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1

A robust molecular phylogeny of the Tricladida (Platyhelminthes: Seriata) with a discussion on  

E-print Network

A robust molecular phylogeny of the Tricladida (Platyhelminthes: Seriata) with a discussion Hill Road, London W8 7AH, UK The suborder Tricladida (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria, Seriata) comprisesDNA; Tricladida; planarians; Platyhelminthes; phylogeny 1. INTRODUCTION Within the free-living platyhelminthes

Carranza, Salvador

2

A robust molecular phylogeny of the Tricladida (Platyhelminthes: Seriata) with a discussion on morphological synapomorphies.  

PubMed Central

The suborder Tricladida (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria, Seriata) comprises most well-known species of free-living flatworms. Four infraorders are recognized: (i) the Maricola (marine planarians); (ii) the Cavernicola (a group of primarily cavernicolan planarians); (iii) the Paludicola (freshwater planarians); and (iv) the Terricola (land planarians). The phylogenetic relationships among these infraorders have been analysed using morphological characters, but they remain uncertain. Here we analyse the phylogeny and classification of the Tricladida, with additional, independent, molecular data from complete sequences of 18S rDNA and 18S rRNA. We use maximum parsimony and neighbour-joining methods and the characterization of a unique gene duplication event involving the Terricola and the dugesiids to reconstruct the phylogeny. The results show that the Maricola is monophyletic and is the primitive sister group to the rest of the Tricladida (the Paludicola plus the Terricola). The Paludicola are paraphyletic since the Terricola and one paludicolan family, the Dugesiidae, share a more recent common ancestor than the dugesiids with other paludicolans (dendrocoelids and planariids). A reassessment of morphological evidence may confirm the apparent redundancy of the existing infraorders Paludicola and Terricola. In the meantime, we suggest replacing the Paludicola and Terricola with a new clade, the Continenticola, which comprises the families Dugesiidae, Planariidae, Dendrocoelidae and the Terricola. PMID:9881470

Carranza, S; Littlewood, D T; Clough, K A; Ruiz-Trillo, I; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M

1998-01-01

3

Anatomical deviation of male organs of land planarians from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with description of two new species of Cratera (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida).  

PubMed

Two new land planarian species, collected in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. Their external aspect is similar to that of Imbira marcusi Carbayo et al., 2013 and Pseudogeoplana theresopolitana (Schirch, 1929), respectively. The analysis of the internal organs, however, revealed they belong to the genus Cratera. The male copulatory organs of one species is very different from any other geoplaninid, for the penis papilla holds a large, distal cavity receiving the ejaculatory duct and, furthermore, the papilla projects vertically downwards from the roof of the male atrium. Thus we consider it as a new species, Cratera cuarassu sp. nov. The second species differs from its congeners in that the dorsal insertion of the penis papilla is anterior to the ventral one, and in that the female atrium is narrowed in the anterior portion. The species was found in the type locality of Pseudogeoplana theresopolitana (Schirch, 1929) and compares well with it in the external features. However, since its internal organs are unknown and the type material of the species is seemingly lost, we describe it as Cratera anamariae Carbayo, sp. nov. PMID:25781812

Carbayo, Fernando

2015-01-01

4

Evidence that Two Types of 18s rDNA Coexist in the Genome of Dugesia (Schmidtea) mediterranea (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)  

E-print Network

(Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida) Salvador Carranza," Gonzalo Giribet,? Caries Ribera,? Jaume Baguii in the platyhelminth Dug&a (Schmidtea) mediterrunea (Turbellaria, Seriata, Tricladida). Southern blot analysis of phylogenetic history Key words: 18s rDNA, polymorphism, Dug&a (Schmidfea) mrditerranea, Platyhelminthes

Carranza, Salvador

5

Origin and Evolution of Paralogous rRNA Gene Clusters Within the Flatworm Family Dugesiidae (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida)  

E-print Network

(Platyhelminthes, Tricladida) Salvador Carranza,* Jaume Bagun~a`, Marta Riutort Departament de Gene`tica, Facultat -- Platyhelminthes -- Variability -- Multigene fam- ily -- Metazoan -- Phylogeny Introduction The ribosomal DNA (rDNA polymorphism within the genome of a metazoan species, Schmidtea mediterranea, a free-living platyhelminth

Carranza, Salvador

6

Integrative taxonomy of a new species of planarian from the Lake Ohrid basin, including an analysis of biogeographical patterns in freshwater triclads from the Ohrid region (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of the genus Dugesia is described from the Lake Ohrid region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, forming the first fully documented species description for this genus in the Ohrid area. The morphological species delimitation is supported by complementary molecular, karyological, and cytogenetic data available from the literature. Therefore, species delineation is based on a truly integrative approach. Further, a short account on the degree of freshwater planarian endemicity in the Ohrid region is provided. PMID:23840163

Stocchino, Giacinta Angela; Sluys, Ronald; Deri, Paolo; Manconi, Renata

2013-01-01

7

Integrative taxonomy of a new species of planarian from the Lake Ohrid basin, including an analysis of biogeographical patterns in freshwater triclads from the Ohrid region (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Dugesiidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Dugesia is described from the Lake Ohrid region in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula, forming the first fully documented species description for this genus in the Ohrid area. The morphological species delimitation is supported by complementary molecular, karyological, and cytogenetic data available from the literature. Therefore, species delineation is based on a truly integrative approach. Further, a short account on the degree of freshwater planarian endemicity in the Ohrid region is provided. PMID:23840163

Stocchino, Giacinta Angela; Sluys, Ronald; Deri, Paolo; Manconi, Renata

2013-01-01

8

Molecular analysis of the diversity of terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Continenticola) in the Iberian  

E-print Network

for biogeographical studies. Corresponding author: Marta Riutort, Departament de Gene`tica, Facultat de Biologia i Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: mriutort@ub.edu Eduardo Mateos and Cristina Cabrera, Departament de Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. E

Carranza, Salvador

9

Fine-scale differences in diel activity among nocturnal freshwater planarias (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida)  

PubMed Central

Background Although most freshwater planarias are well known photonegative organisms, their diel rhythms have never been quantified. Differences in daily activity rhythms may be particularly important for temperate-climate, freshwater planarias, which tend to overlap considerably in spatial distribution and trophic requirements. Methods Activity of stress-free, individually tested young adults of three common planarian species was recorded at 3-h intervals in a 10-d experiment under natural sunlight and photoperiod during autumnal equinox (D:L ~12:12). Individual activity status was averaged over the 10-d experiment, each tested individual thus serving as a true replicate. Twelve individuals per species were tested. Food was provided every 36 h, resulting in alternating day- and nighttime feeding events. Activity during the first post-feeding h was recorded and analyzed separately. Statistical procedures included ANOVAs, correlations, and second-order analyses of angles. Results Dugesia (= Girardia) tigrina Girard 1850 exhibited clear nocturnal behavior, Dugesia (= Schmidtea) polychroa Schmidt 1861 was predominantly but not exclusively nocturnal, and Polycelis tenuis Ijima 1884 was relatively more active from midnight through noon. Species-specific activity peaks were statistically similar, with peaks at dawn for P. tenuis and just before midnight for the two dugesiids; however, D. tigrina was comparatively more active in the early night hours, while D. polychroa was more active than D. tigrina during daytime. D. tigrina also responded less readily to daytime food addition. P. tenuis remained poorly active and unresponsive throughout the experiment. Individual variability in diel behavior was highest for D. polychroa and lowest for D. tigrina. P. tenuis's general low degree of activity and late activity peak in the experiment may be related to a strong reliance on external stimuli. Conclusions The tested species are mainly nocturnal, consistent with their photonegative characteristics. The fine-scale differences in diel behavior among these three triclad species may not be sufficient to allow coexistence in the wild, with the nonnative D. tigrina eventually displacing D. polychroa and P. tenuis in many European waters. The link between planarian diel rhythms and ecological characteristics are worth of further, detailed investigation. PMID:21477354

2011-01-01

10

[Interspecific variability of telomeric DNA length in some Siberian and endemic Ba?kal planarians (Plathelminthes, Tricladida)].  

PubMed

The length of the telomeric DNA in nine species of planarians inhabiting Lake Baikal and one Siberian species from Baikal rivers was determined using Southern hybridization. According to preliminary estimations, it varied in the range of 25-30 kb (Rimacephalus arecepta, Rimacephalus pulvinar, Sorocelis hepatizon, Sorocelis nigrofasciata, Protocotylus sp., Baikalobia guttata, Bdellocephala baikalensis, Phagocata sibirica) and 50 kb (Baikaloplana valida, Baikalobia copulatrix). It is the first estimation of the values of telomeric region lengths for Baikal free-living flat worms. PMID:21061625

Koroleva, A G; Kiril'chik, S V; Timoshkin, O A

2010-09-01

11

Origin and evolutionary process of the CNS elucidated by comparative genomics analysis of planarian ESTs  

PubMed Central

Among the bilateral animals, a centralized nervous system is found in both the deuterostome and protostome. To address the question of whether the CNS was derived from a common ancestor of deuterostomes and protostomes, it is essential to know kinds of genes existed in the CNS of the putative common ancestor and to trace the evolutionary divergence of genes expressed in the CNS. To answer these questions, we took a comparative approach using different species, particularly focusing on one of the lower bilateral animals, the planarian (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida), which is known to possess a CNS. We determined the nucleotide sequence of ESTs from the head portion of planarians, obtaining 3,101 nonredundant EST clones. As a result of homology searches, we found that 116 clones had significant similarity to known genes related to the nervous system. Here, we compared these 116 planarian EST clones with all ORFs of the complete genome sequences of the human, fruit fly, and nematode, and showed that >95% of these 116 nervous system-related genes, including genes involved in brain or neural morphogenesis, were commonly shared among these organisms, thus providing evidence at the molecular level for the existence of a common ancestral CNS. Interestingly, we found that ?30% of planarian nervous system-related genes had homologous sequences in Arabidopsis and yeast, which do not possess a nervous system. This implies that the origin of nervous system-related genes greatly predated the emergence of the nervous system, and that these genes might have been recruited toward the nervous system. PMID:12802012

Mineta, Katsuhiko; Nakazawa, Masumi; Cebrià, Francesc; Ikeo, Kazuho; Agata, Kiyokazu; Gojobori, Takashi

2003-01-01

12

Phylogenetic Relationships of Platyhelminthes Based on 18S Ribosomal Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA from 71 species of Platyhelminthes, the flatworms, were analyzed using maximum likelihood, and the resulting phylogenetic trees were compared with previous phylogenetic hypotheses. Analyses including 15 outgroup species belonging to eight other phyla show that Platyhelminthes are monophyletic with the exception of a sequence putatively from Acoela sp., Lecithoepitheliata, Polycladida, Tricladida, Trematoda (Aspidobothrii+ Digenea),

Andrés Campos; Michael P. Cummings; José Luis Reyes; Juan Pedro Laclette

1998-01-01

13

High Copy Number of Highly Similar mariner-like Transposons in Planarian ( Platyhelminthe ) : Evidence for a Trans-Phyla Horizontal Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several DNA sequences similar to the mariner element were isolated and characterized in the platyhelminthe Dugesia (Girardia) tigrina. They were 1,288 bp long, flanked by two 32 bp-inverted repeats, and contained a single 339 amino acid open-reading frame (ORF) encoding the transposase. The number of copies of this element is approximately 8,000 per haploid genome, constituting a member of the

Jordi Garcia-Ferndndez; Andreu Casali

14

Land planarians (Platyhelminthes) as a model organism for fine-scale phylogeographic studies: understanding patterns of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest hotspot.  

PubMed

The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the richest biodiversity hotspots of the world. Paleoclimatic models have predicted two large stability regions in its northern and central parts, whereas southern regions might have suffered strong instability during Pleistocene glaciations. Molecular phylogeographic and endemism studies show, nevertheless, contradictory results: although some results validate these predictions, other data suggest that paleoclimatic models fail to predict stable rainforest areas in the south. Most studies, however, have surveyed species with relatively high dispersal rates whereas taxa with lower dispersion capabilities should be better predictors of habitat stability. Here, we have used two land planarian species as model organisms to analyse the patterns and levels of nucleotide diversity on a locality within the Southern Atlantic Forest. We find that both species harbour high levels of genetic variability without exhibiting the molecular footprint of recent colonization or population expansions, suggesting a long-term stability scenario. The results reflect, therefore, that paleoclimatic models may fail to detect refugia in the Southern Atlantic Forest, and that model organisms with low dispersal capability can improve the resolution of these models. PMID:21288273

Alvarez-Presas, M; Carbayo, F; Rozas, J; Riutort, M

2011-04-01

15

Embryonic development of Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850) (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Paludicola).  

PubMed

The embryonic development of freshwater triclads is mainly known from studies of species of Dendrocoelum, Planaria, Polycelis, and, more recently, Schmidtea. The present study characterizes the development of Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850) by means of optical microcopy using glycol methacrylate semi-thin sections. 94 cocoons were collected in the period from laying to hatching, with intervals of up to twenty-four hours. The sequence of morphological changes occurring in the embryo permitted the identification of nine embryonic stages. At the time of cocoon laying, numerous embryos were dispersed among many yolk cells, with a rigid capsule covering the entire cocoon. In the first stage (approx. up to 6 hours after cocoon laying), yolk cells and embryonic cells showed random distribution. Stage II (between 12 and 24 hours after cocoon laying) is characterized by aggregates of blastomeres, which later aggregate forming an enteroblastula. Approximately 2 days after cocoon laying (stage III), formation of the embryonic epidermis and embryonic digestive system took place, the latter degenerating during the subsequent stage. Stage V (until the fourth day) is characterized by the formation of the definitive epidermis. Between 4 and 6 days after laying, organogenesis of the definitive inner organs starts (stage VI). Approximately 14 days after laying (stage IX), formation of the nervous system is completed. At this stage, the embryo shows similar characteristics to those of newly hatched juveniles. The hatching of Girardia tigrina occurs in the period between twelve to twenty-two days after cocoon laying. PMID:19197510

Vara, D C; Leal-Zanchet, A M; Lizardo-Daudt, H m

2008-11-01

16

Molecular phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The phylum,Platyhelminthes has traditionally been considered the most basal bilaterian taxon. The main,dif- ficulty with this placement is the lack of convincing synapomorphies for all Platyhelminthes, which suggest that they are polyphyletic. Recent molecular,findings based on 18S rDNA sequence,data and number,and type of Hox genes strongly suggest that the majority of Platyhelminthes are members of the lophotrochozoan protostomes, whereas

Jaume Baguñà; Marta Riutort

2004-01-01

17

Autophagy and apoptosis in planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult planarians are capable of undergoing regeneration and body remodelling in order to adapt to physical damage or extreme\\u000a environmental conditions. Moreover, most planarians can tolerate long periods of starvation and during this time, they shrink\\u000a from an adult size to, and sometimes beyond, the initial size at hatching. Indeed, these properties have made them a classic\\u000a model to study

Cristina Gonzalez-EstevezEmili; Emili Saló

2010-01-01

18

INTRODUCTION The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) consists of  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) consists of approximately 50,000 different://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact115.html). Platyhelminthes are considered by many to occupy an important position in the evolution, as important, abundant and diverse as platyhelminthes are, little is known about the molecular events

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

19

Linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in platyhelminths  

E-print Network

Linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in platyhelminths Gustavo Salinas1 , Murray E. Selkirk2 have recently been characterized in platyhelminth parasites, and the emerging biochemical scenario in platyhelminths [4­6]. Selenocysteine (Sec, see Box 1)-containing TGR appears to be the major oxido

Maizels, Rick

20

Inhibition of planarian regeneration by melatonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melatonin, which is a substance produced by the pineal body in vertebrates, inhibited regeneration in the planarian Dugesia japonica japonica Ichikawa et Kawakatsu. When decapitated planarians were maintained in a 1 mmol dm-3 solution of melatonin, formation of the head was retarded; formation of the eyes, however, was not disturbed. Similarly in animals from which the tail was cut, regeneration

Yasuhiro Yoshizawa; Katsumi Wakabayashi; Takao Shinozawa

1991-01-01

21

Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A mini-documentary discussing the remarkable regenerative capabilities of the planarian, and how HHMI researcher Alejandro Snchez Alvarado uses them to study the biology of stem cells. This presentation is also featured on the DVD Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration, available for free from HHMI. This video is 11 minutes and 46 seconds in length, and available for download in Quicktime (114 MB) and Windows Media (156 MB) formats. All Stem Cell videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/video.html.

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute; )

2007-03-31

22

Dynamics of asexual reproduction in planarians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planaria research is experiencing a resurgence due to the development of molecular tools, the Planarian genome project and database resources. Despite the resulting progress in planarian biology research, an extensive study of their physical properties remains to be undertaken. We developed a method to collect a large amount of data on the dynamics of clonal reproduction in the freshwater planarian S.mediterranea. The capability of planarians to regenerate an entire organism from a minuscule body part is based on a homogeneously distributed stem cell population that comprises 25-30% of all cells. Due to this stem cell contingent, planarians can reproduce spontaneously by dividing into a larger head and a smaller tail piece, which then will rebuild the missing body parts, including a central nervous system, within about a week. Time-lapse imaging allows us to characterize the fission process in detail, revealing the stages of the process as well as capturing the nature of the rupture itself. A traction force measurement setup is being developed to allow us to quantify the forces planarians exert on the substrate during reproduction, a macroscopic analog to the Traction Force Microscopy setups used to determine local cellular forces. We are particularly interested in the molecular processes during division and the interplay between tissue mechanics and cell signaling.

Schoetz, Eva-Maria; Lincoln, Bryan; Quinodoz, Sofia

2011-03-01

23

A Low Percent Ethanol Method for Immobilizing Planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarians have recently become a popular model system for the study of adult stem cells, regeneration and polarity. The system is attractive for both undergraduate and graduate research labs, since planarian colonies are low cost and easy to maintain. Also in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and RNA-interference (RNAi) gene knockdown techniques have been developed for planarian studies. However, imaging of live

Claire G. Stevenson; Wendy Scott Beane; Roland G. Roberts

2010-01-01

24

Nicotine behavioral pharmacology: clues from planarians  

PubMed Central

Background Nicotine is one of the world’s most addictive substances and the primary reason that humans inhale tobacco smoke. The pharmacological effects of nicotine can be investigated in planarians, aquatic flatworms that possess an integrated neural network including cephalic ganglia that some consider the earliest “brain” and spinal cord. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure elicits mammalian-like behaviors in planarians. Methods Planarian motility and stereotypy (C-shape hyperkinesias) were quantified following acute nicotine exposure. During repeated nicotine exposure, we investigated the presence of withdrawal, tolerance, behavioral sensitization, and environmental place conditioning. Results Acute nicotine exposure increased stereotypical activity and elicited biphasic effects on motility. A low concentration (0.01 mM) increased motility whereas higher concentrations (0.3 – 10 mM) elicited the opposite effect. Planarians exposed to nicotine (0.03 mM) for 60 min and then tested in water displayed reduced motility that was not observed during exposure to water, acute nicotine, or continuous nicotine. Nicotine-treated planarians withdrawn from the drug for 3 days before being challenged with nicotine displayed behavioral sensitization at low concentrations (0.1, 0.3 mM) but tolerance at higher concentrations (1, 3 mM). Planarians conditioned with nicotine in the ambient light (non-preferred environment) displayed a reduction in their natural preference for a dark environment. Conclusions The present results suggest nicotine elicits mammalian-like effects in planarians, including decreased motility and increased stereotypy following acute administration and abstinence-induced withdrawal, behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and place conditioning during repeated exposure. PMID:21530106

Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tanvi; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Baron, Steven; Kim, Myongji; Song, Kevin; Ward, Sara; Raffa, Robert B.

2011-01-01

25

Phylogeny of the Monopisthocotylea and Polyopisthocotylea (Platyhelminthes) inferred from 28S rDNA sequencesp  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of the Monopisthocotylea and Polyopisthocotylea (Platyhelminthes) inferred from 28S r of monopisthocotyleans, 26 polyopisthocotyleans including six polystomatids, and other Platyhelminthes (61 species. Keywords: Monogenea; Monopisthocotylea; Phylogenetic analysis; Platyhelminthes; Polyopisthocotylea; 28S r

26

Linked thioredoxin-glutathione systems in platyhelminths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thioredoxin and glutathione systems play a central role in thiol-disulfide redox homeostasis in many organisms by providing electrons to essential enzymes, and defence against oxidative stress. These systems have recently been characterized in platyhelminth parasites, and the emerging biochemical scenario is the existence of linked processes with the enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase supplying reducing equivalents to both pathways. In

Gustavo Salinas; Murray E. Selkirk; Cora Chalar; Rick M. Maizels; Cecilia Fernández

2004-01-01

27

The evolution of protonephridia of the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of flame bulbs are distinguished in the Platyhelminthes: type 1 has two cilia arising from a terminal cell and rootlets extending along the weir; type 2 has many cilia arising from a terminal cell and the proximal canal cell closely aligned with it; and type 3 has a non-terminal perikaryon forming many flame bulbs, each with many cilia

Klaus Rohde

1991-01-01

28

Morphogenetic action of neurotransmitters on regenerating planarians--a review.  

PubMed

Planarians can be used as invertebrate bioassays to evaluate the role of neurotransmitters on regenerating cells. The influence of the nervous system is crucial to regenerate a normal complete animal. The neurotrophic action of the nervous system has been attributed to the major neurohormones present throughout the animal kingdom. The same type of transmitters found in mammals have been extensively found in many invertebrates, including planarians, but their role in regeneration is unclear. Neurotransmitters and drugs which act on neurohumoral transmission have been used to determine the role of each neurohormone on regenerating planarians. Biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms of neurohormones on regenerative planarians are reviewed, as is their putative role on regeneration. Correlations with the roles of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system of higher organisms are also addressed. PMID:7911023

Villar, D; Schaeffer, D J

1993-12-01

29

Berberine exposure triggers developmental effects on planarian regeneration  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of action underlying the pharmacological properties of the natural alkaloid berberine still need investigation. Planarian regeneration is instrumental in deciphering developmental responses following drug exposure. Here we report the effects of berberine on regeneration in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Our findings demonstrate that this compound perturbs the regenerative pattern. By real-time PCR screening for the effects of berberine exposure on gene expression, we identified alterations in the transcriptional profile of genes representative of different tissues, as well as of genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Although berberine does not influence cell proliferation/apoptosis, our experiments prove that this compound causes abnormal regeneration of the planarian visual system. Potential berberine-induced cytotoxic effects were noticed in the intestine. Although we were unable to detect abnormalities in other structures, our findings, sustained by RNAi-based investigations, support the possibility that berberine effects are critically linked to anomalous ECM remodeling in treated planarians. PMID:24810466

Balestrini, Linda; Isolani, Maria Emilia; Pietra, Daniele; Borghini, Alice; Bianucci, Anna Maria; Deri, Paolo; Batistoni, Renata

2014-01-01

30

Planarians as a model system for in vitro teratogenesis studies.  

PubMed

Free-living flatworms such as planarians are inexpensive to culture, maintain, and use for toxicologic testing in the laboratory. A considerable number of basic studies by ourselves and others indicate that, in simplified miniature, they possess many features of biochemical and physiologic organization similar to higher animals such as mammals. These include a well-developed brain with a varied behavioral repertoire including complex maneuvers of prey capture and learning, with a number of the same neurotransmitters used in mammalian brain. They are sensitive to a variety of the same toxicants. Undifferentiated totipotent stem cells, i.e., "neoblasts," which are capable of mitosis and differentiation into any of the various specialized cell types, permit regeneration of complete planarians from fragments. They also provide new cells to replace those lost in the normal cellular turnover of nonregenerating planarians. Both regeneration of surgical fragments and aberrant remodeling of whole planarians model important features of embyrogenesis and are potentially useful for assaying teratogens. Results are described from studies in which various representative teratogenic toxicants were tested in these two different planarian paradigms. The potential of planarian cephalic regeneration for behavioral teratogenesis investigations is also indicated. PMID:6130627

Best, J B; Morita, M

1982-01-01

31

The phylogenetic position of Udonella (Platyhelminthes) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic analysis of molecular data from complete 18S rRNA and partial 28S rRNA genes, of a variety of platyhelminths, places the enigmatic Udonella caligorum firmly as a monopisthocotylean monogenean. Both maximum parsimony and a modified distance measure, operating under a maximum likelihood model, gave identical solutions for each data set. These data further support morphological evidence from ultrastructural studies indicating

D. T. J. Littlewood; K. Rohde; K. A. Clough

1998-01-01

32

Lipid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminthes  

PubMed Central

Two main families of lipid binding proteins have been identified in parasitic Platyhelminthes: hydrophobic ligand binding proteins (HLBPs) and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs). Members of the former family of proteins are specific to the Cestoda class, while FABPs are conserved across a wide range of animal species. Because Platyhelminthes are unable to synthesize their own lipids, these lipid-binding proteins are important molecules in these organisms. HLBPs are a high molecular mass complex of proteins and lipids. They are composed of subunits of low molecular mass proteins and a wide array of lipid molecules ranging from CoA esters to cholesterol. These proteins are excretory-secretory molecules and are key serological tools for diagnosis of diseases caused by cestodes. FABPs are mainly intracellular proteins of low molecular weight. They are also vaccine candidates. Despite that the knowledge of their function is scarce, the differences in their molecular organization, ligand preferences, intra/extracellular localization, evolution, and phylogenetic distribution, suggest that platyhelminths HLBPs and FABPs should play different functions. FABPs might be involved in the removal of fatty acids from the inner surface of the cell membrane and in their subsequent targeting to specific cellular destinations. In contrast, HLBPs might be involved in fatty acid uptake from the host environment. PMID:22988444

Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

2012-01-01

33

Reactivating head regrowth in a regeneration-deficient planarian species.  

