been abrogated by irradiation, and thus constitute miRNAs likely associated with specific stem-cell functions. Altogether, we present the first comprehensive small RNA analysis in animals belonging to the third animal superphylum, the Lophotrochozoa, and single out a number of miRNAs that may function in regeneration. Several of these miRNAs are deeply conserved in animals. PMID:19564616

Friedlander, Marc R.; Adamidi, Catherine; Han, Ting; Lebedeva, Svetlana; Isenbarger, Thomas A.; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco; Nusbaum, Chad; Lee, William L.; Jenkin, James C.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sanchez; Kim, John K.; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

2009-01-01

50

Optical coherence tomography: A new strategy to image planarian regeneration  

PubMed Central

The planarian is widely used as a model for studying tissue regeneration. In this study, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the real-time, high-resolution imaging of planarian tissue regeneration. Five planaria were sliced transversely to produce 5 head and 5 tail fragments. During a 2-week regeneration period, OCT images of the planaria were acquired to analyze the signal attenuation rates, intensity ratios, and image texture features (including contrast, correlation, homogeneity, energy, and entropy) to compare the primitive and regenerated tissues. In the head and tail fragments, the signal attenuation rates of the regenerated fragments decreased from ?0.2?dB/?m to ?0.05?dB/?m, between Day 1 and Day 6, and then increased to ?0.2?dB/?m on Day 14. The intensity ratios decreased to approximately 0.8 on Day 6, and increased to between 0.8 and 0.9 on Day 14. The texture parameters of contrast, correlation, and homogeneity exhibited trends similar to the signal attenuation rates and intensity ratios during the planarian regeneration. The proposed OCT parameters might provide biological information regarding cell apoptosis and the formation of a mass of new cells during planarian regeneration. Therefore, OCT imaging is a potentially effective method for planarian studies. PMID:25204535

Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chin-Chou; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

2014-01-01

51

Pharmacological assessment of methamphetamine-induced behavioral hyperactivity mediated by dopaminergic transmission in planarian Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion. PMID:24858686

Tashiro, Natsuka; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Daido, Kanako; Oka, Tomoe; Todo, Mio; Toshikawa, Asami; Tsushima, Jun; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

2014-07-11

52

Planarian regeneration under micro- and hyper-gravity simulated contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planarians are non-parasitic flatworms of the Turbellaria class, some of which show the striking ability to regenerate any part of their body, even the head, in few days. Planarians are common to many parts of the world, living in both saltwater and freshwater, as well as in terrestrial areas. Due to their plasticity Planarians have been a classical model for the study of the mechanisms of regeneration. Currently, their cheap and easy maintenance, as well as the establishment of robust genetic tools, have converted them into an essential system in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The aim of our project is to study the effect that micro- and hyper- gravity could exert during the process of planarians regeneration. The reason for planarians extreme regenerative capability is the maintenance until adulthood of a population of totipotent stem cells as well as the continuous activation of the cell-cell communication molecular pathways. Our prediction is that the alteration of the forces could affect planarians regeneration at different levels: 1) To regenerate, planarians must activate both proliferative and apoptotic responses, in order to create new tissue and to remodel the pre-existing one, respectively. Both cellular processes have been reported to be altered in several models under differential gravitational forces; 2) In planarians, the main intercellular signalling pathways (Wnt, TGFb, BMP, Hh, EGF) must control the process of differentiation and determination of each cell. For instances, it has been demonstrated that the differential activity of the wnt/beta-catenin pathway specifies the posterior (tail) versus the anterior (head) identity. Those pathways rely on the distance that secreted molecules (morphogens) are able to reach. Either this mechanism consist in a passive diffusion or an active transport through phyllopodia, it could sense the magnitude of the gravitational force; 3) The epidermis of planarians is covered by cilia, which beat collectively and in synchrony to propel the mucus and allow the locomotion. The assembly of ciliary structures could be affected by gravity changes. Our strategy consists in the histological, immunological and transcriptomic analysis of planarians that have completely regenerated head and tail structures under different gravity conditions: earth gravity (1g), micro-gravity (in the random positioning machine) and hyper-gravity (in a large diameter centrifuge, at 4g and 8g). Our data shows that planarians regenerate properly head and tail structures, including the eyes and the brain, in all those conditions. However some differences between the groups could be detected: 1) a slight decrease in the number of mitotic cells is observed in hyper-gravity conditions with respect to normal and micro- gravity conditions; 2) an increase in the number of animals that fissioned the tail, which is a mechanism to reproduce asexually for planarians, was observed in hyper-gravity conditions with respect to the rest; 3) although trunk fragments regenerate head and tail properly, smaller fragments, that is, head or tail pieces, could not regenerate the missing tissues under 8g conditions, and they died. Under 4g conditions they could regenerate but not properly; 4) defects in the density and length of the cilia were observed under micro- and hyper- gravity. A transcriptomic analysis is being conducted with samples from all the groups, with the aim to detect gene categories differentially regulated under micro- and hyper- gravity contexts.

Auletta, Gennaro; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Adell, Teresa; Salo, Emili

53

Bromodeoxyuridine specifically labels the regenerative stem cells of planarians  

E-print Network

The singular regenerative abilities of planarians require a population of stem cells known as neoblasts. In response to wounding, or during the course of cell turnover, neoblasts are signaled to divide and/or differentiate, thereby replacing lost cell types. The study of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reported inability of planarians to incorporate exogenous DNA precursors; thus, very little is known about the mechanisms that control proliferation and differentiation of this stem cell population within the planarian. Here we show that planarians are, in fact, capable of incorporating the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), allowing neoblasts to be labeled specifically during the S phase of the cell cycle. We have used BrdU labeling to study the distribution of neoblasts in the intact animal, as well as to directly demonstrate the migration and differentiation of neoblasts. We have examined the proposal that a subset of neoblasts is arrested in the G2 phase of the cell cycle by double-labeling with BrdU and a mitosis-specific marker; we find that the median length of G2 (?6 h) is sufficient to account for the initial mitotic burst observed after feeding or amputation. Continuous BrdU-labeling experiments also suggest that there is not a large, slow-cycling population of neoblasts in the intact animal. The ability to label specifically the regenerative stem cells, combined with the recently described use of double-stranded RNA to inhibit gene expression in the planarian, should serve to reignite interest in the flatworm as an experimental model for studying the problems of metazoan regeneration and the control of stem cell proliferation. © 2000 Academic Press Key Words: planaria; regeneration; stem cells; neoblasts; flatworms; bromodeoxyuridine.

Phillip A. Newmark; Ro Sánchez Alvarado

2000-01-01

54

Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase-Dependent Redox Networks in Platyhelminth Parasites  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Platyhelminth parasites cause chronic infections that are a major cause of disability, mortality, and economic losses in developing countries. Maintaining redox homeostasis is a major adaptive problem faced by parasites and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. Platyhelminth parasites possess a streamlined thiol-based redox system in which a single enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains, supplies electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thioredoxin (Trx). TGR has been validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis. Recent Advances: In addition to glutathione (GSH) and Trx reduction, TGR supports GSH-independent deglutathionylation conferring an additional advantage to the TGR redox array. Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the TR activity does not require the Grx domain, while the glutathione reductase and deglutathionylase activities depend on the Grx domain, which receives electrons from the TR domains. The search for TGR inhibitors has identified promising drug leads, notably oxadiazole N-oxides. Critical Issues: A conspicuous feature of platyhelminth TGRs is that their Grx-dependent activities are temporarily inhibited at high GSSG concentrations. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon and its biological relevance are not completely understood. Future Directions: The functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs encoded in platyhelminth genomes remains to be further assessed to thoroughly understand the TGR-dependent redox network. Optimization of TGR inhibitors and identification of compounds targeting other parasite redox enzymes are good options to clinically develop relevant drugs for these neglected, but important diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 735–745. PMID:22909029

Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2013-01-01

55

Bromodeoxyuridine Specifically Labels the Regenerative Stem Cells of Planarians  

E-print Network

of these pluripotent stem cells and their role in planarian regeneration has been severely hampered by the reportedU and a mitosis-specific marker; we find that the median length of G2 ( 6 h) is sufficient to account as an experimental model for studying the problems of metazoan regeneration and the control of stem cell

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

56

Ingestion of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA inhibits gene expression in planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

population that is present in the adult planarian. The study of these organisms, classic experimental models for investigating metazoan regeneration, has been revitalized by the application of modern molecular biological approaches. The identification of thousands of unique planarian ESTs, coupled with large-scale whole-mount in situ hybridization screens, and the ability to inhibit planarian gene expression through double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic inter-

Phillip A. Newmark; Peter W. Reddien; Francesc Cebria; Alejandro Sanchez Alvarado

2003-01-01

57

Memory and obesity affect the population dynamics of asexual freshwater planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms is a complex biophysical process that is not yet well understood quantitatively. Here, we report a detailed population study for the asexual freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, which can reproduce via transverse fission due to a large stem cell contingent. Our long-term observations of isolated non-interacting planarian populations reveal that the characteristic fission waiting time distributions

Jörn Dunkel; Jared Talbot; Eva-Maria Schötz

2011-01-01

58

Ingestion of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA inhibits gene expression in planarians  

E-print Network

for studying the molecular mechanisms that regulate tissue regeneration and stem cell biol- ogy of new tissue during planarian regeneration (2, 5). These stem cells can be specifically labeled of regeneration and stem cell regulation in planarians, a collection of 3,000 unique ESTs has been generated from

Gibson, Matt

59

pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians  

PubMed Central

Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes. PMID:23318641

Chen, Chun-Chieh G.; Wang, Irving E.; Reddien, Peter W.

2013-01-01

60

Histone modifications and regeneration in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a powerful model system for studying regeneration and adult stem cell (ASC) biology. This is largely due to the developmental plasticity of these organisms and the abundant distribution and experimental accessibility of their ASCs. Techniques such as whole mount in situ hybridization, dsRNA-mediated interference, halogenated thymidine analogs for defining cell lineages, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting among other methods, have allowed researchers to interrogate the biology and attendant pluripotent stem cells of these animals in great detail. Therefore, it has now become possible to interrogate and define the roles that epigenetic states may play in regulating ASCs, and by extension, regeneration proper. Here, we provide a primer on the types and number of histone families found in S. mediterranea, known as epigenetic marks of these molecules and a survey of epigenetic modifying enzymes encoded by the planarian genome. We also review experimental evidence indicating that such modifications may in fact play key roles in determining the activities of planarian stem cells. PMID:24512706

Robb, Sofia M C; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2014-01-01

61

Planarians in toxicology. Responses of asexual Dugesia dorotocephala to selected metals  

SciTech Connect

The planarian Dugesia dorotocephala is a freshwater invertebrate found in unpolluted flowing surface waters. Planarians have a sensitive nervous system with synapses and true brain and evidence these in a variety of social and response behaviors. The inclusion of planarians in a screening battery would provide improved sensitivity in detecting toxicity because planarians commonly respond to lower levels of contamination than do other species. Numerous toxicity test have been conducted to determine the acute and chronic effects of toxicants to provide data necessary for the development of water quality criteria. The appropriateness of Illinois water quality standards for metals was investigated using a 1-hr behavioral test based on the responses of the planarian D. dorotocephala. One possible difficulty with water quality standards for metals is that the standard for each metal is usually established without regard to the effects of other metals present in the receiving water.

Kapu, M.M.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

1991-08-01

62

Transcriptome Analysis of the Planarian Eye Identifies ovo as a Specific Regulator of Eye Regeneration  

E-print Network

Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian ...

Lapan, Sylvain W.

63

Molecular mechanisms of regeneration initiation and dorsal-ventral patterning in planarians  

E-print Network

Regeneration is widespread among animals, yet very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern regenerative processes. Planarians have emerged in recent years as a powerful model for studying regeneration ...

Gaviño, Michael A. (Michael Alexander)

2013-01-01

64

Cellular and genetic mechanisms of new tissue production in the regenerating planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

E-print Network

Regeneration of missing body parts is biologically fascinating, yet poorly understood. Many instances of regeneration, such as the replacement of amphibian limbs or planarian heads, require both a source for new cellular ...

Wagner, Daniel Elger

2012-01-01

65

Neoblast Specialization in Regeneration of the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Summary Planarians can regenerate any missing body part in a process requiring dividing cells called neoblasts. Historically, neoblasts have largely been considered a homogeneous stem cell population. Most studies, however, analyzed neoblasts at the population rather than the single-cell level, leaving the degree of heterogeneity in this population unresolved. We combined RNA sequencing of neoblasts from wounded planarians with expression screening and identified 33 transcription factors transcribed in specific differentiated cells and in small fractions of neoblasts during regeneration. Many neoblast subsets expressing distinct tissue-associated transcription factors were present, suggesting candidate specification into many lineages. Consistent with this possibility, klf, pax3/7, and FoxA were required for the differentiation of cintillo-expressing sensory neurons, dopamine-?-hydroxylase-expressing neurons, and the pharynx, respectively. Together, these results suggest that specification of cell fate for most-to-all regenerative lineages occurs within neoblasts, with regenerative cells of blastemas being generated from a highly heterogeneous collection of lineage-specified neoblasts. PMID:25254346

Scimone, M. Lucila; Kravarik, Kellie M.; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.

2014-01-01

66

Neoblast Specialization in Regeneration of the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

Planarians can regenerate any missing body part in a process requiring dividing cells called neoblasts. Historically, neoblasts have largely been considered a homogeneous stem cell population. Most studies, however, analyzed neoblasts at the population rather than the single-cell level, leaving the degree of heterogeneity in this population unresolved. We combined RNA sequencing of neoblasts from wounded planarians with expression screening and identified 33 transcription factors transcribed in specific differentiated cells and in small fractions of neoblasts during regeneration. Many neoblast subsets expressing distinct tissue-associated transcription factors were present, suggesting candidate specification into many lineages. Consistent with this possibility, klf, pax3/7, and FoxA were required for the differentiation of cintillo-expressing sensory neurons, dopamine-?-hydroxylase-expressing neurons, and the pharynx, respectively. Together, these results suggest that specification of cell fate for most-to-all regenerative lineages occurs within neoblasts, with regenerative cells of blastemas being generated from a highly heterogeneous collection of lineage-specified neoblasts. PMID:25254346

Scimone, M Lucila; Kravarik, Kellie M; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

2014-08-12

67

Estimation of the toxicity of silver nanoparticles by using planarian flatworms.  

PubMed

The regeneration of planarian flatworms - specifically, changes to the area of the regeneration bud (blastema) after surgical dissection - was proposed for use as a robust tool for estimating the toxicity of silver nanoparticles. The use of Planaria species, due to their unique regenerative capacity, could result in a reduction in the use of more-traditional laboratory animals for toxicity testing. With our novel approach, silver nanoparticles were found to be moderately toxic to the planarian, Girardia tigrina. PMID:24773488

Kustov, Leonid; Tiras, Kharlampii; Al-Abed, Souhail; Golovina, Natalia; Ananyan, Mikhail

2014-03-01

68

Planarian PTEN homologs regulate stem cells and regeneration through TOR signaling  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We have identified two genes, Smed-PTEN-1 and Smed-PTEN-2, capable of regulating stem cell function in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Both genes encode proteins homologous to the mammalian tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Inactivation of Smed-PTEN-1 and -2 by RNA interference (RNAi) in planarians disrupts regeneration, and leads to abnormal outgrowths in both cut and uncut animals followed soon after by death (lysis). The resulting phenotype is characterized by hyperproliferation of neoblasts (planarian stem cells), tissue disorganization and a significant accumulation of postmitotic cells with impaired differentiation capacity. Further analyses revealed that rapamycin selectively prevented such accumulation without affecting the normal neoblast proliferation associated with physiological turnover and regeneration. In animals in which PTEN function is abrogated, we also detected a significant increase in the number of cells expressing the planarian Akt gene homolog (Smed-Akt). However, functional abrogation of Smed-Akt in Smed-PTEN RNAi-treated animals does not prevent cell overproliferation and lethality, indicating that functional abrogation of Smed-PTEN is sufficient to induce abnormal outgrowths. Altogether, our data reveal roles for PTEN in the regulation of planarian stem cells that are strikingly conserved to mammalian models. In addition, our results implicate this protein in the control of stem cell maintenance during the regeneration of complex structures in planarians. PMID:19048075

Oviedo, Nestor J.; Pearson, Bret J.; Levin, Michael; Sanchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2008-01-01

69

A cembranoid from tobacco prevents the expression of nicotine-induced withdrawal behavior in planarian worms  

PubMed Central

Using an adaptation of published behavioral protocols, we determined that acute exposure to the cholinergic compounds nicotine and carbamylcholine decreased planarian motility in a concentration-dependent manner. A tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R-cembranoid), also decreased planarian motility. Experiments in the presence of 1 ?M 4R-cembranoid did increase the IC50 for nicotine- but not carbamylcholine-induced decrease in planarian motility. When planarians were exposed for 24 h to either nicotine or carbamylcholine at concentrations near their respective IC50 values and then transferred to plain media, nicotine-exposed, but not carbamylcholine- or cembranoid-exposed worms displayed withdrawal-like distress behaviors. In experiments where planarians were pre-exposed to 100 ?M nicotine for 24 h in the presence of 1 ?M 4R-cembranoid, the withdrawal-like effects were significantly reduced. These results indicate that the 4R-cembranoid might have valuable applications for tobacco abuse research. This experimental approach using planarians is useful for the initial screening of compounds relevant to drug abuse and dependence. PMID:19490913

Pagan, One R.; Rowlands, Amanda L.; Fattore, Angela L.; Coudron, Tamara; Urban, Kimberly R.; Bidja, Apurva H.; Eterovic, Vesna A.

2010-01-01

70

SILAC proteomics of planarians identifies Ncoa5 as a conserved component of pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Planarian regeneration depends on the presence of pluripotent stem cells in the adult. We developed an in vivo stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) protocol in planarians to identify proteins that are enriched in planarian stem cells. Through a comparison of SILAC proteomes of normal and stem cell-depleted planarians and of a stem cell-enriched population of sorted cells, we identified hundreds of stem cell proteins. One of these is an ortholog of nuclear receptor coactivator-5 (Ncoa5/CIA), which is known to regulate estrogen-receptor-mediated transcription in human cells. We show that Ncoa5 is essential for the maintenance of the pluripotent stem cell population in planarians and that a putative mouse ortholog is expressed in pluripotent cells of the embryo. Our study thus identifies a conserved component of pluripotent stem cells, demonstrating that planarians, in particular, when combined with in vivo SILAC, are a powerful model in stem cell research. PMID:24268775

Böser, Alexander; Drexler, Hannes C A; Reuter, Hanna; Schmitz, Henning; Wu, Guangming; Schöler, Hans R; Gentile, Luca; Bartscherer, Kerstin

2013-11-27

71

Topiramate antagonism of L-glutamate-induced paroxysms in planarians  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that NMDA (N-Methyl-D-aspartate) and AMPA (?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) induce concentration-dependent paroxysms in planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala). Since the postulated mechanisms of action of the sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide antiepileptic drug topiramate include inhibition of glutamate-activated ion channels, we tested the hypothesis that topiramate would inhibit glutamate-induced paroxysms in our model. We demonstrate that: (1) L-glutamate (1–10 mM), but not D-glutamate, induced dose-related paroxysms, and that (2) topiramate dose-relatedly (0.3–3 mM) inhibited L-glutamate-induced paroxysms. These results provide further evidence of a topiramate-sensitive glutamate receptor-mediated activity in this model. PMID:20863783

Raffa, Robert B.; Finno, Kristin E.; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Rawls, Scott M.

2010-01-01

72

Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration  

PubMed Central

A main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged tissues and organs with functional parts of the correct size and shape. But the proliferation of new cells is not sufficient; we will also need to understand how the scale and ultimate form of newly produced tissues are determined. Using the planarian model system, we report that membrane voltage-dependent bioelectric signaling determines both head size and organ scaling during regeneration. RNA interference of the H+,K+-ATPase ion pump results in membrane hyperpolarization, which has no effect on the amount of new tissue (blastema) that is regenerated yet produces regenerates with tiny ‘shrunken’ heads and proportionally oversized pharynges. Our data show that this disproportionality results from a lack of the apoptosis required to adjust head and organ size and placement, highlighting apoptotic remodeling as the link between bioelectric signaling and the establishment of organ size during regeneration. PMID:23250205

Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Lemire, Joan M.; Levin, Michael

2013-01-01

73

A new Paravortex (Platyhelminthes, Dalyellioida) endoparasite of Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia, Mesodesmatidae) from Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species of turbellarians (Platyhelminthes) are known to live associated with other organisms, especially invertebrates, as commensals or parasites. The family Graffillidae (Rhabdocoela) includes two genera that parasitize mollusks, Graffílla and Paravortex. Within the latter genus, six species were described as associated with mollusks. In other instances, unnamed Paravortex species were mentioned as parasites of other bivalves and of the

Francisco Brusa; Rodrigo Ponce de León; Cristina Damborenea

2006-01-01

74

Correlating early evolution of parasitic platyhelminths to Gondwana breakup.  

PubMed

Investigating patterns and processes of parasite diversification over ancient geological periods should involve comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies in a biogeographic context. It has been shown previously that the geographical distribution of host-specific parasites of sarcopterygians was guided, from Palaeozoic to Cainozoic times, mostly by evolution and diversification of their freshwater hosts. Here, we propose phylogenies of neobatrachian frogs and their specific parasites (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) to investigate coevolutionary processes and historical biogeography of polystomes and further discuss all the possible assumptions that may account for the early evolution of these parasites. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated rRNA nuclear genes (18S and partial 28S) supplemented by cophylogenetic and biogeographic vicariance analyses reveal four main parasite lineages that can be ascribed to centers of diversity, namely Australia, India, Africa, and South America. In addition, the relationships among these biogeographical monophyletic groups, substantiated by molecular dating, reflect sequential origins during the breakup of Gondwana. The Australian polystome lineage may have been isolated during the first stages of the breakup, whereas the Indian lineage would have arisen after the complete separation of western and eastern Gondwanan components. Next, polystomes would have codiverged with hyloid sensu stricto and ranoid frog lineages before the completion of South American and African plate separation. Ultimately, they would have undergone an extensive diversification in South America when their ancestral host families diversified. Therefore, the presence of polystome parasites in specific anuran host clades and in discrete geographic areas reveals the importance of biogeographic vicariance in diversification processes and supports the occurrence and radiation of amphibians over ancient and recent geological periods. PMID:21856629

Badets, Mathieu; Whittington, Ian; Lalubin, Fabrice; Allienne, Jean-Francois; Maspimby, Jean-Luc; Bentz, Sophie; Du Preez, Louis H; Barton, Diane; Hasegawa, Hideo; Tandon, Veena; Imkongwapang, Rangpenyuba; Imkongwapang, Rangpenyubai; Ohler, Annemarie; Combes, Claude; Verneau, Olivier

2011-12-01

75

Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.  

PubMed

Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

2014-01-01

76

A molecular wound response program associated with regeneration initiation in planarians  

PubMed Central

Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing body part and present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration initiation. The gene activation program that occurs at planarian wounds to coordinate regenerative responses remains unknown. We identified a large set of wound-induced genes during regeneration initiation in planarians. Two waves of wound-induced gene expression occurred in differentiated tissues. The first wave includes conserved immediate early genes. Many second-wave genes encode conserved patterning factors required for proper regeneration. Genes of both classes were generally induced by wounding, indicating that a common initial gene expression program is triggered regardless of missing tissue identity. Planarian regeneration uses a population of regenerative cells (neoblasts), including pluripotent stem cells. A class of wound-induced genes was activated directly within neoblasts, including the Runx transcription factor-encoding runt-1 gene. runt-1 was required for specifying different cell types during regeneration, promoting heterogeneity in neoblasts near wounds. Wound-induced gene expression in neoblasts, including that of runt-1, required SRF (serum response factor) and sos-1. Taken together, these data connect wound sensation to the activation of specific cell type regeneration programs in neoblasts. Most planarian wound-induced genes are conserved across metazoans, and identified genes and mechanisms should be important broadly for understanding wound signaling and regeneration initiation. PMID:22549959

Wenemoser, Danielle; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Wilkinson, Alex W.; Bell, George W.; Reddien, Peter W.

2012-01-01

77

Effects of N,N-dimethylformamide on behaviour and regeneration of planarian Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

In this study, the toxicity, behavioural and regeneration effects of dimethylformamide (DMF) on planarian Dugesia japonica were investigated. One control and six different concentrations of DMF (10 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 5000 ppm and 10,000 ppm) were used in triplicate. The results showed that the mortality was directly proportional to the DMF concentration and planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) was significantly reduced by increasing the exposure time and DMF concentration. pLMV of D. japonica was significantly reduced at a lower concentration of 10 ppm after 7 days of continuous exposure to DMF. The recovery of the motility of planarians pretreated with DMF was found to be time- and dose dependent, all planarians had complete recovery in their motility after 48 h. The appearance of auricles in regenerating animals was easily affected by DMF exposure in comparison with the appearance of eyespot. The present results suggest that the intact adult mobility in the aquatic planarian D. japonica is a more sensitive biomarker than mortality, and the appearance of auricles in regenerating animals is a more sensitive biomarker than eyespot. PMID:22495519

Zhang, Jianyong; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zheng, Mingyue; Sun, Yuqian; Wang, Youjun; Yang, Shudong

2013-09-01

78

A Pitx transcription factor controls the establishment and maintenance of the serotonergic lineage in planarians.  

PubMed

In contrast to adult vertebrates, which have limited capacities for neurogenesis, adult planarians undergo constitutive cellular turnover during homeostasis and are even able to regenerate a whole brain after decapitation. This enormous plasticity derives from pluripotent stem cells residing in the planarian body in large numbers. It is still obscure how these stem cells are programmed for differentiation into specific cell lineages and how lineage identity is maintained. Here we identify a Pitx transcription factor of crucial importance for planarian regeneration. In addition to patterning defects that are co-dependent on the LIM homeobox transcription factor gene islet1, which is expressed with pitx at anterior and posterior regeneration poles, RNAi against pitx results in islet1-independent specific loss of serotonergic (SN) neurons during regeneration. Besides its expression in terminally differentiated SN neurons we found pitx in stem cell progeny committed to the SN fate. Also, intact pitx RNAi animals gradually lose SN markers, a phenotype that depends neither on increased apoptosis nor on stem cell-based turnover or transdifferentiation into other neurons. We propose that pitx is a terminal selector gene for SN neurons in planarians that controls not only their maturation but also their identity by regulating the expression of the Serotonin production and transport machinery. Finally, we made use of this function of pitx and compared the transcriptomes of regenerating planarians with and without functional SN neurons, identifying at least three new neuronal targets of Pitx. PMID:24131630

März, Martin; Seebeck, Florian; Bartscherer, Kerstin

2013-11-01

79

Regeneration and maintenance of the planarian midline is regulated by a slit orthologue.  

PubMed

Several families of evolutionarily conserved axon guidance cues orchestrate the precise wiring of the nervous system during embryonic development. The remarkable plasticity of freshwater planarians provides the opportunity to study these molecules in the context of neural regeneration and maintenance. Here we characterize a homologue of the Slit family of guidance cues from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-slit is expressed along the planarian midline, in both dorsal and ventral domains. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting Smed-slit results in the collapse of many newly regenerated tissues at the midline; these include the cephalic ganglia, ventral nerve cords, photoreceptors, and the posterior digestive system. Surprisingly, Smed-slit RNAi knockdown animals also develop morphologically distinguishable, ectopic neural structures near the midline in uninjured regions of intact and regenerating planarians. These results suggest that Smed-slit acts not only as a repulsive cue required for proper midline formation during regeneration but that it may also act to regulate the behavior of neural precursors at the midline in intact planarians. PMID:17553481

Cebrià, Francesc; Guo, Tingxia; Jopek, Jessica; Newmark, Phillip A

2007-07-15

80

An RNAi screen reveals intestinal regulators of branching morphogenesis, differentiation, and stem cell proliferation in planarians  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Planarians grow and regenerate organs by coordinating proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells with remodeling of post-mitotic tissues. Understanding how these processes are orchestrated requires characterizing cell type-specific gene expression programs and their regulation during regeneration and homeostasis. To this end, we analyzed the expression profile of planarian intestinal phagocytes, cells responsible for digestion and nutrient storage/distribution. Utilizing RNA interference, we identified cytoskeletal regulators required for intestinal branching morphogenesis, and a modulator of bioactive sphingolipid metabolism, ceramide synthase, required for the production of functional phagocytes. Additionally, we found that a gut-enriched homeobox transcription factor, nkx-2.2, is required for somatic stem cell proliferation, suggesting a niche-like role for phagocytes. Identification of evolutionarily conserved regulators of intestinal branching, differentiation, and stem cell dynamics demonstrates the utility of the planarian digestive system as a model for elucidating the mechanisms controlling post-embryonic organogenesis. PMID:23079596

Forsthoefel, David J.; James, Noelle P.; Escobar, David J.; Stary, Joel M.; Vieira, Ana P.; Waters, Forrest A.; Newmark, Phillip A.

2012-01-01

81

Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation?  

PubMed Central

Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation. PMID:24063805

Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J.K.P.; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M.; Benner, Jack S.; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A.

2013-01-01

82

Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation.  

PubMed

Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5(m)C) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation. PMID:24063805

Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J K P; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M; Benner, Jack S; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A

2013-12-01

83

The molecular logic for planarian regeneration along the anterior-posterior axis.  

PubMed

The planarian Dugesia japonica can regenerate a complete individual from a head, trunk or tail fragment via activation of somatic pluripotent stem cells. About a century ago, Thomas Hunt Morgan attempted to explain the extraordinary regenerative ability of planarians by positing two opposing morphogenetic gradients of formative "head stuff" and "tail stuff" along the anterior-posterior axis. However, Morgan's hypothesis remains open to debate. Here we show that extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways establish a solid framework for planarian regeneration. Our data suggest that ERK signalling forms a spatial gradient in the anterior region during regeneration. The fibroblast growth factor receptor-like gene nou-darake (which serves as an output of ERK signalling in the differentiating head) and posteriorly biased ?-catenin activity negatively regulate ERK signalling along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct manners, and thereby posteriorize regenerating tissues outside the head region to reconstruct a complete head-to-tail axis. On the basis of this knowledge about D. japonica, we proposed that ?-catenin signalling is responsible for the lack of head-regenerative ability of tail fragments in the planarian Phagocata kawakatsui, and our confirmation thereof supports the notion that posterior ?-catenin signalling negatively modulates the ERK signalling involved in anteriorization across planarian species. These findings suggest that ERK signalling has a pivotal role in triggering globally dynamic differentiation of stem cells in a head-to-tail sequence through a default program that promotes head tissue specification in the absence of posteriorizing signals. Thus, we have confirmed the broad outline of Morgan's hypothesis, and refined it on the basis of our proposed default property of planarian stem cells. PMID:23883928

Umesono, Yoshihiko; Tasaki, Junichi; Nishimura, Yui; Hrouda, Martina; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Inoue, Takeshi; Agata, Kiyokazu

2013-08-01

84

Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting

K. A. Jenrow; C. H. Smith; A. R. Liboff

1996-01-01

85

Asexual reproduction, regeneration, and somatic embryogenesis in the planarian Dugesia tigrina (Turbellaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reviewing recent research published in Russian on regeneration and asexual reproduction, the following morphogenetic processes in the planarian Dugesia tigrina are considered: 1) regeneration of lost parts of the body; 2) regeneration of the whole worm from fragments of the body, either by normal regeneration when the inital polarity of the fragment is retained or by somatic embryogenesis when

Elena B. Krichinskaya

1986-01-01

86

Switch from Asexual to Sexual Reproduction in the Planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS. Many metazoans convert the reproductive modes presumably depending upon the environmen- tal conditions and\\/or the phase of life cycle, but the mechanisms underlying the switching from asexual to sexual reproduction, and vice versa, remain unknown. We established an experimental system, using an integrative biology approach, to analyze the mechanism in the planarian, Dugesia ryukyuensis (Kobayashi et al., 1999). Worms

MOTONORI HOSHI; KAZUYA KOBAYASHI; SACHIKO ARIOKA; SUMITAKA HASE; MIDORI MATSUMOTO

2003-01-01

87

Acute toxic responses of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala , to methylmercury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarians are a ubiquitous component of the aquatic ecology of relatively unpolluted streams throuqhout the northern hemisphere (HYMAN 1951; KENK 1976). Since they are inexpensive to culture in the laboratory and model many of the toxicologically responsive systems of higher animals, they may provide an economical and useful organism for detection of environmental toxicants and toxicological screening (BEST 1981). Mercury,

Jay Boyd Best; Michio Morita; James Ragin; J. Jr. Best

1981-01-01

88

Multicellularity, stem cells, and the neoblasts of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

E-print Network

Review Multicellularity, stem cells, and the neoblasts of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Available online 25 April 2005 Abstract All multicellular organisms depend on stem cells for their survival of stem cells may have been a prerequisite in the evolution of multicellular organisms. We present

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

89

Memory and obesity affect the population dynamics of asexual freshwater planarians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms is a complex biophysical process that is not yet well understood quantitatively. Here, we report a detailed population study for the asexual freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, which can reproduce via transverse fission due to a large stem cell contingent. Our long-term observations of isolated non-interacting planarian populations reveal that the characteristic fission waiting time distributions for head and tail fragments differ significantly from each other. The stochastic fission dynamics of tail fragments exhibits non-negligible memory effects, implying that an accurate mathematical description of future data should be based on non-Markovian tree models. By comparing the effective growth of non-interacting planarian populations with those of self-interacting populations, we are able to quantify the influence of interactions between flatworms and physical conditions on the population growth. A surprising result is the non-monotonic relationship between effective population growth rate and nutrient supply: planarians exhibit a tendency to become 'obese' if the feeding frequency exceeds a critical level, resulting in a decreased reproduction activity. This suggests that these flatworms, which possess many genes homologous to those of humans, could become a new model system for studying dietary effects on reproduction and regeneration in multicellular organisms.

Dunkel, Jörn; Talbot, Jared; Schötz, Eva-Maria

2011-04-01

90

Evolution of Developmental Control Mechanisms Cell death and tissue remodeling in planarian regeneration  

E-print Network

regeneration Jason Pellettieri a, , Patrick Fitzgerald b , Shigeki Watanabe c , Joel Mancuso d , Douglas R 18 September 2009 Keywords: Planaria Planarian Cell death Apoptosis Regeneration Tissue remodeling Cell turnover Tissue homeostasis BCL2 Many long-lived organisms, including humans, can regenerate some

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

91

The use of planarians to dissect the molecular basis of metazoan regeneration  

E-print Network

The use of planarians to dissect the molecular basis of metazoan regeneration ALEJANDRO that make them one of the classic model organisms for the study of regeneration . These free-living members the molecular processes underlying regeneration . The objective of this article is to present a molecular

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

92

Infertility in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians: the role of programmed cell death.  

PubMed

Ex-fissiparous planarians produce infertile cocoons or, in very rare cases, cocoons with very low fertility. Here, we describe the features of programmed cell death (PCD) occurring in the hyperplasic ovary of the ex-fissiparous freshwater planarian Dugesia arabica that may explain this infertility. Based on TEM results, we demonstrate a novel extensive co-clustering of cytoplasmic organelles, such as lysosomes and microtubules, and their fusion with autophagosomes during the early stage of oocyte cell death occurring through an autophagic pattern. During a later stage of cell death, the generation of apoptotic vesicles in the cytoplasm can be observed. The immunohistochemical labeling supports the ultrastructural results because it has been shown that the proapoptotic protein bax was more highly expressed in the hyperplasic ovary than in the normal one, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein bcl2 was slightly more highly expressed in the normal ovary compared to the hyperplasic one. TUNEL analysis of the hyperplasic ovary confirmed that the nuclei of the majority of differentiating oocytes were TUNEL-positive, whereas the nuclei of oogonia and young oocytes were TUNEL-negative; in the normal ovary, oocytes are TUNEL-negative. Considering all of these data, we suggest that the cell death mechanism of differentiating oocytes in the hyperplasic ovary of freshwater planarians is one of the most important factors that cause ex-fissiparous planarian infertility. We propose that autophagy precedes apoptosis during oogenesis, whereas apoptotic features can be observed later. PMID:25107610

Harrath, Abdel Halim; Semlali, Abdelhabib; Mansour, Lamjed; Ahmed, Mukhtar; Sirotkin, Alexander V; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Arfah, Maha; Al Anazi, Mohamed S; Alhazza, Ibrahim M; Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh

2014-11-01

93

Planarians require an intact brain to behaviorally react to cocaine, but not to react to nicotine.  

PubMed

Planarians possess a rudimentary brain with many features in common with vertebrate brains. They also display a remarkable capacity for tissue regeneration including the complete regeneration of the nervous system. Using the induction of planarian seizure-like movements (pSLMs) as a behavioral endpoint, we demonstrate that an intact nervous system is necessary for this organism to react to cocaine exposure, but not necessary to react to nicotine administration. Decapitated planarians (Girardia tigrina) display pSLMs indistinguishable from intact worms when exposed to nicotine, but cocaine-induced pSLMs are reduced by about 95% upon decapitation. Decapitated worms recover their normal sensitivity to cocaine within 5 days after head amputation. In worms where half of the brain was removed or partially dissected, the expression of cocaine-induced pSLMs was reduced by approximately 75%. Similar amputations at the level of the tail did not show a significant decrease to cocaine exposure. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first report that explores how regenerating planarians react to the exposure of cocaine. PMID:23684614

Pagán, O R; Deats, S; Baker, D; Montgomery, E; Wilk, G; Tenaglia, M; Semon, J

2013-08-29

94

A forkhead Transcription Factor Is Wound-Induced at the Planarian Midline and Required for Anterior Pole Regeneration  

E-print Network

Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid ...