PubMed

Species capable of regenerating lost body parts occur throughout the animal kingdom, yet close relatives are often regeneration incompetent. Why in the face of 'survival of the fittest' some animals regenerate but others do not remains a fascinating question. Planarian flatworms are well known and studied for their ability to regenerate from minute tissue pieces, yet species with limited regeneration abilities have been described even amongst planarians. Here we report the characterization of the regeneration defect in the planarian Dendrocoelum lacteum and its successful rescue. Tissue fragments cut from the posterior half of the body of this species are unable to regenerate a head and ultimately die. We find that this defect originates during the early stages of head specification, which require inhibition of canonical Wnt signalling in other planarian species. Notably, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of Dlac-?-catenin-1, the Wnt signal transducer, restored the regeneration of fully functional heads on tail pieces, rescuing D. lacteum's regeneration defect. Our results demonstrate the utility of comparative studies towards the reactivation of regenerative abilities in regeneration-deficient animals. Furthermore, the availability of D. lacteum as a regeneration-impaired planarian model species provides a first step towards elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms that ultimately determine why some animals regenerate and others do not. PMID:23883932

Liu, S-Y; Selck, C; Friedrich, B; Lutz, R; Vila-Farré, M; Dahl, A; Brandl, H; Lakshmanaperumal, N; Henry, I; Rink, J C

2013-08-01

34

Comparative Analysis of Cystatin Superfamily in Platyhelminths  

PubMed Central

The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG) was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW), a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn ?-helix, a five stranded ?-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution. PMID:25853513

Guo, Aijiang

2015-01-01

35

Planarian regeneration under micro- and hyper-gravity simulated contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planarians are non-parasitic flatworms of the Turbellaria class, some of which show the striking ability to regenerate any part of their body, even the head, in few days. Planarians are common to many parts of the world, living in both saltwater and freshwater, as well as in terrestrial areas. Due to their plasticity Planarians have been a classical model for the study of the mechanisms of regeneration. Currently, their cheap and easy maintenance, as well as the establishment of robust genetic tools, have converted them into an essential system in the field of stem cells and regenerative medicine. The aim of our project is to study the effect that micro- and hyper- gravity could exert during the process of planarians regeneration. The reason for planarians extreme regenerative capability is the maintenance until adulthood of a population of totipotent stem cells as well as the continuous activation of the cell-cell communication molecular pathways. Our prediction is that the alteration of the forces could affect planarians regeneration at different levels: 1) To regenerate, planarians must activate both proliferative and apoptotic responses, in order to create new tissue and to remodel the pre-existing one, respectively. Both cellular processes have been reported to be altered in several models under differential gravitational forces; 2) In planarians, the main intercellular signalling pathways (Wnt, TGFb, BMP, Hh, EGF) must control the process of differentiation and determination of each cell. For instances, it has been demonstrated that the differential activity of the wnt/beta-catenin pathway specifies the posterior (tail) versus the anterior (head) identity. Those pathways rely on the distance that secreted molecules (morphogens) are able to reach. Either this mechanism consist in a passive diffusion or an active transport through phyllopodia, it could sense the magnitude of the gravitational force; 3) The epidermis of planarians is covered by cilia, which beat collectively and in synchrony to propel the mucus and allow the locomotion. The assembly of ciliary structures could be affected by gravity changes. Our strategy consists in the histological, immunological and transcriptomic analysis of planarians that have completely regenerated head and tail structures under different gravity conditions: earth gravity (1g), micro-gravity (in the random positioning machine) and hyper-gravity (in a large diameter centrifuge, at 4g and 8g). Our data shows that planarians regenerate properly head and tail structures, including the eyes and the brain, in all those conditions. However some differences between the groups could be detected: 1) a slight decrease in the number of mitotic cells is observed in hyper-gravity conditions with respect to normal and micro- gravity conditions; 2) an increase in the number of animals that fissioned the tail, which is a mechanism to reproduce asexually for planarians, was observed in hyper-gravity conditions with respect to the rest; 3) although trunk fragments regenerate head and tail properly, smaller fragments, that is, head or tail pieces, could not regenerate the missing tissues under 8g conditions, and they died. Under 4g conditions they could regenerate but not properly; 4) defects in the density and length of the cilia were observed under micro- and hyper- gravity. A transcriptomic analysis is being conducted with samples from all the groups, with the aim to detect gene categories differentially regulated under micro- and hyper- gravity contexts.

Auletta, Gennaro; Van Loon, ing.. Jack J. W. A.; Adell, Teresa; Salo, Emili

36

Are the Platyhelminthes a Monophyletic Primitive Group? An Assessment Using 18s rDNA Sequences  

E-print Network

Are the Platyhelminthes a Monophyletic Primitive Group? An Assessment Using 18s rDNA Sequences. Universitat de Barcelona, Spain In most zoological textbooks, Platyhelminthes are depicted as an early "Turbellaria," 3 species of parasitic Platyhelminthes, and several diploblastic and deuterostome and protostome

Carranza, Salvador

37

Expression of Nephrin Homologue in the Freshwater Planarian, Dugesia japonica  

PubMed Central

Excretory organs contain epithelial cells that form a filtration membrane specialized for ultrafiltration to produce primary urine. In vertebrates, the filtration membrane is made up of slit diaphragm (SD) formed by glomerular podocytes. Basal metazoans such as flatworms are also known have filtration epithelial cells, called flame cells, which exhibit SD-like structures. The molecular components of podocyte SD have been studied in detail, while those of the SD-like structures in basal metazoans including flatworms remain to be clarified. To determine whether the SD-like structures in flatworms have molecular components common to the SD in vertebrate podocytes, we examined the expression of gene homologue for mammalian nephrin, which encodes an essential transmembrane protein that participates in the formation of the SD, in a species of flatworms, planarian (Dugesia japonica). Flame cells were distributed throughout the entire body of the planarian, but the nephrin-expressing cells identified by in situ hybridization were mainly detected at body periphery excluding head region. The distribution pattern of nephrin-expressing cells was similar to that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-expressing neoblasts, which are pluripotent stem cells characteristic to planarians. These findings indicated that the SD-like structures can be formed without the Nephrin protein in planarian flame cells. PMID:25859064

Nakamura, Tomomi; Takagi, Sota; Matsumoto, Midori; Tashiro, Fumio; Sakai, Tatsuo; Ichimura, Koichiro

2014-01-01

38

GABA in the nervous system of the planarian Polycelis nigra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in vertebrates and it has a similar inhibitory role in several invertebrate taxa. The transmitters serotonin, octopamine, catecholamines and histamine are present in flatworms while evidence for GABA is still lacking. Therefore, we have studied the occurrence of GABA-like immunoreactivity (IR) in the planarian nervous system. Specimens of Polycelis nigra were fixed

Krister Eriksson; Pertti Panula; Maria Reuter

1995-01-01

39

The head-regeneration transcriptome of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Background Planarian flatworms can regenerate their head, including a functional brain, within less than a week. Despite the enormous potential of these animals for medical research and regenerative medicine, the mechanisms of regeneration and the molecules involved remain largely unknown. Results To identify genes that are differentially expressed during early stages of planarian head regeneration, we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly from more than 300 million paired-end reads from planarian fragments regenerating the head at 16 different time points. The assembly yielded 26,018 putative transcripts, including very long transcripts spanning multiple genomic supercontigs, and thousands of isoforms. Using short-read data from two platforms, we analyzed dynamic gene regulation during the first three days of head regeneration. We identified at least five different temporal synexpression classes, including genes specifically induced within a few hours after injury. Furthermore, we characterized the role of a conserved Runx transcription factor, smed-runt-like1. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown and immunofluorescence analysis of the regenerating visual system indicated that smed-runt-like1 encodes a transcriptional regulator of eye morphology and photoreceptor patterning. Conclusions Transcriptome sequencing of short reads allowed for the simultaneous de novo assembly and differential expression analysis of transcripts, demonstrating highly dynamic regulation during head regeneration in planarians. PMID:21846378

2011-01-01

40

5HT 1Alike receptor activation inhibits abstinence-induced methamphetamine withdrawal in planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

No pharmacological therapy is approved to treat methamphetamine physical dependence, but it has been hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT)-enhancing drugs might limit the severity of withdrawal symptoms. To test this hypothesis, we used a planarian model of physical dependence that quantifies withdrawal as a reduction in planarian movement. Planarians exposed to methamphetamine (10?M) for 60min, and then placed (tested) into drug-free

Scott M. Rawls; Hardik Shah; George Ayoub; Robert B. Raffa

2010-01-01

41

Wnt signaling is required for antero-posterior patterning of the planarian brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wnt signaling functions in axis formation and morphogenesis in various animals and organs. Here we report that Wnt signaling is required for proper brain patterning during planarian brain regeneration. We showed here that one of the Wnt homologues in the planarian Dugesia japonica, DjwntA, was expressed in the posterior region of the brain. When DjwntA-knockdown planarians were produced by RNAi,

Chiyoko Kobayashi; Yumi Saito; Kazuya Ogawa; Kiyokazu Agata

2007-01-01

42

The distribution of New Zealand and Australian terrestrial flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Turbellaria: Tricladida: Terricola) in the British Isles—the Scottish survey and MEGALAB WORMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Zealand flatworm, Artioposthia triangulata, and the Australian flatworm, Caenoplana alba, have become quite widespread in the British Isles since their introduction, probably in the early 1960s. They are considered as pest species since they eat earthworms and consequently may affect soil structure and fertility. The distribution of the two species has been recorded by two surveys: a Scottish

H. D. Jones; B. Boag

1996-01-01

43

Cell Death and Tissue Remodeling in Planarian Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Many long-lived organisms, including humans, can regenerate some adult tissues lost to physical injury or disease. Much of the previous research on mechanisms of regeneration has focused on adult stem cells, which give rise to new tissue necessary for the replacement of missing body parts. Here we report that apoptosis of differentiated cells complements stem cell division during regeneration in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Specifically, we developed a whole-mount TUNEL assay that allowed us to document two dramatic increases in the rate of apoptosis following amputation – an intial localized response near the wound site and a subsequent systemic response that varies in magnitude depending on the type of fragment examined. The latter cell death response can be induced in uninjured organs, occurs in the absence of planarian stem cells, and can also be triggered by prolonged starvation. Taken together, our results implicate apoptosis in the restoration of proper anatomical scale and proportion through remodeling of existing tissues. We also report results from initial mechanistic studies of apoptosis in planarians, which revealed that a S. mediterranea homolog of the antiapoptotic gene BCL2 is required for cell survival in adult animals. We propose that apoptosis is a central mechanism working in concert with stem cell division to restore anatomical form and function during metazoan regeneration. PMID:19766622

Pellettieri, Jason; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Watanabe, Shigeki; Mancuso, Joel; Green, Douglas R.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

2010-01-01

44

pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians  

PubMed Central

Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes. PMID:23318641

Chen, Chun-Chieh G.; Wang, Irving E.; Reddien, Peter W.

2013-01-01

45

The phylogenetic significance of sperm morphology in the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic significance of flatworm sperm morphology is discussed against the background of general spermatology. The modified type of spermatozoon of the Nemertodermatida, a group of primitive flatworms, indicates that the Platyhelminthes evolved from forms characterized by the primitive type of metazoan sperm and by the primitive mode of fertilization, implying the release of sperm freely into sea water.

Jan Hendelberg

1986-01-01

46

Interrelationships and Evolution of the Tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interrelationships of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined by use of small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit ribosomal DNA sequences and morphological characters. Fifty new complete SSU sequences were added to 21 sequences previously determined, and 71 new LSU (D1–D3) sequences were determined for the complementary set of taxa representing each of the major lineages of cestodes as currently understood.

Peter D. Olson; D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Rodney A. Bray; Jean Mariaux

2001-01-01

47

Sucrose produces withdrawal and dopamine-sensitive reinforcing effects in planarians  

PubMed Central

Sucrose produces physical dependence and reinforcing effects in rats. We hypothesized that similar effects could be demonstrated in planarians, the earliest animal with a centralized nervous system. We used two assays, one that quantifies withdrawal responses during drug absence as a reduction in motility and another that quantifies reinforcing effects using a conditioned place preference (CPP) design. In withdrawal experiments, planarians exposed to sucrose (1%) for 60 min and then tested in water for 5 min displayed reduced motility compared to water controls. Acute or continuous sucrose (1%) exposure did not affect motility. CPP experiments used a biased design to capitalize upon planarians’ natural preference for the dark (pretest, sucrose conditioning in the light, posttest). Planarians conditioned with sucrose (1%) displayed a greater preference shift than sucrose-naïve planarians. Glucose (0.1, 1%), but not the non-digestible disaccharide lactulose (0.1, 1%), also produced a greater preference shift than water-exposed planarians. Development of sucrose-induced CPP was inhibited when sucrose (1%) conditioning was conducted in combination with dopamine receptor antagonists SCH 23390 (1 µM) or sulpiride (1 µM). These results suggest that rewarding and reinforcing effects of sugar are highly conserved across species and that planarians offer an invertebrate model to provide insight into the pharmacological effects of sucrose and related sweeteners. PMID:23415661

Zhang, Charlie; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

2014-01-01

48

Transcriptome Analysis of the Planarian Eye Identifies ovo as a Specific Regulator of Eye Regeneration  

E-print Network

Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian ...

Lapan, Sylvain W.

49

The planarian flatworm: an in vivo model for stem cell biology and nervous system regeneration  

PubMed Central

Planarian flatworms are an exception among bilaterians in that they possess a large pool of adult stem cells that enables them to promptly regenerate any part of their body, including the brain. Although known for two centuries for their remarkable regenerative capabilities, planarians have only recently emerged as an attractive model for studying regeneration and stem cell biology. This revival is due in part to the availability of a sequenced genome and the development of new technologies, such as RNA interference and next-generation sequencing, which facilitate studies of planarian regeneration at the molecular level. Here, we highlight why planarians are an exciting tool in the study of regeneration and its underlying stem cell biology in vivo, and discuss the potential promises and current limitations of this model organism for stem cell research and regenerative medicine. PMID:21135057

Gentile, Luca; Cebrià, Francesc; Bartscherer, Kerstin

2011-01-01

50

Constitutive gene expression and specification of tissue identity in adult planarian biology  

PubMed Central

Planarians are flatworms that constitutively maintain adult tissues through cell turnover and can regenerate entire organisms from tiny body fragments. In addition to requiring new cells (from neoblasts), these feats require mechanisms that specify tissue identity in the adult. Critical roles for Wnt and BMP signaling in regeneration and maintenance of the body axes have been uncovered, among other regulatory factors. Available data indicate that genes involved in positional identity regulation at key embryonic stages in other animals display persisting regionalized expression in adult planarians. These expression patterns suggest that a constitutively active gene expression map exists for maintenance of the planarian body. Planarians therefore present a fertile ground for identification of factors regulating regionalization of the metazoan body plan and for study of the attributes of these factors that can lead to maintenance and regeneration of adult tissues. PMID:21680047

Reddien, Peter W.

2011-01-01

51

Transcriptome analysis of the planarian eye identifies ovo as a specific regulator of eye regeneration  

PubMed Central

Summary Among the millions of invertebrate species with visual systems, the genetic basis of eye development and function is well understood only in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe an eye transcriptome for the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian photoreceptors expressed orthologs of genes required for phototransduction and microvillus structure in Drosophila and vertebrates, and optic pigment cells expressed solute transporters and melanin synthesis enzymes similar to those active in the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium. Orthologs of several planarian eye genes, such as bestrophin-1 and Usher syndrome genes, cause eye defects in mammals when perturbed and were not previously described to have roles in invertebrate eyes. Five previously undescribed planarian eye transcription factors were required for normal eye formation during head regeneration. In particular, a conserved, transcription factor-encoding ovo gene was expressed from the earliest stages of eye regeneration and was required for regeneration of all cell types of the eye. PMID:22884275

Lapan, Sylvain W.; Reddien, Peter W.

2013-01-01

52

THE HISTORY AND ENDURING CONTRIBUTIONS OF PLANARIANS TO THE STUDY OF ANIMAL REGENERATION  

PubMed Central

Having an almost unlimited capacity to regenerate tissues lost to age and injury, planarians have long fascinated naturalists. In the Western hemisphere alone, their documented history spans more than 200 years. Planarians were described in the early 19th century as being “immortal under the edge of the knife,” and initial investigation of these remarkable animals was significantly influenced by studies of regeneration in other organisms and from the flourishing field of experimental embryology in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This review strives to place the study of planarian regeneration into a broader historical context by focusing on the significance and evolution of knowledge in this field. It also synthesizes our current molecular understanding of the mechanisms of planarian regeneration uncovered since this animal’s relatively recent entrance into the molecular-genetic age. PMID:23799578

Elliott, Sarah A.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2012-01-01

53

Aspects of the phylogeny of Platyhelminthes based on 18S ribosomal DNA and protonephridial ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA studies of 23 taxa (20 platyhelminths, 1 nemertean, Homo and Artemia) and electron-microscopic studies of the protonephridia of many platyhelminths (supported by some additional ultrastructural data) have led to the following conclusions: the Neodermata are monophyletic; Temnocephalida and Dalyelliida form one clade and are not the ‘primitive’ sister group of the Neodermata; Gyrocotylidea, Amphilinidea and Eucestoda form one monophylum;

K. Rohde; A. M. Johnson; P. R. Baverstock; N. A. Watson

1995-01-01

54

Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase-Dependent Redox Networks in Platyhelminth Parasites  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Platyhelminth parasites cause chronic infections that are a major cause of disability, mortality, and economic losses in developing countries. Maintaining redox homeostasis is a major adaptive problem faced by parasites and its disruption can shift the biochemical balance toward the host. Platyhelminth parasites possess a streamlined thiol-based redox system in which a single enzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), a fusion of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain to canonical thioredoxin reductase (TR) domains, supplies electrons to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thioredoxin (Trx). TGR has been validated as a drug target for schistosomiasis. Recent Advances: In addition to glutathione (GSH) and Trx reduction, TGR supports GSH-independent deglutathionylation conferring an additional advantage to the TGR redox array. Biochemical and structural studies have shown that the TR activity does not require the Grx domain, while the glutathione reductase and deglutathionylase activities depend on the Grx domain, which receives electrons from the TR domains. The search for TGR inhibitors has identified promising drug leads, notably oxadiazole N-oxides. Critical Issues: A conspicuous feature of platyhelminth TGRs is that their Grx-dependent activities are temporarily inhibited at high GSSG concentrations. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon and its biological relevance are not completely understood. Future Directions: The functional diversity of Trxs and Grxs encoded in platyhelminth genomes remains to be further assessed to thoroughly understand the TGR-dependent redox network. Optimization of TGR inhibitors and identification of compounds targeting other parasite redox enzymes are good options to clinically develop relevant drugs for these neglected, but important diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 735–745. PMID:22909029

Bonilla, Mariana; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2013-01-01

55

Wnt signaling is required for antero-posterior patterning of the planarian brain.  

PubMed

Wnt signaling functions in axis formation and morphogenesis in various animals and organs. Here we report that Wnt signaling is required for proper brain patterning during planarian brain regeneration. We showed here that one of the Wnt homologues in the planarian Dugesia japonica, DjwntA, was expressed in the posterior region of the brain. When DjwntA-knockdown planarians were produced by RNAi, they could regenerate their heads at the anterior ends of the fragments, but formed ectopic eyes with irregular posterior lateral branches and brain expansion. This suggests that the Wnt signal may be involved in antero-posterior (A-P) patterning of the planarian brain, as in vertebrates. We also investigated the relationship between the DjwntA and nou-darake/FGFR signal systems, as knockdown planarians of these genes showed similar phenotypes. Double-knockdown planarians of these genes did not show any synergistic effects, suggesting that the two signal systems function independently in the process of brain regeneration, which accords with the fact that nou-darake was expressed earlier than DjwntA during brain regeneration. These observations suggest that the nou-darake/FGFR signal may be involved in brain rudiment formation during the early stage of head regeneration, and subsequently the DjwntA signal may function in A-P patterning of the brain rudiment. PMID:17498685

Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Saito, Yumi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Agata, Kiyokazu

2007-06-15

56

A cembranoid from tobacco prevents the expression of nicotine-induced withdrawal behavior in planarian worms  

PubMed Central

Using an adaptation of published behavioral protocols, we determined that acute exposure to the cholinergic compounds nicotine and carbamylcholine decreased planarian motility in a concentration-dependent manner. A tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-cembra-2,7,11-triene-4,6-diol (4R-cembranoid), also decreased planarian motility. Experiments in the presence of 1 ?M 4R-cembranoid did increase the IC50 for nicotine- but not carbamylcholine-induced decrease in planarian motility. When planarians were exposed for 24 h to either nicotine or carbamylcholine at concentrations near their respective IC50 values and then transferred to plain media, nicotine-exposed, but not carbamylcholine- or cembranoid-exposed worms displayed withdrawal-like distress behaviors. In experiments where planarians were pre-exposed to 100 ?M nicotine for 24 h in the presence of 1 ?M 4R-cembranoid, the withdrawal-like effects were significantly reduced. These results indicate that the 4R-cembranoid might have valuable applications for tobacco abuse research. This experimental approach using planarians is useful for the initial screening of compounds relevant to drug abuse and dependence. PMID:19490913

Pagán, Oné R.; Rowlands, Amanda L.; Fattore, Angela L.; Coudron, Tamara; Urban, Kimberly R.; Bidja, Apurva H.; Eterovi?, Vesna A.

2010-01-01

57

Planarian PTEN homologs regulate stem cells and regeneration through TOR signaling  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We have identified two genes, Smed-PTEN-1 and Smed-PTEN-2, capable of regulating stem cell function in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Both genes encode proteins homologous to the mammalian tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Inactivation of Smed-PTEN-1 and -2 by RNA interference (RNAi) in planarians disrupts regeneration, and leads to abnormal outgrowths in both cut and uncut animals followed soon after by death (lysis). The resulting phenotype is characterized by hyperproliferation of neoblasts (planarian stem cells), tissue disorganization and a significant accumulation of postmitotic cells with impaired differentiation capacity. Further analyses revealed that rapamycin selectively prevented such accumulation without affecting the normal neoblast proliferation associated with physiological turnover and regeneration. In animals in which PTEN function is abrogated, we also detected a significant increase in the number of cells expressing the planarian Akt gene homolog (Smed-Akt). However, functional abrogation of Smed-Akt in Smed-PTEN RNAi-treated animals does not prevent cell overproliferation and lethality, indicating that functional abrogation of Smed-PTEN is sufficient to induce abnormal outgrowths. Altogether, our data reveal roles for PTEN in the regulation of planarian stem cells that are strikingly conserved to mammalian models. In addition, our results implicate this protein in the control of stem cell maintenance during the regeneration of complex structures in planarians. PMID:19048075

Oviedo, Néstor J.; Pearson, Bret J.; Levin, Michael; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

2008-01-01

58

Bioelectric signaling regulates head and organ size during planarian regeneration  

PubMed Central

A main goal of regenerative medicine is to replace lost or damaged tissues and organs with functional parts of the correct size and shape. But the proliferation of new cells is not sufficient; we will also need to understand how the scale and ultimate form of newly produced tissues are determined. Using the planarian model system, we report that membrane voltage-dependent bioelectric signaling determines both head size and organ scaling during regeneration. RNA interference of the H+,K+-ATPase ion pump results in membrane hyperpolarization, which has no effect on the amount of new tissue (blastema) that is regenerated yet produces regenerates with tiny ‘shrunken’ heads and proportionally oversized pharynges. Our data show that this disproportionality results from a lack of the apoptosis required to adjust head and organ size and placement, highlighting apoptotic remodeling as the link between bioelectric signaling and the establishment of organ size during regeneration. PMID:23250205

Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Lemire, Joan M.; Levin, Michael

2013-01-01

59

The expression of neural-specific genes reveals the structural and molecular complexity of the planarian central nervous system.  