Scimone, M. Lucila

95

Pharmacological and Functional Genetic Assays to Manipulate Regeneration of the Planarian Dugesia japonica  

PubMed Central

Free-living planarian flatworms have a long history of experimental usage owing to their remarkable regenerative abilities1. Small fragments excised from these animals reform the original body plan following regeneration of missing body structures. For example if a 'trunk' fragment is cut from an intact worm, a new 'head' will regenerate anteriorly and a 'tail' will regenerate posteriorly restoring the original 'head-to-tail' polarity of body structures prior to amputation (Figure 1A). Regeneration is driven by planarian stem cells, known as 'neoblasts' which differentiate into ~30 different cell types during normal body homeostasis and enforced tissue regeneration. This regenerative process is robust and easy to demonstrate. Owing to the dedication of several pioneering labs, many tools and functional genetic methods have now been optimized for this model system. Consequently, considerable recent progress has been made in understanding and manipulating the molecular events underpinning planarian developmental plasticity2-9. The planarian model system will be of interest to a broad range of scientists. For neuroscientists, the model affords the opportunity to study the regeneration of an entire nervous system, rather than simply the regrowth/repair of single nerve cell process that typically are the focus of study in many established models. Planarians express a plethora of neurotransmitters10, represent an important system for studying evolution of the central nervous system11, 12 and have behavioral screening potential13, 14. Regenerative outcomes are amenable to manipulation by pharmacological and genetic apparoaches. For example, drugs can be screened for effects on regeneration simply by placing body fragments in drug-containing solutions at different time points after amputation. The role of individual genes can be studied using knockdown methods (in vivo RNAi), which can be achieved either through cycles of microinjection or by feeding bacterially-expressed dsRNA constructs8, 9, 15. Both approaches can produce visually striking phenotypes at high penetrance- for example, regeneration of bipolar animals16-21. To facilitate adoption of this model and implementation of such methods, we showcase in this video article protocols for pharmacological and genetic assays (in vivo RNAi by feeding) using the planarian Dugesia japonica. PMID:21897362

Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2011-01-01

96

Ultrastructure of sperm and spermatogenesis of Cichlidogyrus thurstonae (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Monopisthocotylea).  

PubMed

The present work is the first ultrastructural description of mature spermatozoon of the monogenetic trematode Cichlidogyrus thurstonae recovered from the gills of the Nile fish Oreochromis niloticus. The mature spermatozoon of C. thurstonae is long and filiform with a nucleus, mitochondrion and a single axoneme, pressed tightly together for most of their length. As most other platyhelminthes, a solid central unit in the complex central element of the sperm axoneme is present. There are no peripheral microtubules in the sperm and the arrangement conforms to the sperm pattern 4 in the scheme of Justine et al. (1985). PMID:10786032

Ashour, A A; Soliman, M I; el Arousi, N; Stietieh, F M

2000-04-01

97

Planarians as a Model to Assess In Vivo the Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes during Homeostasis and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major executors of extracellular matrix remodeling and, consequently, play key roles in the response of cells to their microenvironment. The experimentally accessible stem cell population and the robust regenerative capabilities of planarians offer an ideal model to study how modulation of the proteolytic system in the extracellular environment affects cell behavior in vivo. Genome-wide identification of Schmidtea mediterranea MMPs reveals that planarians possess four mmp-like genes. Two of them (mmp1 and mmp2) are strongly expressed in a subset of secretory cells and encode putative matrilysins. The other genes (mt-mmpA and mt-mmpB) are widely expressed in postmitotic cells and appear structurally related to membrane-type MMPs. These genes are conserved in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Here we explore the role of the planarian mmp genes by RNA interference (RNAi) during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Our analyses identify essential functions for two of them. Following inhibition of mmp1 planarians display dramatic disruption of tissues architecture and significant decrease in cell death. These results suggest that mmp1 controls tissue turnover, modulating survival of postmitotic cells. Unexpectedly, the ability to regenerate is unaffected by mmp1(RNAi). Silencing of mt-mmpA alters tissue integrity and delays blastema growth, without affecting proliferation of stem cells. Our data support the possibility that the activity of this protease modulates cell migration and regulates anoikis, with a consequent pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Our data provide evidence of the involvement of specific MMPs in tissue homeostasis and regeneration and demonstrate that the behavior of planarian stem cells is critically dependent on the microenvironment surrounding these cells. Studying MMPs function in the planarian model provides evidence on how individual proteases work in vivo in adult tissues. These results have high potential to generate significant information for development of regenerative and anti cancer therapies. PMID:23405188

Isolani, Maria Emilia; Abril, Josep F.; Salo, Emili; Deri, Paolo; Bianucci, Anna Maria; Batistoni, Renata

2013-01-01

98

Single-cell analysis reveals functionally distinct classes within the planarian stem cell compartment.  

PubMed

Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating any missing body region. This capacity is mediated by neoblasts, a proliferative cell population that contains pluripotent stem cells. Although population-based studies have revealed many neoblast characteristics, whether functionally distinct classes exist within this population is unclear. Here, we used high-dimensional single-cell transcriptional profiling from over a thousand individual neoblasts to directly compare gene expression fingerprints during homeostasis and regeneration. We identified two prominent neoblast classes that we named ? (zeta) and ? (sigma). Zeta-neoblasts encompass specified cells that give rise to an abundant postmitotic lineage, including epidermal cells, and are not required for regeneration. By contrast, sigma-neoblasts proliferate in response to injury, possess broad lineage capacity, and can give rise to zeta-neoblasts. These findings indicate that planarian neoblasts comprise two major and functionally distinct cellular compartments. PMID:25017721

van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Wagner, Daniel E; Reddien, Peter W

2014-09-01

99

Cloning and expression analysis of hsp70 gene from freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is an important member of the heat shock protein family. It plays a key role in the process\\u000a of protecting cells by facilitating the folding of nascent peptides as well as the cellular stress response. We isolated and\\u000a sequenced a full-length HSP70 cDNA from planarian Dugesia japonica (designated Djhsp70) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends

Ke-Xue Ma; Guang-Wen Chen; Hao Lou; Li-Na Fei

2009-01-01

100

The freshwater planarian Dugesia (G.) tigrina contains a great diversity of homeobox genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify potential pattern control and cell determination and\\/or differentiation genes in the freshwater planarian Dugesial (G.) tigrina, we searched for homeobox genes of different types in the genome of this primitive metazoan. We applied two basic approaches: 1) Screening the cDNA library with degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to the most conserved amino acid sequence from helix-3 of the homeodomain of

Emili Saló; Ana Maria Muñoz-Mármol; José Ramon Bayascas-Ramirez; Jordi Garcia-Fernàndez; Agusti Miralles; Andreu Casali; Montserrat Corominas; Jaume Baguñá

1995-01-01

101

TORC1 is required to balance cell proliferation and cell death in planarians  

PubMed Central

Multicellular organisms are equipped with cellular mechanisms that enable them to replace differentiated cells lost to normal physiological turnover, injury, and for some such as planarians, even amputation. This process of tissue homeostasis is generally mediated by adult stem cells (ASCs), tissue-specific stem cells responsible for maintaining anatomical form and function. To do so, ASCs must modulate the balance between cell proliferation, i.e. in response to nutrients, and that of cell death, i.e. in response to starvation or injury. But how these two antagonistic processes are coordinated remains unclear. Here, we explore the role of the core components of the TOR pathway during planarian tissue homeostasis and regeneration and identified an essential function for TORC1 in these two processes. RNAi-mediated silencing of TOR in intact animals resulted in a significant increase in cell death, whereas stem cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were unaffected. Amputated animals failed to increase stem cell proliferation after wounding and displayed defects in tissue remodeling. Together, our findings suggest two distinct roles for TORC1 in planarians. TORC1 is required to modulate the balance between cell proliferation and cell death during normal cell turnover and in response to nutrients. In addition, it is required to initiate appropriate stem cell proliferation during regeneration and for proper tissue remodeling to occur to maintain scale and proportion. PMID:22445864

Tu, Kimberly C.; Pearson, Bret J.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sanchez

2012-01-01

102

The use of planarians as in vivo animal model to study laser biomodulation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of effects is attributed to the photo stimulation of tissues, such as improved healing of ulcers, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulation of the proliferation of cells of different origins and stimulation of bone repair. Some investigations that make qualitative evaluations, like wound healing and evaluation of pain and edema, can be conducted in human subjects. However, deeper investigations on the mechanisms of action of the light stimulus and other quantitative works that requires biopsies or destructive analysis has to be carried out in animal models or in cell cultures. In this work, we propose the use of planarians as a model to study laser-tissue interaction. Contrasting with cell cultures and unicellular organisms, planarians are among the simplest organism having tissue layers, central nerve system, digestive and excretory system that might have been platforms for the evolution of the complex and highly organized tissues and organs found in higher organisms. For the present study, 685 nm laser radiation was employed. Planarians were cut transversally, in a plane posterior to the auricles. The body fragments were left to regenerate and the proliferation dynamics of stem cells was studied by using histological analysis. Maximum cell count was obtained for the laser treated group at the 4 th experimental day. At that experimental time, we also had the largest difference between the irradiated and the non-irradiated control group. We concluded that the studied flatworm could be an interesting animal model for in vivo studies of laser-tissue interactions.

Munin, Egberto; Garcia, Neila Maria Rocha; Braz, Allison Gustavo; de Souza, Sandra Cristina; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Pilla, Viviane

2007-02-01

103

Stem cell-based growth, regeneration, and remodeling of the planarian intestine  

PubMed Central

Although some animals are capable of regenerating organs, the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. In planarians, pluripotent somatic stem cells called neoblasts supply new cells for growth, replenish tissues in response to cellular turnover, and regenerate tissues after injury. For most tissues and organs, however, the spatiotemporal dynamics of stem cell differentiation and the fate of tissue that existed prior to injury have not been characterized systematically. Utilizing in vivo imaging and bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments, we have analyzed growth and regeneration of the planarian intestine, the organ responsible for digestion and nutrient distribution. During growth, we observe that new gut branches are added along the entire anteroposterior axis. We find that new enterocytes differentiate throughout the intestine rather than in specific growth zones, suggesting that branching morphogenesis is achieved primarily by remodeling of differentiated intestinal tissues. During regeneration, we also demonstrate a previously unappreciated degree of intestinal remodeling, in which pre-existing posterior gut tissue contributes extensively to the newly formed anterior gut, and vice versa. By contrast to growing animals, differentiation of new intestinal cells occurs at preferential locations, including within newly generated tissue (the blastema), and along pre-existing intestinal branches undergoing remodeling. Our results indicate that growth and regeneration of the planarian intestine are achieved by coordinated differentiation of stem cells and the remodeling of pre-existing tissues. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which these processes are integrated will be critical for understanding organogenesis in a post-embryonic context. PMID:21664348

Forsthoefel, David J.; Park, Amanda E.; Newmark, Phillip A.

2011-01-01

104

Restoration of anterior regeneration in a planarian with limited regenerative ability.  

PubMed

Variability of regenerative potential among animals has long perplexed biologists. On the basis of their exceptional regenerative abilities, planarians have become important models for understanding the molecular basis of regeneration. However, planarian species with limited regenerative abilities are also found. Despite the importance of understanding the differences between closely related, regenerating and non-regenerating organisms, few studies have focused on the evolutionary loss of regeneration, and the molecular mechanisms leading to such regenerative loss remain obscure. Here we examine Procotyla fluviatilis, a planarian with restricted ability to replace missing tissues, using next-generation sequencing to define the gene expression programs active in regeneration-permissive and regeneration-deficient tissues. We found that Wnt signalling is aberrantly activated in regeneration-deficient tissues. Notably, downregulation of canonical Wnt signalling in regeneration-deficient regions restores regenerative abilities: blastemas form and new heads regenerate in tissues that normally never regenerate. This work reveals that manipulating a single signalling pathway can reverse the evolutionary loss of regenerative potential. PMID:23883929

Sikes, James M; Newmark, Phillip A

2013-08-01

105

Molecular characterization of the glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) gene in planarian Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) has ubiquitously existed in nearly all organisms from yeast to humans, reflecting the central roles it plays in cell survival. In this report, we isolated and sequenced the full-length cDNA of GRP78 (designated DjGRP78) from the planarian Dugesia japonica. The cDNA is 2121 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1983 bp encoding a polypeptide of 660 amino acids with three HSP70 family signatures. DjGRP78 contains signal peptides at the N-terminus and a KTEL peptide motif at the C-terminus, which suggests that it localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Fluorescent real time RT-PCR was employed to detect the expression pattern of Djgrp78 in response to different stressors. Our results show that heat shock and heavy metals (Hg(2+) and Pb(2+)) induce Djgrp78 expression, but starvation does not. Interestingly, we found that Djgrp78 was up-regulated in planarians with septic tissues, and also verified that it was up-regulated in response to bacterial challenge. Our data indicate that Djgrp78 may be a multifunctional gene, and play important roles in physiological and pathological stress in planarians. PMID:24632484

Ma, Ke-Xue; Chen, Guang-Wen; Shi, Chang-Ying; Cheng, Fang-Fang; Dou, He; Feng, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, De-Zeng

2014-05-01

106

Discovery of Platyhelminth-Specific ?/?-Integrin Families and Evidence for Their Role in Reproduction in Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In all metazoa, the response of cells to molecular stimuli from their environment represents a fundamental principle of regulatory processes controlling cell growth and differentiation. Among the membrane-linked receptors mediating extracellular communication processes are integrin receptors. Besides managing adhesion to the extracellular matrix or to other cells, they arrange information flow into the cells by activating intracellular signaling pathways often acting synergistically through cooperation with growth factor receptors. Although a wealth of information exists on integrins in different model organisms, there is a big gap of knowledge for platyhelminths. Here we report on the in silico detection and reconstruction of ? and ? integrins from free-living and parasitic platyhelminths, which according to structural and phylogenetic analyses form specific clades separate from each other and from further metazoan integrins. As representative orthologs of parasitic platyhelminths we have cloned one beta-integrin (Sm?-Int1) and four alpha-integrins (Sm?-Int1 - Sm?-Int4) from Schistosoma mansoni; they were characterized by molecular and biochemical analyses. Evidence is provided that Sm?-Int1 interacts and co-localizes in the reproductive organs with known schistosome cellular tyrosine kinases (CTKs), of which the Syk kinase SmTK4 appeared to be the strongest interaction partner as shown by yeast two-hybrid analyses and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. By a novel RNAi approach with adult schistosomes in vitro we demonstrate for the first time multinucleated oocytes in treated females, indicating a decisive role Sm?-Int1 during oogenesis as phenotypically analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our findings provide a first comprehensive overview about platyhelminth integrins, of which the parasite group exhibits unique features allowing a clear distinction from the free-living groups. Furthermore, we shed first lights on the functions of integrins in a trematode model parasite, revealing the complexity of molecular processes involved in its reproductive biology, which may be representative for other platyhelminths. PMID:23300694

Beckmann, Svenja; Quack, Thomas; Dissous, Colette; Cailliau, Katia; Lang, Gabriele; Grevelding, Christoph G.

2012-01-01

107

An automated training paradigm reveals long-term memory in planarians and its persistence through head regeneration.  

PubMed

Planarian flatworms are a popular system for research into the molecular mechanisms that enable these complex organisms to regenerate their entire body, including the brain. Classical data suggest that they may also be capable of long-term memory. Thus, the planarian system may offer the unique opportunity to study brain regeneration and memory in the same animal. To establish a system for the investigation of the dynamics of memory in a regenerating brain, we developed a computerized training and testing paradigm that avoided the many issues that confounded previous, manual attempts to train planarians. We then used this new system to train flatworms in an environmental familiarization protocol. We show that worms exhibit environmental familiarization, and that this memory persists for at least 14 days - long enough for the brain to regenerate. We further show that trained, decapitated planarians exhibit evidence of memory retrieval in a savings paradigm after regenerating a new head. Our work establishes a foundation for objective, high-throughput assays in this molecularly tractable model system that will shed light on the fundamental interface between body patterning and stored memories. We propose planarians as key emerging model species for mechanistic investigations of the encoding of specific memories in biological tissues. Moreover, this system is lik ely to have important implications for the biomedicine of stem-cell-derived treatments of degenerative brain disorders in human adults. PMID:23821717

Shomrat, Tal; Levin, Michael

2013-10-15

108

Smed-dynA-1 is a planarian nervous system specific dynamin 1 homolog required for normal locomotion.  

PubMed

Dynamins are GTPases that are required for separation of vesicles from the plasma membrane and thus are key regulators of endocytosis in eukaryotic cells. This role for dynamin proteins is especially crucial for the proper function of neurons, where they ensure that synaptic vesicles and their neurotransmitter cargo are recycled in the presynaptic cell. Here we have characterized the dynamin protein family in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and showed that it possesses six dynamins with tissue specific expression profiles. Of these six planarian homologs, two are necessary for normal tissue homeostasis, and the loss of another, Smed-dynA-1, leads to an abnormal behavioral phenotype, which we have quantified using automated center of mass tracking. Smed-dynA-1 is primarily expressed in the planarian nervous system and is a functional homolog of the mammalian Dynamin I. The distinct expression profiles of the six dynamin genes makes planarians an interesting new system to reveal novel dynamin functions, which may be determined by their differential tissue localization. The observed complexity of neurotransmitter regulation combined with the tools of quantitative behavioral assays as a functional readout for neuronal activity, renders planarians an ideal system for studying how the nervous system controls behavior. PMID:24950970

Talbot, Jared A; Currie, Ko W; Pearson, Bret J; Collins, Eva-Maria S

2014-01-01

109

ImagePlane: an automated image analysis pipeline for high-throughput screens using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

ImagePlane is a modular pipeline for automated, high-throughput image analysis and information extraction. Designed to support planarian research, ImagePlane offers a self-parameterizing adaptive thresholding algorithm; an algorithm that can automatically segment animals into anterior-posterior/left-right quadrants for automated identification of region-specific differences in gene and protein expression; and a novel algorithm for quantification of morphology of animals, independent of their orientations and sizes. ImagePlane also provides methods for automatic report generation, and its outputs can be easily imported into third-party tools such as R and Excel. Here we demonstrate the pipeline's utility for identification of genes involved in stem cell proliferation in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Although designed to support planarian studies, ImagePlane will prove useful for cell-based studies as well. PMID:23822514

Flygare, Steven; Campbell, Michael; Ross, Robert Mars; Moore, Barry; Yandell, Mark

2013-08-01

110

Characterization of Platyhelminth POU domain genes: ubiquitous and specific anterior nerve cell expression of different epitopes of GtPOU-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

POU domain proteins are a large family of transcription factors that have been identified in a variety of metazoans, from freshwater sponges, planarians and nematodes to arthropods, echinoderms and vertebrates. Many of these proteins are implicated in the development and establishment of the nervous system. In this paper we describe the identification of the planarian genes GtPOU-1, GtPOU-3 and GtPOU-4,

Ana Maria Muñoz-Mármol; Andreu Casali; Agust?? Miralles; David Bueno; José-Ramón Bayascas; Rafael Romero; Emili Saló

1998-01-01

111

Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hot spot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism.  

PubMed

The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's richest biodiversity hot spots, is severely damaged by human activities. To formulate an efficient conservation policy, a good understanding of spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns and their underlying evolutionary mechanisms is required. With this aim, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism, the land planarian species Cephaloflexa bergi (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida). Analysing multi-locus DNA sequence variation under the Approximate Bayesian Computation framework, we evaluated two scenarios proposed to explain the diversity of Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF) region. We found that most sampled localities harbour high levels of genetic diversity, with lineages sharing common ancestors that predate the Pleistocene. Remarkably, we detected the molecular hallmark of the isolation-by-distance effect and little evidence of a recent colonization of SAF localities; nevertheless, some populations might result from very recent secondary contacts. We conclude that extant SAF biodiversity originated and has been shaped by complex interactions between ancient geological events and more recent evolutionary processes, whereas Pleistocene climate changes had a minor influence in generating present-day diversity. We also demonstrate that land planarians are an advantageous biological model for making phylogeographic and, particularly, fine-scale evolutionary inferences, and propose appropriate conservation policies. PMID:24549112

Álvarez-Presas, M; Sánchez-Gracia, A; Carbayo, F; Rozas, J; Riutort, M

2014-06-01

112

A Dual Platform Approach to Transcript Discovery for the Planarian Schmidtea Mediterranea to Establish RNAseq for Stem Cell and Regeneration Biology  

PubMed Central

The use of planarians as a model system is expanding and the mechanisms that control planarian regeneration are being elucidated. The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea in particular has become a species of choice. Currently the planarian research community has access to this whole genome sequencing project and over 70,000 expressed sequence tags. However, the establishment of massively parallel sequencing technologies has provided the opportunity to define genetic content, and in particular transcriptomes, in unprecedented detail. Here we apply this approach to the planarian model system. We have sequenced, mapped and assembled 581,365 long and 507,719,814 short reads from RNA of intact and mixed stages of the first 7 days of planarian regeneration. We used an iterative mapping approach to identify and define de novo splice sites with short reads and increase confidence in our transcript predictions. We more than double the number of transcripts currently defined by publicly available ESTs, resulting in a collection of 25,053 transcripts described by combining platforms. We also demonstrate the utility of this collection for an RNAseq approach to identify potential transcripts that are enriched in neoblast stem cells and their progeny by comparing transcriptome wide expression levels between irradiated and intact planarians. Our experiments have defined an extensive planarian transcriptome that can be used as a template for RNAseq and can also help to annotate the S. mediterranea genome. We anticipate that suites of other 'omic approaches will also be facilitated by building on this comprehensive data set including RNAseq across many planarian regenerative stages, scenarios, tissues and phenotypes generated by RNAi. PMID:21179477

Wilson, Ray; Evans, Deborah; Jowett, Jamie; Hall, Amy; Lemay, Virginie; Lam, Sabrina; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

2010-01-01

113

Planarian D-amino acid oxidase is involved in ovarian development during sexual induction.  

PubMed

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying switching from asexual to sexual reproduction, namely sexual induction, we developed an assay system for sexual induction in the hermaphroditic planarian species Dugesia ryukyuensis. Ovarian development is the initial and essential step in sexual induction, and it is followed by the formation of other reproductive organs, including the testes. Here, we report a function of a planarian D-amino acid oxidase, Dr-DAO, in the control of ovarian development in planarians. Asexual worms showed significantly more widespread expression of Dr-DAO in the parenchymal space than did sexual worms. Inhibition of Dr-DAO by RNAi caused the formation of immature ovaries. In addition, we found that feeding asexual worms 5 specific D-amino acids could induce the formation of immature ovaries that are similar to those observed in Dr-DAO knockdown worms, suggesting that Dr-DAO inhibits the formation of immature ovaries by degrading these D-amino acids. Following sexual induction, Dr-DAO expression was observed in the ovaries. The knockdown of Dr-DAO during sexual induction delayed the maturation of the other reproductive organs, as well as ovary. These findings suggest that Dr-DAO acts to promote ovarian maturation and that complete sexual induction depends on the production of mature ovaries. We propose that Dr-DAO produced in somatic cells prevents the onset of sexual induction in the asexual state, and then after sexual induction, the female germ cells specifically produce Dr-DAO to induce full maturation. Therefore, Dr-DAO produced in somatic and female germline cells may play different roles in sexual induction. PMID:24434168

Maezawa, Takanobu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Haruka; Ono, Mizuki; Aoki, Manabu; Matsumoto, Midori; Ishida, Tetsuo; Horiike, Kihachiro; Kobayashi, Kazuya

2014-05-01

114

Modification by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of cadmium induced lesions in the planarian model, Dugesia dorotocephala.  

PubMed

The appearance of abnormal growths on the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala, in response to cadmium with and without pre-exposure to L-buthionine-R, S-sulfoximine (BSO) and concurrent exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Aroclor 1254, PCB 28, PCB 110 or PCB 126 is described. Pigmented rose thorn (PRT) lesions were non-invasive and appeared in response to PCBs. Post-head (PH) lesions developed in up to 100% of the animals within 6-20 days post-dosing, progressed rather rapidly and were highly invasive. Round tail tip (RTT) lesions appeared in lower frequencies within 10-30 days, but progressed extremely rapidly resulting in tail loss within 48 h. We have referred to these types of lesions as "tumors", but they are not necessarily characteristic of vertebrate neoplasms. PCBs interacted with cadmium in a complex way, in some cases increasing total lesions and decreasing time-to-lesion and in other cases having the opposite effects. A three-factor (PCB, PCB dose, Cd dose) nested analysis of variance model was used to determine lesion rates in order to compare PCB potencies as potentiators or antagonists. The Aroclor mixture was always the least potent co-toxicant but appeared to be the most potent antagonist; the coplanar PCB 126 was the most potent co-toxicant. The complex response surfaces and the lack of stoichiometry in dose-response relationships indicate that multiple mechanisms are responsible for PH and RTT lesions in planarians. These results emphasize the complexity of PCB toxicities and suggest further studies to validate the planarian model as a screen for combinations or environmental mixtures which may have altered biological potency in other species. PMID:8198753

Hansen, L G; Tehseen, W M; Foley, G L; Schaeffer, D J

1993-12-01

115

Whole-Mount In Situ Hybridization Using DIG-Labeled Probes in Planarian.  

PubMed

In recent years freshwater flatworms (planarian) have become a powerful model for studies of regeneration and stem cell biology. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are key and most commonly used techniques to determine and visualize gene expression patterns in planaria. Here, we present the established version of whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (WFISH) protocol optimized over the last years by several labs from the rapidly growing planaria field and give an overview of recently introduced modifications which can be critical in the study of low abundant transcripts. PMID:25218375

Rybak-Wolf, Agnieszka; Solana, Jordi

2014-01-01

116

A comparison between mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal internal transcribed regions in prospecting for cryptic species of platyhelminth parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We examined the relative merits of mitochondrial DNA loci and ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers for their use in prospecting for cryptic species of platyhelminth parasites. Sequence divergence at ITS1 and ITS2 was compared with divergence at 2 mtDNA loci (NADH dehydrogenase-1 and cytochrome c oxidase I) between closely related species of trematodes and cestodes. Both spacers accumulated substitutions

R. VILAS; C. D. CRISCIONE; M. S. BLOUIN

2005-01-01

117

Neurobiology of the basal platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano : map and digital 3D model of the juvenile brain neuropile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed brain structure in Macrostomum lignano, a representative of the basal platyhelminth taxon Macrostomida. Using confocal microscopy and digital 3D modeling software\\u000a on specimens labeled with general markers for neurons (tyrTub), muscles (phalloidin), and nuclei (Sytox), an atlas and digital\\u000a model of the juvenile Macrostomum brain was generated. The brain forms a ganglion with a central neuropile surrounded

Joshua Morris; Albert Cardona; Maria Del Mar De Miguel-Bonet; Volker Hartenstein

2007-01-01

118

Phylogenetic distribution of microRNAs supports the basal position of acoel flatworms and the polyphyly of Platyhelminthes.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences suggest that acoel flatworms are not members of the phylum Platyhelminthes, but instead are the most basal branch of triploblastic bilaterians. Nonetheless, this result has been called into question. An alternative test is to use qualitative molecular markers that should, in principle, exclude the possibility of convergent (homoplastic) evolution in unrelated groups. microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding regulatory RNA molecules that are under intense stabilizing selection, are a newly discovered set of phylogenetic markers that can resolve such taxonomic disputes. The acoel Childia sp. has recently been shown to possess a subset of the conserved core of miRNAs found across deuterostomes and protostomes, whereas a polyclad flatworm-in addition to this core subset-possesses miRNAs restricted to just protostomes. Here, we examine another acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and three other platyhelminths. Our results show that the distribution of miRNAs in S. roscoffensis parallels that of Childia. In addition, two of 13 new miRNAs cloned from a triclad flatworm are also found in other lophotrochozoan protostomes, but not in ecdysozoans, deuterostomes, or in basal metazoans including acoels. The limited set of miRNAs found in acoels, intermediate between the even more reduced set in cnidarians and the larger and expanding set in the rest of bilaterians, is compelling evidence for the basal position of acoel flatworms and the polyphyly of Platyhelminthes. PMID:17845513

Sempere, Lorenzo F; Martinez, Pedro; Cole, Charles; Baguñà, Jaume; Peterson, Kevin J

2007-01-01

119

Planarian yorkie/YAP functions to integrate adult stem cell proliferation, organ homeostasis and maintenance of axial patterning.  

PubMed

During adult homeostasis and regeneration, the freshwater planarian must accomplish a constant balance between cell proliferation and cell death, while also maintaining proper tissue and organ size and patterning. How these ordered processes are precisely modulated remains relatively unknown. Here we show that planarians use the downstream effector of the Hippo signaling cascade, yorkie (yki; YAP in vertebrates) to control a diverse set of pleiotropic processes in organ homeostasis, stem cell regulation, regeneration and axial patterning. We show that yki functions to maintain the homeostasis of the planarian excretory (protonephridial) system and to limit stem cell proliferation, but does not affect the differentiation process or cell death. Finally, we show that Yki acts synergistically with WNT/?-catenin signaling to repress head determination by limiting the expression domains of posterior WNT genes and that of the WNT-inhibitor notum. Together, our data show that yki is a key gene in planarians that integrates stem cell proliferation control, organ homeostasis, and the spatial patterning of tissues. PMID:24523458

Lin, Alexander Y T; Pearson, Bret J

2014-03-01

120

Genetic regulators of a pluripotent adult stem cell system in planarians identified by RNAi and clonal analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary Pluripotency is a central, well-studied feature of embryonic development, but the role of pluripotent cell regulation in somatic tissue regeneration remains poorly understood. In planarians, regeneration of entire animals from tissue fragments is promoted by the activity of adult pluripotent stem cells (cNeoblasts). We utilized transcriptional profiling to identify planarian genes expressed in adult proliferating, regenerative cells (neoblasts). We also developed quantitative clonal analysis methods for expansion and differentiation of cNeoblast descendants that, together with RNAi, revealed gene roles in stem cell biology. Genes encoding two zinc finger proteins, Vasa, a LIM domain protein, Sox and Jun-like transcription factors, two candidate RNA-binding proteins, a Setd8-like protein, and PRC2 (Polycomb) were required for proliferative expansion and/or differentiation of cNeoblast-derived clones. These findings suggest that planarian stem cells utilize molecular mechanisms found in germ cells and other pluripotent cell types, and identify novel genetic regulators of the planarian stem cell system. PMID:22385657

Wagner, Daniel E.; Ho, Jaclyn J.

2012-01-01

121

COE Loss-of-Function Analysis Reveals a Genetic Program Underlying Maintenance and Regeneration of the Nervous System in Planarians.  

PubMed

Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals. PMID:25356635

Cowles, Martis W; Omuro, Kerilyn C; Stanley, Brianna N; Quintanilla, Carlo G; Zayas, Ricardo M

2014-10-01

122

COE Loss-of-Function Analysis Reveals a Genetic Program Underlying Maintenance and Regeneration of the Nervous System in Planarians  

PubMed Central

Members of the COE family of transcription factors are required for central nervous system (CNS) development. However, the function of COE in the post-embryonic CNS remains largely unknown. An excellent model for investigating gene function in the adult CNS is the freshwater planarian. This animal is capable of regenerating neurons from an adult pluripotent stem cell population and regaining normal function. We previously showed that planarian coe is expressed in differentiating and mature neurons and that its function is required for proper CNS regeneration. Here, we show that coe is essential to maintain nervous system architecture and patterning in intact (uninjured) planarians. We took advantage of the robust phenotype in intact animals to investigate the genetic programs coe regulates in the CNS. We compared the transcriptional profiles of control and coe RNAi planarians using RNA sequencing and identified approximately 900 differentially expressed genes in coe knockdown animals, including 397 downregulated genes that were enriched for nervous system functional annotations. Next, we validated a subset of the downregulated transcripts by analyzing their expression in coe-deficient planarians and testing if the mRNAs could be detected in coe+ cells. These experiments revealed novel candidate targets of coe in the CNS such as ion channel, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter genes. Finally, to determine if loss of any of the validated transcripts underscores the coe knockdown phenotype, we knocked down their expression by RNAi and uncovered a set of coe-regulated genes implicated in CNS regeneration and patterning, including orthologs of sodium channel alpha-subunit and pou4. Our study broadens the knowledge of gene expression programs regulated by COE that are required for maintenance of neural subtypes and nervous system architecture in adult animals. PMID:25356635

Cowles, Martis W.; Omuro, Kerilyn C.; Stanley, Brianna N.; Quintanilla, Carlo G.; Zayas, Ricardo M.

2014-01-01

123

Identification of neoblast- and regeneration-specific miRNAs in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

In recent years, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a tractable model system to study stem cell biology and regeneration. MicroRNAs are small RNA species that control gene expression by modulating translational repression and mRNA stability and have been implicated in the regulation of various cellular processes. Though recent studies have identified several miRNAs in S. mediterranea, their expression in neoblast subpopulations and during regeneration has not been examined. Here, we identify several miRNAs whose expression is enriched in different neoblast subpopulations and in regenerating tissue at different time points in S. mediterranea. Some of these miRNAs were enriched within 3 h post-amputation and may, therefore, play a role in wound healing and/or neoblast migration. Our results also revealed miRNAs, such as sme-miR-2d-3p and the sme-miR-124 family, whose expression is enriched in the cephalic ganglia, are also expressed in the brain primordium during CNS regeneration. These results provide new insight into the potential biological functions of miRNAs in neoblasts and regeneration in planarians. PMID:23974438

Sasidharan, Vidyanand; Lu, Yi-Chien; Bansal, Dhiru; Dasari, Pranavi; Poduval, Deepak; Seshasayee, Aswin; Resch, Alissa M; Graveley, Brenton R; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi

2013-10-01

124

Problematic barcoding in flatworms: A case-study on monogeneans and rhabdocoels (Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some taxonomic groups are less amenable to mitochondrial DNA barcoding than others. Due to the paucity of molecular information of understudied groups and the huge molecular diversity within flatworms, primer design has been hampered. Indeed, all attempts to develop universal flatworm-specific COI markers have failed so far. We demonstrate how high molecular variability and contamination problems limit the possibilities for barcoding using standard COI-based protocols in flatworms. As a consequence, molecular identification methods often rely on other widely applicable markers. In the case of Monogenea, a very diverse group of platyhelminth parasites, and Rhabdocoela, representing one-fourth of all free-living flatworm taxa, this has led to a relatively high availability of nuclear ITS and 18S/28S rDNA sequences on GenBank. In a comparison of the effectiveness in species assignment we conclude that mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers perform equally well. In case intraspecific information is needed, rDNA sequences can guide the selection of the appropriate (i.e. taxon-specific) COI primers if available. PMID:24453567

Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Tessens, Bart; Schoelinck, Charlotte; Jondelius, Ulf; Littlewood, D. Tim J.; Artois, Tom; Huyse, Tine

2013-01-01

125

Preparation of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea for high-resolution histology and transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea is an emerging model species in fields such as stem cell biology, regeneration and evolutionary biology. Excellent molecular tools have been developed for S. mediterranea, but ultrastructural techniques have received far less attention. Processing specimens for histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is notoriously idiosyncratic for particular species or specimen types. Unfortunately, however, most methods for S. mediterranea described in the literature lack numerous essential details, and those few that do provide them rely on specialized equipment that may not be readily available. Here we present an optimized protocol for ultrastructural preparation of S. mediterranea. The protocol can be completed in 6 d, much of which is 'hands-off' time. To aid with troubleshooting, we also illustrate the major effects of seemingly minor variations in fixative, buffer concentration and dehydration steps. This procedure will be useful for all planarian researchers, particularly those with relatively little experience in tissue processing. PMID:24556788

Brubacher, John L; Vieira, Ana P; Newmark, Phillip A

2014-03-01

126

Cloning of fragments of novel homeobox genes expressed during regeneration in planarians  

SciTech Connect

The polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers corresponding to the most conservative amino acids 16-21 (ELEKEF) and 49-54 (WPQNRR) of the Antennapedia class homeodomains was used for the amplification of cDNA from regenerating planarians (asexual race of Dugesia tigrina). A total of six new Antennapedia-like homeobox sequences, designated Dutarh-1-Dutarh-6 (Dugesia tigrina asexual race homeobox gene), have been identified. Their comparison with other homeobox genes using a Genebee software (the EMBL Data Library) showed that all sequences except Dutarh-6 belong to the Antennapedia class. Dutarh-6 is closely related to a recently described novel homeobox gene subfamily which includes mouse mesodermal homeobox genes Max-1 and Max-2 and rat homeobox gene Gax. 17 refs., 2 figs.

Lukyanov, K.A.; Tarabykin, V.S.; Potapov, V.K. [and others

1994-11-01

127

Effect of weak and ultraweak combined magnetic fields and low-intensity microwaves on regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regeneration (blastema growth) in Dugesia tigrina was accelerated if prior to transection the planarians were exposed to a weak constant magnetic field (42 ?T) combined with\\u000a an ultraweak alternating magnetic field (40 nT, 3.7 Hz); lesser stimulation was obtained with weak microwaves (100 ?W\\/cm2 at 36 GHz). Field exposure after transection produced only half of the effect (magnetic field) or

V. V. Novikov; I. M. Sheiman; A. V. Klyubin; E. E. Fesenko

2007-01-01

128

The influence of extremely weak alternating magnetic fields on the regeneration of planarians and the gravitropic response of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of extremely weak alternating magnetic fields (EW AMF) directed collinearly to the static Earth magnetic field\\u000a on the rate of regeneration of planarians and the rate of gravitropic response in the stem segments of flax has been studied.\\u000a The value of bioeffects of EW AMF is determined by the parameter ?B\\u000a AC\\/f, where ? is the gyromagnetic ratio

N. A. Belova; A. M. Ermakov; A. V. Znobishcheva; L. K. Srebnitskaya; V. V. Lednev

2010-01-01

129

Planarian (Dugesia polychroa) predation on freshwater gastropod eggs depends on prey species, clutch morphology, and egg size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though triclad planarias could limit littoral snail recruitment by preying on eggs with their muscular ventral pharynx, planarian predation on eggs has never been quantified. Intact egg clutches encompassing eight snail species × three developmental stages were offered to Dugesia (= Schmidtea) polychroa (Paludicola: Dugesiidae) individuals (body length = 6–12 mm) in one-on-one, no-choice 24-h feeding trials to gain a

Francesco Paolo Miccoli; Marco Giustini; Bruno Cicolani

2011-01-01

130

Molecular cloning and expression pattern of the DjStag gene in the planarian Dugesia japonica during embryonic development.  