PubMed

Planarians are attractive animals in which various questions related to the central nervous system (CNS) can be addressed, such as its origin and evolution, its degree of functional conservation among different organisms, and the plasticity and regenerative capabilities of neural cells and networks. However, it is first necessary to characterize at the gene expression level how this CNS is organized in intact animals. Previous studies have shown that the planarian brain can be divided into at least three distinct domains based on the expression of otd/Otx-related genes. In order to further characterize the planarian brain, we have recently isolated a large number of planarian neural-specific genes through DNA microarrays and ESTs projects. Here, we describe new molecular domains within the brain of intact planarians by the expression of 16 planarian neural-specific genes, including the putative homologues of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor, synaptotagmin VII, slit, G protein and glutamate and acetylcholine receptors, by in situ hybridization in both whole-mount and transverse sections. Our results indicate that planarian otd/Otx-positive domains can be further subdivided into distinct molecular regions according to the expression of different neural genes. We found differences at the gene expression level between the dorsal and ventral sides of the brain, along its antero-posterior axis and also between the proximal and distal parts of the brain lateral branches. This high level of regionalization in the planarian brain contrasts with its apparent simplicity at the morphological level. PMID:12128224

Cebrià, Francesc; Kudome, Tomomi; Nakazawa, Masumi; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Agata, Kiyokazu

2002-08-01

60

Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the platyhelminthes  

SciTech Connect

We determined 9.7, 5.2, and 6.8 kb, respectively, of the mitochondrial genomes of the acoel Paratomella rubra, the nemertodermatid Nemertoderma westbladi and the free-living rhabditophoran platyhelminth Microstomum lineare. The identified gene arrangements are unique among metazoans, including each other, sharing no more than one or two single gene boundaries with a few distantly related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences inferred from the sequenced genes confirms that the acoelomorph flatworms (acoels + nemertodermatids) do not belong to the Platyhelminthes, but are, instead, the most basal extant bilaterian group. Therefore, the Platyhelminthes, as traditionally constituted, is a polyphyletic phylum.

Ruiz-Trillo, Inaki; Riutort, Marta; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Baguna, Jaume; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2004-05-01

61

A molecular wound response program associated with regeneration initiation in planarians  

PubMed Central

Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing body part and present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration initiation. The gene activation program that occurs at planarian wounds to coordinate regenerative responses remains unknown. We identified a large set of wound-induced genes during regeneration initiation in planarians. Two waves of wound-induced gene expression occurred in differentiated tissues. The first wave includes conserved immediate early genes. Many second-wave genes encode conserved patterning factors required for proper regeneration. Genes of both classes were generally induced by wounding, indicating that a common initial gene expression program is triggered regardless of missing tissue identity. Planarian regeneration uses a population of regenerative cells (neoblasts), including pluripotent stem cells. A class of wound-induced genes was activated directly within neoblasts, including the Runx transcription factor-encoding runt-1 gene. runt-1 was required for specifying different cell types during regeneration, promoting heterogeneity in neoblasts near wounds. Wound-induced gene expression in neoblasts, including that of runt-1, required SRF (serum response factor) and sos-1. Taken together, these data connect wound sensation to the activation of specific cell type regeneration programs in neoblasts. Most planarian wound-induced genes are conserved across metazoans, and identified genes and mechanisms should be important broadly for understanding wound signaling and regeneration initiation. PMID:22549959

Wenemoser, Danielle; Lapan, Sylvain W.; Wilkinson, Alex W.; Bell, George W.; Reddien, Peter W.

2012-01-01

62

Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation  

PubMed Central

Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

2014-01-01

63

Early planarian brain regeneration is independent of blastema polarity mediated by the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.  

PubMed

Analysis of anteroposterior (AP) axis specification in regenerating planarian flatworms has shown that Wnt/?-catenin signaling is required for posterior specification and that the FGF-like receptor molecule nou-darake (ndk) may be involved in restricting brain regeneration to anterior regions. The relationship between re-establishment of AP identity and correct morphogenesis of the brain is, however, still poorly understood. Here we report the characterization of two axin paralogs in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Although Axins are well known negative regulators of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, no role in AP specification has previously been reported for axin genes in planarians. We show that silencing of Smed-axin genes by RNA interference (RNAi) results in two-tailed planarians, a phenotype previously reported after silencing of Smed-APC-1, another ?-catenin inhibitor. More strikingly, we show for the first time that while early brain formation at anterior wounds remains unaffected, subsequent development of the brain is blocked in the two-tailed planarians generated after silencing of Smed-axin genes and Smed-APC-1. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying early brain formation can be uncoupled from the specification of AP identity by the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Finally, the posterior expansion of the brain observed following Smed-ndk RNAi is enhanced by silencing Smed-APC-1, revealing an indirect relationship between the FGFR/Ndk and Wnt/?-catenin signaling systems in establishing the posterior limits of brain differentiation. PMID:21806978

Iglesias, Marta; Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Aboobaker, A Aziz; Saló, Emili

2011-10-01

64

Fine-structural characteristics of female and male germ cells in Proseriata Otoplanidae (Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine-structural features of female germ cells differentiating within the germaria of Otoplanella baltica and Notocaryoplanella glandulosa are documented and compared with those of other free-living platyhelminths having ectolecithal eggs.

Beate Sopott Ehlers

1986-01-01

65

Contributions to the systematics, comparative morphology, and interrelationships of selected lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)  

E-print Network

The Lecanicephalidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are a morphologically diverse group of elasmobranch (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) tapeworms. Currently, 95 species in 16 genera are recognized as valid. However, nine genera have previously been...

Cielocha, Joanna J.

2013-05-31

66

Planarian MBD2/3 is required for adult stem cell pluripotency independently of DNA methylation?  

PubMed Central

Planarian adult stem cells (pASCs) or neoblasts represent an ideal system to study the evolution of stem cells and pluripotency as they underpin an unrivaled capacity for regeneration. We wish to understand the control of differentiation and pluripotency in pASCs and to understand how conserved, convergent or divergent these mechanisms are across the Bilateria. Here we show the planarian methyl-CpG Binding Domain 2/3 (mbd2/3) gene is required for pASC differentiation during regeneration and tissue homeostasis. The genome does not have detectable levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and we find no role for a potential DNA methylase. We conclude that MBD proteins may have had an ancient role in broadly controlling animal stem cell pluripotency, but that DNA methylation is not involved in planarian stem cell differentiation. PMID:24063805

Jaber-Hijazi, Farah; Lo, Priscilla J.K.P.; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Foster, Jeremy M.; Benner, Jack S.; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Malla, Sunir; Solana, Jordi; Ruzov, Alexey; Aziz Aboobaker, A.

2013-01-01

67

Expression of hsp90 mediates cytoprotective effects in the gastrodermis of planarians  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a crucial role in the protection of cells. In the present study, we have identified an hsp90-related gene (Djhsp90) encoding a cytosolic form of HSP90 that is primarily expressed in gastrodermis of the planarian Dugesia japonica. Djhsp90 becomes significantly induced after traumatic amputation or other stress stimuli, such as exposure to X-ray or ultraviolet radiations, heat shock, or prolonged starvation. When Djhsp90 is silenced by ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi), planarians dramatically decrease in size, becoming unable to eat, and die in a few weeks. Our results indicate that this gene plays an essential cytoprotective role in the gastrodermis of planarians and suggest that this chaperone can be involved in autophagic processes that are activated by this tissue. PMID:20706815

Conte, Maria; Isolani, Maria Emilia; Deri, Paolo; Mannini, Linda

2010-01-01

68

The interrelationships of all major groups of Platyhelminthes: phylogenetic evidence from morphology and molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a data matrix of 65 morphological characters from 25 ingroup and 6 outgroup taxa, and an alignment comprising complete 18S rDNA sequences from 82 species of parasitic and free-living Platyhelminthes and from 19 species of lower invertebrates to analyse phylogenetic relationships of various platyhelminth taxa. Of the 1358 unambiguously alignable molecular positions, 995 were variable and 757 were

D. T. J. LITTLEWOOD; K. ROHDE; K. A. CLOUGH

1999-01-01

69

The molecular logic for planarian regeneration along the anterior-posterior axis.  

PubMed

The planarian Dugesia japonica can regenerate a complete individual from a head, trunk or tail fragment via activation of somatic pluripotent stem cells. About a century ago, Thomas Hunt Morgan attempted to explain the extraordinary regenerative ability of planarians by positing two opposing morphogenetic gradients of formative "head stuff" and "tail stuff" along the anterior-posterior axis. However, Morgan's hypothesis remains open to debate. Here we show that extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathways establish a solid framework for planarian regeneration. Our data suggest that ERK signalling forms a spatial gradient in the anterior region during regeneration. The fibroblast growth factor receptor-like gene nou-darake (which serves as an output of ERK signalling in the differentiating head) and posteriorly biased ?-catenin activity negatively regulate ERK signalling along the anterior-posterior axis in distinct manners, and thereby posteriorize regenerating tissues outside the head region to reconstruct a complete head-to-tail axis. On the basis of this knowledge about D. japonica, we proposed that ?-catenin signalling is responsible for the lack of head-regenerative ability of tail fragments in the planarian Phagocata kawakatsui, and our confirmation thereof supports the notion that posterior ?-catenin signalling negatively modulates the ERK signalling involved in anteriorization across planarian species. These findings suggest that ERK signalling has a pivotal role in triggering globally dynamic differentiation of stem cells in a head-to-tail sequence through a default program that promotes head tissue specification in the absence of posteriorizing signals. Thus, we have confirmed the broad outline of Morgan's hypothesis, and refined it on the basis of our proposed default property of planarian stem cells. PMID:23883928

Umesono, Yoshihiko; Tasaki, Junichi; Nishimura, Yui; Hrouda, Martina; Kawaguchi, Eri; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Hosoda, Kazutaka; Inoue, Takeshi; Agata, Kiyokazu

2013-08-01

70

Making heads or tails: planarian stem cells in the classroom.  

PubMed

Stem cells hold great promise in the treatment of diseases ranging from cancer to dementia. However, as rapidly as the field of stem cell biology has emerged, heated political debate has followed, scrutinizing the ethical implications of stem cell use. It is therefore imperative to promote scientific literacy by educating students about stem cell biology. Yet, there is a definite lack of material to engage students in this subject at the basic science level. Therefore, we have developed and implemented a hands-on introductory laboratory module that introduces students to stem cell biology and can be easily incorporated into existing curricula. Students learn about stem cell biology using an in vivo planarian model system in which they down-regulate two genes important in stem cell differentiation using RNA interference and then observe the regenerative phenotype. The module was piloted at the high school, community college, and university levels. Here, we report that introductory biology students enrolled at a community college were able to demonstrate gains in learning after completion of a one-hour lecture and four 45-minute laboratory sessions over the course of three weeks. These gains in learning outcomes were objectively evaluated both before and after its execution using a student quiz and experimental results. Furthermore, students' self-assessments revealed increases in perceived knowledge as well as a general interest in stem cells. Therefore, these data suggest that this module is a simple, useful way to engage and to teach students about stem cell biology. PMID:24839511

Srougi, Melissa C; Thomas-Swanik, Jackie; Chan, John D; Marchant, Jonathan S; Carson, Susan

2014-05-01

71

RNA interference by feeding in vitro synthesized double-stranded RNA to planarians: methodology and dynamics  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to assess gene function is essential for understanding biological processes. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) is the only technique available to assess gene function in planarians, in which it has been induced via injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), soaking, or ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. Results We describe a simple and robust RNAi protocol, involving in vitro synthesis of dsRNA that is fed to the planarians. Advantages of this protocol include the ability to produce dsRNA from any vector without subcloning, resolution of ambiguities in quantity and quality of input dsRNA, as well as time, and ease of application. We have evaluated the logistics of inducing RNAi in planarians using this methodology in careful detail, from the ingestion and processing of dsRNA in the intestine, to timing and efficacy of knockdown in neoblasts, germline, and soma. We also present systematic comparisons of effects of amount, frequency, and mode of dsRNA delivery. Conclusions This method gives robust and reproducible results and is amenable to high-throughput studies. Overall, this RNAi methodology provides a significant advance by combining the strengths of current protocols available for dsRNA delivery in planarians and has the potential to benefit RNAi methods in other systems. PMID:23441014

Rouhana, Labib; Weiss, Jennifer A.; Forsthoefel, David J.; Lee, Hayoung; King, Ryan S.; Inoue, Takeshi; Shibata, Norito; Agata, Kiyokazu; Newmark, Phillip A.

2013-01-01

72

In situ hybridization protocol for enhanced detection of gene expression in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Background The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has emerged as a powerful model for studies of regenerative, stem cell, and germ cell biology. Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and whole-mount fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are critical methods for determining gene expression patterns in planarians. While expression patterns for a number of genes have been elucidated using established protocols, determining the expression patterns for particularly low-abundance transcripts remains a challenge. Results We show here that a short bleaching step in formamide dramatically enhances signal intensity of WISH and FISH. To further improve signal sensitivity we optimized blocking conditions for multiple anti-hapten antibodies, developed a copper sulfate quenching step that virtually eliminates autofluorescence, and enhanced signal intensity through iterative rounds of tyramide signal amplification. For FISH on regenerating planarians, we employed a heat-induced antigen retrieval step that provides a better balance between permeabilization of mature tissues and preservation of regenerating tissues. We also show that azide most effectively quenches peroxidase activity between rounds of development for multicolor FISH experiments. Finally, we apply these modifications to elucidate the expression patterns of a few low-abundance transcripts. Conclusion The modifications we present here provide significant improvements in signal intensity and signal sensitivity for WISH and FISH in planarians. Additionally, these modifications might be of widespread utility for whole-mount FISH in other model organisms. PMID:23497040

2013-01-01

73

Ultrastructural features of the epidermis of the planarian Artioposthia triangulata (Dendy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermis of the land planarian Arthioposthia triangulatawas examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Thisinvestigation revealed that the flatworm was covered entirely withcilia and was especially densely populated on the ventral surface.In all regions the epidermis consisted of a one-layered columnarepithelium resting on a prominent basement membrane, but lacking aterminal web. Various secretions were found in the epidermistogether with

Catherine McGee; Ian Fairweather; Rod P. Blackshaw

1997-01-01

74

Different requirements for conserved post-transcriptional regulators in planarian regeneration and stem cell maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarian regeneration depends on the presence and precise regulation of pluripotent adult somatic stem cells named neoblasts, which differentiate to replace cells of any missing tissue. A characteristic feature of neoblasts is the presence of large perinuclear nonmembranous organelles named “chromatoid bodies”, which are comparable to ribonucleoprotein structures found in germ cells of organisms across different phyla. In order to

Labib Rouhana; Norito Shibata; Osamu Nishimura; Kiyokazu Agata

2010-01-01

75

Planarians require an intact brain to behaviorally react to cocaine, but not to react to nicotine  

PubMed Central

Planarians possess a rudimentary brain with many features in common with vertebrate brains. They also display a remarkable capacity for tissue regeneration including the complete regeneration of the nervous system. Using the induction of planarian seizure-like movements (pSLMs) as a behavioral endpoint, we demonstrate that an intact nervous system is necessary for this organism to react to cocaine exposure, but not necessary to react to nicotine administration. Decapitated planarians (Girardia tigrina) display pSLMs indistinguishable from intact worms when exposed to nicotine, but cocaine-induced pSLMs are reduced by about 95% upon decapitation. Decapitated worms recover their normal sensitivity to cocaine within five days after head amputation. In worms where half of the brain was removed or partially dissected, the expression of cocaine-induced pSLMs was reduced by approximately 75 %. Similar amputations at the level of the tail did not show a significant decrease to cocaine exposure. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first report that explores how regenerating planarians react to the exposure of cocaine. PMID:23684614

Pagán, Oné R.; Deats, Sean; Baker, Debra; Montgomery, Erica; Wilk, Galia; Tenaglia, Matthew; Semon, Joshua

2013-01-01

76

The use of planarians to dissect the molecular basis of metazoan regeneration  

E-print Network

- opmental plasticity, and evolutionary position, planarians are an attractive system to dissect since Trembley first reported its occurrence in hydra over 250 years ago. The timeless attraction regenerative powers (e.g., imaginal disc regeneration in Drosophila) or no regeneration at all (Caenorhab

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

77

Memory and obesity affect the population dynamics of asexual freshwater planarians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asexual reproduction in multicellular organisms is a complex biophysical process that is not yet well understood quantitatively. Here, we report a detailed population study for the asexual freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, which can reproduce via transverse fission due to a large stem cell contingent. Our long-term observations of isolated non-interacting planarian populations reveal that the characteristic fission waiting time distributions for head and tail fragments differ significantly from each other. The stochastic fission dynamics of tail fragments exhibits non-negligible memory effects, implying that an accurate mathematical description of future data should be based on non-Markovian tree models. By comparing the effective growth of non-interacting planarian populations with those of self-interacting populations, we are able to quantify the influence of interactions between flatworms and physical conditions on the population growth. A surprising result is the non-monotonic relationship between effective population growth rate and nutrient supply: planarians exhibit a tendency to become 'obese' if the feeding frequency exceeds a critical level, resulting in a decreased reproduction activity. This suggests that these flatworms, which possess many genes homologous to those of humans, could become a new model system for studying dietary effects on reproduction and regeneration in multicellular organisms.

Dunkel, Jörn; Talbot, Jared; Schötz, Eva-Maria

2011-04-01

78

Freshwater planarians as novel organisms for genotoxicity testing: Analysis of chromosome aberrations.  

PubMed

Two freshwater species of planarians, Girardia schubarti Marcus and G. tigrina Girard, were used for measuring chromosome aberration (CA) induction under laboratory conditions. Three genotoxicants were tested: methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a direct-acting genotoxicant; cyclophosphamide, a metabolism-dependent genotoxicant; and gamma-radiation, a clastogenic agent. All three agents produced positive responses in both species. The strongest dose-responses were detected with MMS, and, in general, G. tigrina was somewhat more sensitive to the genotoxicity of the agents than G. schubarti. This difference in sensitivity may be due to: (a) the smaller body mass of G. tigrina; (b) differences in DNA repair, which may be reflected in the marginally higher background CA frequency of G. tigrina; and/or (c) the greater number of chromosomes in G. tigrina (2N = 16) as compared with G. schubarti (2N = 8). The responses induced by gamma-radiation in the planarians were similar to or higher than those induced in cultured human lymphocytes. The CA-planarian assay has advantages for monitoring environmental genotoxicity in natural water resources or urban and industrial wastewater since planarians are characterized by (a) a relatively low number of easily analyzable chromosomes; (b) high regenerating capacity, allowing exposure of replicating cells from different parts of the same organism to different doses; (c) easy maintenance under laboratory conditions; and (d) worldwide distribution, making them available for genotoxicity tests using either in situ or controlled laboratory exposure conditions. PMID:17584880

Lau, Adriana Helena; Knakievicz, Tanise; Prá, Daniel; Erdtmann, Bernardo

2007-07-01

79

Multicellularity, stem cells, and the neoblasts of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

E-print Network

Review Multicellularity, stem cells, and the neoblasts of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea Available online 25 April 2005 Abstract All multicellular organisms depend on stem cells for their survival of stem cells may have been a prerequisite in the evolution of multicellular organisms. We present

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

80

The early emergence of platyhelminths is contradicted by the agreement between 18S rRNA and Hox genes data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic position of thé platyhelminths within the metazoan tree is examined using two independent sets of molecular characters, the evolution of 18S ribosomal RNA sequences and the diversity of the genes belonging to the HOX cluster. Among the various hypotheses that have been considered by zoologists, a position of the platyhelminths within the protostomes, related to the phyla with

Guillaume Balavoine

1997-01-01

81

A forkhead Transcription Factor Is Wound-Induced at the Planarian Midline and Required for Anterior Pole Regeneration  

E-print Network

Planarian regeneration requires positional information to specify the identity of tissues to be replaced as well as pluripotent neoblasts capable of differentiating into new cell types. We found that wounding elicits rapid ...

Scimone, M. Lucila

82

Epigenetic regulation of planarian stem cells by the SET1/MLL family of histone methyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Chromatin regulation is a fundamental mechanism underlying stem cell pluripotency, differentiation, and the establishment of cell type-specific gene expression profiles. To examine the role of chromatin regulation in stem cells in vivo, we study regeneration in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. These animals possess a high concentration of pluripotent stem cells, which are capable of restoring any damaged or lost tissues after injury or amputation. Here, we identify the S. mediterranea homologs of the SET1/MLL family of histone methyltransferases and COMPASS and COMPASS-like complex proteins and investigate their role in stem cell function during regeneration. We identified six S. mediterranea homologs of the SET1/MLL family (set1, mll1/2, trr-1, trr-2, mll5–1 and mll5–2), characterized their patterns of expression in the animal, and examined their function by RNAi. All members of this family are expressed in the stem cell population and differentiated tissues. We show that set1, mll1/2, trr-1, and mll5–2 are required for regeneration and that set1, trr-1 and mll5–2 play roles in the regulation of mitosis. Most notably, knockdown of the planarian set1 homolog leads to stem cell depletion. A subset of planarian homologs of COMPASS and COMPASS-like complex proteins are also expressed in stem cells and implicated in regeneration, but the knockdown phenotypes suggest that some complex members also function in other aspects of planarian biology. This work characterizes the function of the SET1/MLL family in the context of planarian regeneration and provides insight into the role of these enzymes in adult stem cell regulation in vivo. PMID:23235145

Hubert, Amy; Henderson, Jordana M.; Ross, Kelly G.; Cowles, Martis W.; Torres, Jessica; Zayas, Ricardo M.

2013-01-01

83

Protein expression profiling in head fragments during planarian regeneration after amputation.  