PubMed

We examined STAG-related gene (DjStag) expression in the planarian Dugesia japonica. This species is common in Far Eastern countries. The DjStag cDNA includes 1362 bp and contains a 489-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 162 amino acids, with a 170-bp 5'-UTR and a 703-bp 3'-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis showed that DjStag is an STAG/STAG-like member. We examined the expression pattern of DjStag in this planarian during embryonic development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. DjStag was detected in embryonic cells in the germ band at early embryo stages. The number of DjStag-positive embryonic cells increased in stage 5. Later, it was mainly expressed in lateral region parenchyma. In juveniles, extensive expression of DjStag was observed not only in the head and tail regions, but also in the parenchyma between the epidermis and the gastrodermis. We conclude that DjStag is expressed in the cellular subset that will become the neoblast cells of the adult flatworm. DjStag may play an essential role in spatial and temporal regulation during planarian embryonic development. PMID:24446302

Yuan, Z Q; Zhang, J Y; Zhao, B S

2014-01-01

131

Screening in planarians identifies MORN2 as a key component in LC3-associated phagocytosis and resistance to bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Dugesia japonica planarian flatworms are naturally exposed to various microbes but typically survive this challenge. We show that planarians eliminate bacteria pathogenic to Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans, and/or Drosophila melanogaster and thus represent a model to identify innate resistance mechanisms. Whole-transcriptome analysis coupled with RNAi screening of worms infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Legionella pneumophila identified 18 resistance genes with nine human orthologs, of which we examined the function of MORN2. Human MORN2 facilitates phagocytosis-mediated restriction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, L. pneumophila, and S. aureus in macrophages. MORN2 promotes the recruitment of LC3, an autophagy protein also involved in phagocytosis, to M. tuberculosis-containing phagosomes and subsequent maturation to degradative phagolysosomes. MORN2-driven trafficking of M. tuberculosis to single-membrane, LC3-positive compartments requires autophagy-related proteins Atg5 and Beclin-1, but not Ulk-1 and Atg13, highlighting the importance of MORN2 in LC3-associated phagocytosis. These findings underscore the value of studying planarian defenses to identify immune factors. PMID:25211076

Abnave, Prasad; Mottola, Giovanna; Gimenez, Gregory; Boucherit, Nicolas; Trouplin, Virginie; Torre, Cedric; Conti, Filippo; Ben Amara, Amira; Lepolard, Catherine; Djian, Benjamin; Hamaoui, Daniel; Mettouchi, Amel; Kumar, Atul; Pagnotta, Sophie; Bonatti, Stefano; Lepidi, Hubert; Salvetti, Alessandra; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Mege, Jean-Louis; Ghigo, Eric

2014-09-10

132

A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis (Monogenea: Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The parasitic Platyhelminthes (Neodermata) contains three parasitic groups of flatworms, each having a unique morphology, and life style: Monogenea (primarily ectoparasitic), Trematoda (endoparasitic flukes), and Cestoda (endoparasitic tapeworms). The evolutionary origin of complex life cyles (multiple obligate hosts, as found in Trematoda and Cestoda) and of endo-\\/ecto-parasitism in these groups is still under debate and these questions can be

Joong-Ki Park; Kyu-Heon Kim; Seokha Kang; Won Kim; Keeseon S Eom; DTJ Littlewood

2007-01-01

133

zic-1 Expression in Planarian neoblasts after injury controls anterior pole regeneration.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that enable injury responses to prompt regenerative outgrowth are not well understood. Planarians can regenerate essentially any tissue removed by wounding, even after decapitation, due to robust regulation of adult pluripotent stem cells of the neoblast population. Formation of pole signaling centers involving Wnt inhibitors or Wnt ligands promotes head or tail regeneration, respectively, and this process requires the use of neoblasts early after injury. We used expression profiling of purified neoblasts to identify factors needed for anterior pole formation. Using this approach, we identified zic-1, a Zic-family transcription factor, as transcriptionally activated in a subpopulation of neoblasts near wound sites early in head regeneration. As head regeneration proceeds, the Wnt inhibitor notum becomes expressed in the newly forming anterior pole in zic-1-expressing cells descended from neoblasts. Inhibition of zic-1 by RNAi resulted in a failure to express notum at the anterior pole and to regenerate a head, but did not affect tail regeneration. Both injury and canonical Wnt signaling inhibition are required for zic-1 expression, and double-RNAi experiments suggest zic-1 inhibits Wnt signaling to allow head regeneration. Analysis of neoblast fate determinants revealed that zic-1 controls specification of notum-expressing cells from foxD-expressing neoblasts to form the anterior pole, which organizes subsequent outgrowth. Specialized differentiation programs may in general underlie injury-dependent formation of tissue organizing centers used for regenerative outgrowth. PMID:24992682

Vásquez-Doorman, Constanza; Petersen, Christian P

2014-07-01

134

Toxicity of a hazardous chemical mixture in the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala  

SciTech Connect

The responses of the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala to toxic chemical mixtures representative of water contaminants associated with hazardous waste sites have been studied in laboratory experiments. These free-living flatworms are readily maintained under laboratory conditions and are a useful invertebrate model for toxicology studies. Their widespread occurrence also makes them potentially useful for environmental studies. Mature asexual Dugesia dorotocephala were exposed for 14 days to mixtures of seven contaminants frequently detected in water at hazardous waste sites. The complete 1X mixture contained both metals (As, 3.1 ppm; Cr, 0.7 ppm; Pb, 3.7 ppm) and organics (chloroform, 1.5 ppm; benzene, 5.0 ppm; phenol, 3.4 ppm; trichloroethylene, 3.8 ppm). Groups of planaria were treated with the complete mixture at 0.1X, 1X and 10X concentrations. Additional groups were exposed to the metals-only or organics-only submixtures, also at 0.1X, 1X and 10X concentrations. Treatment solutions were renewed daily. Suppression of fissioning was observed in all of the 1X and 10X treatment groups. Significant mortality occurred only in the 10X complete and 1 0X metals-only treatments. It appears that the toxic effects of the complete mixture are primarily associated with the metal components.

Ramsdell, H.S.; Matthews, C.M. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

135

zic-1 Expression in Planarian Neoblasts after Injury Controls Anterior Pole Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms that enable injury responses to prompt regenerative outgrowth are not well understood. Planarians can regenerate essentially any tissue removed by wounding, even after decapitation, due to robust regulation of adult pluripotent stem cells of the neoblast population. Formation of pole signaling centers involving Wnt inhibitors or Wnt ligands promotes head or tail regeneration, respectively, and this process requires the use of neoblasts early after injury. We used expression profiling of purified neoblasts to identify factors needed for anterior pole formation. Using this approach, we identified zic-1, a Zic-family transcription factor, as transcriptionally activated in a subpopulation of neoblasts near wound sites early in head regeneration. As head regeneration proceeds, the Wnt inhibitor notum becomes expressed in the newly forming anterior pole in zic-1-expressing cells descended from neoblasts. Inhibition of zic-1 by RNAi resulted in a failure to express notum at the anterior pole and to regenerate a head, but did not affect tail regeneration. Both injury and canonical Wnt signaling inhibition are required for zic-1 expression, and double-RNAi experiments suggest zic-1 inhibits Wnt signaling to allow head regeneration. Analysis of neoblast fate determinants revealed that zic-1 controls specification of notum-expressing cells from foxD-expressing neoblasts to form the anterior pole, which organizes subsequent outgrowth. Specialized differentiation programs may in general underlie injury-dependent formation of tissue organizing centers used for regenerative outgrowth. PMID:24992682

Vasquez-Doorman, Constanza; Petersen, Christian P.

2014-01-01

136

JNK controls the onset of mitosis in planarian stem cells and triggers apoptotic cell death required for regeneration and remodeling.  

PubMed

Regeneration of lost tissues depends on the precise interpretation of molecular signals that control and coordinate the onset of proliferation, cellular differentiation and cell death. However, the nature of those molecular signals and the mechanisms that integrate the cellular responses remain largely unknown. The planarian flatworm is a unique model in which regeneration and tissue renewal can be comprehensively studied in vivo. The presence of a population of adult pluripotent stem cells combined with the ability to decode signaling after wounding enable planarians to regenerate a complete, correctly proportioned animal within a few days after any kind of amputation, and to adapt their size to nutritional changes without compromising functionality. Here, we demonstrate that the stress-activated c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) links wound-induced apoptosis to the stem cell response during planarian regeneration. We show that JNK modulates the expression of wound-related genes, triggers apoptosis and attenuates the onset of mitosis in stem cells specifically after tissue loss. Furthermore, in pre-existing body regions, JNK activity is required to establish a positive balance between cell death and stem cell proliferation to enable tissue renewal, remodeling and the maintenance of proportionality. During homeostatic degrowth, JNK RNAi blocks apoptosis, resulting in impaired organ remodeling and rescaling. Our findings indicate that JNK-dependent apoptotic cell death is crucial to coordinate tissue renewal and remodeling required to regenerate and to maintain a correctly proportioned animal. Hence, JNK might act as a hub, translating wound signals into apoptotic cell death, controlled stem cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are required to coordinate regeneration and tissue renewal. PMID:24922054

Almuedo-Castillo, María; Crespo, Xenia; Seebeck, Florian; Bartscherer, Kerstin; Salò, Emili; Adell, Teresa

2014-06-01

137

[Toxic effects of essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. and main constituents on planarian (Dugesia tigrina) (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Regenerating pieces of planarian worms are able to absorbe insoluble substances deposited on the base of the vessels in which they are cultivated. This biological test was used to study the toxic effects of the essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. The hydrocarbons such as pinene (alpha and beta), caryophyllene and so on were not toxic. On the contrary caryophyllene oxide was highly toxic. It was not possible to detect any protection by 5-hydroxytryptamine as it was the case against delta 1-tétrahydro-cannabinol and cannabidiol. PMID:754350

Fournier, G; Lenicque, P M; Paris, M R

1978-11-01

138

Molecular phylogeny of parasitic Platyhelminthes based on sequences of partial 28S rDNA D1 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I  

PubMed Central

The phylogenic relationships existing among 14 parasitic Platyhelminthes in the Republic of Korea were investigated via the use of the partial 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1 region and the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (mCOI) DNA sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analyzed by length, G + C %, nucleotide differences and gaps in order to determine the analyzed phylogenic relationships. The phylogenic patterns of the 28S rDNA D1 and mCOI regions were closely related within the same class and order as analyzed by the PAUP 4.0 program, with the exception of a few species. These findings indicate that the 28S rDNA gene sequence is more highly conserved than are the mCOI gene sequences. The 28S rDNA gene may prove useful in studies of the systematics and population genetic structures of parasitic Platyhelminthes. PMID:17876163

Lee, Soo-Ung; Chun, Ha-Chung

2007-01-01

139

Modeling Planarian Regeneration: A Primer for Reverse-Engineering the Worm  

PubMed Central

A mechanistic understanding of robust self-assembly and repair capabilities of complex systems would have enormous implications for basic evolutionary developmental biology as well as for transformative applications in regenerative biomedicine and the engineering of highly fault-tolerant cybernetic systems. Molecular biologists are working to identify the pathways underlying the remarkable regenerative abilities of model species that perfectly regenerate limbs, brains, and other complex body parts. However, a profound disconnect remains between the deluge of high-resolution genetic and protein data on pathways required for regeneration, and the desired spatial, algorithmic models that show how self-monitoring and growth control arise from the synthesis of cellular activities. This barrier to progress in the understanding of morphogenetic controls may be breached by powerful techniques from the computational sciences—using non-traditional modeling approaches to reverse-engineer systems such as planaria: flatworms with a complex bodyplan and nervous system that are able to regenerate any body part after traumatic injury. Currently, the involvement of experts from outside of molecular genetics is hampered by the specialist literature of molecular developmental biology: impactful collaborations across such different fields require that review literature be available that presents the key functional capabilities of important biological model systems while abstracting away from the often irrelevant and confusing details of specific genes and proteins. To facilitate modeling efforts by computer scientists, physicists, engineers, and mathematicians, we present a different kind of review of planarian regeneration. Focusing on the main patterning properties of this system, we review what is known about the signal exchanges that occur during regenerative repair in planaria and the cellular mechanisms that are thought to underlie them. By establishing an engineering-like style for reviews of the molecular developmental biology of biomedically important model systems, significant fresh insights and quantitative computational models will be developed by new collaborations between biology and the information sciences. PMID:22570595

Lobo, Daniel; Beane, Wendy S.; Levin, Michael

2012-01-01

140

Mortality and antioxidant responses in the planarian (Dugesia japonica) after exposure to copper.  

PubMed

The planarians (Dugesia japonica) are distributed widely in China, Japan, Korea, and southern Siberia. In this study, the acute toxicity of copper on D. japonica was evaluated using mortality and the activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as endpoints. Acute toxicity tests were conducted according to the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines. The 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h median lethal concentration that killed 50% of individuals (LC50) were calculated as 8.70, 6.31, 4.48, and 4.23 mg Cu²?/L, respectively, based on measured copper concentrations. When compared with different phyla or classes of freshwater animals, the rank of D. japonica in species sensitivity was in the range of 25-26 for 96-h LC??. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were determined in D. japonica exposed to two copper concentrations (50 and 100 ?g Cu²?/L) with a short-term exposure (15 days). They all attained peak value and then reduced during the experimental period. The GPx activities were activated only for 100 ?g/L treatments at days 3 and 6 and then renewed to the original level. Meanwhile, copper significantly increased the levels of ROS in D. japonica. Our study suggests that the adult D. japonica was less sensitive to copper than most other aquatic species. Copper may induce oxidative stress and interfere with the antioxidant defense system of the D. japonica, including SOD and CAT. GPx might be an insusceptible antioxidant enzyme in the metabolic detoxification processes in adult D. japonica. PMID:22773437

Zhang, Xiufang; Zhang, Bowen; Yi, Hongyang; Zhao, Bosheng

2014-03-01

141

Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic field-induced regeneration anomalies in the planarian, Dugesia tigrina  

SciTech Connect

The authors recently reported that cephalic regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina was significantly delayed in populations exposed continuously to combined parallel DC and AC magnetic fields. This effect was consistent with hypotheses suggesting an underlying resonance phenomenon. The authors report here, in a parallel series of investigations on the same model system, that the incidence of regeneration anomalies presenting as tumor-like protuberances also increases significantly (P < .001) in association with exposure to weak 60 Hz magnetic fields, with peak intensities ranging between 1.0 and 80.0 {micro}T. These anomalies often culminate in the complete disaggregation of the organism. Similar to regeneration rate effects, the incidence of regeneration anomalies is specifically dependent upon the planaria possessing a fixed orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field vectors. However, unlike the regeneration rate effects, the AC magnetic field alone, in the absence of any measurable DC field, is capable of producing these anomalies. Moreover, the incidence of regeneration anomalies follows a clear dose-response relationship as a function of AC magnetic field intensity, with the threshold for induced electric field intensity estimated at 5 {micro} V/m. The addition of either 51.1 or 78.4 {micro}T DC magnetic fields, applied in parallel combination with the AC field, enhances the appearance of anomalies relative to the 60 Hz AC field alone, but only at certain AC field intensities. Thus, whereas the previous study of regeneration rate effects appeared to involve exclusively resonance interactions, the regeneration anomalies reported here appear to result primarily from Faraday induction coupling.

Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics] [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1996-12-31

142

The Mi-2-like Smed-CHD4 gene is required for stem cell differentiation in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

Freshwater planarians are able to regenerate any missing part of their body and have extensive tissue turnover because of the action of dividing cells called neoblasts. Neoblasts provide an excellent system for in vivo study of adult stem cell biology. We identified the Smed-CHD4 gene, which is predicted to encode a chromatin-remodeling protein similar to CHD4/Mi-2 proteins, as required for planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis. Following inhibition of Smed-CHD4 with RNA interference (RNAi), neoblast numbers were initially normal, despite an inability of the animals to regenerate. However, the proliferative response of neoblasts to amputation or growth stimulation in Smed-CHD4(RNAi) animals was diminished. Smed-CHD4(RNAi) animals displayed a dramatic reduction in the numbers of certain neoblast progeny cells. Smed-CHD4 was required for the formation of these neoblast progeny cells. Together, these results indicate that Smed-CHD4 is required for neoblasts to produce progeny cells committed to differentiation in order to control tissue turnover and regeneration and suggest a crucial role for CHD4 proteins in stem cell differentiation. PMID:20223763

Scimone, M Lucila; Meisel, Joshua; Reddien, Peter W

2010-04-01

143

A new genus and species for the first recorded cave-dwelling Cavernicola (Platyhelminthes) from South America  

PubMed Central

Abstract Species diversity of Brazilian cave fauna has been seriously underestimated. A karst area located in Felipe Guerra, northeastern Brazil, which is a hotspot of subterranean diversity in Brazil, has revealed more than 20 troglobitic species, most of them still undescribed. Based on recent samplings in this karst area, we document the occurrence of the suborder Cavernicola (Platyhelminthes) in South American hypogean environments for the first time and describe a new genus and species for this suborder. Hausera Leal-Zanchet & Souza, gen. n. has features concordant with those defined for the family Dimarcusidae. The new genus is characterized by two unique features, viz. an intestine extending dorsally to the brain and ovovitelline ducts located dorsally to the nerve cords, which is complemented by a combination of other characters. The type-specimens of Hausera hauseri Leal-Zanchet & Souza, sp. n. are typical stygobionts, unpigmented and eyeless, and they may constitute an oceanic relict as is the case of other stygobiotic invertebrates found in this karst area in northeastern Brazil. PMID:25349486

Leal-Zanchet, Ana Maria; de Souza, Stella Teles; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

2014-01-01

144

The CCR4-NOT Complex Mediates Deadenylation and Degradation of Stem Cell mRNAs and Promotes Planarian Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are of fundamental importance to form robust genetic networks, but their roles in stem cell pluripotency remain poorly understood. Here, we use freshwater planarians as a model system to investigate this and uncover a role for CCR4-NOT mediated deadenylation of mRNAs in stem cell differentiation. Planarian adult stem cells, the so-called neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regenerative capabilities of planarians and allow their ongoing homeostatic tissue turnover. While many genes have been demonstrated to be required for these processes, currently almost no mechanistic insight is available into their regulation. We show that knockdown of planarian Not1, the CCR4-NOT deadenylating complex scaffolding subunit, abrogates regeneration and normal homeostasis. This abrogation is primarily due to severe impairment of their differentiation potential. We describe a stem cell specific increase in the mRNA levels of key neoblast genes after Smed-not1 knock down, consistent with a role of the CCR4-NOT complex in degradation of neoblast mRNAs upon the onset of differentiation. We also observe a stem cell specific increase in the frequency of longer poly(A) tails in these same mRNAs, showing that stem cells after Smed-not1 knock down fail to differentiate as they accumulate populations of transcripts with longer poly(A) tails. As other transcripts are unaffected our data hint at a targeted regulation of these key stem cell mRNAs by post-transcriptional regulators such as RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs. Together, our results show that the CCR4-NOT complex is crucial for stem cell differentiation and controls stem cell-specific degradation of mRNAs, thus providing clear mechanistic insight into this aspect of neoblast biology. PMID:24367277

Solana, Jordi; Gamberi, Chiara; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Grosswendt, Stefanie; Chen, Chen; Lasko, Paul; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

2013-01-01

145

Genome-wide analysis of the bHLH gene family in planarians identifies factors required for adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.  

PubMed

In contrast to most well-studied model organisms, planarians have a remarkable ability to completely regenerate a functional nervous system from a pluripotent stem cell population. Thus, planarians provide a powerful model to identify genes required for adult neurogenesis in vivo. We analyzed the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors, many of which are crucial for nervous system development and have been implicated in human diseases. However, their potential roles in adult neurogenesis or central nervous system (CNS) function are not well understood. We identified 44 planarian bHLH homologs, determined their patterns of expression in the animal and assessed their functions using RNAi. We found nine bHLHs expressed in stem cells and neurons that are required for CNS regeneration. Our analyses revealed that homologs of coe, hes (hesl-3) and sim label progenitors in intact planarians, and following amputation we observed an enrichment of coe(+) and sim(+) progenitors near the wound site. RNAi knockdown of coe, hesl-3 or sim led to defects in CNS regeneration, including failure of the cephalic ganglia to properly pattern and a loss of expression of distinct neuronal subtype markers. Together, these data indicate that coe, hesl-3 and sim label neural progenitor cells, which serve to generate new neurons in uninjured or regenerating animals. Our study demonstrates that this model will be useful to investigate how stem cells interpret and respond to genetic and environmental cues in the CNS and to examine the role of bHLH transcription factors in adult tissue regeneration. PMID:24173799

Cowles, Martis W; Brown, David D R; Nisperos, Sean V; Stanley, Brianna N; Pearson, Bret J; Zayas, Ricardo M

2013-12-01

146

Transcription factors lhx1/5-1 and pitx are required for the maintenance and regeneration of serotonergic neurons in planarians.  

PubMed

In contrast to most adult organisms, freshwater planarians can regenerate any injured body part, including their entire nervous system. This allows for the analysis of genes required for both the maintenance and regeneration of specific neural subtypes. In addition, the loss of specific neural subtypes may uncover previously unknown behavioral roles for that neural population in the context of the adult animal. Here we show that two homeodomain transcription factor homologs, Smed-lhx1/5-1 and Smed-pitx, are required for the maintenance and regeneration of serotonergic neurons in planarians. When either lhx1/5-1 or pitx was knocked down by RNA interference, the expression of multiple canonical markers for serotonergic neurons was lost. Surprisingly, the loss of serotonergic function uncovered a role for these neurons in the coordination of motile cilia on the ventral epidermis of planarians that are required for their nonmuscular gliding locomotion. Finally, we show that in addition to its requirement in serotonergic neurons, Smed-pitx is required for proper midline patterning during regeneration, when it is required for the expression of the midline-organizing molecules Smed-slit in the anterior and Smed-wnt1 in the posterior. PMID:23903188

Currie, Ko W; Pearson, Bret J

2013-09-01

147

Lesions associated with plerocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill), (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) from the northern Gulf of Mexico.  

PubMed

We describe lesions associated with a seemingly intense infection of trypanorhynch plerocerci (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in the gastric wall of a female cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus (Myliobatiformes: Rhinopteridae) captured in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Grossly, the multitude of encapsulated, encysted plerocerci imparted a bumpy and cobbled appearance to the serosa of the stomach, and none was observed in any other tissue during routine parasitological necropsy. Histologically, the plerocerci were associated with severe intramural granulomatous gastritis, vascular ectasia and mesothelial polyposis with the exclusion of the mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first published case study documenting platyhelminth-associated histopathological changes in the gastrointestinal tract of R. bonasus as well as that of the efficacy of immunocytochemical markers for smooth muscle actin, Factor VIII, S-100, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Myliobatiformes. It also may serve as a potential primer for much needed ecological investigations regarding the potential role of elasmobranchs as intermediate or 'paratenic' hosts in the life cycles of trypanorhynch cestodes. PMID:21241322

Borucinska, J D; Bullard, S A

2011-02-01

148

A forkhead transcription factor is wound-induced at the planarian midline and required for anterior pole regeneration.  

PubMed

Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid expression of a gene encoding a Forkhead-family transcription factor, FoxD. Wound-induced FoxD expression is specific to the ventral midline, is regulated by Hedgehog signaling, and is neoblast-independent. FoxD is subsequently expressed within a medial subpopulation of neoblasts at wounds involving head regeneration. Ultimately, FoxD is co-expressed with multiple anterior markers at the anterior pole. Inhibition of FoxD with RNA interference (RNAi) results in the failure to specify neoblasts expressing anterior markers (notum and prep) and in anterior pole formation defects. FoxD(RNAi) animals fail to regenerate a new midline and to properly pattern the anterior blastema, consistent with a role for the anterior pole in organizing pattern of the regenerating head. Our results suggest that wound signaling activates a forkhead transcription factor at the midline and, if the head is absent, FoxD promotes specification of neoblasts at the prior midline for anterior pole regeneration. PMID:24415944

Scimone, M Lucila; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

2014-01-01

149

Stem cell-dependent formation of a functional anterior regeneration pole in planarians requires Zic and Forkhead transcription factors.  

PubMed

Planarians can regenerate their head within days. This process depends on the direction of adult stem cells to wound sites and the orchestration of their progenitors to commit to appropriate lineages and to arrange into patterned tissues. We identified a zinc finger transcription factor, Smed-ZicA, as a downstream target of Smed-FoxD, a Forkhead transcription factor required for head regeneration. Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD are co-expressed with the Wnt inhibitor notum and the Activin inhibitor follistatin in a cluster of cells at the anterior-most tip of the regenerating head - the anterior regeneration pole - and in surrounding stem cell progeny. Depletion of Smed-zicA and Smed-FoxD by RNAi abolishes notum and follistatin expression at the pole and inhibits head formation downstream of initial polarity decisions. We suggest a model in which ZicA and FoxD transcription factors synergize to control the formation of Notum- and Follistatin-producing anterior pole cells. Pole formation might constitute an early step in regeneration, resulting in a signaling center that orchestrates cellular events in the growing tissue. PMID:24704339

Vogg, Matthias C; Owlarn, Suthira; Pérez Rico, Yuvia A; Xie, Jianlei; Suzuki, Yoko; Gentile, Luca; Wu, Wei; Bartscherer, Kerstin

2014-06-15

150

egr-4, a target of EGFR signaling, is required for the formation of the brain primordia and head regeneration in planarians.  

PubMed

During the regeneration of freshwater planarians, polarity and patterning programs play essential roles in determining whether a head or a tail regenerates at anterior or posterior-facing wounds. This decision is made very soon after amputation. The pivotal role of the Wnt/?-catenin and Hh signaling pathways in re-establishing anterior-posterior (AP) polarity has been well documented. However, the mechanisms that control the growth and differentiation of the blastema in accordance with its AP identity are less well understood. Previous studies have described a role of Smed-egfr-3, a planarian epidermal growth factor receptor, in blastema growth and differentiation. Here, we identify Smed-egr-4, a zinc-finger transcription factor belonging to the early growth response gene family, as a putative downstream target of Smed-egfr-3. Smed-egr-4 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system and its silencing inhibits anterior regeneration without affecting the regeneration of posterior regions. Single and combinatorial RNA interference to target different elements of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, together with expression analysis of brain- and anterior-specific markers, revealed that Smed-egr-4: (1) is expressed in two phases - an early Smed-egfr-3-independent phase and a late Smed-egfr-3-dependent phase; (2) is necessary for the differentiation of the brain primordia in the early stages of regeneration; and (3) that it appears to antagonize the activity of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway to allow head regeneration. These results suggest that a conserved EGFR/egr pathway plays an important role in cell differentiation during planarian regeneration and indicate an association between early brain differentiation and the proper progression of head regeneration. PMID:24700819

Fraguas, Susanna; Barberán, Sara; Iglesias, Marta; Rodríguez-Esteban, Gustavo; Cebrià, Francesc

2014-05-01

151

Optimal durations of single exposures to a frequency-modulated magnetic field immediately after bisection in planarian predict final growth values.  

PubMed

Planarian (Dugesia tigrinia) were exposed to a frequency-modulated ("Thomas"), patterned electromagnetic field (EMF) immediately following transection through the pharynx. Subjects were exposed from 15 min to 3 h as well as single versus repeated exposures. Results from multiple experiments indicated that those planaria exposed from 45 to 90 min regenerated at significantly higher rates than those exposed less than 45 min. In addition, the study revealed that exposures greater than 45 min were not significantly different beyond this inflection point. We suggest that this particular pattern of EMF is capable of inducing biochemical pathways associated with cell proliferation, in particular the p38-MAPK and hsp70 pathways. PMID:24115101

Tessaro, Lucas W E; Persinger, Michael A

2013-12-01

152

The pigmentary system of planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pigmentary system of the planaria, Dugesia gonocephala s.l. (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida), has been studied by light and electron microscopy. The system consists of granules contained in chromatophore-like cells embedded in the parenchyma. The cell processes penetrate between the muscle layers and extend to the sub-epidermal basal lamina. The nature of the pigment and the comparative anatomical significance of the

Guido Palladini; Lodovico Medolago-Albani; Vito Margotta; Alberto Conforti; Antonio Carolei

1979-01-01

153

Platyhelminth mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for early evolutionary origin of a tRNA ser AGN that contains a dihydrouridine arm replacement loop, and of serine-specifying AGA and AGG codons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The nucleotide sequence of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the liver flukeFasciola hepatica (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Trematoda) has been determined, within which have been identified the genes for tRNAala, tRNAasp, respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1), tRNAasn, tRNApro, tRNAile, tRNAlys, ND3, tRNAserAGN, tRNAtrp, and cytochromec oxidase subunit I (COI). The 11 genes are arranged in

James R. Garey; David R. Wolstenholme

1989-01-01

154

A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis (Monogenea: Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

Background The parasitic Platyhelminthes (Neodermata) contains three parasitic groups of flatworms, each having a unique morphology, and life style: Monogenea (primarily ectoparasitic), Trematoda (endoparasitic flukes), and Cestoda (endoparasitic tapeworms). The evolutionary origin of complex life cyles (multiple obligate hosts, as found in Trematoda and Cestoda) and of endo-/ecto-parasitism in these groups is still under debate and these questions can be resolved, only if the phylogenetic position of the Monogenea within the Neodermata clade is correctly estimated. Results To test the interrelationships of the major parasitic flatworm groups, we estimated the phylogeny of the Neodermata using complete available mitochondrial genome sequences and a newly characterized sequence of a polyopisthocotylean monogenean Microcotyle sebastis. Comparisons of inferred amino acid sequences and gene arrangement patterns with other published flatworm mtDNAs indicate Monogenea are sister group to a clade of Trematoda+Cestoda. Conclusion Results confirm that vertebrates were the first host for stem group neodermatans and that the addition of a second, invertebrate, host was a single event occurring in the Trematoda+Cestoda lineage. In other words, the move from direct life cycles with one host to complex life cycles with multiple hosts was a single evolutionary event. In association with the evolution of life cycle patterns, our result supports the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of the Neodermata giving rise to the Monogenea adopted vertebrate ectoparasitism as its initial life cycle pattern and that the intermediate hosts of the Trematoda (molluscs) and Cestoda (crustaceans) were subsequently added into the endoparasitic life cycles of the Trematoda+Cestoda clade after the common ancestor of these branched off from the monogenean lineage. Complex life cycles, involving one or more intermediate hosts, arose through the addition of intermediate hosts and not the addition of a vertebrate definitive host. Additional evidence is required from monopisthocotylean monogeneans in order to confirm the monophyly of the group. PMID:17270057

Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Kang, Seokha; Kim, Won; Eom, Keeseon S; Littlewood, DTJ

2007-01-01

155

Toxicity of selenium (Na sub 2 SeO sub 3 ) and mercury (HgCl sub 2 ) on the planarian Dugesia gonocephala  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of selenium (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}) and mercury (HgCl{sub 2}) was determined by using a freshwater planarian which is particularly sensitive to pollution, and belongs to a fissiparous breed of Dugesia gonocephala. The mortality and fissiparity frequency of the subjects were studied. They were exposed to intense treatments (48 hours) or for medium to long periods of time (21 days) to either the single compounds or a combination of both, and were fed or fasting. The lethal effect of sodium selenite is correlated to the food intake, whereas the toxicity of mercurous chloride is probably the result of a fixative effect which does not depend on feeding. The 21-day treatment with the first compound has a non-negligible lethal effect which is probably due to an accumulation phenomenon. At doses where an antioxidant effect prevails, fissiparity is stimulated. On the other hand, the second compound reduces reproduction frequency to half the base values. Compared to the Paracentrotus lividus, the Dugesia gonocephala offers various advantages concerning toxicological experiments; besides being easier to handle in the laboratory, it is available all year round and is not subject to seasonal cycles. It is also more susceptible to the toxic effect of mercury, which is a common and highly toxic pollutant, than the sea urchin.

Congiu, A.M.; Casu, S.; Ugazio, G. (Istituto di Genetica (Italy))

1989-10-01

156

Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its potential to readily adapt to several environmental conditions. These findings, together with the fact that A. fasciatus is a protected species and is considered as a biological control organism, necessitate further studies on the ecology and virulence of G. salinae n. sp. PMID:21658217

2011-01-01

157

A scientific basis for proposed quality assurance of a new screening method for tumor-like growths in the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala.  

PubMed

Various abnormal growths appear on planarians, Dugesia dorotocephala, during and after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 28, 110, and 126; Aroclor 1254; cadmium sulfate; and L-buthionine-(R,S)-sulfoximine (BSO). Daily observations under magnification were used to describe the location, development, and morphology of three different types of tumor-like growths ("tumors"). "Post-head tumors" were found to be highly invasive, progressive, and lethal to the animal depending on concentrations and combinations of the compounds used. Survivors from post-head tumors exhibited aberrant morphogenesis, but developmental abnormalities were eventually shed. Post-head tumors occurred within 2 weeks of initial exposure, while "round tail tip tumors" appeared after 2-3 weeks. The rate of progression and invasiveness was greater for the round tail tip tumors. "Pigmented rose thorn tail tumors" occurred in low incidence (4-20%) and appeared to be harmless and noninvasive, requiring months to develop from the first appearance of pigmentation. The aggressive, proliferative, and invasive characteristics of post-head and round tail tip tumors are analogous to those of malignant tumors, while pigmented rose thorn tumors were benign. High dose of cadmium alone were sufficient to initiate the post-head and round tail tip tumors. PCBs potentiated the tumorigenicity of low cadmium doses and enhanced the very low spontaneous incidence of pigmented rose thorn tumors. PCBs also impaired motor activity, causing the graceful gliding locomotion to be replaced by a twisting serpentine movement accompanied by muscular dystrophy. In addition, high (50 micrograms) doses of PCB 110 depressed activity, while lower (5 micrograms) doses and 50 micrograms Aroclor 1254 induced restlessness and enhanced locomotion. These data provide the basis for quality assurance. PMID:1344677

Tehseen, W M; Hansen, L G; Schaeffer, D J; Reynolds, H A

1992-06-01

158

Adhesive secretions in the platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is the first to draw together knowledge about bioadhesives secreted by a group of parasites. Mechanisms of mechanical attachment are well known among parasites, but some can also attach to host surfaces by chemical means using a thin layer of adhesive material secreted at the parasite-host interface. Attachment by adhesives to living surfaces has not been studied in

Ian D. Whittington; Bronwen W. Cribb

2001-01-01

159

The population biology of Planaria torva (Müller) (Turbellaria, Tricladida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A quantitative study of the population biology ofPlanaria torva (Müller) living in a productive lake, based on monthly samples over a period of 20 months, is presented. 2. Samples of triclads, their cocoons and other organisms were taken from bricks placed at a shallow depth in the lake. They provided relative information on changes in population size structure and

T. B. Reynoldson; A. D. Sefton

1972-01-01

160

Spermatozoon cytoarchitecture of Amphilina foliacea (Platyhelminthes, Amphilinidea).  

PubMed

The mature spermatozoon of Amphilina foliacea Rudolphi, 1819 has been examined using transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete is filiform and tapered at both extremities. Its moderately electron-dense cytoplasm possesses two parallel axonemes of unequal lengths with the 9?+?"1" trepaxonematan pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, four electron-dense attachment zones, and electron-dense glycogen granules. A crested body is absent. The anterior extremity of the cell exhibits a single axoneme. The anteriormost cortical microtubules have been observed with the appearance of the second axoneme. The number of cortical microtubules reaches a maximum (up to 25) in the nucleated region III of the spermatozoon. A single mitochondrion extends from the middle of region II to the end of region III of the cell. Both axonemes have become disorganized in a similar way: the axonemal doublets disappear first, followed by the central core. The nucleus is surrounded by a few cortical microtubules in the proximal part of region V. In the distal extremity of the mature spermatozoon, there is only the nucleus. Differences of spermatozoon ultrastructure within Amphilinidea and other Neodermata are discussed. PMID:22932939

Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Xylander, Willi E R

2012-11-01

161

Nutritional adaptations to parasitism within the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most significant alterations to the basic turbellarian plan are evident in the adaptations that relate to the acquisition of food by parasitic flatworms, reflecting the most potent of selection pressures in initiating and maintaining the host-parasite association. Nutritionally, ectoparasitic monogeneans show most correspondence with the predatory turbellarians, with certain monopisthocotylean members feeding by means of a protrusible

David W. Halton

1997-01-01

162

Spectral Sensitivity of the Planarian Ocellus  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT The ocellar potential (OP) of planaria was recorded using microelectrode techniques. The action spectrum and spectral sensitivity of the OP are described. Maximum OP sensitivity was found with 508 nm light. A moderate increase in sensitivity to blue light was observed. This is typical of many invertebrate photoreceptors and was shown, by selective chromatic adaptation, not to indicate the presence of a second pigment.

H. Mack Brown; Hiroshi Ito; Thomas E. Ogden

163

A reinvestigation of spermiogenesis in Amphilina foliacea (Platyhelminthes: Amphilinidea).  

PubMed

Spermiogenesis in the amphilinidean cestode Amphilina foliacea (Rudolphi, 1819) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The orthogonal development of the two flagella is followed by a flagellar rotation and their proximodistal fusion with the median cytoplasmic process. This process is accompanied by extension of both the mitochondrion and nucleus into the median cytoplasmic process. The two pairs of electron-dense attachment zones mark the lines where the proximodistal fusion of the median cytoplasmic process with the two flagella takes place. The intercentriolar body, previously undetermined in A.foliacea, is composed of three electron-dense and two electron-lucent plates. Also new for this species is the finding of electron-dense material in the apical region of the differentiation zone at the early stage of spermiogenesis, and the fact that two arching membranes appear at the base of the differentiation zone only when the two flagella rotate towards the median cytoplasmic process. The present data add more evidence for a close relationship between the Amphilinidea and the Eucestoda. PMID:23539951

Brunanská, Magdaléna; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Xylander, Willi E R

2013-02-01

164

Evolutionary biology of parasitic platyhelminths: The role of molecular phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our appreciation of the diversity within the flatworms has grown, so too has our curiosity about the ways in which these varied creatures are related to one another. In particular, the parasitic groups (trematodes, cestodes and monogeneans have been the focus of enquiry. Until recently, morphology, anatomy and life histories have provided the raw data for building hypotheses on

D. Blair; A. Campos; M. P. Cummings; J. P. Laclette

1996-01-01

165

Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms  

PubMed Central

Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata) are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian) platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features under a consensus phylogeny of the phylum. PMID:22429930

2012-01-01

166

Ca²? channels and praziquantel: a view from the free world.  

PubMed

Targeting the cellular Ca(2+) channels and pumps that underpin parasite Ca(2+) homeostasis may realize novel antihelmintic agents. Indeed, the antischistosomal drug praziquantel (PZQ) is a key clinical agent that has been proposed to work in this manner. Heterologous expression data has implicated an action of PZQ on voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels, although the relevant in vivo target of this drug has remained undefined over three decades of clinical use. The purpose of this review is to bring new perspective to this issue by discussing the potential utility of free-living planarian flatworms for providing new insight into the mechanism of PZQ action. First, we discuss in vivo functional genetic data from the planarian system that broadly supports the molecular data collected in heterologous systems and the 'Ca(2+) hypothesis' of PZQ action. On the basis of these similarities we highlight our current knowledge of platyhelminth voltage operated Ca(2+) channels, their unique molecular pharmacology and the downstream functional PZQ interactome engaged by dysregulation of Ca(2+) influx that has potential to yield novel antischistosomal targets. Overall the broad dataset underscores a common theme of PZQ-evoked disruptions of Ca(2+) homeostasis in trematodes, cestodes and turbellarians, and showcases the utility of the planarian model for deriving insight into drug action and targets in parasitic flatworms. PMID:23246536

Chan, John D; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Marchant, Jonathan S

2013-12-01

167

The Macrostomum lignano EST database as a molecular resource for studying platyhelminth development and phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the flatworm Macrostomum\\u000a lignano. This taxon is of interest due to its basal placement within the flatworms. As such, it provides a useful comparative model for understanding the development of neural and sensory organization. It was anticipated on the basis of previous studies [e.g., Snchez-Alvarado et al., Development,

Joshua Morris; Peter Ladurner; Reinhard Rieger; Daniela Pfister; Maria Del Mar De Miguel-Bonet; David Jacobs; Volker Hartenstein

2006-01-01

168

The nervous system of Amphilina foliacea (Platyhelminthes, Amphilinidea). an immunocytochemical, ultrastructural and spectrofluorometrical study.  

PubMed

The nervous system of young and adult Amphilina foliacea was studied with immunocytochemical, electron microscopical and spectrofluorometrical methods. The general neuroanatomy is described in detail. New data on the structure and development of the brain were obtained. The 5-HT and GYIRFamide-immunoreactivities occur in separate sets of neurones. The innervation of the reproductive organs is described. The fine structure of 2 types of neurones in the CNS, a sensory neurone, a 'glial' cell type, the neuropile and the synapses are described. The level of 5-HT varies between 0.074 and 0.461 microg/g wet weight. This is the first detailed study of the nervous system of A. foliacea. Earlier data on the structure of the nervous system in A. foliacea published in Russian are introduced into the discussion. The study provides data that can be used when considering the phylogenetic position of Amphilinidea. PMID:11072908

Biserova, N M; Dudicheva, V A; Terenina, N B; Reuter, M; Halton, D W; Maule, A G; Gustafsson, M K

2000-10-01

169

Alternative development in Polystoma gallieni (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) and life cycle evolution.  

PubMed

Considering the addition of intermediate transmission steps during life cycle evolution, developmental plasticity, canalization forces and inherited parental effect must be invoked to explain new host colonization. Unfortunately, there is a lack of experimental procedures and relevant models to explore the adaptive value of alternative developmental phenotypes during life cycle evolution. However, within the monogeneans that are characterized by a direct life cycle, an extension of the transmission strategy of amphibian parasites has been reported within species of Polystoma and Metapolystoma (Polyopisthocotylea; Polystomatidae). In this study, we tested whether the infection success of Polystoma gallieni within tadpoles of its specific host, the Stripeless Tree Frog Hyla meridionalis, differs depending on the parental origin of the oncomiracidium. An increase in the infection success of the parasitic larvae when exposed to the same experimental conditions as their parents was expected as an adaptive pattern of non-genetic inherited information. Twice as many parasites were actually recorded from tadpoles infected with oncomiracidia hatching from eggs of the bladder parental phenotype (1.63 ± 0.82 parasites per host) than from tadpoles infected with oncomiracidia hatching from eggs of the branchial parental phenotype (0.83 ± 0.64 parasites per host). Because in natural environments the alternation of the two phenotypes is likely to occur due to the ecology of its host, the differential infection success within young tadpoles could have an adaptive value that favors the parasite transmission over time. PMID:23896124

Badets, Mathieu; Du Preez, Louis; Verneau, Olivier

2013-10-01

170

Contributions to the systematics, comparative morphology, and interrelationships of selected lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)  

E-print Network

described for specimens collected from a butterfly ray, Gymnura micrura (Bloch & Schneider) (Myliobatiformes: Gymnuridae; as Pteroplatea micrura [Bloch & Schneider]), from Sri Lanka. This dissertation resurrects these three genera, recognizing them as valid...

Cielocha, Joanna J.

2013-05-31

171

A Reevaluation of the Taxonomy of the Mesocoelium monas Complex (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Mesoceliidae)  

E-print Network

be divided into 2 separate groups based on the median or submedian placement of the genital pore). The specimens of M. monas I examined represented 3 of the 6 body types identified by Norman Dronen: the M. monas body type, the M. lanceatum body type...

Calhoun, Dana Marie

2012-07-16

172

Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Platyhelminthes) in cattle from Vietnam.  

PubMed

Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI) were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected. PMID:22314245

Nguyen, S; Amer, S; Ichikawa, M; Itagaki, T; Fukuda, Y; Nakai, Y

2012-02-01

173

Dynamics of the platyhelminth fauna of wood ducks in relation to food habits and reproductive state.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the intestinal helminth fauna of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and the relationship between changes in food habits and helminth populations during the bird's reproductive cycle were studied in southeast Missouri. A total of 11 species of helminths, comprised of four species of trematodes and seven species of cestodes, were recovered from the digestive tracts of 155 wood ducks. All species except one were found in both sexes. Significant differences were found in parasite numbers by season (spring vs. fall), sex, and stage of the reproductive cycle. Helminth infection in both sexes was higher in the spring than during fall courtship; however, the magnitude of the seasonal difference was considerably greater in females. Females contained significantly more helminths than males during spring, but no sex-related differences were detected in the fall. Seasonal changes and sex-related differences in parasite numbers corresponded closely with the consumption of invertebrates that serve as intermediate hosts. The average number of parasites in females was similar during fall courtship and pre-egg-laying, suggesting that little or no new infection occurred during winter. The most intensive infections were found in laying females and were attributed to hyperphagia and increased invertebrate consumption during egg production. A large decrease in the parasite numbers in females between incubation and fall courtship indicated that most of the helminths acquired by laying females were lost during summer; therefore, the long-term effects of the increased infection are probably negligible. PMID:6854477

Drobney, R D; Train, C T; Fredrickson, L H

1983-04-01

174

Comparative genomics of flatworms (platyhelminthes) reveals shared genomic features of ecto- and endoparastic neodermata.  

PubMed

The ectoparasitic Monogenea comprise a major part of the obligate parasitic flatworm diversity. Although genomic adaptations to parasitism have been studied in the endoparasitic tapeworms (Cestoda) and flukes (Trematoda), no representative of the Monogenea has been investigated yet. We present the high-quality draft genome of Gyrodactylus salaris, an economically important monogenean ectoparasite of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A total of 15,488 gene models were identified, of which 7,102 were functionally annotated. The controversial phylogenetic relationships within the obligate parasitic Neodermata were resolved in a phylogenomic analysis using 1,719 gene models (alignment length of >500,000 amino acids) for a set of 16 metazoan taxa. The Monogenea were found basal to the Cestoda and Trematoda, which implies ectoparasitism being plesiomorphic within the Neodermata and strongly supports a common origin of complex life cycles. Comparative analysis of seven parasitic flatworm genomes identified shared genomic features for the ecto- and endoparasitic lineages, such as a substantial reduction of the core bilaterian gene complement, including the homeodomain-containing genes, and a loss of the piwi and vasa genes, which are considered essential for animal development. Furthermore, the shared loss of functional fatty acid biosynthesis pathways and the absence of peroxisomes, the latter organelles presumed ubiquitous in eukaryotes except for parasitic protozoans, were inferred. The draft genome of G. salaris opens for future in-depth analyses of pathogenicity and host specificity of poorly characterized G. salaris strains, and will enhance studies addressing the genomics of host-parasite interactions and speciation in the highly diverse monogenean flatworms. PMID:24732282

Hahn, Christoph; Fromm, Bastian; Bachmann, Lutz

2014-05-01

175

Cicerina debrae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Kalyptorhynchia, Cicerinidae) from the Southern Atlantic Coast, USA.  

PubMed

Cicerina debrae is described as a new species of kalyptorhynch flatworm belonging to the Cicerinidae. This species was found in surface sediment from the lower half of the beach at two sites in North Carolina and is identical to museum material previously collected from North Carolina and from the Atlantic coast of Florida. C. debrae differs from its congeners in the shape of the ductus spermatici and the copulatory cirrus. PMID:24989762

Tucker, Kea

2014-01-01

176

Ultrastructural and cytochemical aspects of the germarium and the vitellarium in Syndesmis patagonica (Platyhelminthes, Rhabdocoela, Umagillidae).  

PubMed

The cytoarchitecture of the female gonad of the endosymbiont umagillid Syndesmis patagonica has been investigated using electron microscopy and cytochemical techniques. The female gonad consists of paired germaria and vitellaria located behind the pharynx in the mid-posterior region of the body. Both the germaria and the vitellaria are enveloped by an outer extracellular lamina and an inner sheath of accessory cells which contribute to the extracellular lamina. Oocyte maturation occurs completely during the prophase of the first meiotic division. Oocyte differentiation is characterized by the appearance of chromatoid bodies and the development of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes. These organelles appear to be involved in the production of round granules, about 2-2.5 ?m in diameter, with a homogeneous electron-dense core surrounded by a granular component and a translucent halo delimited by a membrane. These egg granules migrate to the periphery of mature oocytes, are positive to the cytochemical test for polyphenol detection, are unaffected by protease and have been interpreted as eggshell granules. The mature oocytes also contain a small number of yolk granules, lipid droplets, and glycogen particles scattered throughout the ooplasm. The vitellaria are branched organs composed of vitelline follicles with vitellocytes at different stages of maturation. Developing vitellocytes contain well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and small Golgi complexes involved in the production of eggshell and yolk globules. Eggshell globules are round, measure 4-5 ?m in diameter, and have a mosaic-like patterned content which contains polyphenols. The yolk globules, 2-3 ?m in diameter, show a homogeneous protein content of medium electron density, devoid of polyphenols, and completely digested by protease. The mature vitellocytes also contain glycogen as further reserve material. The presence of polyphenolic eggshell granules in the oocytes and of polyphenolic eggshell globules with a mosaic-like pattern in the vitellocytes have been considered apomorphic features of the Rhabdocoela + Prolecithophora. PMID:24469987

Falleni, Alessandra; Lucchesi, Paolo; Ghezzani, Claudio; Brogger, Martín I

2014-06-01

177

MicroRNA loci support conspecificity of Gyrodactylus salaris and Gyrodactylus thymalli (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea).  

PubMed

The monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris is a serious threat to wild and farmed Atlantic salmon stocks in Norway. Morphologically, the closely related but harmless Gyrodactylus thymalli on grayling can hardly be distinguished from G. salaris. Until now, molecular approaches could not resolve unambiguously whether G. salaris and G. thymalli represent just one polytypic species, two polytypic species or a complex of more than two species. In the first known genome-wide analysis utilizing 37 conserved microRNA loci, the genetic differentiation of seven populations of G. salaris and G. thymalli was assessed. The concatenated alignment spanned 21,742bp including 62 variable positions. A neighbor-joining cluster analysis did not support any host-based or mitochondrial haplotype-based grouping of strains. We conclude that a two species concept for G. salaris and G. thymalli does not reflect meaningful biological entities. Instead, G. salaris and G. thymalli are just one species comprising several pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains on various primary hosts. Following the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature, G. salaris Malmberg, 1957 is the valid species name with G. thymalli Žit?an, 1960 becoming the junior synonym. Accordingly, the range of G. salaris is significantly increased, given that formerly G. salaris-free countries such as e.g., Great Britain are now within the species' natural range. The synonymization of G. salaris and G. thymalli implies severe challenges to current disease management routines, which assume that G. salaris and G. thymalli are readily distinguishable. Protocols for reliable identification of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of G. salaris need to be developed. PMID:24998346

Fromm, Bastian; Burow, Susann; Hahn, Christoph; Bachmann, Lutz

2014-10-01

178

A proteomics approach to decipher the molecular nature of planarian stem cells  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, planaria have emerged as an important model system for research into stem cells and regeneration. Attention is focused on their unique stem cells, the neoblasts, which can differentiate into any cell type present in the adult organism. Sequencing of the Schmidtea mediterranea genome and some expressed sequence tag projects have generated extensive data on the genetic profile of these cells. However, little information is available on their protein dynamics. Results We developed a proteomic strategy to identify neoblast-specific proteins. Here we describe the method and discuss the results in comparison to the genomic high-throughput analyses carried out in planaria and to proteomic studies using other stem cell systems. We also show functional data for some of the candidate genes selected in our proteomic approach. Conclusions We have developed an accurate and reliable mass-spectra-based proteomics approach to complement previous genomic studies and to further achieve a more accurate understanding and description of the molecular and cellular processes related to the neoblasts. PMID:21356107

2011-01-01

179

Planarian Worms, Shock Generators and Apathetic Witnesses: Teaching Psychology and Graphic Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comics and graphic novels have made a greater impact on popular culture in recent years and can be used for enhancing the learning experience of psychology students. One of the best known and respected comic book writers of the last 30 years is Alan Moore, who has included a number of detailed references to psychological studies and experiments in…

Aleixo, Paul A.; Norris, Claire E.

2013-01-01

180

Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely-low-frequency (ELF), low-intensity magnetic fields have been shown to influence cell signaling processes in a variety of systems, both in vivo and in vitro. Similar effects have been demonstrated for nervous system development and neurite outgrowth. The authors report that regeneration in planaria, which incorporates many of these processes, is also affected by ELF magnetic fields. The rate of cephalic

K. A. Jenrow; C. H. Smith; A. R. Liboff

1995-01-01

181

Modeling Planarian Regeneration: A Primer for Reverse-Engineering the Worm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistic understanding of robust self-assembly and repair capabilities of complex systems would have enormous implications for basic evolutionary developmental biology as well as for transformative applications in regenerative biomedicine and the engineering of highly fault-tolerant cybernetic systems. Molecular biologists are working to identify the pathways underlying the remarkable regenerative abilities of model species that perfectly regenerate limbs, brains, and

Daniel Lobo; Wendy S. Beane; Michael Levin

2012-01-01

182

Double-stranded RNA specifically disrupts gene expression during planarian regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metazoan regeneration is one of the least understood fundamental problems of biology. The lack of progress in understanding this phenomenon at the molecular level has been due to the poor regenerative abilities of the genetic organisms used for developmental studies, as well as the difficulties encountered with molecular and genetic ma- nipulations of the commonly studied vertebrate models (the urodele

ALEJANDRO SANCHEZ ALVARADO; PHILLIP A. NEWMARK

1999-01-01

183

A wound-induced Wnt expression program controls planarian regeneration polarity  

E-print Network

Regeneration requires specification of the identity of new tissues to be made. Whether this process relies only on intrinsic regulative properties of regenerating tissues or whether wound signaling provides input into ...

Petersen, Christian P.

184

Acute toxic responses of the freshwater planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala, to methylmercury  

SciTech Connect

Toxic responses of planaria to various aquatic habitat concentrations of methylmercury chloride (MMC) were investigated. One hundred percent lethality occurred within 5 h in 2 ppM MMC, 24 h in 1 ppM MMC, and 5 days in 0.5 ppM MMC. No deaths occurred in 0.2 ppM MMC over a 10 day period, however, non-lethal toxic responses were observed. Varying degrees of head resorption, progressing caudally from the snout were observed. With continuing exposure, partial head regeneration and recovery toward more normal appearance occurred by 10 days. Teratogenic effects were observed in surgical decapitation experiments. Head regeneration was retarded in 0.1 and 0.2 ppM MMC. Malformations, visible lesions, or gross behavioral abnormalities were produced by 2 week exposure of planaria to concentrations of 20 ppB MMC or lower. (RJC)

Best, J.B.; Morita, M.; Ragin, J.; Best, J. Jr.

1981-07-01

185

Weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and regeneration in the planarian Dugesia tigrina  

SciTech Connect

Extremely-low-frequency (ELF), low-intensity magnetic fields have been shown to influence cell signaling processes in a variety of systems, both in vivo and in vitro. Similar effects have been demonstrated for nervous system development and neurite outgrowth. The authors report that regeneration in planaria, which incorporates many of these processes, is also affected by ELF magnetic fields. The rate of cephalic regeneration, reflected by the mean regeneration time (MRT), for planaria populations regenerating under continuous exposure to combined DC (78.4 {mu}T) and AC (60.0 Hz at 10.0 {mu}T{sub peak}) magnetic fields applied in parallel was found to be significantly delayed (P {much_lt} 0.001) by 48 {+-} 1 h relative to two different types of control populations (MRT {minus}140 {+-} 12 h). One control population was exposed to only the AC component of this field combination, while the other experienced only the ambient geomagnetic field. All measurements were conducted in a low-gradient, low-noise magnetics laboratory under well-maintained temperature conditions. This delay in regeneration was shown to be dependent on the planaria having a fixed orientation with respect to the magnetic field vectors. Results also indicate that this orientation-dependent transduction process does not result from Faraday induction but is consistent with a Ca{sup 2+} cyclotron resonance mechanism. Data interpretation also permits the tentative conclusion that the effect results from an inhibition of events at an early stage in the regeneration process before the onset of proliferation and differentiation.

Jenrow, K.A.; Smith, C.H.; Liboff, A.R. [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-06-01

186

Identification of the Boudicca and Sinbad retrotransposons in the genome of the human blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium.  

PubMed

Schistosomes have a comparatively large genome, estimated for Schistosoma mansoni to be about 270 megabase pairs (haploid genome). Recent findings have shown that mobile genetic elements constitute significant proportions of the genomes of S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Much less information is available on the genome of the third major human schistosome, S. haematobium. In order to investigate the possible evolutionary origins of the S. mansoni long terminal repeat retrotransposons Boudicca and Sinbad, several genomes were searched by Southern blot for the presence of these retrotransposons. These included three species of schistosomes, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium, and three related platyhelminth genomes, the liver flukes Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna and the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala. In addition, Homo sapiens and three snail host genomes, Biomphalaria glabrata, Oncomelania hupensis, and Bulinus truncatus, were examined for possible indications of a horizontal origin for these retrotransposons. Southern hybridization analysis indicated that both Boudicca and Sinbad were present in the genome of S. haematobium. Furthermore, low stringency Southern hybridization analyses suggested that a Boudicca-like retrotransposon was present in the genome of B. truncatus, the snail host of S. haematobium. PMID:17072464

Copeland, Claudia S; Lewis, Fred A; Brindley, Paul J

2006-08-01

187

Cells showing immunoreactivity for calcitonin or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the central nervous system of some invertebrates.  

PubMed

In the central nervous system of some species of several invertebrate phyla, including land planarians (Platyhelminthes), ribbon worms (Nemertina), slugs (Mollusca), polychaetes, earthworms and leeches (Annelida), pill bugs (Arthropoda), and beard worms (Pogonophora), salmon calcitonin-immunoreactive cells and rat calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive cells were found by immunohistochemistry. These immunoreactive cells were located in the region surrounding the neuropile, although the sizes of the cells varied according to species. Some of them were round or polygonal and regarded as apolar nerve cells because of their lack of cytoplasmic processes, whereas others were spindle-shaped or elongated, being comparable with unipolar nerve cells because of extension of their cytoplasmic processes in the direction of the neuropile. In some cases, it was noted that the cytoplasmic processes had complicated branches or formed loop-like structures at their ends. These observations suggest that a calcitonin-like or CGRP-like substance is extensively present in invertebrates as well as vertebrates. PMID:1936921

Sasayama, Y; Katoh, A; Oguro, C; Kambegawa, A; Yoshizawa, H

1991-09-01

188

Genetic differentiation among populations of Minona ileanae (Platyhelminthes: Proseriata) from the Red Sea and the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of Lessepsian migration has stimulated the interest of biologists ever since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, concerning, in particular, the possible effects of migrants on Mediterranean autochthonous communities. So far, most attention has been devoted to macrofaunal taxa – yet, the nature of the sandy shores of the Canal may constitute an ideal habitat for

Tiziana Lai; Marco Curini-Galletti; Marco Casu

2008-01-01

189

Development of Mitochondrial Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of the Small Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (Opisthorchiidae; Trematoda; Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA sequences offer major advantages over the more usual nuclear targets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification approaches (mito-LAMP) because multiple copies occur in every cell. Four LAMP primers [F3, FIP(F1c+F2), BIP(B1c+B2), and B3] were designed based on the mitochondrial nad1 sequence of Opisthorchis viverrini and used for a highly specific assay (mito-OvLAMP) to distinguish DNA of O. viverrini from that of another opisthorchiid (Clonorchis sinensis) and other trematodes (Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola hepatica, and Fasciola gigantica). Conventional PCR was applied using F3/B3 primer pairs to verify the specificity of the primers for O. viverrini DNA templates. All LAMP-positive samples could be detected with the naked eye in sunlight, by gel electrophoresis (stained with ethidium bromide), and by addition of SYBR green I to the product in sunlight or under UV light. Only DNA from O. viverrini yielded amplification products by LAMP (and by PCR verification), and the LAMP limit of detection was as little as 100 fg (10?4 ng DNA), indicating that this assay is 10 to 100 times more sensitive than PCR. Field testing was done using representative egg and metacercarial samples collected from localities where the fluke is endemic. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost effectiveness, mito-OvLAMP is a good tool for molecular detection and epidemiology studies in regions or countries where O. viverrini is endemic, which can lead to more effective control of opisthorchiasis and trematodiasis. PMID:22322346

Nguyen, Nga Thi Bich; Truong, Nam Hai; De, Nguyen Van

2012-01-01

190

Asexual Reproduction in Pygospio elegans Claparede (Annelida, Polychaeta) in Relation to Parasitism by Lepocreadium setiferoides (Miller and Northup) (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history theory predicts that parasitized hosts should alter their investment in reproduction in ways that maximize host reproductive success. I examined the timing of asexual reproduction (fragmentation and regeneration) in the polychaete annelid Pygospio elegans experimentally exposed to cercariae of the trematode Lepocreadium setiferoides.Con- sistent with adaptive host response, polychaetes that became infected by metacercariae of trematodes fragmented sooner than

DEAN G. MCCURDY

191

Asexual reproduction in Pygospio elegans claparède (Annelida, Polychaeta) in relation to parasitism by Lepocreadium setiferoides (Miller and Northup) (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda).  

PubMed

Life-history theory predicts that parasitized hosts should alter their investment in reproduction in ways that maximize host reproductive success. I examined the timing of asexual reproduction (fragmentation and regeneration) in the polychaete annelid Pygospio elegans experimentally exposed to cercariae of the trematode Lepocreadium setiferoides. Consistent with adaptive host response, polychaetes that became infected by metacercariae of trematodes fragmented sooner than unexposed controls. Parasites were not directly associated with fission in that exposed polychaetes that did not become infected also fragmented earlier than controls. For specimens of P. elegans that were not exposed to trematodes, new fragments that contained original heads were larger than those that contained original tails, whereas original head and tail fragments did not differ in size for infected polychaetes. In infected specimens, metacercariae were equally represented in original head and tail fragments and were more likely to be found in whichever fragment was larger. Despite early reproduction, parasitism was still costly because populations of P. elegans exposed to parasites were smaller than controls when measured 8 weeks later and because exposure to cercariae reduced survivorship of newly divided polychaetes. Taken together, my results suggest that early fragmentation is a host response to minimize costs associated with parasitism. PMID:11526062

McCurdy, D G

2001-08-01

192

Effects of Microphallus papillorobustus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) on serotonergic immunoreactivity and neuronal architecture in the brain of Gammarus insensibilis (Crustacea: Amphipoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larval flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus encysts in the protocerebrum of its intermediate host, Gammarus insensibilis , and changes the gammarid' s responses to mechanical and photic stimuli. The resulting aberrant escape behaviour renders infected gammarids more susceptible to predation by birds, the definitive hosts of the parasite. We used immunocytochemical methods to explore the mechanisms underlying these subtle behavioural modifications.

S. Helluy; F. Thomas

2003-01-01

193

The first report of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) on Italian cultured stocks of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 is considered one of the most important parasites of wild salmonids in the European Community due to the heavy ecological and economical damage it has inflicted on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr populations. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is susceptible to G. salaris and can act as a suitable carrier host and, consequently, its trade

Giuseppe Paladini; Andrea Gustinelli; Maria L. Fioravanti; Haakon Hansen; Andrew P. Shinn

2009-01-01

194

In search of mitochondrial markers for resolving the phylogeny of cyclophyllidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) — a test study with Davaineidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most species rich order of tapeworms is the Cyclophyllidea and prior to wide-scale sampling of these worms for phylogenetics,\\u000a we wished to develop reliable PCR primers that would capture fragments of mitochondrial (mt) DNA with phylogenetic utility\\u000a across the order. Nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequences are well-established and valuable markers for resolving flatworm interrelationships\\u000a spanning a wide range of

D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Andrea Waeschenbach; Pavel N. Nikolov

2008-01-01

195

Spathebothriidea: survey of species, scolex and egg morphology, and interrelationships of a non-segmented, relictual tapeworm group (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).  

PubMed

Tapeworms of the order Spathebothriidea Wardle et McLeod, 1952 (Cestoda) are reviewed. Molecular data made it possible to assess, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationships of all genera and to confirm the validity of Bothrimonus Duvernoy, 1842, Diplocotyle Krabbe, 1874 and Didymobothrium Nybelin, 1922. A survey of all species considered to be valid is provided together with new data on egg and scolex morphology and surface ultrastructure (i.e. microtriches). The peculiar morphology of the members of this group, which is today represented by five effectively monotypic genera whose host associations and geographical distribution show little commonality, indicate that it is a relictual group that was once diverse and widespread. The order potentially represents the earliest branch of true tapeworms (i.e. Eucestoda) among extant forms. PMID:25185404

Kuchta, Roman; Pearson, Rebecca; Scholz, Tomás; Ditrich, Oleg; Olson, Peter D

2014-08-01

196

A new species of Unilatus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) from the gills of Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker et Nijssen (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.  

PubMed

Unilatus irae sp. nov. (Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of the armored catfish, Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker et Nijssen (Loricariidae: Ancistrinae), from Guamá river, Pará State, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from its cogeneners by the combination of the following features: anterior anchor with well-developed superficial root, inconspicuous deep root, shaft bent at midpoint, forming angle of approximately 60°, evenly short curved point; posterior anchor with inconspicuous roots, sclerotized cap of base with small protuberance for articulation to posterior bar; evenly curved shaft and short point; anterior bar broadly V-shaped, with small posteromedial projection; and posterior bar anteriorly expanded on it midportion, with expanded ends slightly curved in posterior direction. PMID:24570054

Branches, Bárbara; Domingues, Marcus V

2014-03-01

197

Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

A 70-mer oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12 hours post wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (S. mansoni or E. paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) ?10%. Wounding yielded a modest differential expression profile (27 up/21 down) with affected features mostly dissimilar from other treatments. Partially overlapping, yet distinct expression profiles were recorded from snails challenged with E. coli (83 up/20 down) or M. luteus (120 up/42 down), mostly showing up-regulation of defense and stress-related features. Significantly altered expression of selected immune features indicates that B. glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H.; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Gross, Paul S.; Loker, Eric S

2009-01-01

198

Transparency Master: Planaria in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information on the morphology and physiology of planarians and uses of the organism in schools is provided. Also provided is a transparency master demonstrating a planarian with an everted proboscis, two-headed/two-tailed planarians, and a planarian demonstrating the digestive tract. (JN)

Jensen, Lauritz A.; Allen, A. Lester

1983-01-01

199

Acknowledgements This work was supported by grants from the National Eye Institute and the Human Frontier Science Program. J.H.R.M. is an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical  

E-print Network

of totipotent stem cells (neoblasts)2­4 , and among the organs regenerated by these animals is a well in stem cells to restrict brain tissues to the head region of planarians. Planarians have a well molecules involved in the process of brain regeneration in planarians, we prepared microarrays containing 1

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

200

Morphological and molecular differentiation between Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).  

PubMed

Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819) and Dicrocoelium hospes (Looss, 1907) are recognised to affect the liver of domestic and wild ruminants. A third species, Dicrocoelium orientalis which was described from musk deer in the Baikal region of the former Soviet Union and re-named to Dicrocoelium chinensis (Sudarikov and Ryjikov, 1951) Tang and Tang, 1978 was isolated from other species of deer in Asian countries and from mouflon and roe deer in Europe. Scant information is available for D. chinensis, including the range of species that act as definitive and intermediate hosts. To provide morphological and molecular evidences differentiating D. chinensis versus D. dendriticum, 239 Dicrocoelium spp. specimens were collected from sheep, cattle and sika deer from different localities in Austria, Germany and Italy. Specimens were morphologically identified based on the testes orientation, overall size, and level of maximum body width and other morphometric measurements. From this sample, 10 specimens of D. chinensis and 25 of D. dendriticum from different hosts and geographical localities were characterized molecularly through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA (approximately 1400 bp) and ITS-2 (including the 5.8S and 28S flanking regions; approximately 600 bp). Interspecific differences between D. dendriticum and D. chinensis of 0.14% and 3.8% were recorded in 18S rRNA and ITS-2 sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses via Bayesian inference were conducted using sequences of ITS-2 (276 bp) and partial 28S (221 bp) of the above species of Dicrocoelium together with 20 species belonging to the Xiphidiata within the Plagiorchiida available in GenBank. Both gene regions were strongly concordant in differentiating the Dicrocoeliidae, Gorgoderidae and Plagiorchiidae and were in agreement with their current classification. Morphological and molecular characterization clearly differentiate D. dendriticum and D. chinensis as two distinct digeneans infecting ruminants. The implications on the separate status of D. chinensis on the etiology, biology and diagnosis of dicrocoeliosis are discussed. PMID:17803950

Otranto, Domenico; Rehbein, Steffen; Weigl, Stefania; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Parisi, Antonio; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Olson, Peter D

2007-01-01

201

First description of monogenean parasites in Lake Tanganyika: the cichlid Simochromis diagramma (Teleostei, Cichlidae) harbours a high diversity of Gyrodactylus species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea).  

PubMed

Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage of Africa, but its monogenean fish parasites have not been investigated. Here we report, for the first time, on the Gyrodactylus parasites in this hotspot of fish biodiversity. Haptor morphometrics and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences revealed 3 new species on Zambian Simochromis diagramma: Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri n. sp., G. thysi n. sp. and G. zimbae n. sp. Their distinct morphology and strong genetic differentiation suggest that they belong to distant lineages within the genus Gyrodactylus, and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest affinities with other genera of gyrodactylids. Additional U-shaped haptoral plates in G. thysi n. sp. and a second large spine-like structure in the male copulatory organ of G. zimbae seem to represent new features for the genus. Such large diversity on a single host species can probably be explained by host-switching events during the course of evolution, in agreement with the generally accepted concept that ecological transfer is an important aspect of gyrodactylid speciation. Additional parasitological surveys on other host species, covering a broader phylogenetic and geographical range, should clarify the evolutionary history of Gyrodactylidae on cichlids in the African Great Lake and other parts of Africa. PMID:20946697

Vanhove, Maarten P M; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

2011-03-01

202

Infections by helminth parasites in "puyenes", Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae, Salmoniformes), from Southern Argentina with special reference to Tylodelphys barilochensis (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

The occurrence of Tylodelphys barilochensis, Acanthostomoides apophalliformis, Contracaecum sp. and Camallanus corderoi infecting Galaxias maculatus ("puyenes") was quantified for the first time in Lake Nahuel Huapi, southern Argentina. T. barilochensis was recorded in this lake for the first time. The role of G. maculatus population in transmission of parasites to the salmonids is more important for Contracaecum sp. (prevalence 14-34%) and A. apophalliformis (prevalence 30-54%) than for C. corderoi (prevalence 6-8%). The absence of Diphyllobothrium spp. in samples shows that the G. maculatus population does not play any role in the life cycles of these important zoonotic parasites. The sex of the host had no effect on T. barilochensis abundance. Statistical differences in T. barilochensis abundance between "puyenes" of the same size class between sampling stations and positive correlation between prevalence of infected snails and T. barilochensis abundance in fish suggest that different stocks have been sampled. Factors influencing T. barilochensis abundance are discussed. PMID:10464401

Revenga, J; Scheinert, P

1999-01-01

203

Bioassays for testing effects of Al, Cr and Cd using development in the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl and regeneration in the planarian Dugesia etrusca  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, water quality studies have been directed toward obtaining physical and chemical measurements on toxicants occurring in the aquatic environment. At present, bioassays are increasingly used as sensitive indicators of pollutant toxicity, since they are rapid, inexpensive, applicable to a variety of toxicants and allow several acute and chronic endpoints to be assessed simultaneously. The analysis of the potential toxicity

F Calevro; S Campani; C Filippi; R Batistoni; P Deri; S Bucci; M Ragghianti; G Mancino

1999-01-01

204

Description and quantification of cocaine withdrawal signs in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work provided indirect evidence that planarians undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal from cocaine. The present study's purpose was to determine if planarians display withdrawal signs and, if so, to quantify the behaviors. Planarians were soaked in cocaine then transferred to either the same cocaine concentration or cocaine-free water. Compared to the cocaine\\/cocaine group, the cocaine\\/water group displayed a significant number of

Robert B. Raffa; Prarthna Desai

2005-01-01

205

A serological study of the diet of British, lake-dwelling Glossiphonia complanata (L.) (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly or two-monthly samples of G. complanata were taken from the stony littoral of five unproductive lakes in N. Wales and seven productive lakes in Cheshire and Shropshire, England, over two years. Satisfactory antisera were produced against ten potential prey groups, viz. Tricladida, Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Cladocera, Asellus, Amphipoda, Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. These were used in the precipitin test

Johnstone O. Young

1981-01-01

206

Prey preference and gregarious attacks by the invasive flatworm Platydemus manokwari  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Tricladida: Rhynchodemidae) preys on various species of land snail, and its introduction to areas outside of its native\\u000a range is thought to have caused the extinction of native land snails on several Pacific islands. Platydemus manokwari occurs in areas where land snails have been absent since its invasion, suggesting that the flatworm can prey on animals

Shinji Sugiura

2010-01-01

207

Community structure and dynamics of Monogenea and Trematoda in three North American cyprinid species in the Salt Valley Watershed, Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the communities of gill monogene genus Dactylogyrus (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) and the populations of blackspot parasite (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda) of Pimephales promelas, Notropis stramineus, and Semotilus atromaculatus in 3 distinct sites along the 3 converging tributaries in southeastern Nebraska from 2004 to 2006. This work constitutes the first multi-site, multi-year study of a complex community of Dactylogyrus

Alaine Kathryn Knipes

2010-01-01

208

Characterization of the stem cell system of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tissue plasticity and a substantial regeneration capacity based on stem cells are the hallmark of several invertebrate groups such as sponges, cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. Traditionally, Acoela were seen as an early branching clade within the Platyhelminthes, but became recently positioned at the base of the Bilateria. However, little is known on how the stem cell system in this new

Katrien De Mulder; Georg Kuales; Daniela Pfister; Maxime Willems; Bernhard Egger; Willi Salvenmoser; Marlene Thaler; Anne-Kathrin Gorny; Martina Hrouda; Gaëtan Borgonie; Peter Ladurner

2009-01-01

209

TECHNOLOGY REPORT Identification of Immunological Reagents for Use in the  

E-print Network

, interest in planarians as a model system for the study of metazoan regeneration, adult stem cell biology-scale RNAi-based screens, for example, will depend in part on the availability of markers to characterize of planarian regeneration is RNA in- terference (RNAi) (Sa´nchez Alvarado and Newmark, 1999). This method

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

210

Identification of Genes Needed for Regeneration, Stem Cell Function, and Tissue Homeostasis by Systematic Gene Perturbation in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary generating a regeneration blastema consisting of ini- tially undifferentiated cells covered by epidermal cells. Planarians have been a classic model system for the Moreover, essentially all tissues in adult planarians turn study of regeneration, tissue homeostasis, and stem over and are replaced by neoblast progeny. Although cell biology for over a century, but they have not his- the characteristics

Peter W. Reddien; Adam L. Bermange; Kenneth J. Murfitt; Joya R. Jennings; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2005-01-01

211

A reverse-phase HPLC and fluorescence detection method for measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Planaria have proven to be a good model system in which to investigate mammalian behaviors and responses to drugs. We have recently studied the response of planarians to dopaminergic ligands and to the effects of cocaine and opioids. To correlate behavior (specifically, drug withdrawal) with neurotransmitter levels, we developed a method to quantify 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in planarians. Methods: Following

Sumiyo Umeda; Gregory W. Stagliano; Michael R. Borenstein; Robert B. Raffa

2005-01-01

212

[The determination of the species classification of Baikal planarian cocoons found in the stomach of the black grayling (Thymallus arcticus baicalensis) by a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene].  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of gene 18S of ribosome RNA was carried out. The results show that the genetic sequences of the given locus could be used as a molecular marker to identify the species of planaria irrespective of ontogenetic stage. The articles deals with problem of specific determination of cocoons of Baikal planaria from the stomach of Baikal black grayling using comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences of ribosome RNA fragments with known sequences determined earlier for Baikal planaria. The cocoons belong to two species of Rimacephalus. The authors discuss also the importance of feeding relationships of planaria and benthophage fish to investigate the biotic factors that influence the evolution of Baikal planaria. PMID:10520297

Kuznedelov, K D; Dziuba, E V

1999-01-01

213

Parasitology Review Wildlife Health, WFB 861  

E-print Network

, lungworms · Phylum Acanthocephala ­ Thorny-headed worm · Phylum Platyhelminthes ­ Flatworms, trematodes, flukes, tapeworms · Phylum Arthropoda ­ Insects, spiders #12;Arthropods · Insects, arachnids, tongue

Jodice, Patrick

214

Conceptual Framework for the Use of Fish Parasites as Bioindicators of Acute and Chronic  

E-print Network

*-- digeneans, flukes, digenes, digenetic trematodes Class Monogenea*-- monogeneans, monogenoideans, monogenes Animalia-- animals Phylum Myxozoa (Cnidaria)-- myxozoans, myxosporidians Phylum Platyhelminthes-- flatworms, monogenetic trematodes Class Cestoda*-- cestodes, cestoideans: gyrocotylideans and eucestodes, tapeworms

Kane, Andrew S.