PubMed

Following amputation, a planarian tail fragment can regrow into a complete organism including a well-organized brain within about 2-3 weeks, thus restoring the structure and function to presurgical levels. Despite the enormous potential of these animals for regenerative medicine, our understanding of the exact mechanism of planarian regeneration is incomplete. To better understand the molecular nature of planarian head regeneration, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE)/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) technique to analyze the dynamic proteomic expression profiles over the course of 6 to 168 h post-decapitation. This approach identified a total of 141 differentially expressed proteins, 47 of which exhibited exceptionally high fold changes (?3-fold change). Of these, Rx protein, an important regulator of head and brain development, was considered to be closely related to planarian head regeneration because of its exceptional high expression almost throughout the time course of regeneration process. Functional annotation analysis classified the 141 proteins into eight categories: (1) signaling, (2) Ca(2+) binding and translocation, (3) transcription and translation, (4) cytoskeleton, (5) metabolism, (6) cell protection, (7) tissue differentiation, and (8) cell cycle. Signaling pathway analysis indicated that Wnt1/Ca(2+) signaling pathway was activated during head regeneration. Integrating the analyses of proteome expression profiling, functional annotation, and signaling pathway, amputation-induced head reformation requires some mechanisms to promote cell proliferation and differentiation, including differential regulation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins, and the regulation of proliferation and differentiation-related proteins. Importantly, Wnt1/Ca(2+) signaling pathway upregulates Rx expression, finally facilitating the differentiation of neoblasts into various cell types. Taken together, our study demonstrated that proteomic analysis approach used by us is a powerful tool in understanding molecular process related to head regeneration of planarian. PMID:25697422

Chen, Xiaoguang; Xu, Cunshuan

2015-04-01

84

Pedobiologia 42,433--440 (1998) Gustav Fischer Verlag lena  

E-print Network

(Platyhelminthes, Thrbellaria, Tricladida) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences S. Carranzal, I. Ruiz-Trillol, D. T. J, Platyhelminthes Introduction For over 100 years systematists have recognised three major groups within the Order Tricla- dida (Phylum Platyhelminthes, Class Turbellaria, Order Seriata), using Hallez's (1890) eco

Carranza, Salvador

85

Planarians as a Model to Assess In Vivo the Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes during Homeostasis and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are major executors of extracellular matrix remodeling and, consequently, play key roles in the response of cells to their microenvironment. The experimentally accessible stem cell population and the robust regenerative capabilities of planarians offer an ideal model to study how modulation of the proteolytic system in the extracellular environment affects cell behavior in vivo. Genome-wide identification of Schmidtea mediterranea MMPs reveals that planarians possess four mmp-like genes. Two of them (mmp1 and mmp2) are strongly expressed in a subset of secretory cells and encode putative matrilysins. The other genes (mt-mmpA and mt-mmpB) are widely expressed in postmitotic cells and appear structurally related to membrane-type MMPs. These genes are conserved in the planarian Dugesia japonica. Here we explore the role of the planarian mmp genes by RNA interference (RNAi) during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Our analyses identify essential functions for two of them. Following inhibition of mmp1 planarians display dramatic disruption of tissues architecture and significant decrease in cell death. These results suggest that mmp1 controls tissue turnover, modulating survival of postmitotic cells. Unexpectedly, the ability to regenerate is unaffected by mmp1(RNAi). Silencing of mt-mmpA alters tissue integrity and delays blastema growth, without affecting proliferation of stem cells. Our data support the possibility that the activity of this protease modulates cell migration and regulates anoikis, with a consequent pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Our data provide evidence of the involvement of specific MMPs in tissue homeostasis and regeneration and demonstrate that the behavior of planarian stem cells is critically dependent on the microenvironment surrounding these cells. Studying MMPs function in the planarian model provides evidence on how individual proteases work in vivo in adult tissues. These results have high potential to generate significant information for development of regenerative and anti cancer therapies. PMID:23405188

Isolani, Maria Emilia; Abril, Josep F.; Saló, Emili; Deri, Paolo; Bianucci, Anna Maria; Batistoni, Renata

2013-01-01

86

Planarian activity differences when maintained in water pre-treated with magnetic fields: a nonlinear effect.  

PubMed

There have been multiple claims that exposing water to a static magnetic field affects its properties which influence living systems. To test this hypothesis, planarian subsequent to dissection were maintained in spring water that had been previously exposed for only one day to one of three (16, 160, or 1,600 G) intensity static magnetic fields or to a reference condition. Although there was no significant difference in regeneration rates over the subsequent seven-day period, there was a statistically significant nonlinear effect for planarian mobility and diffusion rates. Both mobility rates and diffusion velocity of a liquid within the water that had been exposed to the 16 G field was about twice that for water exposed to the other intensities. These results imply that nonlinear biophysical effects may emerge under specific conditions of intensity ranges for particular volumes of water. PMID:22047458

Gang, Noa; Persinger, Michael A

2011-12-01

87

Distinct structural domains in the planarian brain defined by the expression of evolutionarily conserved homeobox genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeobox genes such as orthodenticle in Drosophila and its mouse homologues, Otx1 and Otx2, are known to be essential for rostral brain development. To investigate the molecular basis of brain evolution, we searched\\u000a for otd\\/Otx-related homeobox genes in the planarian Dugesia japonica, and identified two genes, DjotxA and B, whose expression appears to be restricted to the cephalic ganglion (brain).

Y. Umesono; Kenji Watanabe; K. Agata

1999-01-01

88

Genome-Wide Analyses Reveal a Role for Peptide Hormones in Planarian Germline Development  

PubMed Central

Bioactive peptides (i.e., neuropeptides or peptide hormones) represent the largest class of cell-cell signaling molecules in metazoans and are potent regulators of neural and physiological function. In vertebrates, peptide hormones play an integral role in endocrine signaling between the brain and the gonads that controls reproductive development, yet few of these molecules have been shown to influence reproductive development in invertebrates. Here, we define a role for peptide hormones in controlling reproductive physiology of the model flatworm, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Based on our observation that defective neuropeptide processing results in defects in reproductive system development, we employed peptidomic and functional genomic approaches to characterize the planarian peptide hormone complement, identifying 51 prohormone genes and validating 142 peptides biochemically. Comprehensive in situ hybridization analyses of prohormone gene expression revealed the unanticipated complexity of the flatworm nervous system and identified a prohormone specifically expressed in the nervous system of sexually reproducing planarians. We show that this member of the neuropeptide Y superfamily is required for the maintenance of mature reproductive organs and differentiated germ cells in the testes. Additionally, comparative analyses of our biochemically validated prohormones with the genomes of the parasitic flatworms Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum identified new schistosome prohormones and validated half of all predicted peptide-encoding genes in these parasites. These studies describe the peptide hormone complement of a flatworm on a genome-wide scale and reveal a previously uncharacterized role for peptide hormones in flatworm reproduction. Furthermore, they suggest new opportunities for using planarians as free-living models for understanding the reproductive biology of flatworm parasites. PMID:20967238

Collins, James J.; Hou, Xiaowen; Romanova, Elena V.; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Miller, Claire M.; Saberi, Amir; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Newmark, Phillip A.

2010-01-01

89

Early planarian brain regeneration is independent of blastema polarity mediated by the Wnt\\/?-catenin pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of anteroposterior (AP) axis specification in regenerating planarian flatworms has shown that Wnt\\/?-catenin signaling is required for posterior specification and that the FGF-like receptor molecule nou-darake (ndk) may be involved in restricting brain regeneration to anterior regions. The relationship between re-establishment of AP identity and correct morphogenesis of the brain is, however, still poorly understood. Here we report the

Marta Iglesias; Maria Almuedo-Castillo; A. Aziz Aboobaker; Emili Saló

2011-01-01

90

Evolutionary analysis of mitogenomes from parasitic and free-living flatworms.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata). Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida): the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae) and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae). Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae). This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids. PMID:25793530

Solà, Eduard; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Frías-López, Cristina; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Rozas, Julio; Riutort, Marta

2015-01-01

91

Evolutionary Analysis of Mitogenomes from Parasitic and Free-Living Flatworms  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata). Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida): the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae) and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae). Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae). This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids. PMID:25793530

Frías-López, Cristina; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Rozas, Julio; Riutort, Marta

2015-01-01

92

Planarian regeneration involves distinct stem cell responses to wounds and tissue absence  

PubMed Central

Regeneration requires signaling from a wound site for detection of the wound, and a mechanism that determines the nature of the injury to specify the appropriate regenerative response. Wound signals and tissue responses to wounds that elicit regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarians are able to regenerate from essentially any type of injury and present a novel system for the study of wound responses in regeneration initiation. Newly developed molecular and cellular tools now enable study of regeneration initiation using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Planarian regeneration requires adult stem cells called neoblasts and amputation triggers two peaks in neoblast mitoses early in regeneration. We demonstrate that the first mitotic peak is a body-wide response to any injury and that a second, local, neoblast response is induced only when injury results in missing tissue. This second response was characterized by recruitment of neoblasts to wounds, even in areas that lack neoblasts in the intact animal. Subsequently, these neoblasts were induced to divide and differentiate near the wound, leading to formation of new tissue. We conclude that there exist two functionally distinct signaling phases of the stem cell wound response that distinguish between simple injury and situations that require the regeneration of missing tissue. PMID:20599901

Wenemoser, Danielle; Reddien, Peter W.

2010-01-01

93

Guarana Provides Additional Stimulation over Caffeine Alone in the Planarian Model  

PubMed Central

The stimulant effect of energy drinks is primarily attributed to the caffeine they contain. Many energy drinks also contain other ingredients that might enhance the tonic effects of these caffeinated beverages. One of these additives is guarana. Guarana is a climbing plant native to the Amazon whose seeds contain approximately four times the amount of caffeine found in coffee beans. The mix of other natural chemicals contained in guarana seeds is thought to heighten the stimulant effects of guarana over caffeine alone. Yet, despite the growing use of guarana as an additive in energy drinks, and a burgeoning market for it as a nutritional supplement, the science examining guarana and how it affects other dietary ingredients is lacking. To appreciate the stimulant effects of guarana and other natural products, a straightforward model to investigate their physiological properties is needed. The planarian provides such a system. The locomotor activity and convulsive response of planarians with substance exposure has been shown to provide an excellent system to measure the effects of drug stimulation, addiction and withdrawal. To gauge the stimulant effects of guarana we studied how it altered the locomotor activity of the planarian species Dugesia tigrina. We report evidence that guarana seeds provide additional stimulation over caffeine alone, and document the changes to this stimulation in the context of both caffeine and glucose. PMID:25880065

Moustakas, Dimitrios; Mezzio, Michael; Rodriguez, Branden R.; Constable, Mic Andre; Mulligan, Margaret E.; Voura, Evelyn B.

2015-01-01

94

The use of planarians as in vivo animal model to study laser biomodulation effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of effects is attributed to the photo stimulation of tissues, such as improved healing of ulcers, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulation of the proliferation of cells of different origins and stimulation of bone repair. Some investigations that make qualitative evaluations, like wound healing and evaluation of pain and edema, can be conducted in human subjects. However, deeper investigations on the mechanisms of action of the light stimulus and other quantitative works that requires biopsies or destructive analysis has to be carried out in animal models or in cell cultures. In this work, we propose the use of planarians as a model to study laser-tissue interaction. Contrasting with cell cultures and unicellular organisms, planarians are among the simplest organism having tissue layers, central nerve system, digestive and excretory system that might have been platforms for the evolution of the complex and highly organized tissues and organs found in higher organisms. For the present study, 685 nm laser radiation was employed. Planarians were cut transversally, in a plane posterior to the auricles. The body fragments were left to regenerate and the proliferation dynamics of stem cells was studied by using histological analysis. Maximum cell count was obtained for the laser treated group at the 4 th experimental day. At that experimental time, we also had the largest difference between the irradiated and the non-irradiated control group. We concluded that the studied flatworm could be an interesting animal model for in vivo studies of laser-tissue interactions.

Munin, Egberto; Garcia, Neila Maria Rocha; Braz, Allison Gustavo; de Souza, Sandra Cristina; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Pilla, Viviane

2007-02-01

95

The ultrastructure of synapses in the brain of Gastrocotyle trachuri (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The ultrastructure of the synapses in the brain of the monogenean Gastrocotyle trachuri (Platyhelminthes) is described. The synapses consist of one presynaptic terminal separated by a uniformly wide synaptic cleft, from one or more postsynaptic elements. The presynaptic terminals are characterized by the presence of paramembranous dense projections and associated synaptic vesicles. The postsynaptic elements while possessing membrane densities, are

Michael K. Shaw

1981-01-01

96

New freshwater interstitial Otoplanidae (Platyhelminthes: Proseriata) from the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes two new freshwater otoplanid species (Platyhelminthes, Proseriata), Itaspiella parana n. sp. and Philosyrtis rauli n. sp., from interstitial habitats of the middle Paraná river (Argentina) and lower Uruguay river (Uruguay), respectively. Kata sp. from the Uruguay river is briefly characterized. This is the first report of otoplanids from freshwater environments of South America. The studied areas are

Carolina Noreña; Cristina Damborenea; Francisco Brusa

2005-01-01

97

Comparative selenoproteome analysis reveals a reduced utilization of selenium in parasitic platyhelminthes  

PubMed Central

Background. The selenocysteine(Sec)-containing proteins, selenoproteins, are an important group of proteins present in all three kingdoms of life. Although the selenoproteomes of many organisms have been analyzed, systematic studies on selenoproteins in platyhelminthes are still lacking. Moreover, comparison of selenoproteomes between free-living and parasitic animals is rarely studied. Results. In this study, three representative organisms (Schmidtea mediterranea, Schistosoma japonicum and Taenia solium) were selected for comparative analysis of selenoproteomes in Platyhelminthes. Using a SelGenAmic-based selenoprotein prediction algorithm, a total of 37 selenoprotein genes were identified in these organisms. The size of selenoproteomes and selenoprotein families were found to be associated with different lifestyles: free-living organisms have larger selenoproteome whereas parasitic lifestyle corresponds to reduced selenoproteomes. Five selenoproteins, SelT, Sel15, GPx, SPS2 and TR, were found to be present in all examined platyhelminthes as well as almost all sequenced animals, suggesting their essential role in metazoans. Finally, a new splicing form of SelW that lacked the first exon was found to be present in S. japonicum. Conclusions. Our data provide a first glance into the selenoproteomes of organisms in the phylum Platyhelminthes and may help understand function and evolutionary dynamics of selenium utilization in diversified metazoans. PMID:24255816

Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Hua-Zhang; Xu, Yin-Zhen; Ni, Jia-Zuan

2013-01-01

98

Advances and Trends in the Molecular Systematics of the Parasitic Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of molecular systematics to the parasitic Platyhelminthes (Cestoda, Digenea and Monogenea) over the last decade has advanced our understanding of their interrelationships and evolution substantially. Here we review the current state of play and the early works that led to the molecular-based hypotheses that now predominate in the field; advances in their systematics, taxonomy, classification and phylogeny, as

Peter D. Olson; Vasyl V. Tkach

2005-01-01

99

Evolution of body-wall musculature in the Platyhelminthes (Acoelomorpha, Catenulida, Rhabditophora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to understand the phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes, the patterns of body-wall muscula- ture of flatworms were studied using fluorescence micros- copy and Alexa-488-labeled phalloidin. Species of the Catenulida have a simple orthogonal gridwork of longitu- dinal and circular muscles. Members of the Rhabdito- phora have the same gridwork of musculature, but also have diagonal muscles over their

Matthew D. Hooge

2001-01-01

100

Comparative study of adaptive radiations with an example using parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes): Cercomeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of adaptive radiations require robust phylogenies, estimates of species numbers for monophyletic groups within clades, assessments of the adaptive value of putative key innovations, and estimates of the frequency of speciation modes. Four criteria are necessary to identify an adaptive radiation within the parasitic platyhelminths: (1) a group contains significantly more species than its sister group, (2) species richness

Daniel R. Brooks; Deborah A. McLennan

1993-01-01

101

Cytosine methylation is a conserved epigenetic feature found throughout the phylum Platyhelminthes  

PubMed Central

Background The phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) contains an important group of bilaterian organisms responsible for many debilitating and chronic infectious diseases of human and animal populations inhabiting the planet today. In addition to their biomedical and veterinary relevance, some platyhelminths are also frequently used models for understanding tissue regeneration and stem cell biology. Therefore, the molecular (genetic and epigenetic) characteristics that underlie trophic specialism, pathogenicity or developmental maturation are likely to be pivotal in our continued studies of this important metazoan group. Indeed, in contrast to earlier studies that failed to detect evidence of cytosine or adenine methylation in parasitic flatworm taxa, our laboratory has recently defined a critical role for cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni oviposition, egg maturation and ovarian development. Thus, in order to identify whether this epigenetic modification features in other platyhelminth species or is a novelty of S. mansoni, we conducted a study simultaneously surveying for DNA methylation machinery components and DNA methylation marks throughout the phylum using both parasitic and non-parasitic representatives. Results Firstly, using both S. mansoni DNA methyltransferase 2 (SmDNMT2) and methyl-CpG binding domain protein (SmMBD) as query sequences, we illustrate that essential DNA methylation machinery components are well conserved throughout the phylum. Secondly, using both molecular (methylation specific amplification polymorphism, MSAP) and immunological (enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, ELISA) methodologies, we demonstrate that representative species (Echinococcus multilocularis, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Polycelis nigra) within all four platyhelminth classes (Cestoda, Monogenea, Trematoda and ‘Turbellaria’) contain methylated cytosines within their genome compartments. Conclusions Collectively, these findings provide the first direct evidence for a functionally conserved and enzymatically active DNA methylation system throughout the Platyhelminthes. Defining how this epigenetic feature shapes phenotypic diversity and development within the phylum represents an exciting new area of metazoan biology. PMID:23837670

2013-01-01

102

Size Matters!. Birth Size and a Size-Independent Stochastic Term Determine Asexual Reproduction Dynamics in Freshwater Planarians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asexual reproduction by division in higher organisms is rare, because a prerequisite is the ability to regenerate an entire organism from a piece of the original body. Freshwater planarians are one of the few animals that can reproduce this way, but little is known about the regulation of their reproduction cycles or strategies. We have previously shown that a planarian's reproduction strategy is randomized to include fragmentations, producing multiple offspring, as well as binary fissions, and can be partially explained by a maximum relative entropy principle. In this study we attempt to decompose the factors controlling their reproduction cycle. Based on recent studies on the cell cycle of budding yeast, which suggest that molecular noise in gene expression and cell size at birth together control cell cycle variability, we investigated whether the variability in planarian reproduction waiting times could be similarly regulated. We find that such a model can indeed explain the observed distribution of waiting times between birth and next reproductive event, suggesting that birth size and a stochastic noise term govern the reproduction dynamics of asexual planarians.

Thomas, Michael A.; Quinodoz, Sofia; Schötz, Eva-Maria

2012-09-01

103

A phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes: towards a total-evidence solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We advocate a total-evidence approach for the reconstruction of working phylogenies for the Turbellaria and the phylum Platyhelminthes.\\u000a Few morphology-based character matrices are available in the systematic literature concerning flatworms, and molecular-based\\u000a phylogenies are rapidly providing the only means by which we can estimate phylogenies cladistically. Character matrices based\\u000a on gross morphology and ultrastructure are required and should be internally

D. T. J. Littlewood; R. A. Bray; K. A. Clough

1998-01-01

104

Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of Acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined 9.7, 5.2, and 6.8kb, respectively, of the mitochondrial genomes of the acoel Paratomella rubra, the nemertodermatid Nemertoderma westbladi, and the free-living rhabditophoran platyhelminth Microstomum lineare. The identified gene arrangements are unique among metazoans, including each other, sharing no more than one or two single gene boundaries with a few distantly related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid

Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo; Marta Riutort; H. Matthew Fourcade; Jaume Baguñà; Jeffrey L. Boore

2004-01-01

105

Phylogeny of the Prolecithophora (Platyhelminthes) Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete nuclear 18S rDNA sequences from 14 species of the Prolecithophora were obtained and used, in combination with literature data, to generate the first parsimony-based hypothesis of the phylogeny of the order Prolecithophora (Platyhelminthes). Bootstrap, parsimony jack-knife, and Bremer support values were computed and compared. The monophyly of the Prolecithophora sensu stricto and the family Plagiostomidae is strongly supported. The

Michael Norén; Ulf Jondelius

1999-01-01

106

Defining the molecular profile of planarian pluripotent stem cells using a combinatorial RNA-seq, RNA interference and irradiation approach  

PubMed Central

Background Planarian stem cells, or neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regeneration capacities of freshwater planarians. Neoblasts are traditionally described by their morphological features and by the fact that they are the only proliferative cell type in asexual planarians. Therefore, they can be specifically eliminated by irradiation. Irradiation, however, is likely to induce transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression that are not associated with neoblast ablation. This has affected the accurate description of their specific transcriptomic profile. Results We introduce the use of Smed-histone-2B RNA interference (RNAi) for genetic ablation of neoblast cells in Schmidtea mediterranea as an alternative to irradiation. We characterize the rapid, neoblast-specific phenotype induced by Smed-histone-2B RNAi, resulting in neoblast ablation. We compare and triangulate RNA-seq data after using both irradiation and Smed-histone-2B RNAi over a time course as means of neoblast ablation. Our analyses show that Smed-histone-2B RNAi eliminates neoblast gene expression with high specificity and discrimination from gene expression in other cellular compartments. We compile a high confidence list of genes downregulated by both irradiation and Smed-histone-2B RNAi and validate their expression in neoblast cells. Lastly, we analyze the overall expression profile of neoblast cells. Conclusions Our list of neoblast genes parallels their morphological features and is highly enriched for nuclear components, chromatin remodeling factors, RNA splicing factors, RNA granule components and the machinery of cell division. Our data reveal that the regulation of planarian stem cells relies on posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms and suggest that planarians are an ideal model for this understudied aspect of stem cell biology. PMID:22439894

2012-01-01

107

Dishevelled is essential for neural connectivity and planar cell polarity in planarians  

PubMed Central

The Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway controls multiple events during development and homeostasis. It comprises multiple branches, mainly classified according to their dependence on ?-catenin activation. The Wnt/?-catenin branch is essential for the establishment of the embryonic anteroposterior (AP) body axis throughout the phylogenetic tree. It is also required for AP axis establishment during planarian regeneration. Wnt/?-catenin–independent signaling encompasses several different pathways, of which the most extensively studied is the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which is responsible for planar polarization of cell structures within an epithelial sheet. Dishevelled (Dvl) is the hub of Wnt signaling because it regulates and channels the Wnt signal into every branch. Here, we analyze the role of Schmidtea mediterranea Dvl homologs (Smed-dvl-1 and Smed-dvl-2) using gene silencing. We demonstrate that in addition to a role in AP axis specification, planarian Dvls are involved in at least two different ?-catenin–independent processes. First, they are essential for neural connectivity through Smed-wnt5 signaling. Second, Smed-dvl-2, together with the S. mediterranea homologs of Van-Gogh (Vang) and Diversin (Div), is required for apical positioning of the basal bodies of epithelial cells. These data represent evidence not only of the function of the PCP network in lophotrocozoans but of the involvement of the PCP core elements Vang and Div in apical positioning of the cilia. PMID:21282632

Almuedo-Castillo, Maria; Saló, Emili; Adell, Teresa

2011-01-01

108

PBX/extradenticle is required to re-establish axial structures and polarity during planarian regeneration  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in a number of systems suggest many genes involved in orchestrating regeneration are redeployed from similar processes in development, with others being novel to the regeneration process in particular lineages. Of particular importance will be understanding the architecture of regenerative genetic regulatory networks and whether they are conserved across broad phylogenetic distances. Here, we describe the role of the conserved TALE class protein PBX/Extradenticle in planarians, a representative member of the Lophotrocozoa. PBX/Extradenticle proteins play central roles in both embryonic and post-embryonic developmental patterning in both vertebrates and insects, and we demonstrate a broad requirement during planarian regeneration. We observe that Smed-pbx has pleiotropic functions during regeneration, with a primary role in patterning the anterior-posterior (AP) axis and AP polarity. Smed-pbx is required for expression of polarity determinants notum and wnt1 and for correct patterning of the structures polarized along the AP axis, such as the brain, pharynx and gut. Overall, our data suggest that Smed-pbx functions as a central integrator of positional information to drive patterning of regeneration along the body axis. PMID:23318635

Blassberg, Robert A.; Felix, Daniel A.; Tejada-Romero, Belen; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

2013-01-01

109

Proteomic profiling of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and its mucous reveals similarities with human secretions and those predicted for parasitic flatworms.  

PubMed

The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been used in research for over 100 years, and is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability of regenerating large portions of missing body parts. Exteriorly, planarians are covered in mucous secretions of unknown composition, implicated in locomotion, predation, innate immunity, and substrate adhesion. Although the planarian genome has been sequenced, it remains mostly unannotated, challenging both genomic and proteomic analyses. The goal of the current study was to annotate the proteome of the whole planarian and its mucous fraction. The S. mediterranea proteome was analyzed via mass spectrometry by using multidimensional protein identification technology with whole-worm tryptic digests. By using a proteogenomics approach, MS data were searched against an in silico translated planarian transcript database, and by using the Swiss-Prot BLAST algorithm to identify proteins similar to planarian queries. A total of 1604 proteins were identified. The mucous subproteome was defined through analysis of a mucous trail fraction and an extract obtained by treating whole worms with the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine. Gene Ontology analysis confirmed that the mucous fractions were enriched with secreted proteins. The S. mediterranea proteome is highly similar to that predicted for the trematode Schistosoma mansoni associated with intestinal schistosomiasis, with the mucous subproteome particularly highly conserved. Remarkably, orthologs of 119 planarian mucous proteins are present in human mucosal secretions and tear fluid. We suggest planarians have potential to be a model system for the characterization of mucous protein function and relevant to parasitic flatworm infections and diseases underlined by mucous aberrancies, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and other lung diseases. PMID:22653920

Bocchinfuso, Donald G; Taylor, Paul; Ross, Eric; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Pearson, Bret J; Moran, Michael F

2012-09-01

110

Long-range Neural and Gap Junction Protein-mediated Cues Control Polarity During Planarian Regeneration  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Having the ability to coordinate the behavior of stem cells to induce regeneration of specific large-scale structures would have far reaching consequences in the treatment of degenerative diseases, acute injury, and aging. Thus, identifying and learning to manipulate the sequential steps that determine the fate of new tissue within the overall morphogenetic program of the organism is fundamental. We identified novel early signals, mediated by the central nervous system and 3 innexin proteins, which determine the fate and axial polarity of regenerated tissue in planarians. Modulation of gap junction-dependent and neural signals specifically induces ectopic anterior regeneration blastemas in posterior and lateral wounds. These ectopic anterior blastemas differentiate new brains that establish permanent primary axes re-established during subsequent rounds of unperturbed regeneration. These data reveal powerful novel controls of pattern formation and suggest a constructive model linking nervous inputs and polarity determination in early stages of regeneration. PMID:20026026

Oviedo, Néstor J.; Morokuma, Junji; Walentek, Peter; Kema, Ido P.; Gu, Man Bock; Ahn, Joo-Myung; Hwang, Jung Shan; Gojobori, Takashi; Levin, Michael

2010-01-01

111

Ammonia Toxicity to the Freshwater Planarian Polycelis felina: Contrasting Effects of Continuous Versus Discontinuous Exposures.  