215

70 FR 46304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Roswell springsnail, Koster's springsnail...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...established at BLNWR, the potential exists for it to predate on Pecos assiminea. Infestation by trematodes (a flatworm or fluke, phylum Platyhelminthes) was noted by Taylor (1987) in populations of Koster's springsnail at Sago...

2005-08-09

216

dlx and sp6-9 Control Optic Cup Regeneration in a Prototypic Eye  

E-print Network

Optic cups are a structural feature of diverse eyes, from simple pit eyes to camera eyes of vertebrates and cephalopods. We used the planarian prototypic eye as a model to study the genetic control of optic cup formation ...

Lapan, Sylvain William

217

Published online 16 April 2004 Regeneration and the need for simpler model  

E-print Network

the study of simpler animals. We have chosen to study and develop the freshwater planarian Schmidtea assembled his watches in only a fraction of the man-hours it took Tempus. (Simon 1962, p. 470) Simon

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

218

Tissue absence initiates regeneration through Follistatin-mediated inhibition of Activin signaling  

E-print Network

Regeneration is widespread, but mechanisms that activate regeneration remain mysterious. Planarians are capable of whole-body regeneration and mount distinct molecular responses to wounds that result in tissue absence and ...

Gavino, Michael A.

219

?-Opioid withdrawal in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drug-abusers engage in poly-drug abuse, but there has been relatively little quantification of withdrawal from poly-drug use. Planarians are an advantageous model for these studies due to mammalian-relevant neurotransmitter systems (e.g. dopamine, opioid, and 5-HT). We recently developed a metric that quantified an acute cocaine withdrawal phenomenon in planarians. However, despite much indirect evidence, we lacked direct evidence of

Robert B. Raffa; Gregory W. Stagliano; Sumiyo Umeda

2003-01-01

220

Planaria FoxA ( HNF3) homologue is specifically expressed in the pharynx-forming cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated a planarian Forkhead box A (FoxA, a new name for a gene group containing HNF3?,?,?)-related gene, DjFoxA, and examined its spatial and temporal distribution in both intact and regenerating planarians by in situ hybridization. In intact worms, DjFoxA is specifically expressed in the cells participating in pharynx development in the region surrounding the pharynx, which is located

Satoshi Koinuma; Yoshihiko Umesono; Kenji Watanabe; Kiyokazu Agata

2000-01-01

221

A nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ( l-NAME) attenuates abstinence-induced withdrawal from both cocaine and a cannabinoid agonist (WIN 55212-2) in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported that planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala) that have been exposed to cocaine for 1 h undergo abstinence-induced withdrawal when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. We now report that planarians also display dose-related abstinence-induced withdrawal following exposure to the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55212-2, but not its inactive enantiomer (WIN 55212-3). The withdrawal from WIN 55212-2 was manifested

Scott M. Rawls; Tonatiu Rodriguez; David A. Baron; Robert B. Raffa

2006-01-01

222

Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.  

PubMed

Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points to neuropeptidergic signaling as a very promising field from which to harvest future drug targets. PMID:21189675

Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

2010-01-01

223

Nuclear hormone receptors in parasitic helminths  

PubMed Central

Nuclear receptors (NRs) belong to a large protein superfamily that are important transcriptional modulators in metazoans. Parasitic helminths include parasitic worms from the Lophotrochozoa (Platyhelminths) and Ecdysozoa (Nematoda). NRs in parasitic helminths diverged into two different evolutionary lineages. NRs in parasitic Platyhelminths have orthologues in Deuterostomes, in arthropods or both with a feature of extensive gene loss and gene duplication within different gene groups. NRs in parasitic Nematoda follow the nematode evolutionary lineage with a feature of multiple duplication of SupNRs and gene loss. PMID:20600585

Wu, Wenjie; LoVerde, Philip T

2010-01-01

224

Schistosoma comparative genomics: integrating genome structure, parasite biology and anthelmintic discovery  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma genomes provide a comprehensive resource for identifying the molecular processes that shape parasite evolution and for discovering novel chemotherapeutic or immunoprophylactic targets. Here, we demonstrate how intra- and intergenus comparative genomics can be used to drive these investigations forward, illustrate the advantages and limitations of these approaches and review how post genomic technologies offer complementary strategies for genome characterisation. While sequencing and functional characterisation of other schistosome/platyhelminth genomes continues to expedite anthelmintic discovery, we contend that future priorities should equally focus on improving assembly quality, and chromosomal assignment, of existing schistosome/platyhelminth genomes. PMID:22024648

Swain, Martin T.; Larkin, Denis M.; Caffrey, Conor R.; Davies, Stephen J.; Loukas, Alex; Skelly, Patrick J.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

2011-01-01

225

'Death and Axes': Unexpected Ca2+ Entry Phenologs Predict New Anti-schistosomal Agents  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic flatworm disease that infects 200 million people worldwide. The drug praziquantel (PZQ) is the mainstay therapy but the target of this drug remains ambiguous. While PZQ paralyses and kills parasitic schistosomes, in free-living planarians PZQ caused an unusual axis duplication during regeneration to yield two-headed animals. Here, we show that PZQ activation of a neuronal Ca2+ channel modulates opposing dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways to regulate ‘head’ structure formation. Surprisingly, compounds with efficacy for either bioaminergic network in planarians also displayed antischistosomal activity, and reciprocally, agents first identified as antischistocidal compounds caused bipolar regeneration in the planarian bioassay. These divergent outcomes (death versus axis duplication) result from the same Ca2+ entry mechanism, and comprise unexpected Ca2+ phenologs with meaningful predictive value. Surprisingly, basic research into axis patterning mechanisms provides an unexpected route for discovering novel antischistosomal agents. PMID:24586156

Chan, John D.; Agbedanu, Prince N.; Zamanian, Mostafa; Gruba, Sarah M.; Haynes, Christy L.; Day, Timothy A.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2014-01-01

226

'Death and axes': unexpected Ca²? entry phenologs predict new anti-schistosomal agents.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic flatworm disease that infects 200 million people worldwide. The drug praziquantel (PZQ) is the mainstay therapy but the target of this drug remains ambiguous. While PZQ paralyses and kills parasitic schistosomes, in free-living planarians PZQ caused an unusual axis duplication during regeneration to yield two-headed animals. Here, we show that PZQ activation of a neuronal Ca²? channel modulates opposing dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways to regulate 'head' structure formation. Surprisingly, compounds with efficacy for either bioaminergic network in planarians also displayed antischistosomal activity, and reciprocally, agents first identified as antischistocidal compounds caused bipolar regeneration in the planarian bioassay. These divergent outcomes (death versus axis duplication) result from the same Ca²? entry mechanism, and comprise unexpected Ca²? phenologs with meaningful predictive value. Surprisingly, basic research into axis patterning mechanisms provides an unexpected route for discovering novel antischistosomal agents. PMID:24586156

Chan, John D; Agbedanu, Prince N; Zamanian, Mostafa; Gruba, Sarah M; Haynes, Christy L; Day, Timothy A; Marchant, Jonathan S

2014-02-01

227

Phylogenetic relationships among turbellarian orders inferred from 18S rDNA sequences.  

PubMed

The turbellarian flatworm is a key group to understand the origin and the early evolution of triploblastic, bilaterally symmetrical animals, but phylogenetic relationships among turbellarian orders have been a subject of debates for decades, especially on the position of the acoel turbellarians. Some workers have considered the acoel representing the most primitive turbellarian order but others have regarded them as regressive. We determined almost the entire lengths of the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) in 17 species from 9 turbellarian orders (the Acoela, Catenulida, Macrostomida, Lecithoepitheliata, Rhabdocoela, Prolecithophora, Proseriata, Tricladida, and Polycladida). After adding the sequences of a cestode, two trematodes and some diploblastic animals obtained from databases, we reconstructed phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods. All trees significantly indicated that the Acoela is the earliest divergent group among the turbellarian orders. The trees also suggested that the Tricladida evolved in the separate lineage from that of a cluster of the Catenulida, Macrostomida, Lecithoepitheliata, Rhabdocoela, Polycladida, Trematoda and Cestoda after the divergence of the Acoela. PMID:9004556

Katayama, T; Nishioka, M; Yamamoto, M

1996-10-01

228

The cellular basis for animal regeneration.  

PubMed

The ability of animals to regenerate missing parts is a dramatic and poorly understood aspect of biology. The sources of new cells for these regenerative phenomena have been sought for decades. Recent advances involving cell fate tracking in complex tissues have shed new light on the cellular underpinnings of regeneration in Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, Xenopus, and Axolotl. Planarians accomplish regeneration with use of adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas several vertebrates utilize a collection of lineage-restricted progenitors from different tissues. Together, an array of cellular strategies-from pluripotent stem cells to tissue-specific stem cells and dedifferentiation-are utilized for regeneration. PMID:21763617

Tanaka, Elly M; Reddien, Peter W

2011-07-19

229

Evolution of monogenean parasites across vertebrate hosts illuminated by the phylogenetic position of Euzetrema Combes, 1965 within the Monopisthocotylea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monogenea, which is divided into two clades, namely the Monopisthocotylea and Polyopisthocotylea, is a highly diversified group of platyhelminth parasites that infest mainly actinopterygian and chondrichthyan fishes but also, to a lesser extent, freshwater sarcopterygian hosts. Euzetrema knoepffleri Combes, 1965 (Monogenea: Iagotrema- tidae), which is specific to the salamander Euproctus montanus Savi, 1838 is among the rare monopisthocotylean parasites

SOPHIE BENTZ; CLAUDE COMBES; LOUIS EUZET; JEAN-JACQUES RIUTORD; OLIVIER VERNEAU

2003-01-01

230

The Journal of Clinical Investigation http://www.jci.org Volume 118 Number 4 April 2008 Peter J. Hotez,1 Paul J. Brindley,1 Jeffrey M. Bethony,1 Charles H. King,2  

E-print Network

the flukes (also known as trematodes), such as the schistosomes, and the tape- worms­7), especially in China during the Cold War, when the schistosome was known as "the blood-fluke that saved lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis, whereas the platyhelminths (also known as flatworms) include

Davis, Richard E.

231

Elucidating the transcriptome of Fasciola hepatica — A key to fundamental and biotechnological discoveries for a neglected parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver flukes of animals are parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of major socioeconomic importance in many countries. Key representatives, such as Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, cause “liver fluke disease” (= fascioliasis), which is of major animal health significance worldwide. In particular, F. hepatica is a leading cause of production losses to the livestock (mainly sheep and cattle) and meat industries

Neil D. Young; Ross S. Hall; Aaron R. Jex; Cinzia Cantacessi; Robin B. Gasser

2010-01-01

232

Effect of gamma irradiation on different stages of Fasciola hepatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fascioliasis or hepatic distomatosis is one of the most widespread liver diseases throughout the world. It is caused by a parasitic worm of the class Trematoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. This flatworm is commonly known as liver-fluke in the United States and Europe; babosa del higado in Cuba; cucaracha del higado in Puerto Rico; saguaype in Argentina and Chile; pirihuin

J. L. Torres; J. Chiriboga

1976-01-01

233

The embryonic development of the bodywall and nervous system of the cestode flatworm Hymenolepis diminuta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cestodes (tapeworms) are a derived, parasitic clade of the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The cestode body wall represents an adaptation to its endoparasitic lifestyle. The epidermis forms a non-ciliated syncytium, and both muscular and nervous system are reduced. Morphological differences between cestodes and free-living flatworms become apparent already during early embryogenesis. Cestodes have a complex life cycle that begins with an

Volker Hartenstein; Malcolm Jones

2003-01-01

234

MARE/BIOL 264 INVERTEBRATE IDENTIFICATION LIST  

E-print Network

Zoanthus sp. ­ green mat zoanthid Phylum Platyhelminthes - flatworms Phylum Annelida Eurythoe complanata Octopus spp. - octopus Phylum Arthropoda Carpilius maculatus - 7-11 crab hermit crabs Panulirus marginatus encrustation's; Black, cream, occasional green. Fine structure: calices large (2-3 mm) and well separated

Wiegner, Tracy N.

235

ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 2001, 62, 761766 doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1797, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

in a platyhelminth. In a second experiment, we exposed planaria to combined cues of sunfish odour and planaria alarm cue, or sunfish odour alone. Planaria avoided the sunfish+alarm cue but did not avoid the sunfish odour, indicating no prior aversion to sunfish odour. When these same planaria were subsequently

Wisenden, Brian D.

236

Using parasites to infer host population history: a new rationale for parasite conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only one of the 5000 extant louse species (Phthiraptera) and no species of flea (Siphonaptera), parasitic helminth (Platyhelminthes), parasitic nematode (Nemata), mite, or tick (Acari) is listed as threatened by the IUCN, despite impassioned pleas for parasite conservation beginning more than a decade ago. Although they should be conserved for their own sake, past arguments, highlighting the intrinsic and utilitarian

Noah Kerness Whiteman; Patricia G. Parker

2005-01-01

237

To Be or Not to Be a Flatworm: The Acoel Controversy  

PubMed Central

Since first described, acoels were considered members of the flatworms (Platyhelminthes). However, no clear synapomorphies among the three large flatworm taxa - the Catenulida, the Acoelomorpha and the Rhabditophora - have been characterized to date. Molecular phylogenies, on the other hand, commonly positioned acoels separate from other flatworms. Accordingly, our own multi-locus phylogenetic analysis using 43 genes and 23 animal species places the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra at the base of all Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. By contrast, novel data on the distribution and proliferation of stem cells and the specific mode of epidermal replacement constitute a strong synapomorphy for the Acoela plus the major group of flatworms, the Rhabditophora. The expression of a piwi-like gene not only in gonadal, but also in adult somatic stem cells is another unique feature among bilaterians. These two independent stem-cell-related characters put the Acoela into the Platyhelminthes-Lophotrochozoa clade and account for the most parsimonious evolutionary explanation of epidermal cell renewal in the Bilateria. Most available multigene analyses produce conflicting results regarding the position of the acoels in the tree of life. Given these phylogenomic conflicts and the contradiction of developmental and morphological data with phylogenomic results, the monophyly of the phylum Platyhelminthes and the position of the Acoela remain unresolved. By these data, both the inclusion of Acoela within Platyhelminthes, and their separation from flatworms as basal bilaterians are well-supported alternatives. PMID:19430533

Arendt, Detlev; Borgonie, Gaetan; Funayama, Noriko; Gschwentner, Robert; Hartenstein, Volker; Hobmayer, Bert; Hooge, Matthew; Hrouda, Martina; Ishida, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Kuales, Georg; Nishimura, Osamu; Pfister, Daniela; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Smith, Julian; Technau, Ulrich; Tyler, Seth; Agata, Kiyokazu; Salzburger, Walter; Ladurner, Peter

2009-01-01

238

NOAA Technical Rep_o_rt_N_M_F_S_I_2_1 A_u..gu_s_t1_9_94 Marine Flora and Fauna of the  

E-print Network

NOAA Technical Rep_o_rt_N_M_F_S_I_2_1 A_u..gu_s_t1_9_94 Marine Flora and Fauna of the Eastern carries peer- reviewed, lengthy original research reports, taxonomic keys, species synopses, flora Bulletin Marine Flora and Fauna of the Eastern United States Platyhelminthes: Monogenea Sherman S. Hendrix

239

Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms  

PubMed Central

Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

2013-01-01

240

Then, in the early fifties, the World Health Organization  

E-print Network

that planarians appear to be "immortal under the edge of the knife". What is the smallest fragment that can regenerate a complete worm? According to T.H. Morgan, a lateral fragment 1/279th the size of the original worm. This corresponds to about 10,000 cells. If you consider that such a small fragment now has

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

241

Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. RESULTS: S. polychroa lives in allopatry or

Norbert Pongratz; Martin Storhas; Salvador Carranza; Nicolaas K Michiels

2003-01-01

242

Teratological research using in vitro systems. V. Nonmammalian model systems.  

PubMed Central

In this review of alternative tests to whole-animal rodent studies, the use of sub-mammalian and sub-vertebrate systems is investigated. The history, methodology, known limitations, end points, dose response, and requirements of virus, hydra, planarian, cricket, fish, amphibia, Drosophila, and chicken embryo systems are discussed. PMID:3113934

Collins, T F

1987-01-01

243

Early embryogenesis of planaria: a cryptic larva feeding on maternal resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early planarian embryo presents a complete ciliated epidermis and a pharynx and feeds on maternal yolk cells. In this paper, we report on all the elements involved in the formation of such an autonomous embryo, which we name cryptic larva. First, we provide a description of the spherical and fusiform yolk cells and their relationship with the blastomeres, from

Albert Cardona; Volker Hartenstein; Rafael Romero

2006-01-01

244

Fine structure of the protonephridial system in planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distal to the flame cells, the protonephridial tubules of fresh-water planarians are circumferentially composed of at least two cells attached by septate junctions; and may be divided, on the basis of morphological criteria, into three longitudinal regions. The cells of nonciliated ductules and ciliated collecting ducts appear to be absorbing material from the lumen; and a distinct proximal-distal polarity is

James A. McKanna

1968-01-01

245

Fine structure of the protonephridial system in planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flame cells of common fresh-water planarians are cyrtocytes similar in basic structure and function to the protonephridial end-organs in other phyla. They function as ultrafilters for intercellular fluid and are shaped like an elongate basket containing the ciliary flame. Thin regions of the basket wall are fenestrated by groups of parallel slits. The slits are 350 Å wide and

James A. McKanna; S A. MCKANNA

1968-01-01

246

New investigations on the reproductive biology of Planaria torva ( Müller )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new study on the reproductive biology ofPlanaria torva has evidenced a peculiar mechanism of cocoon hatching, which differs from that of other freshwater planarians. In fact, in\\u000a this species, cocoon fragmentation is not complete so that some juveniles may remain in the cocoon. The fertility of iteroparousP. torva is discussed.

Enrica Giannini Forli; Mario Benazzi

1995-01-01

247

Toxicity and behavioral effects of dimethylsulfoxide in planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we describe aspects of the toxicity and behavioral effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in planaria. Planarian worms have traditionally been a favored animal model in developmental biology. More recently, this organism is being recognized as an animal model in neuropharmacology research. DMSO is often used in cell and tissue culture as a cryoprotectant agent and is also commonly

Amanda L. Rowlands; Kimberly R. Urban

2006-01-01

248

The Amazing Worm: Planaria Background: We have been learning about the regenerative  

E-print Network

The Amazing Worm: Planaria Hysteria! Background: We have been learning about the regenerative. Materials: Planaria Petri Dishes Dissection Microscope Paper Towels Scalpel Squirt Bottle Spring Water planarian. Which dissection cuts do you think will result in new planaria? 5. Make a Data Table. Think about

Rose, Michael R.

249

Quantitative assessment of dopamine D2 antagonist activity using invertebrate ( Planaria) locomotion as a functional endpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Dopaminergic ligands, including drugs of abuse, modulate the locomotor activity of planarians and induce characteristic abnormal patterns of motility at high doses. It has been presumed that the effect is related to dopamine receptors based on ligand specificity and effects on second messenger levels. However, to date, the measured changes have been mostly qualitative in nature and it is

Robert B Raffa; Lauren J Holland; Robert J Schulingkamp

2001-01-01

250

Evolution of Developmental Control Mechanisms Long-range neural and gap junction protein-mediated cues control polarity during  

E-print Network

of stem cells to induce regeneration of specific large-scale structures would have far-mediated cues control polarity during planarian regeneration Néstor J. Oviedo a,1 , Junji Morokuma a , Peter junctions Neural signals Regeneration Polarity Planaria Having the ability to coordinate the behavior

Oviedo, Néstor J.

251

Smed454 dataset: unravelling the transcriptome of Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwater planarians are an attractive model for regeneration and stem cell research and have become a promising tool in the field of regenerative medicine. With the availability of a sequenced planarian genome, the recent application of modern genetic and high-throughput tools has resulted in revitalized interest in these animals, long known for their amazing regenerative capabilities, which enable them to regrow even a new head after decapitation. However, a detailed description of the planarian transcriptome is essential for future investigation into regenerative processes using planarians as a model system. Results In order to complement and improve existing gene annotations, we used a 454 pyrosequencing approach to analyze the transcriptome of the planarian species Schmidtea mediterranea Altogether, 598,435 454-sequencing reads, with an average length of 327 bp, were assembled together with the ~10,000 sequences of the S. mediterranea UniGene set using different similarity cutoffs. The assembly was then mapped onto the current genome data. Remarkably, our Smed454 dataset contains more than 3 million novel transcribed nucleotides sequenced for the first time. A descriptive analysis of planarian splice sites was conducted on those Smed454 contigs that mapped univocally to the current genome assembly. Sequence analysis allowed us to identify genes encoding putative proteins with defined structural properties, such as transmembrane domains. Moreover, we annotated the Smed454 dataset using Gene Ontology, and identified putative homologues of several gene families that may play a key role during regeneration, such as neurotransmitter and hormone receptors, homeobox-containing genes, and genes related to eye function. Conclusions We report the first planarian transcript dataset, Smed454, as an open resource tool that can be accessed via a web interface. Smed454 contains significant novel sequence information about most expressed genes of S. mediterranea. Analysis of the annotated data promises to contribute to identification of gene families poorly characterized at a functional level. The Smed454 transcriptome data will assist in the molecular characterization of S. mediterranea as a model organism, which will be useful to a broad scientific community. PMID:21194483

2010-01-01

252

[Symbionts of Mytilus edulis in the littoral and sublittoral zones of the Kandalaksha and Onega Gulfs of the White Sea].  

PubMed

Composition of the fauna of organisms associated with Mytilus edulis in the Kandalaksha and Onega Gulfs of the White Sea has been examined. The following 8 symbiotic species were revealed: Choricystis sp. (Chloro[hyceae), Peniculistoma mytili, Ancistrum mytili (Ciliata, Oligohymenophorea), Urastoma cyprinae, Paravortex sp. (Platyhelminthes, Rhabditophora), and metacercaria of Cercaria parvicaudata, Himasthla sp., and Gymnophallus sp. (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda). Besides, different free-living organisms were found in the mantle cavity; 6 species of nematodes, the planktonic copepod Microsetella norvegica, undetermined copepods, isopod Jaera sp., sea mites of the family Halacaridae, and chironomid larvae. Parameters of infestation and places of localization in the host are given for each group of organisms. Some regularities in the horizontal and vertical distribution of organisms associated with M. edulis are noted. PMID:23082497

Krapivin, V A

2012-01-01

253

THE URBILATERIAN BRAIN REVISITED: NOVEL INSIGHTS INTO OLD QUESTIONS FROM NEW FLATWORM CLADES  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Flatworms are classically considered to represent the simplest organizational form of all living bilaterians with a true central nervous system. Based on their simple body plans, all flatworms have been traditionally grouped together in a single phylum at the base of the bilaterians. Current molecular phylogenomic studies now split the flatworms into two widely separated clades, the acoelomorph flatworms and the platyhelminth flatworms, such that the last common ancestor of both clades corresponds to the urbilaterian ancestor of all bilaterian animals. Remarkably, recent comparative neuroanatomical analyses of acoelomorphs and platyhelminths show that both of these flatworm groups have complex anterior brains with surprisingly similar basic neuroarchitectures. Taken together, these findings imply that fundamental neuroanatomical features of the brain in the two separate flatworm groups are likely to be primitive and derived from the urbilaterian brain. PMID:23143292

Bailly, Xavier; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

2012-01-01

254

The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids (Bilateria incertae sedis)  

PubMed Central

Acoels are among the simplest worms and therefore have often been pivotal in discussions of the origin of the Bilateria. Initially thought primitive because of their “planula-like” morphology, including their lumenless digestive system, they were subsequently dismissed by many morphologists as a specialized clade of the Platyhelminthes. However, since molecular phylogenies placed them outside the Platyhelminthes and outside all other phyla at the base of the Bilateria, they became the focus of renewed debate and research. We review what is currently known of acoels, including information regarding their morphology, development, systematics, and phylogenetic relationships, and put some of these topics in a historical perspective to show how the application of new methods contributed to the progress in understanding these animals. Taking all available data into consideration, clear-cut conclusions cannot be made; however, in our view it becomes successively clearer that acoelomorphs are a “basal” but “divergent” branch of the Bilateria. PMID:24098090

Chiodin, Marta; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tyler, Seth

2012-01-01

255

Phylogenetic Relationships among Higher Nemertean (Nemertea) Taxa Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the phylogenetic relationships of 15 nemertean (phylum Nemertea) species from the four subclasses Hoplo-, Hetero-, Palaeo-, and Bdellonemertea with 18S rDNA sequence data. Three outgroup taxa were used for rooting: Annelida, Platyhelminthes, and Mollusca. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses supported the monophyletic status of the Heteronemertea and a taxon consisting of hoplonemerteans and Bdellonemertea, while indicating that Palaeonemertea is

Per Sundberg; J. M. Turbeville; Susanne Lindh

2001-01-01

256

Acute Toxicity of 4Nonylphenol to Aquatic Invertebrates in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute toxicity of 4-nonylphenol (NP) was examined in six freshwater species from three phyla – platyhelminthes, arthropoda\\u000a and mollusca. Values of the 48-hour LC50 of NP for six species ranged from 20 to 508 ug\\/L and values of the 96-hour LC50 for four species ranged from 120 to 457 ug\\/L. The most sensitive species tested was a water flea, Ceriodaphnia

L. Hong; M.-H. Li

2007-01-01

257

R5 Retrotransposons Insert into a Family of Infrequently Transcribed 28S rRNA Genes of Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small (100 bp) region of the 28S rRNA gene has been shown to serve as the target site for the insertion of non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons in both arthropods and nematodes. Here we characterize a lineage of non- LTR retrotransposons that inserts into this target site in the phylum Platyhelminthes. Dugesiid planaria contain elements, named R5, that insert

William D. Burke; Daljit Singh; Thomas H. Eickbush

2003-01-01

258

Neuroschistosomiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by digenetic trematode platyhelminths of the genus Schistosoma. Neuroschistosomiasis is one of the most severe clinical outcomes associated with schistosome infection. Neurological complications\\u000a early during the course of infection are thought to occur through in situ egg deposition following aberrant migration of adult\\u000a worms to the brain or spinal cord. The presence

Allen G. RossDonald; Donald P. McManus; Jeremy Farrar; Richard J. Hunstman; Darren J. Gray; Yue-Sheng Li

259

Phylogenetic analysis of the endoribonuclease Dicer family.  

PubMed

Dicers are proteins of the ribonuclease III family with the ability to process dsRNA, involved in regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Dicers are conserved from basal metazoans to higher metazoans and contain a number of functional domains that interact with dsRNA. The completed genome sequences of over 34 invertebrate species allowed us to systematically investigate Dicer genes over a diverse range of phyla. The majority of invertebrate Dicers clearly fell into the Dicer1 or Dicer2 subfamilies. Most nematodes possessed only one Dicer gene, a member of the Dicer1 subfamily, whereas two Dicer genes (Dicer1 and Dicer2) were present in all platyhelminths surveyed. Analysis of the key domains showed that a 5' pocket was conserved across members of the Dicer1 subfamily, with the exception of the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Interestingly, Nematostella vectensis DicerB grouped into Dicer2 subfamily harbored a 5' pocket, which is commonly present in Dicer1. Similarly, the 3' pocket was also found to be conserved in all Dicer proteins with the exceptions of Schmidtea mediterranea Dicer2 and Trichoplax adherens Dicer A. The loss of catalytic residues in the RNase III domain was noted in platyhelminths and cnidarians, and the 'ball' and 'socket' junction between two RNase III domains in platyhelminth Dicers was different from the canonical junction, suggesting the possibility of different conformations. The present data suggest that Dicers might have duplicated and diversified independently, and have evolved for various functions in invertebrates. PMID:24748168

Gao, Zeqian; Wang, Miao; Blair, David; Zheng, Yadong; Dou, Yongxi

2014-01-01

260

Elongation factor 1-alpha sequences do not support an early divergence of the Acoela.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of the Acoela is a key problem in the understanding of metazoan evolution. Recent studies based on 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences have placed the Acoela in an extremely basal position as the sister group to all other extant triploblastic animals, suggesting that the phylum Platyhelminthes is polyphyletic. In order to test the results obtained with 18S rDNA, we sequenced elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1a) for the acoel Convoluta roscoffensis and five species of Turbellaria (two polyclads, Leptoplana tremellaris, and Prostheceraeus vittatus, and three triclads, Crenobia alpina, Schmidtea polychroa, and Girardia tigrina). Phylogenetic analyses of EF1a sequences show that the acoel sequences branch within the Platyhelminthes, in opposition to the 18S rDNA data. Moreover, comparison of the central variable region of EF1a shows similar sequence signatures between C. roscoffensis and the three triclad species. Although EF1a sequences fail to prove the monophyly of the phylum Platyhelminthes, they do not confirm the early divergence of the Acoela. PMID:10889216

Berney, C; Pawlowski, J; Zaninetti, L

2000-07-01

261

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Endoribonuclease Dicer Family  

PubMed Central

Dicers are proteins of the ribonuclease III family with the ability to process dsRNA, involved in regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Dicers are conserved from basal metazoans to higher metazoans and contain a number of functional domains that interact with dsRNA. The completed genome sequences of over 34 invertebrate species allowed us to systematically investigate Dicer genes over a diverse range of phyla. The majority of invertebrate Dicers clearly fell into the Dicer1 or Dicer2 subfamilies. Most nematodes possessed only one Dicer gene, a member of the Dicer1 subfamily, whereas two Dicer genes (Dicer1 and Dicer2) were present in all platyhelminths surveyed. Analysis of the key domains showed that a 5? pocket was conserved across members of the Dicer1 subfamily, with the exception of the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Interestingly, Nematostella vectensis DicerB grouped into Dicer2 subfamily harbored a 5? pocket, which is commonly present in Dicer1. Similarly, the 3? pocket was also found to be conserved in all Dicer proteins with the exceptions of Schmidtea mediterranea Dicer2 and Trichoplax adherens Dicer A. The loss of catalytic residues in the RNase III domain was noted in platyhelminths and cnidarians, and the ‘ball’ and ‘socket’ junction between two RNase III domains in platyhelminth Dicers was different from the canonical junction, suggesting the possibility of different conformations. The present data suggest that Dicers might have duplicated and diversified independently, and have evolved for various functions in invertebrates. PMID:24748168

Gao, Zeqian; Wang, Miao; Blair, David; Zheng, Yadong; Dou, Yongxi

2014-01-01

262

A pumilio homolog in Polycelis sp.  

PubMed

Pumilio proteins (PUMs), members of the pumilio/fem-3 mRNA-binding factor (PUF) family, are eukaryote-specific RNA-binding proteins. We isolated a 2,048-basepair cDNA fragment of a pumilio homolog from the planarian flatworm Polycelis sp. This pumilio protein (PyPUM) contains a conserved pumilio homology domain (PUM-HD) consisting of eight repeats and two flanking half repeats. PyPUM shows high similarity to Dugesia japonica pumilio (DjPUM) from another planarian D. japonica, and their PUM-HD also shows high similarity to each other. Furthermore, our data showed that there is a flatworm-specific spacer between repeats 7 and 8. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PyPUM has a closer relationship to other PUM homologs from flatworms. These results provide a foundation for future functional studies of pumilio gene in Polycelis sp. PMID:24292205

Yuwen, Yanqing; Dong, Zimei; Si, Xiaohui; Chen, Guangwen

2014-02-01

263

Effects and molecular mechanisms of the biological action of weak and extremely weak magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of effects of weak combined (static and alternating) magnetic fields with an alternating component of tens and hundreds\\u000a nT at a collinear static field of 42 ?T, which is equivalent to the geomagnetic field, have been found: activation of fission\\u000a and regeneration of planarians Dugesia tigrina, inhibition of the growth of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice, stimulation

V. V. Novikov; V. O. Ponomarev; G. V. Novikov; V. V. Kuvichkin; E. V. Yablokova; E. E. Fesenko

2010-01-01

264

The bioeffects of extremely weak power-frequency alternating magnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a study of the influence of extremely-weak alternating magnetic fields (EW AMF) directed co-linearly\\u000a to the static Earth’s magnetic field on the rate of regeneration in planarians and also on the rate of gravitropic response\\u000a in the stem segments of flax. In particular we obtained the data on the dependence of the value of bioeffects

N. A. Belova; O. N. Ermakova; A. M. Ermakov; Z. Ye. Rojdestvenskaya; V. V. Lednev

2007-01-01

265

Weak influences of physical and chemical factors on the morphogenetic process (in Invertebrates)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis is presented of long-term data obtained in investigation of the effects of weak influences on morphogenetic processes\\u000a in invertebrates (regeneration of planarians Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina and postembryonic development of insects, the grain beetle Tenebrio molitor). Weak physical and chemical factors were used: electromagnetic radiation, constant, alternating, and combined magnetic fields,\\u000a and low concentrations of solutions of neuropeptides. It is

I. M. Sheiman; V. V. Novikov; N. D. Kreshchenko

2009-01-01

266

Towards a bioinformatics of patterning: a computational approach to understanding regulative morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary The mechanisms underlying the regenerative abilities of certain model species are of central importance to the basic understanding of pattern formation. Complex organisms such as planaria and salamanders exhibit an exceptional capacity to regenerate complete body regions and organs from amputated pieces. However, despite the outstanding bottom-up efforts of molecular biologists and bioinformatics focused at the level of gene sequence, no comprehensive mechanistic model exists that can account for more than one or two aspects of regeneration. The development of computational approaches that help scientists identify constructive models of pattern regulation is held back by the lack of both flexible morphological representations and a repository for the experimental procedures and their results (altered pattern formation). No formal representation or computational tools exist to efficiently store, search, or mine the available knowledge from regenerative experiments, inhibiting fundamental insights from this huge dataset. To overcome these problems, we present here a new class of ontology to encode formally and unambiguously a very wide range of possible morphologies, manipulations, and experiments. This formalism will pave the way for top-down approaches for the discovery of comprehensive models of regeneration. We chose the planarian regeneration dataset to illustrate a proof-of-principle of this novel bioinformatics of shape; we developed a software tool to facilitate the formalization and mining of the planarian experimental knowledge, and cured a database containing all of the experiments from the principal publications on planarian regeneration. These resources are freely available for the regeneration community and will readily assist researchers in identifying specific functional data in planarian experiments. More importantly, these applications illustrate the presented framework for formalizing knowledge about functional perturbations of morphogenesis, which is widely applicable to numerous model systems beyond regenerating planaria, and can be extended to many aspects of functional developmental, regenerative, and evolutionary biology. PMID:23429669

Lobo, Daniel; Malone, Taylor J.; Levin, Michael

2013-01-01

267

Cocaine and ?-opioid withdrawal in Planaria blocked by d-, but not l-, glucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala) that were exposed for 1 h to cocaine (80 ?M) or to the ?-selective opioid receptor agonist U-50,488H (1 ?M) displayed an abstinence-induced withdrawal syndrome, indicative of the development of physical dependence, when they were tested in cocaine- (or U-50,488H-) free water, but not when they were tested in cocaine- (or U-50,488H-) containing water. The withdrawal was

Sumiyo Umeda; Gregory W. Stagliano; Robert B. Raffa

2004-01-01

268

Cocaine withdrawal in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine-exposed planarians displayed abstinence-induced withdrawal behavior when placed into cocaine-free, but not cocaine-containing, water. The effect, manifested and quantified using a new spontaneous locomotor velocity metric, was dose-dependently related to cocaine exposure (8×10?9 to 8×10?5 M). Ultraviolet light (254 nm=7.83×10?19 J), which was previously shown to interfere with drug-receptor interactions in Planaria, enhanced the abstinence-induced decreased locomotor velocity.