PubMed

Aquatic animals can be exposed to fluctuating concentrations of toxicants. In fact, for some toxicants (i.e., pesticides, ammonia), discontinuous exposure is more environmentally relevant than constant exposure. Responses of aquatic animals to each type of exposure may be different. However, despite the high ecological relevance of behaviour, there is still scarce information on the effects of discontinuous exposure on behaviour. Our study focused on the assessment of unionized ammonia toxicity on the behaviour of a freshwater planarian under continuous exposure (3 days of exposure and 18 days of recovery) versus discontinuous exposure (3 pulses of 1 day with 6 days of recovery between pulses = total 3 days of exposure and 18 days of recovery). Behaviour was assessed as locomotion activity. Bioassays with continuous and discontinuous exposure were performed with one control and five unionized ammonia concentrations (0.14-0.35 mg N-NH3/L). Unionized ammonia in continuous exposure caused less impact on behaviour than equivalent concentrations provided in a discontinuous exposure. By contrast, continuous exposures caused more impact on survival. The discontinuous exposure may allow detoxification during recovery periods, thus increasing the probability of survival in the next pulse. Under continuous exposure, the mortality threshold could be exceeded, and animals could die in greater proportion during exposure as well as the recovery period. We conclude that behavioural activity was a sensitive endpoint to assess the contrasting effects of continuous versus discontinuous exposure and that the response of planarians to discontinuous exposure is different to its response to continuous exposure. PMID:25604922

Alonso, Álvaro; Camargo, Julio A

2015-05-01

112

Planarian (Dugesia polychroa) predation on freshwater gastropod eggs depends on prey species, clutch morphology, and egg size  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though triclad planarias could limit littoral snail recruitment by preying on eggs with their muscular ventral pharynx, planarian predation on eggs has never been quantified. Intact egg clutches encompassing eight snail species × three developmental stages were offered to Dugesia (= Schmidtea) polychroa (Paludicola: Dugesiidae) individuals (body length = 6–12 mm) in one-on-one, no-choice 24-h feeding trials to gain a

Francesco Paolo Miccoli; Marco Giustini; Bruno Cicolani

2011-01-01

113

Planarian peptidylglycine-hydroxylating monooxygenase, a neuropeptide processing enzyme, colocalizes with cytochrome b561 along the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Planarians are one of the simplest animal groups with a central nervous system. Their primitive central nervous system produces large quantities of a variety of neuropeptides, of which many are amidated at their C terminus. In vertebrates, peptide amidation is catalyzed by two enzymes [peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxylglycine alpha-amidating lyase] acting sequentially. In mammals, both enzymatic activities are contained within a single protein that is encoded by a single gene. By utilizing PCR with degenerate oligonucleotides derived from conserved regions of PHM, we succeeded in cloning a full-length cDNA encoding planarian PHM. The deduced amino acid sequence showed full conservation of five His residues and one Met residue, which bind two Cu atoms that are essential for the activity of PHM. Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of a PHM mRNA of the expected size. Distribution of the mRNA was analyzed by in situ hybridization, showing specific expression in neurons with two morphologically distinct structures, a pair of the ventral nerve cords and the brain. The distribution of PHM was very similar to that of cytochrome b561. This indicates that the ascorbate-related electron transfer system operates in the planarian central nervous system to support the PHM activity and that it predates the emergence of Plathelminthes in the evolutionary history. PMID:15691328

Asada, Akikazu; Orii, Hidefumi; Watanabe, Kenji; Tsubaki, Motonari

2005-02-01

114

Molecular cloning and characterization of SL3: A stem cell-specific SL RNA from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Spliced leader (SL) trans-splicing is a biological phenomenon, common among many metazoan taxa, consisting in the transfer of a short leader sequence from a small SL RNA to the 5? end of a subset of pre-mRNAs. While knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms driving this process has accumulated over the years, the functional consequences of such post-transcriptional event at the organismal level remain unclear. In addition, the fact that functional analyses have been undertaken mainly in trypanosomes and nematodes leaves a somehow fragmented picture of the possible biological significance and evolution of SL trans-splicing in eukaryotes. Here, we analyzed the spatial expression of SL RNAs in the planarian flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea, with the goal of identifying novel developmental paradigms for the study of trans-splicing in metazoans. Besides the previously identified SL1 and SL2, S. mediterranea expresses a third SL RNA described here as SL3. While, SL1 and SL2 are collectively expressed in a broad range of planarian cell types, SL3 is highly enriched in a subset of the planarian stem cells engaged in regenerative responses. Our findings provide new opportunities to study how trans-splicing may regulate the phenotype of a cell. PMID:24120894

Rossi, Alessandro; Ross, Eric J.; Jack, Antonia; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

2014-01-01

115

Diplostomum ( Austrodiplostomum ) compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) metacercariae in fish from the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) metacercariae (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) were found in six fish species, belonging to two orders (Characiformes and Perciformes) and three families (Erythrinidae, Sciaenidae and Cichlidae). A total of 477 individuals were collected, from August 1999 to May 2001, in the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. The metacercariae were infecting the eyes of six host species and the

P. M. Machado; R. M. Takemoto; G. C. Pavanelli

2005-01-01

116

Suppression of the tapeworm order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) and the proposal of two new orders, Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudophyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863, a well recognised order of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda), is suppressed because it is composed of two phylogenetically unrelated groups, for which the new names Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea are proposed. The new orders differ from each other in the following characters: (i) position of the genital pore: on the dorsal, dorso-lateral or lateral aspects and

R. Kuchta; T. Scholz; J. Brabec; R. A. Bray

2008-01-01

117

Discovery of Platyhelminth-Specific ?/?-Integrin Families and Evidence for Their Role in Reproduction in Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

In all metazoa, the response of cells to molecular stimuli from their environment represents a fundamental principle of regulatory processes controlling cell growth and differentiation. Among the membrane-linked receptors mediating extracellular communication processes are integrin receptors. Besides managing adhesion to the extracellular matrix or to other cells, they arrange information flow into the cells by activating intracellular signaling pathways often acting synergistically through cooperation with growth factor receptors. Although a wealth of information exists on integrins in different model organisms, there is a big gap of knowledge for platyhelminths. Here we report on the in silico detection and reconstruction of ? and ? integrins from free-living and parasitic platyhelminths, which according to structural and phylogenetic analyses form specific clades separate from each other and from further metazoan integrins. As representative orthologs of parasitic platyhelminths we have cloned one beta-integrin (Sm?-Int1) and four alpha-integrins (Sm?-Int1 - Sm?-Int4) from Schistosoma mansoni; they were characterized by molecular and biochemical analyses. Evidence is provided that Sm?-Int1 interacts and co-localizes in the reproductive organs with known schistosome cellular tyrosine kinases (CTKs), of which the Syk kinase SmTK4 appeared to be the strongest interaction partner as shown by yeast two-hybrid analyses and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. By a novel RNAi approach with adult schistosomes in vitro we demonstrate for the first time multinucleated oocytes in treated females, indicating a decisive role Sm?-Int1 during oogenesis as phenotypically analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Our findings provide a first comprehensive overview about platyhelminth integrins, of which the parasite group exhibits unique features allowing a clear distinction from the free-living groups. Furthermore, we shed first lights on the functions of integrins in a trematode model parasite, revealing the complexity of molecular processes involved in its reproductive biology, which may be representative for other platyhelminths. PMID:23300694

Beckmann, Svenja; Quack, Thomas; Dissous, Colette; Cailliau, Katia; Lang, Gabriele; Grevelding, Christoph G.

2012-01-01

118

Embryonic development of the nervous system in the planarian Schmidtea polychroa.  

PubMed

The development of a nervous system is a key innovation in the evolution of metazoans, which is illustrated by the presence of a common developmental toolkit for the formation of this organ system. Neurogenesis in the Spiralia, in particular the Platyhelminthes, is, however, poorly understood when compared with other animal groups. Here, we characterize embryonic neurogenesis in the freshwater flatworm Schmidtea polychroa and analyze the expression of soxB and a set of proneural bHLH genes, which are gene families with a well-established role in metazoan early neural development. We show that the nervous system is fully de novo assembled after the early embryo ingests the maternal nutrients. At early stages of neurogenesis, soxB1 genes are expressed in putative neural progenitor cells, whereas soxB2 and neural bHLH genes (achaete-scute, neuroD and beta3) are associated with late neurogenesis and the specification of neural subpopulations of the central and peripheral nervous system. Our findings are consistent with the role of proneural genes in other bilaterians, suggesting that the ancestral neural-specific gene regulatory network is conserved in triclads, despite exhibiting a divergent mode of development. PMID:25446032

Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

2015-01-15

119

Paraphyly of the Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda): Circumscription of monophyletic clades based on phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic relationships of cestodes of the order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) were examined using sequences of complete small subunit and partial (D1-D3 region) large subunit nuclear rDNA of members of all pseudophyllidean families. The results provide evidence of paraphyly of the order as indicated by previous molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a much lower number of species sequenced. Pseudophyllidean tapeworms represent

J. Brabec; R. Kuchta; T. Scholz

2006-01-01

120

The evolution of life-history traits in parasitic and free-living platyhelminthes: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasite life histories have been assumed to be shaped by their particular mode of existence. To test this hypothesis, we\\u000a investigate the relationships between life-history traits of free-living and parasitic platyhelminthes. Using phylogenetically\\u000a independent contrasts we examine patterns of interspecific covariation in adult size, progeny volume, daily fecundity, total\\u000a reproductive capacity, age at first reproduction and longevity. The correlations obtained

Sandrine Trouvé; Pierre Sasal; Joseph Jourdane; François Renaud; Serge Morand

1998-01-01

121

Evolution of ITS1 rDNA in the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): 3? End Sequence Conservation and Its Phylogenetic Utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A comparison of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) elements of digenetic trematodes (Platyhelminthes) including\\u000a unidentified digeneans isolated from Cyathura carinata (Crustacea: Isopoda) revealed DNA sequence similarities at more than half of the spacer at its 3? end. Primary sequence similarity\\u000a was shown to be associated with secondary structure conservation, which suggested that similarity is due to identity by

J. Hinrich G. v. d. Schulenburg; Ulrike Englisch; J.-Wolfgang Wägele

1999-01-01

122

Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the

Boran Altincicek; Andreas Vilcinskas

2008-01-01

123

Modeling Planarian Regeneration: A Primer for Reverse-Engineering the Worm  

PubMed Central

A mechanistic understanding of robust self-assembly and repair capabilities of complex systems would have enormous implications for basic evolutionary developmental biology as well as for transformative applications in regenerative biomedicine and the engineering of highly fault-tolerant cybernetic systems. Molecular biologists are working to identify the pathways underlying the remarkable regenerative abilities of model species that perfectly regenerate limbs, brains, and other complex body parts. However, a profound disconnect remains between the deluge of high-resolution genetic and protein data on pathways required for regeneration, and the desired spatial, algorithmic models that show how self-monitoring and growth control arise from the synthesis of cellular activities. This barrier to progress in the understanding of morphogenetic controls may be breached by powerful techniques from the computational sciences—using non-traditional modeling approaches to reverse-engineer systems such as planaria: flatworms with a complex bodyplan and nervous system that are able to regenerate any body part after traumatic injury. Currently, the involvement of experts from outside of molecular genetics is hampered by the specialist literature of molecular developmental biology: impactful collaborations across such different fields require that review literature be available that presents the key functional capabilities of important biological model systems while abstracting away from the often irrelevant and confusing details of specific genes and proteins. To facilitate modeling efforts by computer scientists, physicists, engineers, and mathematicians, we present a different kind of review of planarian regeneration. Focusing on the main patterning properties of this system, we review what is known about the signal exchanges that occur during regenerative repair in planaria and the cellular mechanisms that are thought to underlie them. By establishing an engineering-like style for reviews of the molecular developmental biology of biomedically important model systems, significant fresh insights and quantitative computational models will be developed by new collaborations between biology and the information sciences. PMID:22570595

Lobo, Daniel; Beane, Wendy S.; Levin, Michael

2012-01-01

124

The Mi-2-like Smed-CHD4 gene is required for stem cell differentiation in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

Freshwater planarians are able to regenerate any missing part of their body and have extensive tissue turnover because of the action of dividing cells called neoblasts. Neoblasts provide an excellent system for in vivo study of adult stem cell biology. We identified the Smed-CHD4 gene, which is predicted to encode a chromatin-remodeling protein similar to CHD4/Mi-2 proteins, as required for planarian regeneration and tissue homeostasis. Following inhibition of Smed-CHD4 with RNA interference (RNAi), neoblast numbers were initially normal, despite an inability of the animals to regenerate. However, the proliferative response of neoblasts to amputation or growth stimulation in Smed-CHD4(RNAi) animals was diminished. Smed-CHD4(RNAi) animals displayed a dramatic reduction in the numbers of certain neoblast progeny cells. Smed-CHD4 was required for the formation of these neoblast progeny cells. Together, these results indicate that Smed-CHD4 is required for neoblasts to produce progeny cells committed to differentiation in order to control tissue turnover and regeneration and suggest a crucial role for CHD4 proteins in stem cell differentiation. PMID:20223763

Scimone, M Lucila; Meisel, Joshua; Reddien, Peter W

2010-04-01

125

Problematic barcoding in flatworms: A case-study on monogeneans and rhabdocoels (Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some taxonomic groups are less amenable to mitochondrial DNA barcoding than others. Due to the paucity of molecular information of understudied groups and the huge molecular diversity within flatworms, primer design has been hampered. Indeed, all attempts to develop universal flatworm-specific COI markers have failed so far. We demonstrate how high molecular variability and contamination problems limit the possibilities for barcoding using standard COI-based protocols in flatworms. As a consequence, molecular identification methods often rely on other widely applicable markers. In the case of Monogenea, a very diverse group of platyhelminth parasites, and Rhabdocoela, representing one-fourth of all free-living flatworm taxa, this has led to a relatively high availability of nuclear ITS and 18S/28S rDNA sequences on GenBank. In a comparison of the effectiveness in species assignment we conclude that mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers perform equally well. In case intraspecific information is needed, rDNA sequences can guide the selection of the appropriate (i.e. taxon-specific) COI primers if available. PMID:24453567

Vanhove, Maarten P. M.; Tessens, Bart; Schoelinck, Charlotte; Jondelius, Ulf; Littlewood, D. Tim J.; Artois, Tom; Huyse, Tine

2013-01-01

126

Comparative study of adaptive radiations with an example using parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes): Cercomeria  

SciTech Connect

Studies of adaptive radiations require robust phylogenies, estimates of species numbers for monophyletic groups within clades, assessments of the adaptive value of putative key innovations, and estimates of the frequency of speciation modes. Four criteria are necessary to identify an adaptive radiation within the parasitic platyhelminths: (1) a group contains significantly more species than its sister group, (2) species richness is apomorphic, (3) apomorphic traits enhance the potential for adaptively driven modes of speciation (sympatric speciation and speciation by peripheral isolation via host switching), and (4) the frequency of adaptively driven speciation modes is high within the group when compared with data from free-living groups. Only the species-rich Monogenea fulfill all four criteria. The Digenea and Eucestoda also are more species rich than their sister groups, their species richness is derived, and they possess unique characters that increase the potential for host switching to occur. However, because there is not enough information to determine whether the frequency of adaptive modes of speciation is high for those groups, we cannot yet assert that their radiations have been adaptive. 102 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Brooks, D.R.; McLennan, D.A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1993-11-01

127

Diseases of cultured marine fishes caused by Platyhelminthes (Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda).  

PubMed

Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish. PMID:24998438

Ogawa, K

2015-01-01

128

A Chemical Genetics Approach Reveals H,K-ATPase-Mediated Membrane Voltage is Required for Planarian Head Regeneration  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Biophysical signaling is required for both embryonic polarity and regenerative outgrowth. Exploiting endogenous ion transport for regenerative therapies will require direct regulation of membrane voltage. Here, we develop a pharmacological method to target ion transporters, uncovering a novel role for membrane voltage as a key regulator of anterior polarity in regenerating planaria. Utilizing the highly specific inhibitor, SCH-28080, our data reveal that H+,K+-ATPase-mediated membrane depolarization is essential for anterior gene expression and brain induction. H+,K+-ATPase-independent manipulation of membrane potential with ivermectin confirms that depolarization drives head formation, even at posterior-facing wounds. Using this chemical genetics approach, we demonstrate that membrane voltage controls head-vs.-tail identity during planarian regeneration. Our data suggest well-characterized drugs (already approved for human use) might be exploited to control adult stem cell-driven pattern formation during the regeneration of complex structures. PMID:21276941

Beane, Wendy Scott; Morokuma, Junji; Adams, Dany Spencer; Levin, Michael

2012-01-01

129

Spatial Distribution and Differentiation Potential of Stem Cells in Hatchlings and Adults in the Marine Platyhelminth Macrostomum sp.: A Bromodeoxyuridine Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells (neoblasts) in Platyhelminthes are pluripotent, and likely totipotent, undifferentiated cells which retain throughout adult life the capacity to proliferate and from which all somatic cells as well as the germ cells derive. However, basic data on the pool and heterogeneity of neoblasts, their rates of differentiation into sets and subsets of differentiated cells, and their migration to different

Peter Ladurner; Reinhard Rieger

2000-01-01

130

Effects of 3-Iodo- L-tyrosine, a Tyrosine Hydroxylase Inhibitor, on Eye Pigmentation and Biogenic Amines in the Planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala) were evaluated as bioassay organisms to detect inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines. Thirty planaria per dose were exposed to 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mM3-iodo-L-tyrosine (monoiodotyrosine or MIT) in standard test media beginning 24 hr before decapitation and continuing for 13 days. Complete regeneration of normal heads occurred

Daniel K. Ness; George L. Foley; David Villar; Larry G. Hansen

1996-01-01

131

Septins of Platyhelminths: Identification, Phylogeny, Expression and Localization among Developmental Stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP binding proteins conserved from yeasts to humans. Originally identified in mutants of budding yeast, septins participate in diverse cellular functions including cytokinesis, organization of actin networks, cell polarity, vesicle trafficking and many others. Septins assemble into heteroligomers to form filaments and rings. Here, four septins of Schistosoma mansoni are described, which appear to be conserved within the phylum Platyhelminthes. These orthologues were related to the SEPT5, SEPT10 and SEPT7 septins of humans, and hence we have termed the schistosome septins SmSEPT5, SmSEPT10, SmSEPT7.1 and SmSEPT7.2. Septin transcripts were detected throughout the developmental cycle of the schistosome and a similar expression profile was observed for septins in the stages examined, consistent with concerted production of these proteins to form heterocomplexes. Immunolocalization analyses undertaken with antibodies specific for SmSEPT5 and SmSEPT10 revealed a broad tissue distribution of septins in the schistosomulum and colocalization of septin and actin in the longitudinal and circular muscles of the sporocyst. Ciliated epidermal plates of the miracidium were rich in septins. Expression levels for these septins were elevated in germ cells in the miracidium and sporocyst. Intriguingly, septins colocalize with the protonephridial system of the cercaria, which extends laterally along the length of this larval stage. Together, the findings revealed that schistosomes expressed several septins which likely form filaments within the cells, as in other eukaryotes. Identification and localization demonstrating a broad distribution of septins across organs and tissues of schistosome contributes towards the understanding of septins in schistosomes and other flatworms. PMID:24367716

Zeraik, Ana E.; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Mann, Victoria H.; Popratiloff, Anastas; Araujo, Ana P. U.; DeMarco, Ricardo; Brindley, Paul J.

2013-01-01

132

Some Platyhelminths inhabiting white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis (Aves: Emberizidae: Emberizinae), from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Twenty-two of 26 white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis, from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada, hosted 1 or 2 species of platyhelminths. One species of cestode and 3 of digeneans were collected. Anonchotaenia quiscali inhabited 50% of the sparrows. This is the third report of A. quiscali; Z. albicollis is a new host. Brachylecithum nanum inhabited 43%, Zonorchis alveyi 15%, and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 8% of the sparrows examined. Ontario is a new geographic distribution record from all 4 parasite species. The proportion of hosts infected with 2 species was not significantly different from expected based on single species prevalences, indicating that there is no competitive interaction among these species of parasites for access to the avian hosts. PMID:8331482

Brooks, D R; Hoberg, E P; Houtman, A

1993-08-01

133

Taxonomy of Cotylea (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida) from Cabo Frio, southeastern Brazil, with the description of a new species.  

PubMed

Polyclads are free-living Platyhelminthes with a simple, dorsoventrally flattened body and a much ramified intestine. In Brazil, 66 species are reported; only three from Rio de Janeiro State (RJ). The main objective of this study is to describe and illustrate coloration pattern, external morphology, reproductive system morphology and, when possible, biological and ecological aspects of species of the suborder Cotylea found in Cabo Frio, RJ. Of the 13 cotylean polyclad species found, Pseudobiceros pardalis, Cycloporus variegatus and Eurylepta aurantiaca are new records from the Brazilian coast and one species is new to science, Pseudoceros juani sp. nov. Feeding observations were made of four species. It is the first time that Lurymare utarum, Cycloporus gabriellae, C. variegatus and E. aurantiaca are illustrated with digital photographs of live specimens and histological preparations. This study increases to 70 the number of Brazilian Polycladida and to 14 the number of species known from Rio de Janeiro State. However, the knowledge about Polycladida in Brazil still has gaps, with great parts of the coast remaining unsampled.  PMID:25544234

Bahia, Juliana; Padula, Vinicius; Lavrado, Helena Passeri; Quiroga, Sigmer

2014-01-01

134

No Evidence for a Culturable Bacterial Tetrodotoxin Producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida)  

PubMed Central

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes). Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0), suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely. PMID:25635464

Salvitti, Lauren R.; Wood, Susanna A.; McNabb, Paul; Cary, Stephen Craig

2015-01-01

135

No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes). Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0), suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely. PMID:25635464

Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; McNabb, Paul; Cary, Stephen Craig

2015-02-01

136

Molecular characterization of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Platyhelminthes: Gastrothylacidae) from goats in the western part of India by LSU of nuclear ribosomal DNA.  

PubMed

The rumen parasite, Gastrothylax crumenifer (Platyhelminthes: Gastrothylacidae), is a highly pathogenic trematode parasite of goat (Capra hircus). It sucks blood that causes acute disease like anemia, and severe economic losses occur due to morbidity and mortality of the ruminant infected by these worms. The study of these rumen paramphistomes, their infection, and public health importance remains unclear in India especially in the western part of state Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Meerut, India, where the goat meat consumption is very high. This paper provides the molecular characterization of G. crumenifer recovered from the rumen of Capra hircus from Meerut, U.P., India by the partial sequence of 28S rDNA. Nucleotide sequence similarity searching on BLAST of 28S rDNA from parasites showed the highest identity with those of G. crumenifer from the same host Capra hircus. This is the first report of molecular identification of G. crumenifer from this part of India. PMID:25548426

Kumar, Ashwani; Chaudhary, Anshu; Verma, Chandni; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

2014-12-01

137

Molecular Characterization of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Platyhelminthes: Gastrothylacidae) from Goats in the Western Part of India by LSU of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA  

PubMed Central

The rumen parasite, Gastrothylax crumenifer (Platyhelminthes: Gastrothylacidae), is a highly pathogenic trematode parasite of goat (Capra hircus). It sucks blood that causes acute disease like anemia, and severe economic losses occur due to morbidity and mortality of the ruminant infected by these worms. The study of these rumen paramphistomes, their infection, and public health importance remains unclear in India especially in the western part of state Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Meerut, India, where the goat meat consumption is very high. This paper provides the molecular characterization of G. crumenifer recovered from the rumen of Capra hircus from Meerut, U.P., India by the partial sequence of 28S rDNA. Nucleotide sequence similarity searching on BLAST of 28S rDNA from parasites showed the highest identity with those of G. crumenifer from the same host Capra hircus. This is the first report of molecular identification of G. crumenifer from this part of India. PMID:25548426

Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Chandni; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

2014-01-01

138

Effects of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor, on eye pigmentation and biogenic amines in the planarian, Dugesia dorotocephala.  

PubMed

Planarians (Dugesia dorotocephala) were evaluated as bioassay organisms to detect inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines. Thirty planaria per dose were exposed to 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mM 3-iodo-L-tyrosine (monoiodotyrosine or MIT) in standard test media beginning 24 hr before decapitation and continuing for 13 days. Complete regeneration of normal heads occurred over the first 6 days in all dose groups, a response reported to be partially dependent on catecholamines. Beginning on Day 7, the black eye pigments began fading in the 0.1 and 1 mM dose groups and were completely absent macroscopically and histologically by Day 11. The 0, 0.001, and 0.01 mM dose groups did not lose visible eye pigments. On Day 13, 3 planaria/dose were harvested for histopathology; 15 planaria/dose were decapitated a second time and remained in MIT solutions; and 12 planaria/dose were left intact, placed in fresh control media, and evaluated for eye repigmentation. Normal head regeneration (including eyes) was detected grossly in all groups, even in those animals devoid of eye pigments at the time of decapitation. As before, eye pigments began fading 7 days after decapitation (Day 20 of experiment) and were completely absent in 73 and 33% of the animals in the 0.1 and 1 mM groups, respectively, on Day 25. All animals moved to control media reformed eye pigments, beginning within 48 hr. Analysis of the decapitated heads by HPLC-ECD on Day 13 revealed a significant decrease in dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) concentrations in MIT-exposed animals. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity (and possibly tyrosinase activity) was shown to be inhibited by the highest two concentrations for whole planaria homogenates in vitro. PMID:8812261

Ness, D K; Foley, G L; Villar, D; Hansen, L G

1996-04-01

139

Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa: Annelida Platyhelminthes  

E-print Network

worms · Marine, freshwater, damp terrestrial · Coelom · Closed circulatory system · Complete gut with segmental ganglia Circulatory system vessels Subpharyngeal ganglion Mouth Cerebral ganglia Anus #12;Annelida with anus · Well-developed nervous system · Metanephridia · Paired, segmental setae/chaetae · Well developed

140

Platyhelminth mitochondrial DNA: Evidence for early evolutionary origin of a tRNA ser AGN that contains a dihydrouridine arm replacement loop, and of serine-specifying AGA and AGG codons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The nucleotide sequence of a segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the liver flukeFasciola hepatica (phylum Platyhelminthes, class Trematoda) has been determined, within which have been identified the genes for tRNAala, tRNAasp, respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1), tRNAasn, tRNApro, tRNAile, tRNAlys, ND3, tRNAserAGN, tRNAtrp, and cytochromec oxidase subunit I (COI). The 11 genes are arranged in

James R. Garey; David R. Wolstenholme

1989-01-01

141

Comparative analysis of septic injury-inducible genes in phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and stem cell research, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Background The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris have emerged as valuable model organisms in regeneration and stem cell research because of their prominent ability to regenerate a complete organism from any small body fragment. Under natural conditions wounding may result from predator attacks. These injuries open their innermost to a wide array of microbes present in the environment. Therefore, we established the hypothesis that regeneration processes may be linked to or at least accompanied by innate immune responses. In order to screen for septic wounding inducible genes we dissected individuals using a scalpel in the presence of a crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparation that is commonly used to elicit innate immune responses in animals and applied the suppression subtractive hybridization technique that selectively amplifies cDNAs of differentially expressed genes. Results This analysis revealed the induced expression of 27 genes in immune challenged Schmidtea and 35 genes in immune challenged Hydra. Identified genes from both animals encode proteins that share sequence similarities with potential homologues from other organisms known to be involved in signaling (e.g. calreticulin in Schmidtea and major vault protein in Hydra), stress responses (e.g. Hsp20 in Schmidtea and a PRP19/PSO4 DNA repair protein in Hydra), or to represent potential antimicrobial effectors (e.g. perforin-like protein in Schmidtea and PR-1-like protein and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 in Hydra). As expected, septic wounding also induces expression of genes in Schmidtea and Hydra potentially involved in tissue remodeling associated with regeneration processes (e.g. matrix metalloproteinase in Schmidtea and a potential von Willebrand factor in Hydra). Conclusion We identified numerous immune-inducible genes in Hydra and Schmidtea that show a similar distribution corresponding to their physiological roles, although lineages of both animals split from their common ancestor for more than five hundred millions of years. The present study is the first analysis of immune-inducible genes of these two phylogenetically distant model organisms of regeneration and provide numerous candidate genes that we can use as a starting point for comparative examination of interrelationships between immunity and homeostasis. PMID:18439314

Altincicek, Boran; Vilcinskas, Andreas

2008-01-01

142

Immunogold-labeled S-phase neoblasts, total neoblast number, their distribution, and evidence for arrested neoblasts in Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes, Rhabditophora).  

PubMed

Neoblasts in Platyhelminthes are the only cells to proliferate and differentiate into all cell types. In Macrostomum lignano, the incorporation of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in neoblasts confirmed the distribution of S-phase cells in two lateral bands. BrdU labeling for light and for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) identified three populations of proliferating cells: somatic neoblasts located between the epidermis and gastrodermis (mesodermal neoblasts), neoblasts located within the gastrodermis (gastrodermal neoblasts), and gonadal S-phase cells. In adults, three stages of mesodermal neoblasts (2, 2-3, and 3) defined by their ultrastructure were found. Stage 1 neoblasts where only seen in hatchlings. These stages either were phases within the S-phase of one neoblast pool or were subsequent stages of differentiating neoblasts, each with its own cell cycle. Regular TEM and immunogold labeling provided the basis for calculating the total number of neoblasts and the ratio of labeled to non-labeled neoblasts. Somatic neoblasts represented 6.5% of the total number of cells. Of these, 27% were labeled in S-phase. Of this fraction, 33% were in stage 2, 46% in stage 2-3, and 21% in stage 3. Immunogold labeling substantiated results concerning the differentiation of neoblasts into somatic cells. Non-labeled stage 2 neoblasts were present, even after a 2-week BrdU exposure. Double labeling of mitoses and FMRF-amide revealed a close spatial relationship of mesodermal neoblasts with the nervous system. Immunogold-labeled sections showed that nearly 70% of S-phase cells were in direct contact or within 5 microm from nerve cords. PMID:16642372

Bode, A; Salvenmoser, W; Nimeth, K; Mahlknecht, M; Adamski, Z; Rieger, R M; Peter, R; Ladurner, P

2006-09-01

143

Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its potential to readily adapt to several environmental conditions. These findings, together with the fact that A. fasciatus is a protected species and is considered as a biological control organism, necessitate further studies on the ecology and virulence of G. salinae n. sp. PMID:21658217

2011-01-01

144

Vitellogenesis of diphyllobothriidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

The recently erected cestode order Diphyllobothriidea is unique among all tapeworm orders in that its species infect all major groups of tetrapods, including man. In the present paper, the vitellogenesis of representatives of all three currently recognized families of this order was evaluated, based on ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and cytochemical (detection of glycogen) observations. Vitelline follicles of all taxa studied, i.e. Cephalochlamys namaquensis from clawed frogs (Xenopus), Duthiersia expansa from monitors (Varanus) and Schistocephalus solidus that matures in fish-eating birds, contain vitelline cells at various stages of development and interstitial cells. Developing vitellocytes are characterized by the presence of mitochondria, granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complexes involved in the synthesis of shell globules and formation of shell globule clusters. Mature vitellocytes contain lipids and glycogen in different proportions. The most significant differences among the three diphyllobothriidean families were found in the presence or absence of lamellar bodies. Variations of vitelline clusters morphology and types of lipid droplets are described and discussed in relation to the presumed evolutionary history of diphyllobothriideans, which belong to the most basal cestode groups. PMID:25641503

Yoneva, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Kuchta, Roman

2015-03-01

145

Classification of the Temnocephaloidea (Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief historical survey of the classification of the Temnocephaloidea is presented. Schemes of classification are discussed in the light of recent anatomical and ultrastructural studies on Temnocephala. The Temnocephaloidea are not closely related to the Monogenea; however, they show an immediate affinity with the Turbellaria, which should be reflected by their taxonomic position. Inclusion of the group within the

Joan Bowman Williams

1981-01-01

146

Stem cells and the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, stem cells have been heralded as potential therapeutic agents to address a large number of degenerative diseases. Yet, in order to rationally utilize these cells as effective therapeutic agents, and\\/or improve treatment of stem-cell-associated malignancies such as leukemias and carcinomas, a better understanding of the basic biological properties of stem cells needs to be acquired. A major

Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

2007-01-01

147

Eumetazoa: Bilateria Bilateral symmetry  

E-print Network

;Platyhelminthes Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa: Platyhelminthes Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes Other Lophotrochozoa Deuterostomes Ecdysozoa #12;Platyhelminthes Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa: Platyhelminthes Figure 32.11 #12;Platyhelminthes Protostomia: Lophotrochozoa: Platyhelminthes · Flatworms · Marine, freshwater

148

Occurrence of Echeneibothrium (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) in the  

E-print Network

. OV =ovarian acini containing developing eggs. Mallory's trichrome stain. Scallops are known hosts changes in the intestinal wall tissue ofA. gibbus in the vicinity of the cyst. The wall of the intestine

149

Nutritional adaptations to parasitism within the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most significant alterations to the basic turbellarian plan are evident in the adaptations that relate to the acquisition of food by parasitic flatworms, reflecting the most potent of selection pressures in initiating and maintaining the host-parasite association. Nutritionally, ectoparasitic monogeneans show most correspondence with the predatory turbellarians, with certain monopisthocotylean members feeding by means of a protrusible

David W. Halton

1997-01-01

150

Phylum Platyhelminthes Most parasitic platyhelminths belong to one of three classes: Mono-  

E-print Network

are distinguished from sporocysts by the presence of a mouth and digestive system. They are usually motile and can and female reproductive hermaphrodite protogynous protandrous systems. Usually both systems develop simultaneously or the male system develops first (protandrous) but in Gyrodactylid monogenea, the female system

Schluter, Dolph

151

Developmental diversity in free-living flatworms  

PubMed Central

Flatworm embryology has attracted attention since the early beginnings of comparative evolutionary biology. Considered for a long time the most basal bilaterians, the Platyhelminthes (excluding Acoelomorpha) are now robustly placed within the Spiralia. Despite having lost their relevance to explain the transition from radially to bilaterally symmetrical animals, the study of flatworm embryology is still of great importance to understand the diversification of bilaterians and of developmental mechanisms. Flatworms are acoelomate organisms generally with a simple centralized nervous system, a blind gut, and lacking a circulatory organ, a skeleton and a respiratory system other than the epidermis. Regeneration and asexual reproduction, based on a totipotent neoblast stem cell system, are broadly present among different groups of flatworms. While some more basally branching groups - such as polyclad flatworms - retain the ancestral quartet spiral cleavage pattern, most flatworms have significantly diverged from this pattern and exhibit unique strategies to specify the common adult body plan. Most free-living flatworms (i.e. Platyhelminthes excluding the parasitic Neodermata) are directly developing, whereas in polyclads, also indirect developers with an intermediate free-living larval stage and subsequent metamorphosis are found. A comparative study of developmental diversity may help understanding major questions in evolutionary biology, such as the evolution of cleavage patterns, gastrulation and axial specification, the evolution of larval types, and the diversification and specialization of organ systems. In this review, we present a thorough overview of the embryonic development of the different groups of free-living (turbellarian) platyhelminths, including the Catenulida, Macrostomorpha, Polycladida, Lecithoepitheliata, Proseriata, Bothrioplanida, Rhabdocoela, Fecampiida, Prolecithophora and Tricladida, and discuss their main features under a consensus phylogeny of the phylum. PMID:22429930

2012-01-01

152

The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute one of the largest groupings of eukaryotic proteins, and represent a particularly lucrative set of pharmaceutical targets. They play an important role in eukaryotic signal transduction and physiology, mediating cellular responses to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli. The phylum Platyhelminthes is of considerable medical and biological importance, housing major pathogens as well as established model organisms. The recent availability of genomic data for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and analyze GPCRs in this important phylum. Results Application of a novel transmembrane-oriented approach to receptor mining led to the discovery of 117 S. mansoni GPCRs, representing all of the major families; 105 Rhodopsin, 2 Glutamate, 3 Adhesion, 2 Secretin and 5 Frizzled. Similarly, 418 Rhodopsin, 9 Glutamate, 21 Adhesion, 1 Secretin and 11 Frizzled S. mediterranea receptors were identified. Among these, we report the identification of novel receptor groupings, including a large and highly-diverged Platyhelminth-specific Rhodopsin subfamily, a planarian-specific Adhesion-like family, and atypical Glutamate-like receptors. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out following extensive gene curation. Support vector machines (SVMs) were trained and used for ligand-based classification of full-length Rhodopsin GPCRs, complementing phylogenetic and homology-based classification. Conclusions Genome-wide investigation of GPCRs in two platyhelminth genomes reveals an extensive and complex receptor signaling repertoire with many unique features. This work provides important sequence and functional leads for understanding basic flatworm receptor biology, and sheds light on a lucrative set of anthelmintic drug targets. PMID:22145649

2011-01-01

153

Ca2+ channels and Praziquantel: a view from the free world  

PubMed Central

Targeting the cellular Ca2+ channels and pumps that underpin parasite Ca2+ homeostasis may realize novel antihelmintic agents. Indeed, the antischistosomal drug praziquantel (PZQ) is a key clinical agent that has been proposed to work in this manner. Heterologous expression data has implicated an action of PZQ on voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, although the relevant in vivo target of this drug has remained undefined over three decades of clinical use. The purpose of this review is to bring new perspective to this issue by discussing the potential utility of free-living planarian flatworms for providing new insight into the mechanism of PZQ action. First, we discuss in vivo functional genetic data from the planarian system that broadly supports the molecular data collected in heterologous systems and the ‘Ca2+ hypothesis’ of PZQ action. On the basis of these similarities we highlight our current knowledge of platyhelminth voltage operated Ca2+ channels, their unique molecular pharmacology and the downstream functional PZQ interactome engaged by dysregulation of Ca2+ influx that has potential to yield novel antischistosomal targets. Overall the broad dataset underscore a common theme of PZQ-evoked disruptions of Ca2+ homeostasis in trematodes, cestodes and turbellarians, and showcase the utility of the planarian model for deriving insight into drug action and targets in parasitic flatworms. PMID:23246536

Chan, John D.; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2012-01-01

154

A checklist of the aspidogastrea (platyhelminthes: trematoda) of the world.  

PubMed

A checklist of records of aspidogastrean trematodes (Aspidogastrea) is provided on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the literature since 1826, when the first aspidogastrean species was reported, until December 2014. We list 61 species representing 13 genera within 4 families and 2 orders of aspidogastreans associated with 298 species of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. The majority of records include bivalves (44% of the total number of host-parasite associations), whereas records from bony fishes represent 32% of host-parasite associations. The aspidogastreans have worldwide distribution, with the highest number of records in the Neartic Region for freshwater hosts and the North Atlantic Ocean for marine ones. The checklist includes a parasite-host list with data on host habitat, site of infection and distribution area of parasites, and a host-parasite list. A limited number of molecular studies on aspidogastreans does not allow us to unravel phylogenetic relationships within the Aspidogastrea. PMID:25781098

Alves, Philippe V; Vieira, Fabiano M; Santos, Cláudia P; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

2015-01-01

155

Marine macrostomorpha (platyhelminthes, rhabditophora) from the algarve (southern portugal).  

PubMed

Ten species of Macrostomorpha were found in marine environments of the Algarve (Portugal). Six of them were found in the Ria Formosa, a vast intertidal euryhaline lagoon system that dominates the most Eastern coast of the Algarve: two unidentified species of Microstomum Schmidt, 1848, Macrostomum cf. rubrocinctum Ax, 1951 and two unidentified species of Macrostomum Schmidt, 1848, Paromalostomum dubium (de Beauchamps, 1927), Paromalostomum minutum Rieger, 1971 and Cylindromacrostomum faroensis n.sp.. Comparison of this species with C. mediterraneum (Ax, 1955) and the species from Venice, considered to be C. mediterraneum by Rieger (1977), leads to the conclusion that the individuals studied by Rieger are in fact representatives of a separate species, C. riegeri n.sp.. Acanthomacrostomum spiculiferum Papi & Swedmark, 1959 was found in the Atlantic, 10-15 m deep, near the western coast of the Algarve. Haplopharynx papii n. sp. occurs on the beach exposed to the Atlantic as well as in the Ria Formosa. All identified and previously known (marine) species found in the Algarve had been found before, either in the Atlantic or in the Mediterranean basin.  PMID:25544102

Schockaert, Ernest R

2014-01-01

156

Evolutionary biology of parasitic platyhelminths: The role of molecular phylogenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As our appreciation of the diversity within the flatworms has grown, so too has our curiosity about the ways in which these varied creatures are related to one another. In particular, the parasitic groups (trematodes, cestodes and monogeneans have been the focus of enquiry. Until recently, morphology, anatomy and life histories have provided the raw data for building hypotheses on

D. Blair; A. Campos; M. P. Cummings; J. P. Laclette

1996-01-01

157

Salinity tolerance of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea): laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salinity tolerance of the freshwater monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris, infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr, was studied experimentally. Following direct transfer of infected fish from fresh water to 5.0‰ salinity, parasite population growth increased at the same rate as in fresh water and was positively correlated with temperature (1.4, 6.0, and 12.0°C). In 7.5‰ salinity the populations declined and became

Arnulf Soleng; Tor A. Bakke

1997-01-01

158

The major parasitic platyhelminth classes — progressive or regressive evolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of certain ontogenetic processes appears to be of special importance to subsequent evolution of a phyletic line, and their occurrence suggests there are various ‘evolutionary capacity levels’ occupied by major taxa. Two groups that are at the same evolutionary capacity level probably originated in common within that level, which in turn is often shared with several other groups.

G. Malmberg

1986-01-01

159

Embryonic Muscle Development of Convoluta pulchra (Turbellaria–Acoelomorpha, Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the embryonic development of body-wall musculature in the acoel turbellarian Convoluta pulchra by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin-bound stains for F-actin. During stage 1, which we define as development prior to 50% of the time between egg-laying and hatching, actin was visible only in zonulae adhaerentes of epidermal cells. Subsequent development of muscle occurred in two distinct phases: first,

Peter Ladurner; Reinhard Rieger

2000-01-01

160

Genetic differences among several species of Tricladida from the relict Lake Ohrid as revealed by enzyme electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Six endemic and two widely distributed species living in Lake Ohrid were studied. In general, these hermaphroditic animals displayed no signs of departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic variation in all but one of the endemic species was of the same extent as that in geographically wide ranging invertebrates. On the other hand, the Lake Ohrid population of the common European species Dendrocoelum lacteum was monomorphic at all loci examined. D. sanctinaumi, one of the endemic species, exhibited a clear genetic subdivision into spring and littoral subpopulations. The genetic differentiation of Crenobia alpina alpina and C. a. montenigrina proved commensurable to that of well separated species from other genera. The data suggest that the separation of particular lineages in the set of Lake Ohrid endemics was widely dispersed over time. PMID:14686654

Sywula, Tadeusz; Krstanovski, Zdravko; Tasevska, Orhideja; Sell, Jerzy; Kretowicz, Tomasz

2003-01-01

161

Planarian regeneration involves distinct stem cell responses to wounds and tissue absence  

E-print Network

Regeneration requires signaling from a wound site for detection of the wound and a mechanism that determines the nature of the injury to specify the appropriate regenerative response. Wound signals and tissue responses to ...

Wenemoser, Danielle

162

[The adhesive system of the planarian Dendrocoelum lacteum: its structure and innervation].  

PubMed

Light and electron microscopy of ventral surface of triclada D. lacteum allowed to distinguish four regions, containing ducts of adhesive glands. Every zone described has several morphological features connected to their role in various physiological processes. In every case structural unit of adhesive system is a complex of two unicellullar glands which according to the structure of secretory granules secrete different chemical products and are responsible for different processes such as adhesion an secretion. Adhesive structures of D. lacteum involved in vital behavior acts as movement on substrate surface, food capture an reaction of avoiding are heavily innervated. Cerebral ganglion neurons play the leading role in innervation of adhesive channel and area of additional secretion. The margin and caudal sucktio are innervated by axons originated from lateral neural cord. Neurons of peripheral plexuses play an important role in innervation of the whole adhesive system. Most dense accumulation of nerve endings is located in the vicinity of ducts of adhesive glands. PMID:9826830

Erofeeva, E S; Golubev, A I; Maliutina, L V

1998-01-01

163

Modeling Planarian Regeneration: A Primer for Reverse-Engineering the Worm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistic understanding of robust self-assembly and repair capabilities of complex systems would have enormous implications for basic evolutionary developmental biology as well as for transformative applications in regenerative biomedicine and the engineering of highly fault-tolerant cybernetic systems. Molecular biologists are working to identify the pathways underlying the remarkable regenerative abilities of model species that perfectly regenerate limbs, brains, and

Daniel Lobo; Wendy S. Beane; Michael Levin

2012-01-01

164

InternationalJournalfor Parasitology Vol.21, No. 7, pp. 821-838, 1991 Printed in Great Britain  

E-print Network

IN THE MONOGENEA (PLATYHELMINTHES), BASED UPON A PARSIMONY ANALYSIS OF SPERMIOGENETIC AND SPERMATOZOAL.Cladisticstudyin the Monogenea(Platyhelminthes),based upon aparsimony analysis of spermiogenetic and spermatozoal: Monogenea, Platyhelminthes; Polyopisthocotylea; MonopisthocotyIea; phylogeny; cladistics; systematics

165

First records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) for the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula  

PubMed Central

Abstract A study of polyclad fauna of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula was carried out from 2010 to 2013. The paper reports nine new records belonging to three Cotylean families: the family Euryleptidae Lang, 1884, Pseudocerotidae Lang, 1884 and the family Prosthiostomidae Lang, 1884, and describes one new species, Euryleptodes galikias sp. n. PMID:24843268

Noreña, Carolina; Marquina, Daniel; Perez, Jacinto; Almon, Bruno

2014-01-01

166

A new species of land flatworm (Platyhelminthes: Continenticola) from areas of Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

The genus Cratera Carbayo et al. was proposed to encompass five species of Geoplaninae from southeastern Brazil that were mainly recorded in the state of São Paulo. Here we describe a new species of the genus, C. steffeni sp. nov., that occurs in areas of Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil, which augments the known distribution of Cratera. The new species is distinguished from others of the genus by its characteristic colour pattern and a combination of internal morphological characters. PMID:24870339

Rossi, Ilana; Fontoura, Marcela; Amaral, Silvana; Leal-Zanchet, Ana M

2014-01-01

167

Parasite hybridization in African Macrogyrodactylus spp. (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) signals historical host distribution.  

PubMed

Macrogyrodactylus spp. from the gills of Clarias gariepinus in Zimbabwe and Kenya, and C. anguillaris in Senegal were identified using haptoral sclerite morphology and by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, partial 18S and the complete 5.8S rRNA gene. A molecular phylogeny was constructed using all sequenced Macrogyrodactylus species to date. Based on morphology, Macrogyrodactylus congolensis, M. heterobranchii, M. clarii, and M. karibae were identified, with one specimen from Zimbabwe displaying morphological features that were intermediate between M. heterobranchii and M. clarii. In the intermediate form, the partial 18S and ITS1 sequence was identical to that of M. clarii while the remaining ITS1 and complete ITS2 region was almost identical to M. heterobranchii as was the partial cox1 fragment, thus strongly suggesting a hybrid origin. At present, the catfish host of M. heterobranchii and M. clarii do not co-occur in southern Zimbabwe; this hybridization event is therefore proof of historical sympatry of both fish species. PMID:20444301

Barson, Maxwell; Prikrylová, Iva; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Huyse, Tine

2010-09-01

168

Alternative development in Polystoma gallieni (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) and life cycle evolution.  