Robert B Raffa; Joseph M Valdez

2001-01-01

269

Regulation of aquatic diptera by planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planarian,Dugesia dorotocephala (Woodworth) demonstrated a capacity to regulate two experimental host groups,Culex mosquitoes and chironomid midges, at low densities in south California. Inoculations in 1974 of 5 mature planaria\\/m2 of water surface in flood control settling basins produced 82.4%, 60.6% and 63.7% chironomid control in August, September\\u000a and October, respectively. Laboratory tests produced 86.7% larval kill in 24 hrs

Hyo-sok Yu; E. F. Legner

1976-01-01

270

Transcriptional pattern of a novel gene, expressed specifically after the point-of-no-return during sexualization, in planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated sexualization of asexual worms in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. During sexualization there is a point from which an animal cannot return to the asexual state (point-of-no-return). To isolate the genes related to the point-of-no-return, we performed differential screening and isolated one novel gene that was expressed specifically in yolk glands of the worms after the point-of-no-return and

Sumitaka Hase; Kazuya Kobayashi; Ryo Koyanagi; Motonori Hoshi; Midori Matsumoto

2003-01-01

271

Galantamine reverses scopolamine-induced behavioral alterations in Dugesia tigrina.  

PubMed

In planaria (Dugesia tigrina), scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist, induced distinct behaviors of attenuated motility and C-like hyperactivity. Planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV) displayed a dose-dependent negative correlation with scopolamine concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mM, and a further increase in scopolamine concentration to 2.25 mM did not further decrease pLMV. Planarian hyperactivity counts was dose-dependently increased following pretreatment with scopolamine concentrations from 0.001 to 0.5 mM and then decreased for scopolamine concentrations ?1 mM. Planarian learning and memory investigated using classical Pavlovian conditioning experiments demonstrated that scopolamine (1 mM) negatively influenced associative learning indicated by a significant decrease in % positive behaviors from 86 % (control) to 14 % (1 mM scopolamine) and similarly altered memory retention, which is indicated by a decrease in % positive behaviors from 69 % (control) to 27 % (1 mM scopolamine). Galantamine demonstrated a complex behavior in planarian motility experiments since co-application of low concentrations of galantamine (0.001 and 0.01 mM) protected planaria against 1 mM scopolamine-induced motility impairments; however, pLMV was significantly decreased when planaria were tested in the presence of 0.1 mM galantamine alone. Effects of co-treatment of scopolamine and galantamine on memory retention in planaria via classical Pavlovian conditioning experiments showed that galantamine (0.01 mM) partially reversed scopolamine (1 mM)-induced memory deficits in planaria as the % positive behaviors increased from 27 to 63 %. The results demonstrate, for the first time in planaria, scopolamine's effects in causing learning and memory impairments and galantamine's ability in reversing scopolamine-induced memory impairments. PMID:24402079

Ramakrishnan, Latha; Amatya, Christina; DeSaer, Cassie J; Dalhoff, Zachary; Eggerichs, Michael R

2014-09-01

272

Characterization and fine-structural localization of actin-and fibronectin-like proteins in planaria ( Dugesia lugubris s.l. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actin- and fibronectin-like proteins were characterized in the planarian, Dugesia lugubris s.l., by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis using antisera to vertebrate actin and fibronectin. These antisera recognized protein bands of 42 kDa and 220 kDa, respectively. In addition, the immunohistochemical distribution of both actin- and fibronectin-like material was examined by using immuno-electron microscopy. Actin-like protein

Rita Pascolini; Fausto Panara; Ines Di Rosa; Anna Fagotti; Sergio Lorvik

1992-01-01

273

Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP?R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology.  

PubMed

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP?Rs) are intracellular Ca²? channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca²? in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP?R, the first intracellular Ca²? channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP?R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP?R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP?R counterparts. Expression of an NH?-terminal Dj.IP?R region (amino acid residues 223-585) recovered high affinity ³H-IP? binding (0.9±0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP? coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP?R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP?R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP?R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D; Marchant, Jonathan S

2013-01-01

274

Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

275

Molecular and phylogenetic status of Fasciola sp., of cattle in Qena, Upper Egypt.  

PubMed

The species of liver fluke of the genus Fasciola (phylum platyhelminthes, order Digenea, Family Fasciolidae) are obligatory parasites that inhabit the large biliary ducts of herbivore animals as well as man. Reports on the species of Fasciola present in the Nile Delta, Egypt, appear controversial. In the current study a precise identification of Fasciola isolates from cattle in Qena province, Upper Egypt was done based on examination of the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI). Amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic examination revealed that the collected Fasciola isolates represent only one species which is Fasciola hepatica. PMID:24506000

Omar, Mosaab A; Metwally, Asmaa M; Sultan, Khaled

2013-08-01

276

Wnt Signaling in Axial Patterning and Regeneration: Lessons from Planaria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wnt signal transduction plays a crucial role in stem cell proliferation and regeneration. When canonical Wnt signaling is low, heads develop, and when it is high, tails are formed. In planarians, Wnt transcription is activated by wounding in a β-catenin−independent way. Hedgehog is one of the signals involved, because it induces regeneration of tails (instead of heads) through the activation of Wnt transcription. Depletion of Smad4 blocks regeneration entirely, which suggests that the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway and the Wnt pathway are required for regeneration and body patterning.

Edward M. De Robertis (Los Angeles;University of California REV)

2010-06-22

277

Put a tiger in your tank: the polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri as a proposed model for evo-devo  

PubMed Central

Polyclad flatworms are an early branching clade within the rhabditophoran Platyhelminthes. They provide an interesting system with which to explore the evolution of development within Platyhelminthes and amongst Spiralia (Lophotrochozoa). Unlike most other flatworms, polyclads undergo spiral cleavage (similar to that seen in some other spiralian taxa), they are the only free-living flatworms where development via a larval stage occurs, and they are the only flatworms in which embryos can be reared outside of their protective egg case, enabling embryonic manipulations. Past work has focused on comparing early cleavage patterns and larval anatomy between polyclads and other spiralians. We have selected Maritigrella crozieri, the tiger flatworm, as a suitable polyclad species for developmental studies, because it is abundant and large in size compared to other species. These characteristics have facilitated the generation of a transcriptome from embryonic and larval material and are enabling us to develop methods for gene expression analysis and immunofluorescence techniques. Here we give an overview of M. crozieri and its development, we highlight the advantages and current limitations of this animal as a potential evo-devo model and discuss current lines of research. PMID:24107307

2013-01-01

278

Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.  

PubMed

Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 ?M) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 ?M). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 ?M) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 ?M) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

2012-04-19

279

The characteristics of sox gene in Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

Sox genes play important roles in animal developmental processes, including embryogenesis, neural cell stemness, neurogenesis, sex determination, among others. Here, the full length sox gene in planarian Dugesia japonica, named DjsoxB, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that DjsoxB is highly conserved evolutionarily in metazoans. Whole-mount in situ hybridization found DjsoxB mRNA to be mainly expressed in the head, intestine and mouth in both sexually mature and immature planarians. Moreover, DjsoxB transcripts were detected in the blastema after amputation and throughout the head regeneration processes. The data from real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of DjsoxB were distinctly up-regulated from 3 to 7days after amputation. These results suggest that DjsoxB gene might be active in CNS formation and functional recovery during head regeneration, maintenance of adult CNS function and the development of other tissues (e.g. intestine) in D. japonica. PMID:24768739

Dong, Zimei; Shi, Changying; Zhang, Haixia; Dou, He; Cheng, Fangfang; Chen, Guangwen; Liu, Dezeng

2014-07-10

280

Selective amputation of the pharynx identifies a FoxA-dependent regeneration program in planaria.  

PubMed

Planarian flatworms regenerate every organ after amputation. Adult pluripotent stem cells drive this ability, but how injury activates and directs stem cells into the appropriate lineages is unclear. Here we describe a single-organ regeneration assay in which ejection of the planarian pharynx is selectively induced by brief exposure of animals to sodium azide. To identify genes required for pharynx regeneration, we performed an RNAi screen of 356 genes upregulated after amputation, using successful feeding as a proxy for regeneration. We found that knockdown of 20 genes caused a wide range of regeneration phenotypes and that RNAi of the forkhead transcription factor FoxA, which is expressed in a subpopulation of stem cells, specifically inhibited regrowth of the pharynx. Selective amputation of the pharynx therefore permits the identification of genes required for organ-specific regeneration and suggests an ancient function for FoxA-dependent transcriptional programs in driving regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02238.001. PMID:24737865

Adler, Carolyn E; Seidel, Chris W; McKinney, Sean A; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2014-01-01

281

Tissue absence initiates regeneration through Follistatin-mediated inhibition of Activin signaling.  

PubMed

Regeneration is widespread, but mechanisms that activate regeneration remain mysterious. Planarians are capable of whole-body regeneration and mount distinct molecular responses to wounds that result in tissue absence and those that do not. A major question is how these distinct responses are activated. We describe a follistatin homolog (Smed-follistatin) required for planarian regeneration. Smed-follistatin inhibition blocks responses to tissue absence but does not prevent normal tissue turnover. Two activin homologs (Smed-activin-1 and Smed-activin-2) are required for the Smed-follistatin phenotype. Finally, Smed-follistatin is wound-induced and expressed at higher levels following injuries that cause tissue absence. These data suggest that Smed-follistatin inhibits Smed-Activin proteins to trigger regeneration specifically following injuries involving tissue absence and identify a mechanism critical for regeneration initiation, a process important across the animal kingdom. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00247.001. PMID:24040508

Gaviño, Michael A; Wenemoser, Danielle; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

2013-01-01

282

Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp signaling.  

PubMed

Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051

Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

2014-05-19

283

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Stages: Implications for Parasite Biology and Host Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The cestode Echinococcus granulosus - the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide - is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated ?10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs) prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces), and pepsin/H+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i) a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep) that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs); (ii) an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii) highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv) candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v) a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi) a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. Conclusions/Significance This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the parasite genome and for further genomic and proteomic analyses focused on cestodes and platyhelminths. PMID:23209850

Parkinson, John; Wasmuth, James D.; Salinas, Gustavo; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Sanford, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Blaxter, Mark L.; Maizels, Rick M.; Fernandez, Cecilia

2012-01-01

284

Design of a flexible component gathering algorithm for converting cell-based models to graph representations for use in evolutionary search  

PubMed Central

Background The ability of science to produce experimental data has outpaced the ability to effectively visualize and integrate the data into a conceptual framework that can further higher order understanding. Multidimensional and shape-based observational data of regenerative biology presents a particularly daunting challenge in this regard. Large amounts of data are available in regenerative biology, but little progress has been made in understanding how organisms such as planaria robustly achieve and maintain body form. An example of this kind of data can be found in a new repository (PlanformDB) that encodes descriptions of planaria experiments and morphological outcomes using a graph formalism. Results We are developing a model discovery framework that uses a cell-based modeling platform combined with evolutionary search to automatically search for and identify plausible mechanisms for the biological behavior described in PlanformDB. To automate the evolutionary search we developed a way to compare the output of the modeling platform to the morphological descriptions stored in PlanformDB. We used a flexible connected component algorithm to create a graph representation of the virtual worm from the robust, cell-based simulation data. These graphs can then be validated and compared with target data from PlanformDB using the well-known graph-edit distance calculation, which provides a quantitative metric of similarity between graphs. The graph edit distance calculation was integrated into a fitness function that was able to guide automated searches for unbiased models of planarian regeneration. We present a cell-based model of planarian that can regenerate anatomical regions following bisection of the organism, and show that the automated model discovery framework is capable of searching for and finding models of planarian regeneration that match experimental data stored in PlanformDB. Conclusion The work presented here, including our algorithm for converting cell-based models into graphs for comparison with data stored in an external data repository, has made feasible the automated development, training, and validation of computational models using morphology-based data. This work is part of an ongoing project to automate the search process, which will greatly expand our ability to identify, consider, and test biological mechanisms in the field of regenerative biology. PMID:24917489

2014-01-01

285

Expression patterns of Abd-A/Lox4 in a monogenean parasite with alternative developmental paths.  

PubMed

A key issue in Evolutionary Developmental Biology is to assess the roles of homeotic genes in order to uncover the origins of animal diversity. Within parasitic platyhelminths which show a large diversity of developmental strategies, only one study related to the expression of Hox genes has so far been conducted involving a digenean species with a complex life cycle. In the present study, we considered the expression levels of the Pg-Lox4 gene within Polystoma gallieni of the Monogenea which displays alternative phenotypes throughout its direct life cycle, depending on the physiological stage of its amphibian host Hyla meridionalis upon which free swimming larvae attach. Dissimilar expression patterns were found along the two morphogenetic routes revealing a putative role of Pg-Lox4 in the process of developmental plasticity. Pg-Lox4 was also shown to be upregulated in both reproducing parasite phenotypes indicating its apparent involvement in tissue differentiation of the reproductive organs. PMID:20546802

Badets, Mathieu; Mitta, Guillaume; Galinier, Richard; Verneau, Olivier

2010-10-01

286

Malacological assessment and natural infestation of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848) by Schistosoma mansoni (Sambon, 1907) And Chaetogaster limnaei (K. Von Baer, 1827) in an urban eutrophic watershed.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to perform a malacological assessment at the Ibirité reservoir watershed in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais) and to evaluate the natural infestation rate of Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) by Schistosoma mansoni (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) and Chaetogaster limnaei (Oligochaeta: Naididae). The samples were collected from July to August 2002. The B. straminea individuals collected were kept in the laboratory; the natural infestation rate by S. mansoni and C. limnaei was assessed weekly. The malacological assessment identified five mollusk species present in the Ibirité reservoir watershed: B. straminea, Physa marmorata, Lymnea sp., Melanoides tuberculatus, and Pomacea austrum. Laboratory observations showed that the B. straminea individuals were infected by C. limnaei rather than S. mansoni. Although there was no infection of B. straminea by S. mansoni, presence of B. straminea in itself merits close attention due to possible risk of human schistosomiasis by the local population. PMID:16097724

Callisto, M; Moreno, P; Gonçalves, J F; Ferreira, W R; Gomes, C L Z

2005-05-01

287

Calcium channels of schistosomes: unresolved questions and unexpected answers  

PubMed Central

Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a highly prevalent, neglected tropical disease that causes significant morbidity in hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The current treatment of choice against schistosomiasis is praziquantel (PZQ), which is known to affect Ca2+ homeostasis in schistosomes, but which has an undefined molecular target and mode of action. PZQ is the only available antischistosomal drug in most parts of the world, making reports of PZQ resistance particularly troubling. Voltage-gated Ca2+ (Cav) channels have been proposed as possible targets for PZQ, and, given their central role in the neuromuscular system, may also serve as targets for new anthelmintic therapeutics. Indeed, ion channels constitute the majority of targets for current anthelmintics. Cav channel subunits from schistosomes and other platyhelminths have several unique properties that make them attractive as potential drug targets, and that could also provide insights into structure-function relationships in, and evolution of, Cav channels. PMID:22347719

Salvador-Recatala, Vicenta; Greenberg, Robert M.

2011-01-01

288

The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of development of the serotonergic nervous system is described from the larvae of ctenophores, platyhelminths, nemerteans, entoprocts, ectoprocts (bryozoans), molluscs, polychaetes, brachiopods, phoronids, echinoderms, enteropneusts and lampreys. The larval brain (apical ganglion) of spiralian protostomes (except nermerteans) generally has three serotonergic neurons and the lateral pair always innervates the ciliary band of the prototroch. In contrast, brachiopods, phoronids, echinoderms and enteropneusts have numerous serotonergic neurons in the apical ganglion from which the ciliary band is innervated. This pattern of development is much like the pattern seen in lamprey embryos and larvae, which leads the author to conclude that the serotonergic raphe system found in vertebrates originated in the larval brain of deuterostome invertebrates. Further, the neural tube of chordates appears to be derived, at least in part, from the ciliary band of deuterostome invertebrate larvae. The evidence shows no sign of a shift in the dorsal ventral orientation within the line leading to the chordates. PMID:10885511

Hay-Schmidt, A

2000-01-01

289

Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis. PMID:23959481

Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

2013-06-01

290

Replacement names for Eutrigaster (Graffia) Csuzdi & Zicsi, 1991 and Dichogaster (Malawia) Csuzdi, 2010 (Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae).  

PubMed

The earthworm genus Eutrigaster Cognetti, 1904 has long been in synonymy with Dichogaster Beddard, 1888 until Sims (1987) resurrected it for the Central American Dichogaster-like species possessing a muscular proventriculus in segment 5. Today the genus consists of some 50 species distributed in two subgenera (Csuzdi 2012). The subgenus Eutrigaster (Graffia) Csuzdi & Zicsi, 1991 was erected for species that differ from the type species of the genus in possessing penial setae. According to the summary by Fragoso & Brown (2007) the subgenus Graffia contained 27 taxa. Later, further three species were described (Sherlock et al. 2011; Sherlock & Csuzdi 2013). However, the subgenus name Graffia is a junior homonym of the turbellarian genus Graffia Levinsen, 1879. (A further junior homonym Graffia Ihering, 1880 (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria) has already been renamed as Graffilla Ihering, 1880). Here the replacement name Eutrigaster (Graffiona) nom. nov. is proposed for the earthworm subgenus Eutrigaster (Graffia). PMID:24943156

Csuzdi, Csaba

2014-01-01

291

Producing parasitic helminth reference and draft genomes at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.  

PubMed

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) is producing de novo reference quality genomes for parasitic helminth species from platyhelminth tapeworms (cestodes), flukes (trematodes) and roundworms (nematodes) primarily using second-generation (Illumina and 454) sequencing technologies. The reference genomes will be followed with draft coverage from a number of related strains or species. Comparing species- or strain-specific differences will help to unravel the genomic basis for differences in the organism's biology and ultimately contribute towards identifying potential novel targets for vaccine therapies. Second-generation sequencing technologies are revolutionizing parasite genomics. This article reviews the impact that sequencing technologies has had on genomics and how it has shaped the parasitic helminth genome sequencing initiative at WTSI. PMID:21707658

Holroyd, N; Sanchez-Flores, A

2012-01-01

292

The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The Orthonectida is a small, poorly known phylum of parasites of marine invertebrates. Their phylogenetic placement is obscure; they have been considered to be multicellular protozoans, primitive animals at a "mesozoan" grade of organization, or secondarily simplified flatworm-like organisms. The best known species in the phylum, Rhopalura ophiocomae, was collected on San Juan Island, Wash. and a complete 18S rDNA sequence was obtained. Using the models of minimum evolution and parsimony, phylogenetic analyses were undertaken and the results lend support to the following hypotheses about orthonectids: (1) orthonectids are more closely aligned with triploblastic metazoan taxa than with the protist or diploblastic metazoan taxa considered in this analysis; (2) orthonectids are not derived members of the phylum Platyhelminthes; and (3) orthonectids and rhombozoans are not each other's closest relatives, thus casting further doubt on the validity of the phylum Mesozoa previously used to encompass both groups. PMID:8896370

Hanelt, B; Van Schyndel, D; Adema, C M; Lewis, L A; Loker, E S

1996-11-01

293

Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes  

SciTech Connect

Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2005-10-01

294

[Retroperitoneal hydatidosis secondary to hepatic hydatid cyst].  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is a worldwide zoonosis. It is caused by a parasitic platyhelminth of the genus Echinococcus. We present a patient with a fluctuating lumbar tumor in the retroperitoneal space, secondary to a hepatic cyst. the initial diagnosis was made by identification of rostellar hooks from protoscoleces in the fluid aspirated from the abscess. We herein describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of this unusual case and conclude that the development of an accurate diagnosis requires a proper analysis of the patient's epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, imaging studies and laboratory tests. a multidisciplinary approach and differential diagnosis is paramount to be able to establish a cause of the disease to deliver appropriate treatment. PMID:23267626

Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Sosa, Sonia; Camicia, Federico; Santillán, Graciela; Casalins, María; Nigro, María Del Carmen

2012-01-01

295

Characterization of the stem cell system of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra  

PubMed Central

Background Tissue plasticity and a substantial regeneration capacity based on stem cells are the hallmark of several invertebrate groups such as sponges, cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. Traditionally, Acoela were seen as an early branching clade within the Platyhelminthes, but became recently positioned at the base of the Bilateria. However, little is known on how the stem cell system in this new phylum is organized. In this study, we wanted to examine if Acoela possess a neoblast-like stem cell system that is responsible for development, growth, homeostasis and regeneration. Results We established enduring laboratory cultures of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha) and implemented in situ hybridization and RNA interference (RNAi) for this species. We used BrdU labelling, morphology, ultrastructure and molecular tools to illuminate the morphology, distribution and plasticity of acoel stem cells under different developmental conditions. We demonstrate that neoblasts are the only proliferating cells which are solely mesodermally located within the organism. By means of in situ hybridisation and protein localisation we could demonstrate that the piwi-like gene ipiwi1 is expressed in testes, ovaries as well as in a subpopulation of somatic stem cells. In addition, we show that germ cell progenitors are present in freshly hatched worms, suggesting an embryonic formation of the germline. We identified a potent stem cell system that is responsible for development, homeostasis, regeneration and regrowth upon starvation. Conclusions We introduce the acoel Isodiametra pulchra as potential new model organism, suitable to address developmental questions in this understudied phylum. We show that neoblasts in I. pulchra are crucial for tissue homeostasis, development and regeneration. Notably, epidermal cells were found to be renewed exclusively from parenchymally located stem cells, a situation known only from rhabditophoran flatworms so far. For further comparison, it will be important to analyse the stem cell systems of other key-positioned understudied taxa. PMID:20017953

2009-01-01

296

Visualization and 3D Reconstruction of Flame Cells of Taenia solium (Cestoda)  

PubMed Central

Background Flame cells are the terminal cells of protonephridial systems, which are part of the excretory systems of invertebrates. Although the knowledge of their biological role is incomplete, there is a consensus that these cells perform excretion/secretion activities. It has been suggested that the flame cells participate in the maintenance of the osmotic environment that the cestodes require to live inside their hosts. In live Platyhelminthes, by light microscopy, the cells appear beating their flames rapidly and, at the ultrastructural, the cells have a large body enclosing a tuft of cilia. Few studies have been performed to define the localization of the cytoskeletal proteins of these cells, and it is unclear how these proteins are involved in cell function. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasites of two different developmental stages of T. solium were used: cysticerci recovered from naturally infected pigs and intestinal adults obtained from immunosuppressed and experimentally infected golden hamsters. Hamsters were fed viable cysticerci to recover adult parasites after one month of infection. In the present studies focusing on flame cells of cysticerci tissues was performed. Using several methods such as video, confocal and electron microscopy, in addition to computational analysis for reconstruction and modeling, we have provided a 3D visual rendition of the cytoskeletal architecture of Taenia solium flame cells. Conclusions/Significance We consider that visual representations of cells open a new way for understanding the role of these cells in the excretory systems of Platyhelminths. After reconstruction, the observation of high resolution 3D images allowed for virtual observation of the interior composition of cells. A combination of microscopic images, computational reconstructions and 3D modeling of cells appears to be useful for inferring the cellular dynamics of the flame cell cytoskeleton. PMID:21412407

Valverde-Islas, Laura E.; Arrangoiz, Esteban; Vega, Elio; Robert, Lilia; Villanueva, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Willms, Kaethe; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Ambrosio, Javier R.

2011-01-01

297

Opioid receptor types involved in the development of nicotine physical dependence in an invertebrate (Planaria) model.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest that opioid receptors are involved in the development of nicotine physical dependence in mammals. Evidence in support of a similar involvement in an invertebrate (Planaria) is presented using the selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and the more receptor subtype-selective antagonists CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2) (?, MOR), naltrindole (?, DOR), and nor-BNI (norbinaltorphimine) (?, KOR). Induction of physical dependence was achieved by 60-min pre-exposure of planarians to nicotine and was quantified by abstinence-induced withdrawal (reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity). Known MOR and DOR subtype-selective opioid receptor antagonists attenuated the withdrawal, as did the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but a KOR subtype-selective antagonist did not. An involvement of MOR and DOR, but not KOR, in the development of nicotine physical dependence or in abstinence-induced withdrawal was thus demonstrated in a sensitive and facile invertebrate model. PMID:24084318

Raffa, Robert B; Baron, Steve; Bhandal, Jaspreet S; Brown, Tevin; Song, Kevin; Tallarida, Christopher S; Rawls, Scott M

2013-11-01

298

Evolution of multicellular animals as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences: a possible early emergence of the Mesozoa.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a mesozoan Dicyema misakiense and three metazoan species, i.e., an acorn-worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a moss-animal Bugula neritina, and an octopus Octopus vulgaris have been determined. A phylogenic tree of multicellular animals has been constructed from 73 5S rRNA sequences available at present including those from the above four sequences. The tree suggests that the mesozoan is the most ancient multicellular animal identified so far, its emergence time being almost the same as that of flagellated or ciliated protozoans. The branching points of planarians and nematodes are a little later than that of the mesozoan but are clearly earlier than other metazoan groups including sponges and jellyfishes. Many metazoan groups seem to have diverged within a relatively short period. PMID:6539911

Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

1984-01-01

299

SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

Thomas, Michael A.; Schotz, Eva-Maria

2011-01-01

300

A common cellular basis for muscle regeneration in arthropods and vertebrates.  

PubMed

Many animals are able to regenerate amputated or damaged body parts, but it is unclear whether different taxa rely on similar strategies. Planarians and vertebrates use different strategies, based on pluripotent versus committed progenitor cells, respectively, to replace missing tissues. In most animals, however, we lack the experimental tools needed to determine the origin of regenerated tissues. Here, we present a genetically tractable model for limb regeneration, the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We demonstrate that regeneration in Parhyale involves lineage-committed progenitors, as in vertebrates. We discover Pax3/7-expressing muscle satellite cells, previously identified only in chordates, and show that these cells are a source of regenerating muscle in Parhyale. These similarities point to a common cellular basis of regeneration, dating back to the common ancestors of bilaterians. PMID:24385602

Konstantinides, Nikolaos; Averof, Michalis

2014-02-14

301

The DEAD-box helicase Vasa: evidence for a multiplicity of functions in RNA processes and developmental biology.  

PubMed

DEAD-box helicases related to the Drosophila protein Vasa (also known as Ddx4) are found throughout the animal kingdom. They have been linked to numerous processes in gametogenesis, germ cell specification, and stem cell biology, and alterations in Vasa expression are associated with malignancy of tumor cells and with some human male infertility syndromes. Experimental results indicating how Vasa contributes to all these different cellular and developmental processes are discussed, using examples from planarians, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, sea urchin, zebrafish, Xenopus, mouse, and human. Molecular, cellular, and developmental functions of Vasa and its orthologs are reviewed in this article. Evidence linking Vasa to translational regulation, to biogenesis of small RNAs, and to chromosome condensation is examined. Finally, potential overlapping functions between Vasa and related DEAD-box helicases (Belle, or Ddx3, and DEADSouth, or Ddx25) are explored. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The biology of RNA helicases - Modulation for life. PMID:23587717

Lasko, Paul

2013-08-01

302

Teratological Research Using In Vitro Systems. V. Nonmammalian Model Systems  

E-print Network

In this review of alternative tests to whole-animal rodent studies, the use of sub-mammalian and subvertebrate systems is investigated. The history, methodology, known limitations, end points, dose response, and requirements of virus, hydra, planarian, cricket, fish, amphibian, Drosophila, and chicken embryo systems are discussed. Preface Literature searches have been conducted on nonmammalian animal systems that have been proposed for use in screening potentially teratogenic compounds. Reference to work on viruses, hydra, planaria, crickets, Drosophila, fish, amphibians, and chick embryos were sought. The numbers of references found varied with each model system. Each model system has been reviewed independently. Information from published material has been summarized and relevant references have been cited. The lists of references should be considered extensive but not exhaustive. Most of the model systems proposed need further evaluation with known teratogens and nonteratogens.

Thomas F. X. Collins

303

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Yu, Qi; Li, Xiao-Tong; Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

304

Coevolution of Axon Guidance Molecule Slit and Its Receptor Robo  

PubMed Central

Coevolution is important for the maintenance of the interaction between a ligand and its receptor during evolution. The interaction between axon guidance molecule Slit and its receptor Robo is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the mechanism of coevolution between Slit and Robo remains unclear. In this study, we found that coordinated amino acid changes took place at interacting sites of Slit and Robo by comparing the amino acids at these sites among different organisms. In addition, the high level correlation between evolutionary rate of Slit and Robo was identified in vertebrates. Furthermore, the sites under positive selection of slit and robo were detected in the same lineage such as mosquito and teleost. Overall, our results provide evidence for the coevolution between Slit and Robo. PMID:24801615

Yu, Qi; Li, Xiao-Tong; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Xun-Li; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

305

Deep sequencing identifies regulated small RNAs in Dugesia japonica.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are 18 ~ 24 nucleotides length, play important roles in regulating the expression of gene at the post-transcription level. Dugesia japonica is a branch of planarian organism. It is a model organism for studying the role of miRNAs in stem cell function. Next generation sequencing technology was used to identify the miRNAs of D. japonica. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 262 miRNA and miRNA* sequences were discovered, of which 102 miRNAs were the same as Schmidtea mediterranea and 160 miRNAs were related to other animals. There were 21 miRNAs expressed differentially after amputation. Results also revealed that some key miRNAs might play essential roles in the regeneration progress and some miRNAs might take part in the regulation progress of polarity regeneration in D. japonica. PMID:23314792

Xu, Zhenbiao; Chen, Maoshan; Ren, Zhonggan; Zhang, Nian; Xu, Hanmei; Liu, Xiao; Tian, Geng; Song, Linxia; Yang, Huanming

2013-06-01

306

Coevolution of axon guidance molecule Slit and its receptor Robo.  

PubMed

Coevolution is important for the maintenance of the interaction between a ligand and its receptor during evolution. The interaction between axon guidance molecule Slit and its receptor Robo is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the mechanism of coevolution between Slit and Robo remains unclear. In this study, we found that coordinated amino acid changes took place at interacting sites of Slit and Robo by comparing the amino acids at these sites among different organisms. In addition, the high level correlation between evolutionary rate of Slit and Robo was identified in vertebrates. Furthermore, the sites under positive selection of slit and robo were detected in the same lineage such as mosquito and teleost. Overall, our results provide evidence for the coevolution between Slit and Robo. PMID:24801615

Yu, Qi; Li, Xiao-Tong; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Xun-Li; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

307

Early embryogenesis of planaria: a cryptic larva feeding on maternal resources.  

PubMed

The early planarian embryo presents a complete ciliated epidermis and a pharynx and feeds on maternal yolk cells. In this paper, we report on all the elements involved in the formation of such an autonomous embryo, which we name cryptic larva. First, we provide a description of the spherical and fusiform yolk cells and their relationship with the blastomeres, from the laying of the egg capsule up to their final fate in mid embryonic stages. Then, we describe the early cleavage and the subsequent development of the tissues of the cryptic larva, namely, the primary epidermis, the embryonic pharynx, and a new cell type, the star cells. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the cryptic larva either constitutes a vestigial larva or, more likely, is the evolutionary result of the competition between multiple embryos for the limited and shared maternal resources in the egg capsule. PMID:16932928

Cardona, Albert; Hartenstein, Volker; Romero, Rafael

2006-11-01

308

Evolutionarily Conserved Repulsive Guidance Role of Slit in the Silkworm Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Axon guidance molecule Slit is critical for the axon repulsion in neural tissues, which is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Slit in the silkworm Bombyx mori was unknown. Here we showed that the structure of Bombyx mori Slit (BmSlit) was different from that in most other species in its C-terminal sequence. BmSlit was localized in the midline glial cell, the neuropil, the tendon cell, the muscle and the silk gland and colocalized with BmRobo1 in the neuropil, the muscle and the silk gland. Knock-down of Bmslit by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in abnormal development of axons and muscles. Our results suggest that BmSlit has a repulsive role in axon guidance and muscle migration. Moreover, the localization of BmSlit in the silk gland argues for its important function in the development of the silk gland. PMID:25285792

Liu, Chun; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Mu, Zhi-Mei; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Qing-Xin

2014-01-01

309

What role do annelid neoblasts play? A comparison of the regeneration patterns in a neoblast-bearing and a neoblast-lacking enchytraeid oligochaete.  

PubMed

The term 'neoblast' was originally coined for a particular type of cell that had been observed during annelid regeneration, but is now used to describe the pluripotent/totipotent stem cells that are indispensable for planarian regeneration. Despite having the same name, however, planarian and annelid neoblasts are morphologically and functionally distinct, and many annelid species that lack neoblasts can nonetheless substantially regenerate. To further elucidate the functions of the annelid neoblasts, a comparison was made between the regeneration patterns of two enchytraeid oligochaetes, Enchytraeus japonensis and Enchytraeus buchholzi, which possess and lack neoblasts, respectively. In E. japonensis, which can reproduce asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration, neoblasts are present in all segments except for the eight anterior-most segments including the seven head-specific segments, and all body fragments containing neoblasts can regenerate a complete head and a complete tail, irrespective of the region of the body from which they were originally derived. In E. japonensis, therefore, no antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability exists in the trunk region. However, when amputation was carried out within the head region, where neoblasts are absent, the number of regenerated segments was found to be dependent on the level of amputation along the body axis. In E. buchholzi, which reproduces only sexually and lacks neoblasts in all segments, complete heads were never regenerated and incomplete (hypomeric) heads could be regenerated only from the anterior region of the body. Such an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability was observed for both the anterior and posterior regeneration in the whole body of E. buchholzi. These results indicate that the presence of neoblasts correlates with the absence of an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability along the body axis, and suggest that the annelid neoblasts are more essential for efficient asexual reproduction than for the regeneration of missing body parts. PMID:22615975

Myohara, Maroko

2012-01-01

310

Cell death: a program to regenerate.  

PubMed

Recent studies in Drosophila, Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, mice, indicate that cell death can open paths to regeneration in adult animals. Indeed injury can induce cell death, itself triggering regeneration following an immediate instructive mechanism, whereby the dying cells release signals that induce cellular responses over short and/or long-range distances. Cell death can also provoke a sustained derepressing response through the elimination of cells that suppress regeneration in homeostatic conditions. Whether common properties support what we name "regenerative cell death," is currently unclear. As key parameters, we review here the injury proapoptotic signals, the signals released by the dying cells, the cellular responses, and their respective timing. ROS appears as a common signal triggering cell death through MAPK and/or JNK pathway activation. But the modes of ROS production vary, from a brief pulse upon wounding, to repeated waves as observed in the zebrafish fin where ROS supports two peaks of cell death. Indeed regenerative cell death can be restricted to the injury phase, as in Hydra, Drosophila, or biphasic, immediate, and delayed, as in planarians and zebrafish. The dying cells release in a caspase-dependent manner a variety of signaling molecules, cytokines, growth factors, but also prostaglandins or ATP as recorded in Drosophila, Hydra, mice, and zebrafish, respectively. Interestingly, the ROS-producing cells often resist to cell death, implying a complex paracrine mode of signaling to launch regeneration, involving ROS-producing cells, ROS-sensing cells that release signaling molecules upon caspase activation, and effector cells that respond to these signals by proliferating, migrating, and/or differentiating. PMID:24512708

Vriz, Sophie; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

2014-01-01

311

What Role Do Annelid Neoblasts Play? A Comparison of the Regeneration Patterns in a Neoblast-Bearing and a Neoblast-Lacking Enchytraeid Oligochaete  

PubMed Central

The term ‘neoblast’ was originally coined for a particular type of cell that had been observed during annelid regeneration, but is now used to describe the pluripotent/totipotent stem cells that are indispensable for planarian regeneration. Despite having the same name, however, planarian and annelid neoblasts are morphologically and functionally distinct, and many annelid species that lack neoblasts can nonetheless substantially regenerate. To further elucidate the functions of the annelid neoblasts, a comparison was made between the regeneration patterns of two enchytraeid oligochaetes, Enchytraeus japonensis and Enchytraeus buchholzi, which possess and lack neoblasts, respectively. In E. japonensis, which can reproduce asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration, neoblasts are present in all segments except for the eight anterior-most segments including the seven head-specific segments, and all body fragments containing neoblasts can regenerate a complete head and a complete tail, irrespective of the region of the body from which they were originally derived. In E. japonensis, therefore, no antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability exists in the trunk region. However, when amputation was carried out within the head region, where neoblasts are absent, the number of regenerated segments was found to be dependent on the level of amputation along the body axis. In E. buchholzi, which reproduces only sexually and lacks neoblasts in all segments, complete heads were never regenerated and incomplete (hypomeric) heads could be regenerated only from the anterior region of the body. Such an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability was observed for both the anterior and posterior regeneration in the whole body of E. buchholzi. These results indicate that the presence of neoblasts correlates with the absence of an antero-posterior gradient of regeneration ability along the body axis, and suggest that the annelid neoblasts are more essential for efficient asexual reproduction than for the regeneration of missing body parts. PMID:22615975

Myohara, Maroko

2012-01-01

312

The invasive New Guinea flatworm Platydemus manokwari in France, the first record for Europe: time for action is now  

PubMed Central

Non-indigenous terrestrial flatworms (Platyhelminthes) have been recorded in thirteen European countries. They include Bipalium kewense and Dolichoplana striata that are largely restricted to hothouses and may be regarded as non-invasive species. In addition there are species from the southern hemisphere such as the invasive New Zealand flatworm Arthurdendyus triangulatus in the United Kingdom, Eire and the Faroe Islands, the Australian flatworm Australoplana sanguinea alba in Eire and the United Kingdom, and the Australian Blue Garden flatworm Caenoplana coerulea in France, Menorca and the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom has some twelve or more non-indigenous species most of which are Australian and New Zealand species. These species may move to an invasive stage when optimum environmental and other conditions occur, and the flatworms then have the potential to cause economic or environmental harm. In this paper, we report the identification (from morphology and molecular analysis of COI sequences) of non-indigenous terrestrial flatworms found in a hothouse in Caen (France) as the New Guinea flatworm Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp, 1963 (Platyhelminthes, Continenticola, Geoplanidae, Rhynchodeminae). Platydemus manokwari is among the “100 World’s Worst Invader Alien Species”. Lists of World geographic records, prey in the field and prey in laboratories of P. manokwari are provided. This species is considered a threat to native snails wherever it is introduced. The recent discovery of P. manokwari in France represents a significant extension of distribution of this Invasive Alien Species from the Indo-Pacific region to Europe. If it escaped the hothouse, the flatworm might survive winters and become established in temperate countries. The existence of this species in France requires an early warning of this incursion to State and European Union authorities, followed by the eradication of the flatworm in its locality, tightening of internal quarantine measures to prevent further spread of the flatworm to and from this site, identifying if possible the likely primary source of the flatworm, and tracing other possible incursions that may have resulted from accidental dispersal of plants and soil from the site. PMID:24688873

Winsor, Leigh; Gey, Delphine; Gros, Pierre; Thevenot, Jessica

2014-01-01

313

Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

2014-12-01

314

The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

2014-01-01

315

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated siRNA gene silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a 'mock' fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-07-01

316

The complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi reveals a unique transfer RNA set and provides further support for the ecdysozoa hypothesis.  