PubMed

Considering the addition of intermediate transmission steps during life cycle evolution, developmental plasticity, canalization forces and inherited parental effect must be invoked to explain new host colonization. Unfortunately, there is a lack of experimental procedures and relevant models to explore the adaptive value of alternative developmental phenotypes during life cycle evolution. However, within the monogeneans that are characterized by a direct life cycle, an extension of the transmission strategy of amphibian parasites has been reported within species of Polystoma and Metapolystoma (Polyopisthocotylea; Polystomatidae). In this study, we tested whether the infection success of Polystoma gallieni within tadpoles of its specific host, the Stripeless Tree Frog Hyla meridionalis, differs depending on the parental origin of the oncomiracidium. An increase in the infection success of the parasitic larvae when exposed to the same experimental conditions as their parents was expected as an adaptive pattern of non-genetic inherited information. Twice as many parasites were actually recorded from tadpoles infected with oncomiracidia hatching from eggs of the bladder parental phenotype (1.63 ± 0.82 parasites per host) than from tadpoles infected with oncomiracidia hatching from eggs of the branchial parental phenotype (0.83 ± 0.64 parasites per host). Because in natural environments the alternation of the two phenotypes is likely to occur due to the ecology of its host, the differential infection success within young tadpoles could have an adaptive value that favors the parasite transmission over time. PMID:23896124

Badets, Mathieu; Du Preez, Louis; Verneau, Olivier

2013-10-01

169

Patterns of interaction between Neotropical freshwater fishes and their gill Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

Using network analysis, we looked for broad patterns of distribution of Monogenoidea gill parasites on Neotropical freshwater fishes within a host phylogenetic framework. We analyzed a database of Monogenoidea parasitizing fishes from Neotropical rivers, from 23 watersheds, based on species descriptions published until 2011. Host-parasite interactions were organized into five matrices grouping species at different taxonomic levels. The network of interactions between host families and parasite genera was significantly modular and revealed that each fish order has a unique composition of parasite genera. Hence, interactions between lower taxa were analyzed separately for the largest fish orders (Perciformes, Siluriformes, and Characiformes). Networks tended to be loosely connected and organized in modules. Despite the putative high host specificity of monogenoids, some have a wider host range that includes distantly related host species. Among the hosts, the clade composed by the piranhas (Serrasalmus spp. and related species, Serrasalmidae) stands out in terms of parasite richness per host species, resulting in a more connected network. The history of the lineages of each host order within Neotropical freshwaters seems to have a great influence on the extent of parasite sharing. The observed modularity was influenced by both spatial structure and phylogenetic relatedness of species. In average, 37 % of modules of networks between host species and parasite genera were associated with a particular river basin and 63 % of modules were associated with a host family. Hence, spatial structure determines the co-occurrence of host and parasite species, but their evolutionary history is the main factor defining which interactions are possible. PMID:24221891

Braga, Mariana P; Araújo, Sabrina B L; Boeger, Walter A

2014-02-01

170

Monorchiids (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of chaetodontid fishes (Perciformes): biogeographical patterns in the tropical Indo-West Pacific.  

PubMed

Species richness and biogeography of the monorchiid genus Hurleytrematoides was studied by the examination of 2834 individuals of 45 species of Chaetodontidae at six major sites in the tropical Indo-West Pacific: Heron Island, Lizard Island, Ningaloo (Western Australia), Palau, New Caledonia and Moorea (French Polynesia). In total, 18 species were distributed among six sites; descriptions are provided for eight new species: H. boucheti n. sp., H. combesi n. sp., H. deblocki n. sp., H. dollfusi n. sp., H. euzeti n. sp., H. kulbickii n. sp., H. pasteuri n. sp., and H. planesi n. sp. Overall richness ranged from zero to five Hurleytrematoides species per chaetodontid species. Seven Hurleytrematoides species were found at only one locality and eleven were found at multiple localities. Only one species, H. morandi, was found at all localities. Individual localities had between six (Moorea) and 10 (Heron Island) species; we attribute Moorea's depauperate parasite fauna to its isolation and distance from the Indo-Philippine centre of biological diversity. Using cluster analysis of 18 species of Hurleytrematoides and 45 species of chaetodontids sampled in the Indo-West Pacific, we show that the localities on the Great Barrier Reef (Heron Island and Lizard Island) and New Caledonia have the most similar chaetodontid and parasite fauna of any locality pairs. Cluster analysis results also show that the similarity of the chaetodontid assemblages at five of the six localities is relatively high and that Ningaloo has the most distinct fauna. Similarity values based on sharing of species of Hurleytrematoides are generally lower than those for their hosts; Moorea, Ningaloo and Palau all have low similarity to New Caledonia and Great Barrier Reef sites. We attribute these distinctions to the differential dispersal capability of the fish and their parasites. Chaetodontids have long-lived mobile pelagic larvae, the dispersal of which would be most affected by prominent biogeographical barriers, such as that between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In contrast, monorchiids have no obvious dispersal stage, and vast distances have the capacity to act as effective barriers to dispersal. We conclude that the present distributions of species of Hurleytrematoides in the Indo-Pacific are driven by historical opportunity and capacity to disperse, and that some disjunct distributions are sculpted by stochasticity. PMID:22154425

McNamara, M K A; Adlard, R D; Bray, R A; Sasal, P; Cribb, T H

2012-06-01

171

Identification of thyroid hormone receptor homologs in the fluke Opisthorchis felineus (Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

The liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus of the Opisthorchiidae family, is a well-known causative agent of opisthorchiasis in Russia and Europe. The aim of this work was to identify genes encoding thyroid hormone receptors in O. felineus, and to analyze the expression of possible target genes in response to treatment with exogenous thyroid hormones. We identified two genes encoding thyroid hormone receptors in the O. felineus genome, THRA and THRB. The genes were differentially expressed through the life cycle. The maximal level of mRNA expression of THRA1 and THRB was observed in adult worms. Treatment of the worms with triiodothyronine and thyroxine resulted in an increase in glucose 6-phosphatase mRNA expression and a decrease in malate dehydrogenase mRNA expression, potential gene targets of thyroid hormones. These data indicate that thyroid hormone receptors may perform essential roles in physiological processes in adult O. felineus. PMID:24798031

Pakharukova, Maria Y; Ershov, Nikita I; Vorontsova, Elena V; Shilov, Alexander G; Merkulova, Tatyana I; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

2014-01-01

172

A Reevaluation of the Taxonomy of the Mesocoelium monas Complex (Platyhelminthes: Digenea: Mesoceliidae)  

E-print Network

.7.14 50?54, 1980.11.12 1?3); 3 were M. americanum (USNPC: 079344.00: NHM 1979.9.12 17?19, 1994.6.21 3); 3 were M. meggitti (USNPC: 092800.00, 09335.00; NHM 1977.9.28 6); 1 was M. burti (NHM 1980.11.12 4); 1 was M. crossophorum (USNPC 072881.00); 1 was M... width (295 [230?360] compared to 250); however, these characteristics are also shared with M. americanum (genital pore submedian and oral sucker width 284 [208?360] compared to 250) as redescribed by Dronen, et al. (Unpublished material, 2011) 12...

Calhoun, Dana Marie

2012-07-16

173

Coevolution of the Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes) based on a revised hypothesis of parasite phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised hypothesis for the phylogeny of the Subclass Polyonchoinea (Monogenoidea) was contructed employing phylogenetic systematics. The Acanthocotylidae (formerly of the Order Capsalidea) is transferred to the Order Gyrodactylidea based on this analysis. The new phylogeny is used to determine coevolutionary relationships of the familial taxa of Monogenoidea with their hosts. The coevolutionary analysis suggests that the Monogenoidea apparently underwent

Walter A. Boeger; Delane C. Kritsky

1997-01-01

174

Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of Echinostoma caproni ( Platyhelminthes, Digenea): transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and tubulin immunocytochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Echinostoma caproni (from experimentally infested laboratory mice) were investigated by several methods. Transmission electron microscopy shows that spermiogenesis consists of a proximo-distal fusion of three processes followed by elongation of the spermatid. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the spermatozoon is a filiform cell, 235 ?m in length, with a cylindrical anterior extremity and a broader

C. Iomini; J.-L. Justine

1997-01-01

175

Neuropeptides in free-living and parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes). An immunocytochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nervous systems of the turbellarians Microstomum lineare and Polycelis nigra and of the cestodes Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and Schistocephalus solidus were studied by means of the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunocytochemical method, with the use of antisera to the neuropeptides FMRF-amide, vasotocin, leu-enkephalin, met-enkephalin, neurotensin, somatostatin, and VIP, and to the bioamine serotonin. Anti-FMRF-amide positive perikarya and fibers occurred in all species,

Marianne Wikgren; Maria Reuter; Margaretha Gustafsson

1986-01-01

176

Molecular systematics of the Acoela (Acoelomorpha, Platyhelminthes) and its concordance with morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the lower worm group Acoela were investigated using newly obtained nuclear 18S rDNA sequences from 16 acoels in combination with 16 acoel sequences available on GenBank from other laboratories. Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the molecular data supported the concept that the Acoela is monophyletic; however, the gene tree produced by these analyses conflicts with

Matthew D. Hooge; Pilar A. Haye; Seth Tyler; Marian K. Litvaitis; Irv Kornfield

2002-01-01

177

Phylogeny and a revised classification of the Monogenoidea Bychowsky, 1937 (Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis (CI=57.3%) on the evolutionary relationships of families comprising the class Monogenoidea is proposed based on 141 character states in 47 homologous series and employing phylogenetic systematics. Based on the analysis, three subclasses, the Polyonchoinea, Polystomatoinea and Oligonchoinea, are recognised. The analysis supports independent origins of the Montchadskyellidae within the Polyonchoinea and of the Neodactylodiscidae and Amphibdellatidae within the

Walter A. Boeger; Delane C. Kritsky

1993-01-01

178

Phylogenetic relationships and systematic position of the families Cortrematidae and Phaneropsolidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea).  

PubMed

The systematic position and phylogenetic relationships of the family Cortrematidae Yamaguti, 1958 have always been controversial. In the present study, the phylogenetic relationships of this family and its constituent genera and families within the superfamily Microphalloidea were evaluated using previously published and newly obtained sequences of 28S rDNA of Cortrema magnicaudata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1950) (Cortrematidae), Phaneropsolus praomydis Baer, 1971 and Microtrema barusi Sitko, 2013 (Phaneropsolidae). Results clearly demonstrate that the genus Cortrema Tang, 1951 is closest to Gyrabascus Macy 1935, both genera forming one of the clades within the family Pleurogenidae in the superfamily Microphalloidea and sharing several important morphological features. Thus, the family Cortrematidae should be considered among synonyms of the Pleurogenidae. Based on the analysis of morphology, C. corti Tang, 1951, C. testilobata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1953) and C. niloticus Ashour, Ahmed et Lewis, 1994 are considered junior synonyms of C. magnicaudata. The phylogenetic position of P. praomydis as a family-level branch not showing close relationships with other families of the Microphalloidea, supports the status of the Phaneropsolidae as an independent family. The genus Parabascus Looss, 1907 previously considered within the Phaneropsolidae clearly belongs to the Pleurogenidae. In addition, the molecular phylogeny has demonstrated that the recently described phaneropsolid Microtrema barusi belongs to the microphallid genus Microphallus Ward, 1901. Therefore, Microtrema Sitko, 2013 is considered a junior synonym of Microphallus. Our analysis has also confirmed the status of Collyriclidae as a family within the Microphalloidea. Not yet sequenced representatives of other families within the Microphalloidea (e.g. Anenterotrematidae, Eumegacetidae, Renschtrematidae, Stomylotrematidae, etc.) need to be included in future molecular phylogenetic studies to better unravel the taxonomic structure and content of this diverse digenean superfamily. PMID:25651693

Kanarek, Gerard; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Tkach, Vasyl V

2014-12-01

179

A molecular approach for the identification of meiofaunal turbellarians (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of reliable morphological characters, or in conjunction with morphology-based identifications, meiofaunal turbellarians may also be identified using the nucleotide sequence of a portion of the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA (26\\/28S rRNA). A 284 base pair-long region of the 26\\/28S rRNA has been identified by isolating genomic DNA from ten species of turbellarians belonging to four

M. K. Litvaitis; G. Nunn; W. K. Thomas; T. D. Kocher

1994-01-01

180

Linking specialisation to diversification in the Diplectanidae Bychowsky 1957 (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of a positive correlation between host specificity and taxonomic diversification was tested in a family of\\u000a fish ectoparasites, the Diplectanidae Bychowsky 1957 (Monogenea). A comparative analysis of correlation of species richness\\u000a with host specificity was performed using an adapted independent contrasts method. In order to control for phylogenetic effects,\\u000a a phylogenetic tree of the genera in the Diplectanidae

Y. Desdevises; S. Morand; G. Oliver

2001-01-01

181

On the morphology and karyology of the genus Archilopsis (Meixner) (Platyhelminthes, Proseriata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new Archilopsis species are described: Archilopsis marifuga sp.n. and Archilopsis arenaria sp.n.; Archilopsis unipunctata (Fabricius, 1826) and Archilopsis spinosa (Jensen, 1878) are redescribed. The latter taxon is re-established. The descriptions are based on morphological and karyological data. The four species of the genus can unequivocally be recognized by the morphology of the cirrus and the presence or absence of

Paul M. Martens; Marco C. Curini-Galletti; Ileana Puccinelli

1989-01-01

182

The Interrelationships of Proseriata (Platyhelminthes: Seriata) Tested with Molecules and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proseriate flatworms are common members of the interstitial benthic fauna worldwide, predominantly occupying marine environments. As minute animals, having relatively few characters useful for cladistic analysis, they have been difficult to present in a phylogenetic framework using morphology alone. Here we present a new morphological matrix consisting of 16 putatively homologous characters and two molecular data sets to investigate further

D. T. J. Littlewood; Marco Curini-Galletti; Elisabeth A. Herniou

2000-01-01

183

Host-specificity of monogenean (platyhelminth) parasites: a role for anterior adhesive areas?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monogeneans (flatworms) are among the most host-specific of parasites in general and may be the most host-specific of all fish parasites. Specificity, in terms of a restricted spatial distribution within an environment, is not unique to parasites and is displayed by some fungi, insects, birds, symbionts and pelagic larvae of free-living marine invertebrates. The nature of cues, how “habitats” are

Ian D. Whittington; Bronwen W. Cribb; Tamarind E. Hamwood; Judy A. Halliday

2000-01-01

184

STUDIES ON FEEDING, DIGESTION, AND FOOD STORAGE IN FREE-LIVING FLATWORMS (PLATYHELMINTHES : TURBELLARIA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations upon turbellarian nutrition (summarized by Hyman, 1951 and Yonge, 1954) have so far dealt mainly with triclads, where intracellular digestion has been demonstrated but the possibility of some supplementary intraluminar di gestion not fully explored. Triclad nutrition has therefore been re-examined, us ing Polycelis cornuta, and the opportunity taken to make comparable investigations on representatives of the other turbellarian

J. B. JENNINGS

185

Vestigial prototroch in a basal nemertean, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Palaeonemertea)  

E-print Network

affinities of ne- merteans. Although some authors traditionally view them as related to platyhelminthes based 1964) or platyhelminthes and nemerteans (Ivanova- Kazas 1985). Rouse (1999) suggested an apomorph

Maslakova, Svetlana

186

The Stem Cell System of the Basal Flatworm Macrostomum Lignano  

E-print Network

lignano as an excellent model organism to address questions of platyhelminth stem cell biology. First, we of higher organisms, including humans Keywords Platyhelminthes, neoblast, Planaria, evolution, regeneration

Schärer, Lukas

187

Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is ancestral in metazoans  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is the major mechanism of physiological cell death in vertebrates. In this pathway, proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family cause mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), allowing the release of cytochrome c, which interacts with Apaf-1 to trigger caspase activation and apoptosis. Despite conservation of Bcl-2, Apaf-1, and caspases in invertebrate phyla, the existence of the mitochondrial pathway in any invertebrate is, at best, controversial. Here we show that apoptosis in a lophotrochozoan, planaria (phylum Platyhelminthes), is associated with MOMP and that cytochrome c triggers caspase activation in cytosolic extracts from these animals. Further, planarian Bcl-2 family proteins can induce and/or regulate cell death in yeast and can replace Bcl-2 proteins in mammalian cells to regulate MOMP. These results suggest that the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in animals predates the emergence of the vertebrates but was lost in some lineages (e.g., nematodes). In further support of this hypothesis, we surveyed the ability of cytochrome c to trigger caspase activation in cytosolic extracts from a variety of organisms and found this effect in cytosolic extracts from invertebrate deuterostomes (phylum Echinodermata). PMID:22416118

Bender, Cheryl E.; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Tait, Stephen W. G.; Llambi, Fabien; McStay, Gavin P.; Tupper, Douglas O.; Pellettieri, Jason; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez; Salvesen, Guy S.; Green, Douglas R.

2012-01-01

188

Ameliorating Effect of Chloride on Nitrite Toxicity to Freshwater Invertebrates with Different Physiology: a Comparative Study Between Amphipods and Planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

High nitrite concentrations in freshwater ecosystems may cause toxicity to aquatic animals. These living organisms can take\\u000a nitrite up from water through their chloride cells, subsequently suffering oxidation of their respiratory pigments (hemoglobin,\\u000a hemocyanin). Because NO2? and Cl? ions compete for the same active transport site, elevated chloride concentrations in the aquatic environment have the potential\\u000a of reducing nitrite toxicity.

A. Alonso; J. A. Camargo

2008-01-01

189

A Comprehensive Molecular Phylogeny of Dalytyphloplanida (Platyhelminthes: Rhabdocoela) Reveals Multiple Escapes from the Marine Environment and Origins of Symbiotic Relationships  

PubMed Central

In this study we elaborate the phylogeny of Dalytyphloplanida based on complete 18S rDNA (156 sequences) and partial 28S rDNA (125 sequences), using a Maximum Likelihood and a Bayesian Inference approach, in order to investigate the origin of a limnic or limnoterrestrial and of a symbiotic lifestyle in this large group of rhabditophoran flatworms. The results of our phylogenetic analyses and ancestral state reconstructions indicate that dalytyphloplanids have their origin in the marine environment and that there was one highly successful invasion of the freshwater environment, leading to a large radiation of limnic and limnoterrestrial dalytyphloplanids. This monophyletic freshwater clade, Limnotyphloplanida, comprises the taxa Dalyelliidae, Temnocephalida, and most Typhloplanidae. Temnocephalida can be considered ectosymbiotic Dalyelliidae as they are embedded within this group. Secondary returns to brackish water and marine environments occurred relatively frequently in several dalyeliid and typhloplanid taxa. Our phylogenies also show that, apart from the Limnotyphloplanida, there have been only few independent invasions of the limnic environment, and apparently these were not followed by spectacular speciation events. The distinct phylogenetic positions of the symbiotic taxa also suggest multiple origins of commensal and parasitic life strategies within Dalytyphloplanida. The previously established higher-level dalytyphloplanid clades are confirmed in our topologies, but many of the traditional families are not monophyletic. Alternative hypothesis testing constraining the monophyly of these families in the topologies and using the approximately unbiased test, also statistically rejects their monophyly. PMID:23536894

Van Steenkiste, Niels; Tessens, Bart; Willems, Wim; Backeljau, Thierry; Jondelius, Ulf; Artois, Tom

2013-01-01

190

On the systematic position of Collyricloides massanae Vaucher, 1969 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) with notes on distribution of this trematode species.  

PubMed

The systematic position of the Collyricloides massanae, a rare cyst-dwelling parasite, located on intestinal wall of European birds and rodents, have always been controversial. Based on newly obtained sequences of the 28 sDNA of C. massanae from avian and rodent host from Central Europe, and on the previously published sequences of several genera and families among Microphalloidea, we evaluate its taxonomic position and the phylogenetic relationships within the genera Collyriclum Kossack, 1911 and Collyricloides Vaucher, 1969 which form the family Collyriclidae Ward, 1917. In the cladogram, C. massanae appears among the Pleurogenidae, forming a clade with Gyrabascus amphoraeformis (Modlinger, 1930) and Cortrema magnicaudata (Bykhovskaya-Pavlovskaya, 1950). We reject the commonly accepted placement of Collyricloides as the sister genus to Collyriclum within the Collyriclidae. Besides, we present and discuss the unusual records of C. massanae in the bank vole Myodes glareolus from northeastern Poland. PMID:25638231

Kanarek, Gerard; Zale?ny, Grzegorz; Czujkowska, Agnieszka; Sitko, Jiljí; Harris, Philip D

2015-04-01

191

Genetic differentiation among populations of Minona ileanae (Platyhelminthes: Proseriata) from the Red Sea and the Suez Canal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of Lessepsian migration has stimulated the interest of biologists ever since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, concerning, in particular, the possible effects of migrants on Mediterranean autochthonous communities. So far, most attention has been devoted to macrofaunal taxa – yet, the nature of the sandy shores of the Canal may constitute an ideal habitat for

Tiziana Lai; Marco Curini-Galletti; Marco Casu

2008-01-01

192

Effects of Microphallus papillorobustus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) on serotonergic immunoreactivity and neuronal architecture in the brain of Gammarus insensibilis (Crustacea: Amphipoda).  

PubMed Central

The larval flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus encysts in the protocerebrum of its intermediate host, Gammarus insensibilis, and changes the gammarid's responses to mechanical and photic stimuli. The resulting aberrant escape behaviour renders infected gammarids more susceptible to predation by birds, the definitive hosts of the parasite. We used immunocytochemical methods to explore the mechanisms underlying these subtle behavioural modifications. Whole mounts of gammarid brains were labelled with fluorescent anti-serotonin and anti-synapsin antibodies and viewed using confocal microscopy. Two types of change were observed in infected brains: the intensity of the serotonergic label was altered in specific regions of the brain, and the architecture of some serotonergic tracts and neurons was affected. A morphometric analysis of the distribution of the label showed that serotonergic immunoreactivity was decreased significantly (by 62%) in the optic neuropils, but not in the olfactory lobes, in the presence of the parasite. In addition, the optic tracts and the tritocerebral giant neurons were stunted in parasitized individuals. Published evidence demonstrates changes in serotonin levels in hosts ranging from crustaceans to mammals infected by parasites as diverse as protozoans and helminths. The present study suggests that the degeneration of discrete sets of serotonergic neurons might underlie the serotonergic imbalance and thus contribute to host manipulation. PMID:12769454

Helluy, S; Thomas, F

2003-01-01

193

Differential transcriptomic responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) to bacteria and metazoan parasites, Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea, Platyhelminthes)  

PubMed Central

A 70-mer oligonucleotide-based microarray (1152 features) that emphasizes stress and immune responses factors was constructed to study transcriptomic responses of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata to different immune challenges. In addition to sequences with relevant putative ID and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the array features non-immune factors and unknown B. glabrata ESTs for functional gene discovery. The transcription profiles of B. glabrata (3 biological replicates, each a pool of 5 snails) were recorded at 12 hours post wounding, exposure to Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus, respectively), or infection with compatible trematode parasites (S. mansoni or E. paraensei, 20 miracidia/snail), relative to controls, using universal reference RNA. The data were subjected to Significance Analysis for Microarrays (SAM), with a false positive rate (FPR) ?10%. Wounding yielded a modest differential expression profile (27 up/21 down) with affected features mostly dissimilar from other treatments. Partially overlapping, yet distinct expression profiles were recorded from snails challenged with E. coli (83 up/20 down) or M. luteus (120 up/42 down), mostly showing up-regulation of defense and stress-related features. Significantly altered expression of selected immune features indicates that B. glabrata detects and responds differently to compatible trematodes. Echinostoma paraensei infection was associated mostly with down regulation of many (immune-) transcripts (42 up/68 down), whereas S. mansoni exposure yielded a preponderance of up-regulated features (140 up/23 down), with only few known immune genes affected. These observations may reflect the divergent strategies developed by trematodes during their evolution as specialized pathogens of snails to negate host defense responses. Clearly, the immune defenses of B. glabrata distinguish and respond differently to various immune challenges. PMID:19962194

Adema, Coen M; Hanington, Patrick C.; Lun, Cheng-Man; Rosenberg, George H.; Aragon, Anthony D; Stout, Barbara A; Richard, Mara L. Lennard; Gross, Paul S.; Loker, Eric S

2009-01-01

194

A DNA-based demonstration of a three-host life-cycle for the Bivesiculidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immature bivesiculid trematodes collected from the intestine of Thalassomalunare (Labridae) are shown to be morphologically consistent with adults of Bivesiculaclaviformis from Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae). In addition, the immature bivesiculids have the same sequence for the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA. Comparison with three other species of Bivesiculidae showed differences of between 23% and 30%. These results show

Thomas H Cribb; Glenn R anderson; Robert D Adlard; Rodney A Bray

1998-01-01

195

CALORIFIC VALUES IN THE PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POTENTIAL ENERGY, MODE OF LIFE AND THE EVOLUTION OF ENTOPARASITISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the calorific values (kcal\\/g) of seventeen species of animals from six phyla has shown that they have a skewed distribution with a modal fre quency at or near the lower range limit (Slobodkin and Richman, 1%1 ) . This was regarded as support for the hypothesis that natural selection generally favors production of the maximum number of

P. CALOW; J. B. JENNINGS

196

A new and alien species of ``oyster leech'' (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida, Stylochidae) from the brackish North Sea Canal, The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new species of polyclad flatworm, Imogine necopinata Sluys, sp. nov., is described from a brackish habitat in The Netherlands. Taxonomic affinities with Asian species and the ecology of the animals suggest that the species is an introduced, exotic component of the Dutch fauna. The new species belongs to a group of worms with species that are known to predate on oysters.