PubMed

Onychophora (velvet worms) play a crucial role in current discussions on position of arthropods. The ongoing Articulata/Ecdysozoa debate is in need of additional ground pattern characters for Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora). Hence, Onychophora is an important outgroup taxon in resolving the relationships among arthropods, irrespective of whether morphological or molecular data are used. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from onychophorans. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an onychophoran, Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae), which shows several characteristic features. Specifically, the gene order is considerably different from that in other arthropods and other bilaterians. In addition, there is a lack of 9 tRNA genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. All these missing tRNAs have anticodon sequences corresponding to 4-fold degenerate codons, whereas the persisting 13 tRNAs all have anticodons pairing with 2-fold degenerate codons. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provides a robust support for a clade consisting of Onychophora, Priapulida, and Arthropoda, which confirms the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. However, resolution of the internal ecdysozoan relationships suffers from a cluster of long-branching taxa (including Nematoda and Platyhelminthes) and a lack of data from Tardigrada and further nemathelminth taxa in addition to nematodes and priapulids. PMID:17934206

Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Mayer, Georg

2008-01-01

317

An Infectious Topic in Reticulate Evolution: Introgression and Hybridization in Animal Parasites  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been given to the role that introgression and hybridization have played in the evolution of parasites. Most studies are host-centric and ask if the hybrid of a free-living species is more or less susceptible to parasite infection. Here we focus on what is known about how introgression and hybridization have influenced the evolution of protozoan and helminth parasites of animals. There are reports of genome or gene introgression from distantly related taxa into apicomplexans and filarial nematodes. Most common are genetic based reports of potential hybridization among congeneric taxa, but in several cases, more work is needed to definitively conclude current hybridization. In the medically important Trypanosoma it is clear that some clonal lineages are the product of past hybridization events. Similarly, strong evidence exists for current hybridization in human helminths such as Schistosoma and Ascaris. There remain topics that warrant further examination such as the potential hybrid origin of polyploid platyhelminths. Furthermore, little work has investigated the phenotype or fitness, and even less the epidemiological significance of hybrid parasites. PMID:24710013

Detwiler, Jillian T.; Criscione, Charles D.

2010-01-01

318

The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms.  

PubMed

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the schistosomes Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma. spindale have been characterized. S. haematobium is the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis in humans and S. spindale uses ruminants as its definitive host; both are transmitted by freshwater snail intermediate hosts. Results confirm a major gene order rearrangement among schistosomes in all traditional Schistosoma species groups other than Schistosoma japonicum; i.e., species groups S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. indicum. These data lend support to the 'out of Asia' (East and Southeast Asia) hypothesis for Schistosoma. The gene order change involves translocation of atp6-nad2-trnA and a rearrangement of nad3-nad1 relative to other parasitic flatworm mt genomes so far sequenced. Gene order and tRNA secondary structure changes (loss and acquisition of the DHU and/or TPsiC arms of trnC, trnF, and trnR) between mitochondrial genomes of these and other (digenean and cestode) flatworms were inferred by character mapping onto a phylogeny estimated from nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences of these same species, in order to find additional rare genomic changes suitable as synapomorphies. Denser and wider taxon sampling of mt genomes across the Platyhelminthes will validate these putative characters. PMID:16464618

Littlewood, D Timothy J; Lockyer, Anne E; Webster, Bonnie L; Johnston, David A; Le, Thanh Hoa

2006-05-01

319

Isolation and characterization of species-specific DNA probes from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata and their use in an egg detection assay.  

PubMed Central

Cysticercosis results from ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. Reduction of the incidence of human and swine cysticercosis requires identification and treatment of individuals who carry the adult tapeworm. T. solium and Taenia saginata eggs cannot be differentiated on the basis of morphology; thus, in order to improve existing methods for the diagnosis of taeniasis, we have developed highly sensitive, species-specific DNA probes which differentiate T. solium and T. saginata. Recombinant clones containing repetitive DNA sequences which hybridize specifically with genomic DNAs from either species were isolated and characterized. T. solium-specific DNA sequences contained complete and truncated forms of a tandemly repeated 158-bp DNA sequence. An unrelated T. saginata DNA sequence was also characterized and shown to encode a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. T. solium- and T. saginata-specific DNA probes did not hybridize in dot blot assays either with genomic DNA from the platyhelminths Taenia hydatigena, Taenia pisiformis, Taenia taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistosoma mansoni or with genomic DNA from other eukaryotes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei, and Giardia lamblia, Caenorhabditis elegans, and human DNA. By using these T. solium and T. saginata DNA probes, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific dot blot assay for the detection of T. solium eggs was developed. PMID:7615742

Chapman, A; Vallejo, V; Mossie, K G; Ortiz, D; Agabian, N; Flisser, A

1995-01-01

320

Combined large and small subunit ribosomal RNA phylogenies support a basal position of the acoelomorph flatworms.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic position of the phylum Platyhelminthes has been re-evaluated in the past decade by analysis of diverse molecular datasets. The consensus is that the Rhabditophora + Catenulida, which includes most of the flatworm taxa, are not primitively simple basal bilaterians but are related to coelomate phyla such as molluscs. The status of two other groups of acoelomate worms, Acoela and Nemertodermatida, is less clear. Although many characteristics unite these two groups, initial molecular phylogenetic studies placed the Nemertodermatida within the Rhabditophora, but placed the Acoela at the base of the Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. This contradiction resulted in scepticism about the basal position of acoels and led to calls for further data. We have sequenced large subunit ribosomal RNA genes from 13 rhabditophorans + catenulids, three acoels and one nemertodermatid, tripling the available data. Our analyses strongly support a basal position of both acoels and nemertodermatids. Alternative hypotheses are significantly less well supported by the data. We conclude that the Nemertodermatida and Acoela are basal bilaterians and, owing to their unique body plan and embryogenesis, should be recognized as a separate phylum, the Acoelomorpha. PMID:12803898

Telford, Maximilian J; Lockyer, Anne E; Cartwright-Finch, Chloë; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2003-01-01

321

HelmCoP: An Online Resource for Helminth Functional Genomics and Drug and Vaccine Targets Prioritization  

PubMed Central

A vast majority of the burden from neglected tropical diseases result from helminth infections (nematodes and platyhelminthes). Parasitic helminthes infect over 2 billion, exerting a high collective burden that rivals high-mortality conditions such as AIDS or malaria, and cause devastation to crops and livestock. The challenges to improve control of parasitic helminth infections are multi-fold and no single category of approaches will meet them all. New information such as helminth genomics, functional genomics and proteomics coupled with innovative bioinformatic approaches provide fundamental molecular information about these parasites, accelerating both basic research as well as development of effective diagnostics, vaccines and new drugs. To facilitate such studies we have developed an online resource, HelmCoP (Helminth Control and Prevention), built by integrating functional, structural and comparative genomic data from plant, animal and human helminthes, to enable researchers to develop strategies for drug, vaccine and pesticide prioritization, while also providing a useful comparative genomics platform. HelmCoP encompasses genomic data from several hosts, including model organisms, along with a comprehensive suite of structural and functional annotations, to assist in comparative analyses and to study host-parasite interactions. The HelmCoP interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, allows users to search for multi-factorial combinations of properties and serves readily accessible information that will assist in the identification of various genes of interest. HelmCoP is publicly available at: http://www.nematode.net/helmcop.html. PMID:21760913

Taylor, Christina M.; Mitreva, Makedonka

2011-01-01

322

[Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].  

PubMed

In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations. PMID:25223021

Wang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Ang; He, Yuan-Hao; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Tan, Yi-Min; Zhou, Jie-Chen

2014-06-01

323

Discovering Echinococcus granulosus thioredoxin glutathione reductase inhibitors through site-specific dynamic combinatorial chemistry.  

PubMed

In this study, we report a strategy using dynamic combinatorial chemistry for targeting the thioredoxin (Trx)-reductase catalytic site on Trx glutathione reductase (TGR), a pyridine nucleotide thiol-disulfide oxido-reductase. We chose Echinococcus granulosus TGR since it is a bottleneck enzyme of platyhelminth parasites and a validated pharmacological target. A dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) was constructed based on thiol-disulfide reversible exchange. We demonstrate the use of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) as a non-covalent anchor fragment in a DCL templated by E. granulosus TGR. The heterodimer of TNB and bisthiazolidine (2af) was identified, upon library analysis by HPLC (IC50 = 24 ?M). Furthermore, 14 analogs were synthetically prepared and evaluated against TGR. This allowed the study of a structure-activity relationship and the identification of a disulfide TNB-tricyclic bisthiazolidine (2aj) as the best enzyme inhibitor in these series, with an IC50 = 24 ?M. Thus, our results validate the use of DCL for targeting thiol-disulfide oxido-reductases. PMID:24136658

Saiz, Cecilia; Castillo, Valerie; Fontán, Pablo; Bonilla, Mariana; Salinas, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Haralambides, Alejandra; Mahler, S Graciela

2014-02-01

324

Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis (Batsch, 1786) (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae), an intestinal parasite of Felis catus from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain).  

PubMed

The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of Taenia taeniaeformis are described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Materials were obtained from a naturally infected road-killed cat (Felis catus) from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It is characterised by the presence of (1) a single spirallised crested body about 140 nm thick, (2) a single axoneme of the 9+'1' pattern of trepaxonematan Platyhelminthes, (3) a twisted (40 degrees ) layer of submembranous cortical microtubules, (4) a periaxonemal sheath surrounding the axoneme, (5) transverse intracytoplasmic walls and (6) a spirallised nucleus encircling the axoneme. The mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis is also characterised by the presence of an apical cone in its anterior extremity and by the disorganisation of the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the mature spermatozoon of T. taeniaeformis are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on other representatives of the family Taeniidae. PMID:19205741

Miquel, Jordi; Foronda, Pilar; Torres, Jordi; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Feliu, Carlos

2009-06-01

325

New Perspectives on Host-Parasite Interplay by Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis remains a serious public health problem with an estimated 200 million people infected in 76 countries. Here we isolated ~ 8,400 potential protein-encoding cDNA contigs from Schistosoma japonicum after sequencing circa 84,000 expressed sequence tags. In tandem, we undertook a high-throughput proteomics approach to characterize the protein expression profiles of a number of developmental stages (cercariae, hepatic schistosomula, female and male adults, eggs, and miracidia) and tissues at the host-parasite interface (eggshell and tegument) by interrogating the protein database deduced from the contigs. Comparative analysis of these transcriptomic and proteomic data, the latter including 3,260 proteins with putative identities, revealed differential expression of genes among the various developmental stages and sexes of S. japonicum and localization of putative secretory and membrane antigens, enzymes, and other gene products on the adult tegument and eggshell, many of which displayed genetic polymorphisms. Numerous S. japonicum genes exhibited high levels of identity with those of their mammalian hosts, whereas many others appeared to be conserved only across the genus Schistosoma or Phylum Platyhelminthes. These findings are expected to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis and for the development of improved interventions for disease control and will facilitate a more fundamental understanding of schistosome biology, evolution, and the host-parasite interplay. PMID:16617374

Wang, Sheng-Yue; Cui, Shu-Jian; Chi, Ming; Yan, Qing; Wang, Xin-Rong; Song, Huai-Dong; Xu, Xue-Nian; Wang, Ju-Jun; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Qin; Xue, Chun-Liang; Brindley, Paul J; McManus, Donald P; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Feng, Zheng; Chen, Zhu; Han, Ze-Guang

2006-01-01

326

Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata  

PubMed Central

An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

2011-01-01

327

Anatomopathological study of parrot pufferfish Colomesus psittacus parasitized by the aspidogastrean Rohdella sp.  

PubMed

Aspidogastrea are globally-distributed parasites of the class Trematoda, which have been described as pathogens of a range of aquatic organisms, in marine and freshwater environments. The principal morphological characteristic of the group is an adhesive ventral disc, which is responsible for fixing the parasite to the host organism. In this study, 112 specimens of Colomesus psittacus from the municipality of Cametá, in the state of Pará (Brazil), were necropsied. Platyhelminthes of the genus Rohdella attached to the mucous membrane of the fish's intestine by the adhesive disc were observed. Fragments of parasitized tissue were fixed in Davidson solution and then processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Other fragments were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The prevalence of the parasite was 76.4%, mean intensity of infection was 8.0 and mean abundance was 6.2. The parasitism provoked chronic enteritis with diffused inflammatory infiltration. The adherence of the parasite to the mucous membrane of the intestine resulted in strangulation and hyperplasia of the region, as well as causing hypertrophy of the muscle of the mucous membrane. The present study describes the anatomopathological and ultrastructural aspects of the parasitism of the intestine of C. psittacus by Rohdella sp. PMID:24252951

Silva, Michele Velasco Oliveira da; Videira, Marcela Nunes; Tortelly, Rogério; Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de São; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Matos, Edilson Rodrigues

2013-01-01

328

Spiral cleavage and early embryology of a loxosomatid entoproct and the usefulness of spiralian apical cross patterns for phylogenetic inferences  

PubMed Central

Background Among the four major bilaterian clades, Deuterostomia, Acoelomorpha, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa, the latter shows an astonishing diversity of bodyplans. While the largest lophotrochozoan assemblage, the Spiralia, which at least comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Entoprocta, Platyhelminthes, and Nemertea, show a spiral cleavage pattern, Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida (the Lophophorata) cleave radially. Despite a vast amount of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, the interrelationships of lophotrochozoan phyla remain largely unresolved. Thereby, Entoprocta play a key role, because they have frequently been assigned to the Ectoprocta, despite their differently cleaving embryos. However, developmental data on entoprocts employing modern methods are virtually non-existent and the data available rely exclusively on sketch drawings, thus calling for thorough re-investigation. Results By applying fluorescence staining in combination with confocal microscopy and 3D-imaging techniques, we analyzed early embryonic development of a basal loxosomatid entoproct. We found that cleavage is asynchronous, equal, and spiral. An apical rosette, typical for most spiralian embryos, is formed. We also identified two cross-like cellular arrangements that bear similarities to both, a "molluscan-like" as well as an "annelid-like" cross, respectively. Conclusions A broad comparison of cleavage types and apical cross patterns across Lophotrochozoa shows high plasticity of these character sets and we therefore argue that these developmental traits should be treated and interpreted carefully when used for phylogenetic inferences. PMID:22458754

2012-01-01

329

Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Haplorchis taichui and Comparative Analysis with Other Trematodes  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial genomes have been extensively studied for phylogenetic purposes and to investigate intra- and interspecific genetic variations. In recent years, numerous groups have undertaken sequencing of platyhelminth mitochondrial genomes. Haplorchis taichui (family Heterophyidae) is a trematode that infects humans and animals mainly in Asia, including the Mekong River basin. We sequenced and determined the organization of the complete mitochondrial genome of H. taichui. The mitochondrial genome is 15,130 bp long, containing 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Like other trematodes, it does not encode the atp8 gene. All genes are transcribed from the same strand. The ATG initiation codon is used for 9 protein-coding genes, and GTG for the remaining 3 (nad1, nad4, and nad5). The mitochondrial genome of H. taichui has a single long non-coding region between trnE and trnG. H. taichui has evolved as being more closely related to Opisthorchiidae than other trematode groups with maximal support in the phylogenetic analysis. Our results could provide a resource for the comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of trematodes, and may yield genetic markers for molecular epidemiological investigations into intestinal flukes. PMID:24516279

Lee, Dongmin; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong

2013-01-01

330

Presence of galactosylated core fucose on N-glycans in the planaria Dugesia japonica  

PubMed Central

Planarial species are of especial interest to biologists due to the phenomenon of pluripotency and, in comparison to other developmental processes, it can be hypothesised that glycan–lectin interactions may play a role. In order to examine the N-glycans of one of these organisms, Dugesia japonica, peptide:N-glycosidase A was employed and the released glycans were subject to pyridylamination, HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis. A range of oligomannosidic glycans was observed with a trimethylated Man5GlcNAc2 structure being the dominant species. Three glycans were also observed to contain deoxyhexose; in particular, a glycan with the composition Hex4HexNAc2Fuc1Me2 was revealed by exoglycosidase digestion, in combination with MS/MS, to contain a galactosylated core ?1,6-fucose residue, whereas this core modification was found to be capped with a methylhexose residue in the case of a Hex5HexNAc2Fuc1Me3 structure. This is the first report of these types of structures in a platyhelminth and indicates that the ‘GalFuc’ modification of N-glycans is not just restricted to molluscs and nematodes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21630384

Paschinger, Katharina; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Furukawa, Kiyoshi; Wilson, Iain BH

2011-01-01

331

Meiofauna in sandy back-reef platforms differently exposed to the monsoons in the Maldives (Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maldives comprise some of the most characteristic and significant atoll systems, but the meiobenthic assemblages of these islands are still largely unknown. A study on meiofauna was conducted on three Maldivian sandy back-reef platforms differently exposed to stronger westerly monsoons. Clear high energy effects of the waves causing currents and erosions were observed at the completely exposed and isolated offshore reef of Thoddoo Island. Wave energy of medium intensity was confirmed at Rasdhoo by depositional structures ( finolhu), while a medium to low energy level was recorded at Gulhi on the basis of the presence of a low sandy bar. The meiofaunal assemblage counted 17 major taxa. Copepods and nematodes were dominant, followed by platyhelminthes and polychaetes. The nematode assemblage was rather rich and composed of 28 families and 84 genera. Desmodoridae were the most abundant family, followed by Draconematidae, Xyalidae, Epsilonematidae and Chromadoridae. The meiofauna resulted strongly affected by erosion effects, both in terms of abundance and richness, but we were not able to distinguish the two different sedimentation rates. Instead, the structure of the nematode community seemed to be more sensitive in distinguishing each type of hydrodynamic condition and energy level.

Semprucci, F.; Colantoni, P.; Sbrocca, C.; Baldelli, G.; Rocchi, M.; Balsamo, M.

2011-09-01

332

Schistosome Na,K-ATPase as a therapeutic target.  

PubMed

Na,K-ATPases are ubiquitous membrane-bound enzymes comprising ? and ? subunits. Here we clone a Na,K-ATPase ? homolog (designated SNaK1?) from the human parasitic platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni. The predicted protein is about 33 kDa, and contains a single transmembrane domain and multiple conserved motifs. SNaK1? and its previously cloned ?-subunit counterpart (SNaK1?) are both expressed throughout the schistosome life cycle. In adults, both subunits are detected in the tegumental membrane, likely functioning at the host-parasite interface in Na/K exchange. Both SNaK1 genes can be suppressed by RNAi using target-specific small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs), and this severely debilitates the parasites both in vitro and in vivo. However, treating schistosomiasis by delivering the siRNAs hydrodynamically to infected mice has no detectable impact on worms. Additionally, treating schistosome-infected mice with the Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, is ineffective. Nonetheless, since schistosomes are very susceptible to perturbation in SNaK1 expression, further work to identify other Na,K-ATPase inhibitors as anti-schistosome agents is warranted. PMID:23222953

Da'dara, Akram A; Faghiri, Zahra; Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Bhardwaj, Rita; Skelly, Patrick J

2013-02-01

333

Enhanced primers for amplification of DNA barcodes from a broad range of marine metazoans  

PubMed Central

Background Building reference libraries of DNA barcodes is relatively straightforward when specifically designed primers are available to amplify the COI-5P region from a relatively narrow taxonomic group (e.g. single class or single order). DNA barcoding marine communities have been comparatively harder to accomplish due to the broad taxonomic diversity and lack of consistently efficient primers. Although some of the so-called “universal” primers have been relatively successful, they still fail to amplify COI-5P of many marine animal groups, while displaying random success even among species within each group. Here we propose a new pair of primers designed to enhance amplification of the COI-5P region in a wide range of marine organisms. Results Amplification tests conducted on a wide range of marine animal taxa, rendered possible the first–time sequencing of DNA barcodes from eight separated phyla (Annelida, Arthropoda, Chordata, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Nemertea and Platyhelminthes), comprising a total of 14 classes, 28 orders, 57 families, 68 genus and 76 species. Conclusions These primers demonstrated to be highly cost-effective, which is of key importance for DNA barcoding procedures, such as for building comprehensive DNA barcode libraries of marine communities, where the processing of a large numbers of specimens from a wide variety of marine taxa is compulsory. PMID:24020880

2013-01-01

334

Parasitic incidence in a cyprinid fish Labeo rohita (Ham.) at river Song in Doon valley (Uttarakhand).  

PubMed

On examining 144 specimens of Labeo rohita (Ham.) for parasites occurrence; as many as 34 fish were found positive to harbour ciliophorans (Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifilis Fouquet, 1876), monogeneans (Haplocleidus vachi Tripathi, 1959 and Dactylogyrus glossogobii Jain, 1960), trematode (Allocreadium mahaseri Pandey, 1939), nematode (Camallanus (Zeylanema) anabantis Pearse, 1933) and acanthocephalan (Sachalinorhynchus sp). Highest prevalence was shown by platyhelminthes (18.75%) followed by ciliophorans (10.41%), nematode (4.16%) and acanthocephalan (2.77%) in succession. Maximum mean intensity and abundance has been shown by C. (Zeylanema) anabantis Pearse, 1933 while the monogenean H. vachi was on the 2nd rank. On the other hand, the least intensity and abundance was shown by Ichthyophthirius multifilis. The prevalence was recorded more in monsoon (52.77%) followed by post-monsoon (22.22%), summer (19.44%) and winter (8.33%) in succession. Further, the unit-wise intensity of parasites was recorded more in males than the females. PMID:23542706

Upadhyay, Jayti; Jauhari, R K; Pemola Devi, N

2012-04-01

335

Toward next-generation sequencing of mitochondrial genomes--focus on parasitic worms of animals and biotechnological implications.  

PubMed

Helminths (worms) include parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminths (flatworms). These worms are abundant, and many of them are of agricultural, aquacultural, veterinary and medical importance and cause substantial socioeconomic losses worldwide. The genetic characterization of parasitic nematodes using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis of infections and the control of parasitism. The accurate analysis of genetic variation also underpins studies of their taxonomy, epidemiology and evolutionary history. Although the nuclear genome contains suitable genetic markers (e.g., in ribosomal DNA) for the identification of many species, the large size and high variability of the mt genome consistently provides a rich source of such markers for informative systematic and epidemiological studies both within and among species. There is significant value in establishing a practical platform for the rapid sequencing, annotation and analysis of mt genomic datasets to underpin such fundamental and applied studies of parasitic worms (= helminths). In the last decade, there have been some important advances in the mt genomics of helminths, but next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies now provide opportunities for high throughput sequencing, assembly and annotation. In this article, we provide a background on mt genomics, cover technological challenges and recent advances, and provide a perspective on future mt genome research of parasitic helminths and its fundamental scientific and biotechnological implications. PMID:19913084

Jex, Aaron R; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Gasser, Robin B

2010-01-01

336

Presence of galactosylated core fucose on N-glycans in the planaria Dugesia japonica  

E-print Network

Planarial species are of especial interest to biologists due to the phenomenon of pluripotency and, in comparison to other developmental processes, it can be hypothesised that glycan–lectin interactions may play a role. In order to examine the N-glycans of one of these organisms, Dugesia japonica, peptide: N-glycosidase A was employed and the released glycans were subject to pyridylamination, HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis. A range of oligomannosidic glycans was observed with a trimethylated Man5GlcNAc2 structure being the dominant species. Three glycans were also observed to contain deoxyhexose; in particular, a glycan with the composition Hex4HexNAc2Fuc1Me2 was revealed by exoglycosidase digestion, in combination with MS/MS, to contain a galactosylated core ?1,6-fucose residue, whereas this core modification was found to be capped with a methylhexose residue in the case of a Hex5HexNAc2Fuc1Me3 structure. This is the first report of these types of structures in a platyhelminth and indicates that the ‘GalFuc ’ modification of N-glycans is not just restricted to molluscs and nematodes. Copyright c ? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article. Keywords: Gal?1,4Fuc epitope; planaria; N-glycan; methylhexose; mass spectrometry

Katharina Paschinger; A Ebrahim Razzazi-fazeli; B Kiyoshi Furukawa C; Iain B. H. Wilson A

2011-01-01

337

Mixed Infections and Hybridisation in Monogenean Parasites  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that sexual reproduction promotes disease invasion by increasing the evolutionary potential of the parasite, whereas asexual reproduction tends to enhance establishment success and population growth rate. Gyrodactylid monogeneans are ubiquitous ectoparasites of teleost fish, and the evolutionary success of the specious Gyrodactylus genus is thought to be partly due to their use of various modes of reproduction. Gyrodactylus turnbulli is a natural parasite of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small, tropical fish used as a model for behavioural, ecological and evolutionary studies. Using experimental infections and a recently developed microsatellite marker, we conclusively show that monogenean parasites reproduce sexually. Conservatively, we estimate that sexual recombination occurs and that between 3.7–10.9% of the parasites in our experimental crosses are hybrid genotypes with ancestors from different laboratory strains of G. turnbulli. We also provide evidence of hybrid vigour and/or inter-strain competition, which appeared to lead to a higher maximum parasite load in mixed infections. Finally, we demonstrate inbreeding avoidance for the first time in platyhelminths which may influence the distribution of parasites within a host and their subsequent exposure to the host's localized immune response. Combined reproductive modes and inbreeding avoidance may explain the extreme evolutionary diversification success of parasites such as Gyrodactylus, where host-parasite coevolution is punctuated by relatively frequent host switching. PMID:22808040

Schelkle, Bettina; Faria, Patricia J.; Johnson, Mireille B.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

2012-01-01

338

Parasite neuropeptide biology: Seeding rational drug target selection?  

PubMed Central

The rationale for identifying drug targets within helminth neuromuscular signalling systems is based on the premise that adequate nerve and muscle function is essential for many of the key behavioural determinants of helminth parasitism, including sensory perception/host location, invasion, locomotion/orientation, attachment, feeding and reproduction. This premise is validated by the tendency of current anthelmintics to act on classical neurotransmitter-gated ion channels present on helminth nerve and/or muscle, yielding therapeutic endpoints associated with paralysis and/or death. Supplementary to classical neurotransmitters, helminth nervous systems are peptide-rich and encompass associated biosynthetic and signal transduction components – putative drug targets that remain to be exploited by anthelmintic chemotherapy. At this time, no neuropeptide system-targeting lead compounds have been reported, and given that our basic knowledge of neuropeptide biology in parasitic helminths remains inadequate, the short-term prospects for such drugs remain poor. Here, we review current knowledge of neuropeptide signalling in Nematoda and Platyhelminthes, and highlight a suite of 19 protein families that yield deleterious phenotypes in helminth reverse genetics screens. We suggest that orthologues of some of these peptidergic signalling components represent appealing therapeutic targets in parasitic helminths. PMID:24533265

McVeigh, Paul; Atkinson, Louise; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela; Dalzell, Johnathan J.; Sluder, Ann; Hammerland, Lance; Maule, Aaron G.

2011-01-01

339

Lessons from parasitic flatworms about evolution and historical biogeography of their vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Cophylogenetic studies investigate the evolutionary trends within host-parasite associations. Examination of the different levels of fidelity between host and parasite phylogenies provides a powerful tool to inspect patterns and processes of parasite diversification over host evolution and geological times. Within the phylum Platyhelminthes, the monogeneans are mainly fish parasites. The Polystomatidae, however, are known from the sarcopterygian Australian lungfish and tetrapods such as amphibians, freshwater turtles, and the African hippopotamus. Cophylogenetic and biogeographic vicariance analyses, supplemented by molecular calibrations, showed that the Polystomatidae may track the evolutionary history of the first aquatic tetrapods in the Palaeozoic age. Evolutionary lines of the major polystome lineages would also be intimately related to the evolution of their hosts over hundreds of millions years. Since the Mesozoic, evolution of polystomes would have been shaped mainly by plate tectonics during the break-up of Gondwanaland and subsequent dispersal of ancestral neobatrachian host lineages. Therefore the Polystomatidae could serve as a novel model to improve cophylogenetic tools and to inspect a suite of questions about the evolution of vertebrate hosts. PMID:19281948

Verneau, Olivier; Du Preez, Louis; Badets, Mathieu

2009-01-01

340

Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea  

PubMed Central

Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others) and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others). Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms), which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events. PMID:19660126

Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Struck, Torsten H; von Dohren, Jorn; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

2009-01-01

341

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Strain-Specific and Conserved Stemness Genes in Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a powerful model organism for studying stem cell biology due to its extraordinary regenerative ability mediated by neoblasts, a population of adult somatic stem cells. Elucidation of the S. mediterranea transcriptome and the dynamics of transcript expression will increase our understanding of the gene regulatory programs that regulate stem cell function and differentiation. Here, we have used RNA-Seq to characterize the S. mediterranea transcriptome in sexual and asexual animals and in purified neoblast and differentiated cell populations. Our analysis identified many uncharacterized genes, transcripts, and alternatively spliced isoforms that are differentially expressed in a strain or cell type-specific manner. Transcriptome profiling of purified neoblasts and differentiated cells identified neoblast-enriched transcripts, many of which likely play important roles in regeneration and stem cell function. Strikingly, many of the neoblast-enriched genes are orthologs of genes whose expression is enriched in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that a core set of genes that regulate stem cell function are conserved across metazoan species. PMID:22496805

Lu, Yi-Chien; Horowitz, Michael; Graveley, Brenton R.

2012-01-01

342

In vivo comparison of harmine efficacy against psychostimulants: preferential inhibition of the cocaine response through a glutamatergic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Harmine is a ?-carboline compound that targets glutamatergic, monoaminergic, and GABAergic pathways underlying drug addiction. We compared the efficacy of harmine against different psychoactive drugs using an invertebrate (planarian) assay designed to quantify ‘C-shape’ responses. Harmine itself (0.01 – 10 µM) did not produce C-shapes. However, when applied over the same concentration range, harmine significantly inhibited C-shapes elicited by cocaine, with a concentration of 0.1 µM producing almost 90% inhibition. Consistent with its putative actions, harmine produced a similar, though less efficacious, inhibition of C-shapes elicited by the substituted amphetamines methamphetamine and mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) but was much less effective against nicotine. When tested in the presence of the glutamate transporter inhibitor dihydrokainate (DHK) (0.1, 1 µM), harmine (0.1 µM) efficacy against cocaine-induced C-shapes was significantly reduced. Harmine also attenuated C-shapes elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and by glutamate itself. The present data suggest that harmine displays preferential efficacy against different addictive substances (cocaine > amphetamines > nicotine) and, at least for cocaine, is dependent on the glutamate system. PMID:22877698

Owaisat, Suzan; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

2012-01-01

343

A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration.  

PubMed

A fundamental assumption of today's molecular genetics paradigm is that complex morphology emerges from the combined activity of low-level processes involving proteins and nucleic acids. An inherent characteristic of such nonlinear encodings is the difficulty of creating the genetic and epigenetic information that will produce a given self-assembling complex morphology. This 'inverse problem' is vital not only for understanding the evolution, development and regeneration of bodyplans, but also for synthetic biology efforts that seek to engineer biological shapes. Importantly, the regenerative mechanisms in deer antlers, planarian worms and fiddler crabs can solve an inverse problem: their target morphology can be altered specifically and stably by injuries in particular locations. Here, we discuss the class of models that use pre-specified morphological goal states and propose the existence of a linear encoding of the target morphology, making the inverse problem easy for these organisms to solve. Indeed, many model organisms such as Drosophila, hydra and Xenopus also develop according to nonlinear encodings producing linear encodings of their final morphologies. We propose the development of testable models of regeneration regulation that combine emergence with a top-down specification of shape by linear encodings of target morphology, driving transformative applications in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:24402915

Lobo, Daniel; Solano, Mauricio; Bubenik, George A; Levin, Michael

2014-03-01

344

RNA interference can target pre-mRNA: consequences for gene expression in a Caenorhabditis elegans operon.  

PubMed Central

In nematodes, flies, trypanosomes, and planarians, introduction of double-stranded RNA results in sequence-specific inactivation of gene function, a process termed RNA interference (RNAi). We demonstrate that RNAi against the Caenorhabditis elegans gene lir-1, which is part of the lir-1/lin-26 operon, induced phenotypes very different from a newly isolated lir-1 null mutation. Specifically, lir-1(RNAi) induced embryonic lethality reminiscent of moderately strong lin-26 alleles, whereas the lir-1 null mutant was viable. We show that the lir-1(RNAi) phenotypes resulted from a severe loss of lin-26 gene expression. In addition, we found that RNAi directed against lir-1 or lin-26 introns induced similar phenotypes, so we conclude that lir-1(RNAi) targets the lir-1/lin-26 pre-mRNA. This provides direct evidence that RNA interference can prevent gene expression by targeting nuclear transcripts. Our results highlight that caution may be necessary when interpreting RNA interference without the benefit of mutant alleles. PMID:10545456

Bosher, J M; Dufourcq, P; Sookhareea, S; Labouesse, M

1999-01-01

345

Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs—including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system—have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:20978240

Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

2010-01-01

346

Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.  

PubMed

Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. PMID:24440755

Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

2014-04-01

347

A linear-encoding model explains the variability of the target morphology in regeneration  

PubMed Central

A fundamental assumption of today's molecular genetics paradigm is that complex morphology emerges from the combined activity of low-level processes involving proteins and nucleic acids. An inherent characteristic of such nonlinear encodings is the difficulty of creating the genetic and epigenetic information that will produce a given self-assembling complex morphology. This ‘inverse problem’ is vital not only for understanding the evolution, development and regeneration of bodyplans, but also for synthetic biology efforts that seek to engineer biological shapes. Importantly, the regenerative mechanisms in deer antlers, planarian worms and fiddler crabs can solve an inverse problem: their target morphology can be altered specifically and stably by injuries in particular locations. Here, we discuss the class of models that use pre-specified morphological goal states and propose the existence of a linear encoding of the target morphology, making the inverse problem easy for these organisms to solve. Indeed, many model organisms such as Drosophila, hydra and Xenopus also develop according to nonlinear encodings producing linear encodings of their final morphologies. We propose the development of testable models of regeneration regulation that combine emergence with a top-down specification of shape by linear encodings of target morphology, driving transformative applications in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:24402915

Lobo, Daniel; Solano, Mauricio; Bubenik, George A.; Levin, Michael

2014-01-01

348

Functional genomic characterization of neoblast-like stem cells in larval Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Schistosomes infect hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. Transmission of these parasites relies on a stem cell-driven, clonal expansion of larvae inside a molluscan intermediate host. How this novel asexual reproductive strategy relates to current models of stem cell maintenance and germline specification is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that this proliferative larval cell population (germinal cells) shares some molecular signatures with stem cells from diverse organisms, in particular neoblasts of planarians (free-living relatives of schistosomes). We identify two distinct germinal cell lineages that differ in their proliferation kinetics and expression of a nanos ortholog. We show that a vasa/PL10 homolog is required for proliferation and maintenance of both populations, whereas argonaute2 and a fibroblast growth factor receptor-encoding gene are required only for nanos-negative cells. Our results suggest that an ancient stem cell-based developmental program may have enabled the evolution of the complex life cycle of parasitic flatworms. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00768.001. PMID:23908765

Wang, Bo; Collins, James J; Newmark, Phillip A

2013-01-01

349

Detection of rat lungworm in intermediate, definitive, and paratenic hosts obtained from environmental sources.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The geographical distribution of this disease has changed dramatically in the last few decades. Various methods have been used to detect A. cantonensis in host animals around the world. A survey of mollusks collected on the island of Hawa'i in 2005 using PCR showed an infection rate of 24-78% depending on the mollusk species. In this study, samples from intermediate, definitive, and paratenic hosts were analyzed to further determine the presence of A. cantonensis in the United States. All samples were from Hawa'i, except for the apple snails (Pomacea maculata) that were collected in New Orleans, Louisiana. Angiostrongylus cantonensis was detected in the majority of species examined, including the apple snails from New Orleans and flatworms (planarians) from Hawa'i. Among the mollusks examined, the semi-slug Parmarion martensi had the highest parasite load, with an average larval burden of 445 larvae in 25 mg of tissue, as estimated by real-time PCR. In contrast, slime excreted from these highly infected mollusks contained no or very little A. cantonensis DNA. Analysis of definitive hosts (Rattus spp.) showed discrepancies between morphological and PCR-based identification; 54% of the rats were positive based on morphology, while 100% of tissue samples from these animals were positive by real-time PCR. This indicates that necropsies of rodents could underestimate the infection rates in definitive hosts of A. cantonensis. PMID:23901387

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J

2013-06-01

350

Parthenolide Blocks Cocaine's Effect on Spontaneous Firing Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area.  

PubMed

Chronic cocaine administration leads to catecholamine reuptake inhibition which enhances reward and motivational behaviors. Ventral Tegmental Area dopaminergic (VTA DA) neuronal firing is associated with changes in reward predictive signals. Acute cocaine injections inhibit putative VTA DA cell firing in vertebrates. Parthenolide, a compound isolated from the feverfew plant (Tanacetum parthenium), has been shown to substantially inhibit cocaine's locomotion effects in a planarian animal model (Pagán et al., 2008). Here we investigated the effects of parthenolide on the spontaneous firing activity of putative VTA DA neurons in anesthetized male rats (250-300g). Single-unit recordings were analyzed after intravenous (i.v.) parthenolide administration followed by 1mg/kg i.v. cocaine injection. Results showed that parthenolide at 0.125 mg/kg and 0.250mg/kg significantly blocked cocaine's inhibitory effect on DA neuronal firing rate and bursting activity (p< 0.05, two way ANOVA). We propose that parthenolide might inhibit cocaine's effects on VTA DA neurons via its interaction with a common binding site at monoamine transporters. It is suggested that parthenolide could have a potential use as an overdose antidote or therapeutic agent to cocaine intoxication. PMID:21886554

Schwarz, David; Bloom, Damaris; Castro, Rocío; Pagán, Oné R; Jiménez-Rivera, C A

2011-03-01

351

The unique Morgue ubiquitination protein is conserved in a diverse but restricted set of invertebrates.  

PubMed

Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain where the active site cysteine is replaced by a glycine. Morgue also contains a single C4-type zinc finger motif. This architecture suggests potentially novel ubiquitination activities for Morgue. In this study, we address the evolutionary origins of this distinctive protein utilizing a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. We find that Morgue exhibits widespread but restricted phylogenetic distribution among metazoans. Morgue proteins were identified in a wide range of Protostome phyla, including Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Platyhelminthes. However, with one potential exception, Morgue was not detected in Deuterostomes, including Chordates, Hemichordates, or Echinoderms. Morgue was also not found in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, or Porifera. Characterization of Morgue sequences within specific animal lineages suggests that gene deletion or acquisition has occurred during divergence of nematodes and that at least one arachnid expresses an atypical form of Morgue consisting only of the variant E2 conjugase domain. Analysis of the organization of several morgue genes suggests that exon-shuffling events have contributed to the evolution of the Morgue protein. These results suggest that Morgue mediates conserved and distinctive ubiquitination functions in specific cell death pathways. PMID:19602541

Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W; Brennan, Gregory; Nambu, John R

2009-10-01

352

Phylogenetic Analyses and Characterization of RNase X25 from Drosophila melanogaster Suggest a Conserved Housekeeping Role and Additional Functions for RNase T2 Enzymes in Protostomes  

PubMed Central

Ribonucleases belonging to the RNase T2 family are enzymes associated with the secretory pathway that are almost absolutely conserved in all eukaryotes. Studies in plants and vertebrates suggest they have an important housekeeping function in rRNA recycling. However, little is known about this family of enzymes in protostomes. We characterized RNase X25, the only RNase T2 enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that RNase X25 is the major contributor of ribonuclease activity in flies as detected by in gel assays, and has an acidic pH preference. Gene expression analyses showed that the RNase X25 transcript is present in all adult tissues and developmental stages. RNase X25 expression is elevated in response to nutritional stresses; consistent with the hypothesis that this enzyme has a housekeeping role in recycling RNA. A correlation between induction of RNase X25 expression and autophagy was observed. Moreover, induction of gene expression was triggered by oxidative stress suggesting that RNase X25 may have additional roles in stress responses. Phylogenetic analyses of this family in protostomes showed that RNase T2 genes have undergone duplication events followed by divergence in several phyla, including the loss of catalytic residues, and suggest that RNase T2 proteins have acquired novel functions. Among those, it is likely that a role in host immunosuppression evolved independently in several groups, including parasitic Platyhelminthes and parasitoid wasps. The presence of only one RNase T2 gene in the D. melanogaster genome, without any other evident secretory RNase activity detected, makes this organism an ideal system to study the cellular functions of RNase T2 proteins associated with RNA recycling and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. On the other hand, the discovery of gene duplications in several protostome genomes also presents interesting new avenues to study additional biological functions of this ancient family of proteins. PMID:25133712

Ambrosio, Linda; Bailey, Ryan; Ding, Jian; MacIntosh, Gustavo C.

2014-01-01

353

Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.  

PubMed

Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family proteins contributed to the diversification of animal body organization. PMID:17940209

Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

2008-01-01

354

BIOFRAG - a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in a consistent and flexible database permits simple data retrieval for subsequent analyses. We present a relational database that links such field data to taxonomic nomenclature, spatial and temporal plot attributes, and environmental characteristics. Field assessments include measurements of the response(s) (e.g., presence, abundance, ground cover) of one or more species linked to plots in fragments within a partially forested landscape. The database currently holds 9830 unique species recorded in plots of 58 unique landscapes in six of eight realms: mammals 315, birds 1286, herptiles 460, insects 4521, spiders 204, other arthropods 85, gastropods 70, annelids 8, platyhelminthes 4, Onychophora 2, vascular plants 2112, nonvascular plants and lichens 320, and fungi 449. Three landscapes were sampled as long-term time series (>10 years). Seven hundred and eleven species are found in two or more landscapes. Consolidating the substantial amount of primary data available on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in the context of land-use change and natural disturbances is an essential part of understanding the effects of increasing anthropogenic pressures on land. The consistent format of this database facilitates testing of generalizations concerning biologic responses to fragmentation across diverse systems and taxa. It also allows the re-examination of existing datasets with alternative landscape metrics and robust statistical methods, for example, helping to address pseudo-replication problems. The database can thus help researchers in producing broad syntheses of the effects of land use. The database is dynamic and inclusive, and contributions from individual and large-scale data-collection efforts are welcome. PMID:24967073

Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S; Hanson, Thor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Heartsill Scalley, Tamara; Klingbeil, Brian T; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F; Leal, Inara R; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J; Medina-Rangel, Guido F; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A; Overal, William L; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P; Possingham, Max L; Raheem, Dinarzarde C; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D; Douglas Robinson, W; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C; Struebig, Matthew J; Tylianakis, Jason M; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J; Urbina Cardona, Jose N; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P; Bradley, Andrew V; Ewers, Robert M

2014-01-01

355

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2013-01-01

356

EST based phylogenomics of Syndermata questions monophyly of Eurotatoria  

PubMed Central

Background The metazoan taxon Syndermata comprising Rotifera (in the classical sense of Monogononta+Bdelloidea+Seisonidea) and Acanthocephala has raised several hypotheses connected to the phylogeny of these animal groups and the included subtaxa. While the monophyletic origin of Syndermata and Acanthocephala is well established based on morphological and molecular data, the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, the monophyletic origin of Monogononta, Bdelloidea, and Seisonidea and the acanthocephalan sister group are still a matter of debate. The comparison of the alternative hypotheses suggests that testing the phylogenetic validity of Eurotatoria (Monogononta+Bdelloidea) is the key to unravel the phylogenetic relations within Syndermata. The syndermatan phylogeny in turn is a prerequisite for reconstructing the evolution of the acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Results Here we present our results from a phylogenomic approach studying i) the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, ii) the monophyletic origin of monogononts and bdelloids and iii) the phylogenetic relations of the latter two taxa to acanthocephalans. For this analysis we have generated EST libraries of Pomphorhynchus laevis, Echinorhynchus truttae (Acanthocephala) and Brachionus plicatilis (Monogononta). By extending these data with database entries of B. plicatilis, Philodina roseola (Bdelloidea) and 25 additional metazoan species, we conducted phylogenetic reconstructions based on 79 ribosomal proteins using maximum likelihood and bayesian approaches. Our findings suggest that the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia is close to Platyhelminthes, that Eurotatoria are not monophyletic and that bdelloids are more closely related to acanthocephalans than monogononts. Conclusion Mapping morphological character evolution onto molecular phylogeny suggests the (partial or complete) reduction of the corona and the emergence of a retractable anterior end (rostrum, proboscis) before the separation of Acanthocephala. In particular, the evolution of a rostrum might have been a key event leading to the later evolution of the acanthocephalan endoparasitism, given the enormous relevance of the proboscis for anchoring of the adults to the definitive hosts' intestinal wall. PMID:19113997

2008-01-01

357

Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Expression Normalization in Echinococcus spp. Larval Stages  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (?TUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1?, ?ACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1? and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, ?ACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1? as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1? was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1? reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the Taenia genus. PMID:25014071

Espinola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

2014-01-01

358

The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

2013-01-01

359

Chromatin structural changes around satellite repeats on the female sex chromosome in Schistosoma mansoni and their possible role in sex chromosome emergence  

PubMed Central

Background In the leuphotrochozoan parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni, male individuals are homogametic (ZZ) whereas females are heterogametic (ZW). To elucidate the mechanisms that led to the emergence of sex chromosomes, we compared the genomic sequence and the chromatin structure of male and female individuals. As for many eukaryotes, the lower estimate for the repeat content is 40%, with an unknown proportion of domesticated repeats. We used massive sequencing to de novo assemble all repeats, and identify unambiguously Z-specific, W-specific and pseudoautosomal regions of the S. mansoni sex chromosomes. Results We show that 70 to 90% of S. mansoni W and Z are pseudoautosomal. No female-specific gene could be identified. Instead, the W-specific region is composed almost entirely of 36 satellite repeat families, of which 33 were previously unknown. Transcription and chromatin status of female-specific repeats are stage-specific: for those repeats that are transcribed, transcription is restricted to the larval stages lacking sexual dimorphism. In contrast, in the sexually dimorphic adult stage of the life cycle, no transcription occurs. In addition, the euchromatic character of histone modifications around the W-specific repeats decreases during the life cycle. Recombination repression occurs in this region even if homologous sequences are present on both the Z and W chromosomes. Conclusion Our study provides for the first time evidence for the hypothesis that, at least in organisms with a ZW type of sex chromosomes, repeat-induced chromatin structure changes could indeed be the initial event in sex chromosome emergence. PMID:22377319

2012-01-01

360

Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica from Mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. From Africa, F. gigantica has been previously characterized from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya, Zambia and Mali, while F. hepatica has been reported from Morocco and Tunisia, and both species have been observed from Ethiopia and Egypt on the basis of morphometric differences, while the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species. Samples identified morphologically as F. gigantica (n=60) from sheep and cattle from different geographical localities of Mauritania were genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes and the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) gene. Comparison of the sequences of the Mauritanian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. gigantica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA of F. gigantica showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all samples examined and those from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Egypt and Iran. The phylogenetic trees based on the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Mauritanian samples with isolates of F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. The COI genotypes of the Mauritanian specimens of F. gigantica had a high level of diversity, and they belonged to the F. gigantica phylogenically distinguishable clade. The present study is the first molecular characterization of F. gigantica in sheep and cattle from Mauritania, allowing a reliable approach for the genetic differentiation of Fasciola spp. and providing basis for further studies on liver flukes in the African countries. PMID:21763690

Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Salem, Mohamed; Lamine, Dia Mamadou; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

2011-10-01

361

RNA-Seq Reveals Infection-Induced Gene Expression Changes in the Snail Intermediate Host of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. Conclusions/Significance The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of other platyhelminths including schistosomes. PMID:24676090

Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Sotillo, Javier; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Nolan, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

362

Ultrastructure of the ovary of Amphilina japonica Goto & Ishii, 1936 (Cestoda) and its implications for phylogenetic studies.  

PubMed

The ultrastructure of the ovary of the amphilinidean cestode Amphilina japonica Goto & Ishii, 1936 from the body-cavity of the American sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus Richardson is described using transmission electron microscopy. The characters of the ovary of Amphilina japonica are different from those of all other cestodes. The most important difference is in the nature of the relationship between the germ and accessory cells within the ovary. In A. japonica the oocytes and accessory cells form numerous different intercellular contacts (desmosome-like junctions and zonulae adherentes). Gap junctions are present between the narrow cytoplasmic processes of the accessory cells. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles and vacuoles from the accessory cells discharge their content into spaces between the oocytes and the accessory cells. The accessory cells are closely associated with the oocytes during the early and middle stages of oogenesis. As the volume of oocytes increases, the accessory cells gradually lose their association with the oocyte surfaces. Peripherally located individual accessory cells of A. japonica give rise to a cellular epithelial layer of irregular shape and thickness which breaks down via numerous invaginations of the basal membrane and underlying basal matrix. The different arrangements of the interconnection of cell components in the Amphilinidea compared with the Gyrocotylidea and Eucestoda (the absence of specialised cell contacts and the syncytial nature of the accessory 'interstitial' cells) are evidence suggesting the presence of unrelated groups within the Cestoda. The nature of the association of the accessory and germ cells in ovary of A. japonica more closely resembles the ovary of non-platyhelminth invertebrates rather than that of other neodermatans. PMID:20960088

Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Xylander, Willi E R

2010-11-01

363

Towards an Understanding of Mesocestoides vogae Fatty Acid Binding Proteins' Roles  

PubMed Central

Two fatty acid binding proteins, MvFABPa and MvFABPb were identified in the parasite Mesocestoides vogae (Platyhelmithes, Cestoda). Fatty acid binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity. Proteins of this family have been identified in many organisms, of which Platyhelminthes are among the most primitive. These proteins have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo synthesis of fatty acids is absent. Fatty acids should be captured from the media needing an efficient transport system to uptake and distribute these molecules. While HLBPs could be involved in the shuttle of fatty acids to the surrounding host tissues and convey them into the parasite, FABPs could be responsible for the intracellular trafficking. In an effort to understand the role of MvFABPs in fatty acid transport of M. vogae larvae, we analysed the intracellular localization of both MvFABPs and the co-localization with in vivo uptake of fatty acid analogue BODIPY FL C16. Immunohistochemical studies on larvae sections using specific antibodies, showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of each protein with some expression in nuclei and mitochondria. MvFABPs distribution was confirmed by mass spectrometry identification from 2D-electrophoresis of larvae subcellular fractions. This work is the first report showing intracellular distribution of MvFABPs as well as the co-localization of these proteins with the BODIPY FL C16 incorporated from the media. Our results suggest that fatty acid binding proteins could target fatty acids to cellular compartments including nuclei. In this sense, M. vogae FABPs could participate in several cellular processes fulfilling most of the functions attributed to vertebrate’s counterparts. PMID:25347286

Alvite, Gabriela; Garrido, Natalia; Kun, Alejandra; Paulino, Margot; Esteves, Adriana

2014-01-01

364

Patterns of Diversity in Soft-Bodied Meiofauna: Dispersal Ability and Body Size Matter  

PubMed Central

Background Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups. Methodology/Principal Findings As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tjärnö (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat. Conclusion/Significance Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37%) highlights that the census of marine meiofauna is still very far from being complete. PMID:22457790

Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina; De Smet, Willem H.; Fontaneto, Diego; Jondelius, Ulf; Leasi, Francesca; Martinez, Alejandro; Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Nilsson, Karin Sara; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Worsaae, Katrine; Todaro, M. Antonio

2012-01-01

365

Genomic linkage map of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosoma mansoni is a blood fluke that infects approximately 90 million people. The complete life cycle of this parasite can be maintained in the laboratory, making this one of the few experimentally tractable human helminth infections, and a rich literature reveals heritable variation in important biomedical traits such as virulence, host-specificity, transmission and drug resistance. However, there is a current lack of tools needed to study S. mansoni's molecular, quantitative, and population genetics. Our goal was to construct a genetic linkage map for S. mansoni, and thus provide a new resource that will help stimulate research on this neglected pathogen. Results We genotyped grandparents, parents and 88 progeny to construct a 5.6 cM linkage map containing 243 microsatellites positioned on 203 of the largest scaffolds in the genome sequence. The map allows 70% of the estimated 300 Mb genome to be ordered on chromosomes, and highlights where scaffolds have been incorrectly assembled. The markers fall into eight main linkage groups, consistent with seven pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes, and we were able to anchor linkage groups to chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The genome measures 1,228.6 cM. Marker segregation reveals higher female recombination, confirms ZW inheritance patterns, and identifies recombination hotspots and regions of segregation distortion. Conclusions The genetic linkage map presented here is the first for S. mansoni and the first for a species in the phylum Platyhelminthes. The map provides the critical tool necessary for quantitative genetic analysis, aids genome assembly, and furnishes a framework for comparative flatworm genomics and field-based molecular epidemiological studies. PMID:19566921

Criscione, Charles D; Valentim, Claudia LL; Hirai, Hirohisa; LoVerde, Philip T; Anderson, Timothy JC

2009-01-01

366

Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the larval tetraphyllideans and trypanorhynchs lacking evaginated tentacles and other key diagnostic features.

Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

2013-12-01

367

doi:10.4061/2011/623095 Review Article tRNA Modification and Genetic Code Variations in Animal Mitochondria  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2011 K. Watanabe and S.-i. Yokobori. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In animal mitochondria, six codons have been known as nonuniversal genetic codes, which vary in the course of animal evolution. They are UGA (termination codon in the universal genetic code changes to Trp codon in all animal mitochondria), AUA (Ile to Met in most metazoan mitochondria), AAA (Lys to Asn in echinoderm and some platyhelminth mitochondria), AGA/AGG (Arg to Ser in most invertebrate, Arg to Gly in tunicate, and Arg to termination in vertebrate mitochondria), and UAA (termination to Tyr in a planaria and a nematode mitochondria, but conclusive evidence is lacking in this case). We have elucidated that the anticodons of tRNAs deciphering these nonuniversal codons (tRNA Trp for UGA, tRNA Met for AUA, tRNA Asn for AAA, and tRNA Ser and tRNA Gly for AGA/AGG) are all modified; tRNA Trp has 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluridine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNA Met has 5-formylcytidine or 5-taurinomethyluridine, tRNA Ser has 7-methylguanosine and tRNA Gly has 5-taurinomethyluridine in their anticodon wobble position, and tRNA Asn has pseudouridine in the anticodon second position. This review aims to clarify the structural relationship between these nonuniversal codons and the corresponding tRNA anticodons including modified nucleosides and to speculate on the possible mechanisms for explaining the evolutional changes of these nonuniversal codons in the course of animal evolution. 1.

Kimitsuna Watanabe; Shin-ichi Yokobori

2011-01-01

368

Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance  

PubMed Central

The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23071694

Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2012-01-01

369

Recent evidence for evolution of the genetic code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The genetic code, formerly thought to be frozen, is now known to be in a state of evolution. This was first shown in 1979 by Barrell et al. (G. Barrell, A. T. Bankier, and J. Drouin, Nature [London] 282:189-194, 1979), who found that the universal codons AUA (isoleucine) and UGA (stop) coded for methionine and tryptophan, respectively, in human mitochondria. Subsequent studies have shown that UGA codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma spp. and in all nonplant mitochondria that have been examined. Universal stop codons UAA and UAG code for glutamine in ciliated protozoa (except Euplotes octacarinatus) and in a green alga, Acetabularia. E. octacarinatus uses UAA for stop and UGA for cysteine. Candida species, which are yeasts, use CUG (leucine) for serine. Other departures from the universal code, all in nonplant mitochondria, are CUN (leucine) for threonine (in yeasts), AAA (lysine) for asparagine (in platyhelminths and echinoderms), UAA (stop) for tyrosine (in planaria), and AGR (arginine) for serine (in several animal orders) and for stop (in vertebrates). We propose that the changes are typically preceded by loss of a codon from all coding sequences in an organism or organelle, often as a result of directional mutation pressure, accompanied by loss of the tRNA that translates the codon. The codon reappears later by conversion of another codon and emergence of a tRNA that translates the reappeared codon with a different assignment. Changes in release factors also contribute to these revised assignments. We also discuss the use of UGA (stop) as a selenocysteine codon and the early history of the code.

Osawa, S.; Jukes, T. H.; Watanabe, K.; Muto, A.

1992-01-01

370

Recent evidence for evolution of the genetic code.  

PubMed Central

The genetic code, formerly thought to be frozen, is now known to be in a state of evolution. This was first shown in 1979 by Barrell et al. (G. Barrell, A. T. Bankier, and J. Drouin, Nature [London] 282:189-194, 1979), who found that the universal codons AUA (isoleucine) and UGA (stop) coded for methionine and tryptophan, respectively, in human mitochondria. Subsequent studies have shown that UGA codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma spp. and in all nonplant mitochondria that have been examined. Universal stop codons UAA and UAG code for glutamine in ciliated protozoa (except Euplotes octacarinatus) and in a green alga, Acetabularia. E. octacarinatus uses UAA for stop and UGA for cysteine. Candida species, which are yeasts, use CUG (leucine) for serine. Other departures from the universal code, all in nonplant mitochondria, are CUN (leucine) for threonine (in yeasts), AAA (lysine) for asparagine (in platyhelminths and echinoderms), UAA (stop) for tyrosine (in planaria), and AGR (arginine) for serine (in several animal orders) and for stop (in vertebrates). We propose that the changes are typically preceded by loss of a codon from all coding sequences in an organism or organelle, often as a result of directional mutation pressure, accompanied by loss of the tRNA that translates the codon. The codon reappears later by conversion of another codon and emergence of a tRNA that translates the reappeared codon with a different assignment. Changes in release factors also contribute to these revised assignments. We also discuss the use of UGA (stop) as a selenocysteine codon and the early history of the code. PMID:1579111

Osawa, S; Jukes, T H; Watanabe, K; Muto, A

1992-01-01

371

Lack of p21 expression links cell cycle control and appendage regeneration in mice.  

PubMed

Animals capable of regenerating multiple tissue types, organs, and appendages after injury are common yet sporadic and include some sponge, hydra, planarian, and salamander (i.e., newt and axolotl) species, but notably such regenerative capacity is rare in mammals. The adult MRL mouse strain is a rare exception to the rule that mammals do not regenerate appendage tissue. Certain commonalities, such as blastema formation and basement membrane breakdown at the wound site, suggest that MRL mice may share other features with classical regenerators. As reported here, MRL fibroblast-like cells have a distinct cell-cycle (G2/M accumulation) phenotype and a heightened basal and wound site DNA damage/repair response that is also common to classical regenerators and mammalian embryonic stem cells. Additionally, a neutral and alkaline comet assay displayed a persistent level of intrinsic DNA damage in cells derived from the MRL mouse. Similar to mouse ES cells, the p53-target p21 was not expressed in MRL ear fibroblasts. Because the p53/p21 axis plays a central role in the DNA damage response and cell cycle control, we directly tested the hypothesis that p21 down-regulation could functionally induce a regenerative response in an appendage of an otherwise nonregenerating mouse strain. Using the ear hole closure phenotype, a genetically mapped and reliable quantitative indicator of regeneration in the MRL mouse, we show that the unrelated Cdkn1a(tmi/Tyj)/J p21(-/-) mouse (unlike the B6129SF2/J WT control) closes ear holes similar to MRL mice, providing a firm link between cell cycle checkpoint control and tissue regeneration. PMID:20231440

Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Snyder, Andrew; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Leferovich, John; Cheverud, James M; Lieberman, Paul; Heber-Katz, Ellen

2010-03-30

372

Epimorphic regeneration in mice is p53-independent.  

PubMed

The process of regeneration is most readily studied in species of sponge, hydra, planarian and salamander (i.e., newt and axolotl). The closure of MRL mouse ear pinna through-and-through holes provides a mammalian model of unusual wound healing/regeneration in which a blastema-like structure closes the ear hole and cartilage and hair follicles are replaced. Recent studies, based on a broad level of DNA damage and a cell cycle pattern of G?/M "arrest," showed that p21(Cip1/Waf1) was missing from the MRL mouse ear and that a p21-null mouse could close its ear holes. Given the p53/p21 axis of control of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence, we tested the role of p53 in the ear hole regenerative response. Using backcross mice, we found that loss of p53 in MRL mice did not show reduced healing. Furthermore, cross sections of MRL. p53(-/-) mouse ears at 6 weeks post-injury showed an increased level of adipocytes and chondrocytes in the region of healing whereas MRL or p21(-/-) mice showed chondrogenesis alone in this same region, though at later time points. In addition, we also investigated other cell cycle-related mutant mice to determine how p21 was being regulated. We demonstrate that p16 and Gadd45 null mice show little healing capacity. Interestingly, a partial healing phenotype in mice with a dual Tgf?/Rag2 knockout mutation was seen. These data demonstrate an independence of p53 signaling for mouse appendage regeneration and suggest that the role of p21 in this process is possibly through the abrogation of the Tgf?/Smad pathway. PMID:20855943

Arthur, L Matthew; Demarest, Renee M; Clark, Lise; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Bedelbaeva, Kamila; Anderson, Rhonda; Snyder, Andrew; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lieberman, Paul; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Heber-Katz, E

2010-09-15

373

The neuropeptide complement of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii  

PubMed Central

Background The marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii is emerging as a powerful lophotrochozoan experimental model for evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) and neurobiology. Recent studies revealed the presence of conserved neuropeptidergic signaling in Platynereis, including vasotocin/neurophysin, myoinhibitory peptide and opioid peptidergic systems. Despite these advances, comprehensive peptidome resources have yet to be reported. Results The present work describes the neuropeptidome of Platynereis. We established a large transcriptome resource, consisting of stage-specific next-generation sequencing datasets and 77,419 expressed sequence tags. Using this information and a combination of bioinformatic searches and mass spectrometry analyses, we increased the known proneuropeptide (pNP) complement of Platynereis to 98. Based on sequence homology to metazoan pNPs, Platynereis pNPs were grouped into ancient eumetazoan, bilaterian, protostome, lophotrochozoan, and annelid families, and pNPs only found in Platynereis. Compared to the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, the only other lophotrochozoan with a large-scale pNP resource, Platynereis has a remarkably full complement of conserved pNPs, with 53 pNPs belonging to ancient eumetazoan or bilaterian families. Our comprehensive search strategy, combined with analyses of sequence conservation, also allowed us to define several novel lophotrochozoan and annelid pNP families. The stage-specific transcriptome datasets also allowed us to map changes in pNP expression throughout the Platynereis life cycle. Conclusion The large repertoire of conserved pNPs in Platynereis highlights the usefulness of annelids in comparative neuroendocrinology. This work establishes a reference dataset for comparative peptidomics in lophotrochozoans and provides the basis for future studies of Platynereis peptidergic signaling. PMID:24359412

2013-01-01

374

?-Catenin specifies the endomesoderm and defines the posterior organizer of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii  

PubMed Central

The canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway is a key regulator of body plan organization and axis formation in metazoans, being involved in germ layer specification, posterior growth and patterning of the anteroposterior axis. Results from animals spanning a wide phylogenetic range suggest that a unifying function of ?-catenin in metazoans is to define the posterior/vegetal part of the embryo. Although the specification of vegetal territories (endoderm) by ?-catenin has been demonstrated in distantly related animals (cnidarians, a protostome, echinoderms and ascidians), the definition of the posterior part of the embryo is well supported only for vertebrates and planarians. To gain insights into ?-catenin functions during deuterostome evolution, we have studied the early development of the direct developing hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. We show that the zygote is polarized after fertilization along the animal-vegetal axis by cytoplasmic rearrangements resembling the ascidian vegetal contraction. This early asymmetry is translated into nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin at the vegetal pole, which is necessary and sufficient to specify endomesoderm. We show that endomesoderm specification is crucial for anteroposterior axis establishment in the ectoderm. The endomesoderm secretes as yet unidentified signals that posteriorize the ectoderm, which would otherwise adopt an anterior fate. Our results point to a conserved function at the base of deuterostomes for ?-catenin in germ layer specification and to a causal link in the definition of the posterior part of the embryonic ectoderm by way of activating posteriorizing endomesodermal factors. Consequently, the definition of the vegetal and the posterior regions of the embryo by ?-catenin should be distinguished and carefully re-examined. PMID:21303849

Darras, Sebastien; Gerhart, John; Terasaki, Mark; Kirschner, Marc; Lowe, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

375

Spliced leader RNA-mediated trans-splicing in phylum Rotifera.  

PubMed

In kinetoplastids, Euglena, and four metazoan phyla, trans-splicing has been described as a mechanism for the generation of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs): 5'-ends of precursor mRNAs are replaced by a short spliced leader (SL) exon from a small SL RNA. Although the full phylogenetic range is unknown, trans-splicing has not been found in vertebrates, insects, plants, or yeast. In animal groups where it does occur, i.e., nematodes, cnidarians, platyhelminths, and primitive chordates, SL RNAs do not show sequence relatedness across phyla. The apparently sporadic phylogenetic distribution and the lack of SL RNA homology have led to opposing hypotheses on its evolution, involving either an ancient origin followed by loss in multiple lineages or independent acquisition in several taxa. Here we present evidence for the occurrence of trans-splicing in bdelloid rotifers (Bdelloidea, Rotifera). A common 23-nt sequence, representing the SL exon-diagnostic of SL RNA-mediated trans-splicing-was found at the 5'-end of at least 50%-65% of mRNAs from Adineta ricciae and Philodina sp. The trans-splicing pattern in bdelloid rotifers can be unusually complex, as observed in transcripts from a heat shock protein gene, hsp82-1, where the SL exon was spliced to three alternative positions. Bdelloid rotifer SL RNAs were found to be 105 or 106 nt long and comprised the SL sequence, a conserved splice donor site and an intron containing a putative spliceosome-binding motif. Intriguingly, some similarity of rotifer SL RNA sequence and predicted secondary structure was seen to that of the predominant SL1 RNA of nematodes, although it is unlikely that this demonstrates homology. In addition, sequence corresponding to the rotifer SL exon was found at the 5'-end of a number of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clones in a rice (Oryza sativa) database. None of these cDNAs gave a close match with homologous plant genes, suggesting that a small but significant portion of the rice expressed sequence tag database represents sequences derived from rotifers. In summary, the description of SL-mediated trans-splicing in Rotifera extends its representation to at least five metazoan phyla, making it increasingly probable that this is a phylogenetically widespread and therefore ancient phenomenon. PMID:15788744

Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natalia N; Tunnacliffe, Alan

2005-06-01

376

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests numerous alternative gene regions are likely to capture greater nucleotide variation than those currently pursued as molecular markers. New PCR primers developed from a comparative mitogenomic analysis of Taenia species, extend the use of mitochondrial markers for molecular ecology, population genetics and diagnostics. PMID:20649981

2010-01-01

377

Posterior regeneration in Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 ?m consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a framework onto which newly differentiating cells are added. Growth proceeds through the intercalary addition of structures, mirroring the embryonic and post-embryonic development of various organ systems. The suitability of Isodiametra pulchra for laboratory techniques, the fact that its transcriptome and genome data will soon be available, as well as its small size and low number of cells, make it a prime candidate subject for research into the cellular mechanisms that underlie regeneration in acoelomorphs. PMID:24160844

2013-01-01

378

An integrated pipeline for next generation sequencing and annotation of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski (Lankester, 1857) Looss, 1899.  

PubMed

Helminths include both parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminths (trematode and cestode flatworms) that are abundant, and are of clinical importance. The genetic characterization of parasitic flatworms using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis and control of infections. Although the nuclear genome houses suitable genetic markers (e.g., in ribosomal (r) DNA) for species identification and molecular characterization, the mitochondrial (mt) genome consistently provides a rich source of novel markers for informative systematics and epidemiological studies. In the last decade, there have been some important advances in mtDNA genomics of helminths, especially lung flukes, liver flukes and intestinal flukes. Fasciolopsis buski, often called the giant intestinal fluke, is one of the largest digenean trematodes infecting humans and found primarily in Asia, in particular the Indian subcontinent. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies now provide opportunities for high throughput sequencing, assembly and annotation within a short span of time. Herein, we describe a high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline for mt genomics for F. buski that emphasizes the utility of short read NGS platforms such as Ion Torrent and Illumina in successfully sequencing and assembling the mt genome using innovative approaches for PCR primer design as well as assembly. We took advantage of our NGS whole genome sequence data (unpublished so far) for F. buski and its comparison with available data for the Fasciola hepatica mtDNA as the reference genome for design of precise and specific primers for amplification of mt genome sequences from F. buski. A long-range PCR was carried out to create an NGS library enriched in mt DNA sequences. Two different NGS platforms were employed for complete sequencing, assembly and annotation of the F. buski mt genome. The complete mt genome sequences of the intestinal fluke comprise 14,118 bp and is thus the shortest trematode mitochondrial genome sequenced to date. The noncoding control regions are separated into two parts by the tRNA-Gly gene and don't contain either tandem repeats or secondary structures, which are typical for trematode control regions. The gene content and arrangement are identical to that of F. hepatica. The F. buski mtDNA genome has a close resemblance with F. hepatica and has a similar gene order tallying with that of other trematodes. The mtDNA for the intestinal fluke is reported herein for the first time by our group that would help investigate Fasciolidae taxonomy and systematics with the aid of mtDNA NGS data. More so, it would serve as a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of trematode parasites. PMID:24255820

Biswal, Devendra Kumar; Ghatani, Sudeep; Shylla, Jollin A; Sahu, Ranjana; Mullapudi, Nandita; Bhattacharya, Alok; Tandon, Veena

2013-01-01

379

Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus, Turkmenistan, USA, Tunisia and Algeria, indicating that this is the main haplotype involved in the spread of F. hepatica throughout all continents. PMID:23994483

Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

2013-11-01

380

Faunal communities at sites of gas- and oil-bearing fluids in Lake Baikal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macro- and meiofaunal communities were examined at four geomorphologically distinct sites with different gas- and oil-bearing fluid characteristics in the northern, central and southern basins of Lake Baikal. All sites had elevated concentrations of bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate and chloride ions in pore fluids, with highest values at the Frolikha vent. Elevated levels of iron ions were found in pore waters of the St. Petersburg methane seep and the Gorevoy Utes oil seep. The chemical composition of pore waters at the Malenky mud volcano was similar to that reported in earlier work. Consistent with published data, the Frolikha vent (northern basin) and the St. Petersburg methane seep (central basin) were characterised by methane of mixed genesis (thermogenic + biogenic), whereas the methane source was mainly thermogenic at the Gorevoy Utes oil seep (central basin) and biogenic at the Malenky mud volcano (southern basin). In contrast to marine seep ecosystems, the macrofauna was dominated only by amphipods, giant planarians and oligochaetes, whereas bivalves were absent; the meiofauna was similar to its marine counterpart, being dominated by nematodes, cyclops, harpacticoids and ostracods. A statistically significant positive relationship was revealed between faunal abundance and the availability of bacterial mats on seep sediments. Moreover, ANOVA tests showed significant increases in both meiozoobenthic and macrozoobenthic densities at "hot spot" vent/seep sites relative to discharge-free reference sites. The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen at various trophic levels of these benthic vent/seep communities was found to differ markedly from that reported by earlier studies for the pelagic and other benthic food webs in Lake Baikal. As in marine seeps, the macrofauna had variable isotopic signatures. Light ?13C and ?15N values suggest the utilization of chemosynthetically fixed and/or methane-derived organic matter. By contrast, the heavy ?13C signatures of some mobile amphipods likely reflect consumption of photosynthetically derived carbon. These findings would at least partly explain why Lake Baikal is a notable outlier in global temperature-biodiversity patterns, exhibiting the highest biodiversity of any lake worldwide but at an extremely cold average temperature.

Zemskaya, Tamara I.; Sitnikova, Tatiana Y.; Kiyashko, Sergei I.; Kalmychkov, Gennady V.; Pogodaeva, Tatiana V.; Mekhanikova, Irina V.; Naumova, Tatiana V.; Shubenkova, Olga V.; Chernitsina, Svetlana M.; Kotsar, Oleg V.; Chernyaev, Evgeny S.; Khlystov, Oleg M.

2012-12-01

381

Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes  

PubMed Central

Background The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is an important model system for the study of nervous system structure, function, development, regeneration and repair. It is also a unique species in being presently approved for use in medical procedures, such as clearing of pooled blood following certain surgical procedures. It is a current, and potentially also future, source of medically useful molecular factors, such as anticoagulants and antibacterial peptides, which may have evolved as a result of its parasitizing large mammals, including humans. Despite the broad focus of research on this system, little has been done at the genomic or transcriptomic levels and there is a paucity of openly available sequence data. To begin to address this problem, we constructed whole embryo and adult central nervous system (CNS) EST libraries and created a clustered sequence database of the Hirudo transcriptome that is available to the scientific community. Results A total of ~133,000 EST clones from two directionally-cloned cDNA libraries, one constructed from mRNA derived from whole embryos at several developmental stages and the other from adult CNS cords, were sequenced in one or both directions by three different groups: Genoscope (French National Sequencing Center), the University of Iowa Sequencing Facility and the DOE Joint Genome Institute. These were assembled using the phrap software package into 31,232 unique contigs and singletons, with an average length of 827 nt. The assembled transcripts were then translated in all six frames and compared to proteins in NCBI's non-redundant (NR) and to the Gene Ontology (GO) protein sequence databases, resulting in 15,565 matches to 11,236 proteins in NR and 13,935 matches to 8,073 proteins in GO. Searching the database for transcripts of genes homologous to those thought to be involved in the innate immune responses of vertebrates and other invertebrates yielded a set of nearly one hundred evolutionarily conserved sequences, representing all known pathways involved in these important functions. Conclusions The sequences obtained for Hirudo transcripts represent the first major database of genes expressed in this important model system. Comparison of translated open reading frames (ORFs) with the other openly available leech datasets, the genome and transcriptome of Helobdella robusta, shows an average identity at the amino acid level of 58% in matched sequences. Interestingly, comparison with other available Lophotrochozoans shows similar high levels of amino acid identity, where sequences match, for example, 64% with Capitella capitata (a polychaete) and 56% with Aplysia californica (a mollusk), as well as 58% with Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth). Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed. PMID:20579359

2010-01-01