Sluys, Ronald; Faubel, Anno; Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Velde, Gerard Van Der

2005-11-01

197

Effects of Microphallus papillorobustus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) on serotonergic immunoreactivity and neuronal architecture in the brain of Gammarus insensibilis (Crustacea: Amphipoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larval flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus encysts in the protocerebrum of its intermediate host, Gammarus insensibilis , and changes the gammarid' s responses to mechanical and photic stimuli. The resulting aberrant escape behaviour renders infected gammarids more susceptible to predation by birds, the definitive hosts of the parasite. We used immunocytochemical methods to explore the mechanisms underlying these subtle behavioural modifications.

S. Helluy; F. Thomas

2003-01-01

198

The evolution of the Proteocephalidea (Platyhelminthes, Eucestoda) based on an enlarged molecular phylogeny, with comments on their uterine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a molecular phylogeny of the Proteocephalidea based on 28S rDNA sequence data that is a follow-up to the paper by Zehnder & Mariaux (1999). Twenty-three new sequences, including three outgroups are added in our new data-set. The Gangesiinae Mola, 1929 and the Acanthotaeniinae Freze, 1963 appear to be the most primitive clades. They are followed by a robust clade

Alain de Chambrier; Marc Zehnder; Claude Vaucher; Jean Mariaux

2004-01-01

199

A revision of the family Zoogonidae Odhner, 1902 (Platyhelminthes: Digenea): Subfamily Lepidophyllinae and comments on some aspects of biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A detailed revision of the zoogonid subfamily Lepidophyllinae is presented, using morphological characters discussed in an earlier paper. Twelve genera and 50 species are treated in detail with keys and cladograms to genera and species. The genera and species covered are: Lepidophyllum steenstrupi, L. appyi, L. armatum, L. brachycladium, L. cameroni, L. pleuronectini, L. pyriforme, L. schantaricum, Urinatrema hispidum, U.

Rodney A. Bray

1987-01-01

200

Added resolution among ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with complete small and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of large subunit ribosomal DNA (lsrDNA) to small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) has been shown to add resolution to phylogenies at various taxonomic levels for a diversity of phyla. We added nearly complete lsrDNA (4057–4593bp) sequences to ssrDNA (1940–2228bp) for 26 ingroup and 3 outgroup taxa in an attempt to provide an improved ordinal phylogeny for the Cestoda.

Andrea Waeschenbach; Bonnie L. Webster; Rodney A. Bray; D. T. J. Littlewood

2007-01-01

201

Cryptostylochus hullensis sp. nov. (Polycladida, Acotylea, Platyhelminthes): A possible case of transoceanic dispersal on a ship's hull  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 1993, the car carrier “Faust” entered Bremerhaven after a voyage from the North-American Atlantic coast to Europe. In a dockyard, five living specimens of the order Polycladida were collected from the hull of the ship. This could be a possible case of trans-atlantic dispersal of plathelminths living as fouling organisms of ships. The specimens found represent a new species of the genus Cryptostylochus Faubel, 1983, Cryptostylochus hullensis sp. nov.

Faubel, A.; Gollasch, S.

1996-12-01

202

Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 20 (2009) 557564 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-print Network

: Regeneration Cancer Stem cells Wound healing Amphibians Planarians a b s t r a c t A better understanding powerful regeneration models, the vertebrate urodele amphibians and invertebrate planarians, in light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 3. Urodele amphibians and cancer

Oviedo, Néstor J.

2009-01-01

203

Intermediate filaments in muscle and epithelial cells of nematodes  

PubMed Central

Current concepts of the developmentally controlled multigene family of intermediate filament (IF) proteins expect the origin of their complexity in evolutionary precursors preceding all vertebrate classes. Among invertebrates, however, firm ultrastructural as well as molecular documentation of IFs is restricted to some giant axons and to epithelia of a few molluscs and annelids. As Ascaris lumbricoides is easily dissected into clean tissues, IF expression in this large nematode was analyzed by electron microscopic and biochemical procedures and a monoclonal antibody reacting with all mammalian IF proteins. We document for the first time the presence of IFs in muscle cells of an invertebrate. They occur in three muscle types (irregular striated pharynx muscle, obliquely striated body muscle, uterus smooth muscle). IFs are also found in the epithelia studied (syncytial epidermis, intestine, ovary, testis). Immunoblots on muscles, pharynx, intestine, uterus, and epidermis identify a pair of polypeptides (with apparent molecular masses of 71 and 63 kD) as IF constituents. In vitro reconstitution of filaments was obtained with the proteins purified from body muscle. In the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins are so far found only in the massive desmosome-anchored tonofilament bundles which traverse a special epithelial cell type, the marginal cells of the pharynx. We speculate that IFs may occur in most but perhaps not all invertebrates and that they may not occur in all cells in large amounts. As electron micrographs of the epidermis of a planarian--a member of the Platyhelminthes--reveal IFs, the evolutionary origin of this cytoplasmic structure can be expected either among the lowest metazoa or already in some unicellular eukaryotes. PMID:3519620

1986-01-01

204

Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria  

E-print Network

Platyhelminthes Stenostomum leucops AY157151 D85095 Platyhelminthes Stylochus zebra AF342800 AF342801 Priapulida Priapulus caudatus AY210840 Z38009 Sipuncula Phascolopsis gouldii AF342795 AF342796 Tardigrada Milnesium.sp.\\M. tardigradum AY210826 U49909 Urochordata...

Evans, Nathaniel Michael; Linder, Alberto; Raikova, Ekaterina V.; Collins, Allen G.; Cartwright, Paulyn

2008-05-09

205

THE INTERRELATION OF WATER QUALITY, GILL PARASITES, AND GILL PATHOLOGY OF SOME FISHES FROM SOUTH BISCAYNE BAY,  

E-print Network

water quality were heavily infested with the Monogenea (Platyhelminthes) Neodiplectanum wenningeri (on G. . Monogenea (Platyhelminthes) of the gills are common in fish. Since parasites affect the health of fish

206

NOAA Technical Rep_o_rt_N_M_F_S_I_2_1 A_u..gu_s_t1_9_94 Marine Flora and Fauna of the  

E-print Network

United States Platyhelminthes: Monogenea Sherman S. Hendrix u.s. Department of Commerce #12;u Bulletin Marine Flora and Fauna of the Eastern United States Platyhelminthes: Monogenea Sherman S. Hendrix

207

Division of Ultrastructure Research and Evolutionary Biology, Department of Zoology and Limnology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrae 25, Innsbruck, Austria; 2  

E-print Network

Platyhelminthes: Macrostomum lignano, n. sp. (Rhabditophora, Macrostomorpha) P. Ladurner1 , L. Scha¨rer1,2 , W, the basal-most subtaxon of the Platyhelminthes­Rhabditophora. This new species can be easily cultured including the main groups of the Platyhelminthes, Ehlers 1985). There is considerable recent debate over

Schärer, Lukas

208

Histochem Cell Biol (2005) 123:89104 DOI 10.1007/s00418-004-0722-9  

E-print Network

analyses within Platy- helminthes and to Drosophila and C. elegans. Keywords Platyhelminthes antigens in a broad variety of species. Free-living Platyhelminthes are characterised pheno- typically Platyhelminthes are known to be the only major body plan possessing apparently totipotent stem cells (neo- blasts

Schärer, Lukas

209

First description of monogenean parasites in Lake Tanganyika: the cichlid Simochromis diagramma (Teleostei, Cichlidae) harbours a high diversity of Gyrodactylus species (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea).  

PubMed

Lake Tanganyika harbours the most diverse endemic cichlid fish assemblage of Africa, but its monogenean fish parasites have not been investigated. Here we report, for the first time, on the Gyrodactylus parasites in this hotspot of fish biodiversity. Haptor morphometrics and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences revealed 3 new species on Zambian Simochromis diagramma: Gyrodactylus sturmbaueri n. sp., G. thysi n. sp. and G. zimbae n. sp. Their distinct morphology and strong genetic differentiation suggest that they belong to distant lineages within the genus Gyrodactylus, and phylogenetic reconstructions suggest affinities with other genera of gyrodactylids. Additional U-shaped haptoral plates in G. thysi n. sp. and a second large spine-like structure in the male copulatory organ of G. zimbae seem to represent new features for the genus. Such large diversity on a single host species can probably be explained by host-switching events during the course of evolution, in agreement with the generally accepted concept that ecological transfer is an important aspect of gyrodactylid speciation. Additional parasitological surveys on other host species, covering a broader phylogenetic and geographical range, should clarify the evolutionary history of Gyrodactylidae on cichlids in the African Great Lake and other parts of Africa. PMID:20946697

Vanhove, Maarten P M; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

2011-03-01

210

Infections by helminth parasites in "puyenes", Galaxias maculatus (Galaxiidae, Salmoniformes), from Southern Argentina with special reference to Tylodelphys barilochensis (Digenea, Platyhelminthes).  

PubMed

The occurrence of Tylodelphys barilochensis, Acanthostomoides apophalliformis, Contracaecum sp. and Camallanus corderoi infecting Galaxias maculatus ("puyenes") was quantified for the first time in Lake Nahuel Huapi, southern Argentina. T. barilochensis was recorded in this lake for the first time. The role of G. maculatus population in transmission of parasites to the salmonids is more important for Contracaecum sp. (prevalence 14-34%) and A. apophalliformis (prevalence 30-54%) than for C. corderoi (prevalence 6-8%). The absence of Diphyllobothrium spp. in samples shows that the G. maculatus population does not play any role in the life cycles of these important zoonotic parasites. The sex of the host had no effect on T. barilochensis abundance. Statistical differences in T. barilochensis abundance between "puyenes" of the same size class between sampling stations and positive correlation between prevalence of infected snails and T. barilochensis abundance in fish suggest that different stocks have been sampled. Factors influencing T. barilochensis abundance are discussed. PMID:10464401

Revenga, J; Scheinert, P

1999-01-01

211

The use of geometric morphometrics in understanding shape variability of sclerotized haptoral structures of monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) with insights into biogeographic variability.  

PubMed

The sclerotized attachment organ of monogeneans has been widely used to address fundamental questions in ecology and evolution. However, traditional morphometric techniques appear to be partially inadequate and non-optimal. Traditional linear measurements mainly provide information on the size of sclerites but provide very little information, if any, on their shape. The shape of sclerites is indeed virtually unexplored and its implication for ecological and evolutionary processes remains to be analyzed. This study aims to both introduce and illustrate the use of geometric morphometrics in order to study sclerites of monogeneans in a biogeographic context. To do this, we investigated morphological variation patterns among four populations from the Pacific Ocean and six monogenean species through traditional and geometric morphometric techniques. Unlike the traditional method, the geometric morphometric method yielded a high percentage of individuals correctly classified to the four populations, providing strong evidence for phenotypic variability, divergence and local adaptation among islands without evolutionary constraint. Moreover, the traditional method also resulted in inconsistent interpretations of shape variations. This study highlighted the limitations that may arise when using traditional morphometric techniques and emphasizes that considerable information about the shape of sclerotized haptoral parts is added by using geometric morphometrics. Given the prominent taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary role of the haptor for characterizing monogeneans, we ultimately discuss the potential broad use of geometric morphometrics in a wide variety of ecological and evolutionary contexts. This powerful approach might allow a more robust estimation of the extent to which traditional evolutionary theories based on size of sclerites are congruent with their shape. PMID:20129065

Vignon, Matthias; Sasal, Pierre

2010-06-01

212

The majority of parasitic worms belong to either the Platyhelminthes (flatworms/flukes and tape-worms) or Nematoda (roundworms/nematodes).  

E-print Network

have an indirect life cycle that requires an invertebrate intermediate host. The rat lungworm, which The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus (=Parastrongylus) cantonensis belongs to a group of parasitic worms host of rat lungworm. Definitive host: adult worms are slender up to 1" in length and found in rodents

Jawitz, James W.

213

Seussapex, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) from the stingray genus Himantura (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific with investigation of mode of attachment.  

PubMed

A new lecanicephalidean genus, Seussapex gen. n., is erected for specimens collected from stingrays from the Indo-West Pacific resembling the little known species Tenia [sic] narinari MacCallum, 1917 from the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). Members of this new genus are unique in their possession of a multi-tiered apical structure comprising a bipartite apical modification of the scolex proper, and an externally bipartite apical organ with anterior and posterior glandular compartments internally. The appearance of the scolex varies dramatically depending on state of protrusion and/or evagination of these different parts which appear to be able to function independently. Seussapex karybares sp. n. parasitizing Himantura uarnak 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) in northern Australia is described as the type species and Tenia [sic] narinari is transferred to the new genus. The two species differ in scolex length and width of the posterior dome-shaped portion of the apical organ. Histological sections of scoleces stained using the periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) reaction showed the surface of the anterior part of the apical organ and the anterior glandular compartment to stain PAS positive, suggesting a chemical mode of attachment to the host's intestinal mucosal surface. Extensive collecting efforts of stingrays in the Indo-West Pacific shows Seussapex gen. n. to be restricted to species of Himantura Miller et Henle and suggests additional diversity in this group of hosts. In addition, the host identity of Seussapex narinari (MacCallum, 1917) comb. n. is called into question. PMID:25065129

Jensen, Kirsten; Russell, Shelbi L

2014-06-01

214

Escape from an evolutionary dead end: a triploid clone of Gyrodactylus salaris is able to revert to sex and switch host (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid parthenogenesis, with rare sex, is considered as the basic mode of reproduction among the hermaphroditic and viviparous Gyrodactylus. A particular strain of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus salaris (RBT clone) was recognized by an invariable, unique mitochondrial DNA haplotype in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ) farms. The RBT clone was shown to be triploid and asexual by analyzing a 493

MAREK S. ZI?TARA; JUSSI KUUSELA; JAAKKO LUMME

2006-01-01

215

Ultrastructure of the vitellarium of Ancyrocephalus paradoxus (Monogenea: Monopisthocotylea), with comments on the nature of the vitellarium in the Monogenea and related platyhelminth groups.  

PubMed

Fine structural features of the vitelline follicles of the monopisthocotylean monogenean Ancyrocephalus paradoxus are revealed and compared with those of other monogenean species. As in other monogeneans, each vitelline follicle of A. paradoxus is composed of a single cell type, i.e. vitellocytes at various stages of development, with no sign of any interstitial cells. There is no special isolation of the vitelline follicles from the surrounding tissue, and both heterologous (between adjacent membranes of the vitelline and surrounding parenchymal cells) and homologous (between adjacent membranes of the vitelline cells) cell junctions (zonulae occludentes) are present. Non-membrane-bound vitelline clusters of A. paradoxus contain 50-100 vitelline globules, moderately electron-dense lipid droplets and glycogen particles present in the mature cell cytoplasm. In a search for phylogenetically informative characters of the fine structure of the vitellarium, the new findings are compared with those known for trematodes, and, to enable this, additional observations were made on the structure of the vitellarium of the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides. Some new discriminatory traits are revealed in A. limacoides; these include the presence of a single type of cellular component within the vitellarium, sarcoplasmic processes filling the space between and around the vitellocytes and zonulae occludentes between adjacent membranes of vitelline and muscle cells. On the basis of ultrastructural features of the vitellarium, a relationship between the Monogenea and the Aspidogastrea is indicated. PMID:23269512

Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Bru?anská, Magdaléna; Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Gibson, David I

2013-03-01

216

Speciation and host–parasite relationships in the parasite genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) infecting gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus (Gobiidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using species-level phylogenies, the speciation mode of Gyrodactylus species infecting a single host genus was evaluated. Eighteen Gyrodactylus species were collected from gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus and sympatric fish species across the distribution range of the hosts. The V4 region of the ssrRNA and the internal transcribed spacers encompassing the 5.8S rRNA gene were sequenced; by including published sequences

Tine Huyse; Vanessa Audenaert; Filip A. M. Volckaert

2003-01-01

217

Assessment of platyhelminth diversity within amphibians of French Guiana revealed a new species of Nanopolystoma (Monogenea: Polystomatidae) in the caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda.  

PubMed

An expedition was undertaken to French Guiana in search of amphibian parasites. Of the 23 anuran species collected and screened for polystomes, the toad Rhinella margaritifera (Laurenti) was the sole species found to be infected with a polystome, namely Wetapolystoma almae Gray, 1983. Of the two caecilian species collected, a new species of Nanopolystoma du Preez, Huyse et Wilkinson, 2008 was discovered from the urinary bladder of the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes compressicauda (Duméril et Bibron). The small size of the mature worm, two non-diverticulated caeca of equal length that are non-confluent posteriorly, vitelline follicles in two dense lateral fields, a single follicular testis in the middle of the body, small ovary and a single operculated egg in utero, vaginae present and the caecilian host allowed the identification of the specimen as Nanopolystoma. Larger body size, hamulus length, egg diameter and occurrence in the caecilian family Typhlonectidae distinguishes the new species from the two other known polystomes in Nanopolystoma; thus, the description of Nanopolystoma tinsleyi sp. n. is provided within this paper. PMID:25651695

du Preez, Louis H; Badets, Mathieu; Verneau, Olivier

2014-12-01

218

A serological study of the diet of British, lake-dwelling Glossiphonia complanata (L.) (Hirudinea: Glossiphoniidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly or two-monthly samples of G. complanata were taken from the stony littoral of five unproductive lakes in N. Wales and seven productive lakes in Cheshire and Shropshire, England, over two years. Satisfactory antisera were produced against ten potential prey groups, viz. Tricladida, Oligochaeta, Mollusca, Cladocera, Asellus, Amphipoda, Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. These were used in the precipitin test

Johnstone O. Young

1981-01-01

219

THE ROLE OF DNA SYNTHESIS IN THE DETERMINATION OF AXIAL POLARITY OF REGENERATING LA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that treatment of intact planarians with colcemide (deacetyl methylcolchicine) and chloramphenicol, followed by cutting the worms to remove the heads and tails, will cause the regeneration of bipolar heads in a significant number of these cut planarians (Flickinger, 1959). When applied locally to the prospective anterior ends of cut pieces of worms, these compounds could reverse

D. M. KOHL; R. A. FLICKINGER

220

Community structure and dynamics of Monogenea and Trematoda in three North American cyprinid species in the Salt Valley Watershed, Nebraska  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made of the communities of gill monogene genus Dactylogyrus (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) and the populations of blackspot parasite (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda) of Pimephales promelas, Notropis stramineus, and Semotilus atromaculatus in 3 distinct sites along the 3 converging tributaries in southeastern Nebraska from 2004 to 2006. This work constitutes the first multi-site, multi-year study of a complex community of Dactylogyrus

Alaine Kathryn Knipes

2010-01-01

221

INVERTEBRADOS 2014 Cronograma de Atividades -Noturno  

E-print Network

. Ctenophora 26 quarta Teórica Introdução a Bilateria. Gnathifera e Platyhelminthes I MAR�O 04 terça Carnaval Platyhelminthes II 12 quarta Teórica Mollusca I 18 terça PROVA 1ª AVALIA��O (conteúdo até Platyheminthes) 19

Morandini, Andre C.

222

INVERTEBRADOS 2014 Cronograma de Atividades -Diurno  

E-print Network

26 quarta Teórica Introdução a Bilateria. Gnathifera e Platyhelminthes I MAR�O 04 terça Carnaval (Não Platyhelminthes II 12 quarta Teórica Mollusca I 18 terça PROVA 1ª AVALIA��O (conteúdo até Platyheminthes) 19

Morandini, Andre C.

223

Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa. Volume 5: Non-Arthropods. The Protozoans, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Rotifera, Nematoda, Nematomorpha, Gastrotrichia, Bryozoa, Tardigrada, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

March 2002, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South AfricaRing-bound soft cover, 293 pagesWRC Report No. TT 167\\/02; ISBN 978-1-86845-827-1; price R100.00 (South Africa), US$50.00 (international)Obtainable from the Water Research Commission, Private Bag X03, Gezina, Pretoria 0031, South Africa; or orders@wrc.org.za

Ian Gaigher

2010-01-01

224

Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) 1 1 Nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are available in the GenBank™, EMBL and DDBJ databases under the accession numbers AY222082–AY222285  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (ssrDNA) and partial (D1–D3) large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (lsrDNA) sequences were used to estimate the phylogeny of the Digenea via maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. Here we contribute 80 new ssrDNA and 124 new lsrDNA sequences. Fully complementary data sets of the two genes were assembled from newly generated and previously published sequences

P. D. Olson; T. H. Cribb; V. V. Tkach; R. A. Bray; D. T. J. Littlewood

2003-01-01

225

Wnt Signaling and the Polarity of the Primary Body Axis  

E-print Network

How animals establish and pattern the primary body axis is one of the most fundamental problems in biology. Data from diverse deuterostomes (frog, fish, mouse, and amphioxus) and from planarians (protostomes) suggest that ...

Petersen, Christian P.

226

The phylogenetic placement of two enigmatic metazoan parasites: Polypodium hydriforme and Myxozoa  

E-print Network

Stenostomum leucops D85095 Platyhelminthes Stylochus zebra AF342801 Priapulida Priapulus caudatus Z3809 Sipuncula Phascolopsis gouldi AF342796 Tardigrada Milnesium.sp\\M. tardigradum U4909 Urochordata Styela plicata L1244 Urochordata Thalia...

Evans, Nathaniel Michael

2009-07-15

227

The lecanicephalidean fauna of three species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae).  

E-print Network

in the class Cestoda of the phylum Platyhelminthes. Commonly known as tapeworms, these mainly intestinal helminths parasitize members of all classes of vertebrates, i.e., fishes, “reptiles,” amphibians, mammals, birds, and chondrichthyans (Wardle and Mc...

Koch, Kendra Rae

2009-07-16

228

Specialized progenitors and regeneration  

PubMed Central

Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating all body parts. Planarian regeneration requires neoblasts, a population of dividing cells that has been studied for over a century. Neoblast progeny generate new cells of blastemas, which are the regenerative outgrowths at wounds. If the neoblasts comprise a uniform population of cells during regeneration (e.g. they are all uncommitted and pluripotent), then specialization of new cell types should occur in multipotent, non-dividing neoblast progeny cells. By contrast, recent data indicate that some neoblasts express lineage-specific transcription factors during regeneration and in uninjured animals. These observations raise the possibility that an important early step in planarian regeneration is the specialization of neoblasts to produce specified rather than naïve blastema cells. PMID:23404104

Reddien, Peter W.

2013-01-01

229

[Formation of the photosensing system function in early development].  

PubMed

The function of simple prototypic eyes in two planarian species, the two ocular Girardia tigrina and the multiocular Polycelis tenuis, has been studied. When exposed to light, planarians display the light avoidance reaction known as negative phototaxis. This reaction has been investigated in intact animals and in head and tail fragments after their section in the course of eye regeneration. Specific features of the phototaxis reaction have been described in all groups of animals. The differences in light response recovery were shown between two planarian species and two regenerating fragments. No correlation between phototaxic reactions and the restoration of the eye structure, the number of eyes, the maturation of ganglion, the growth of regenerative blastema, and motor system has been found. The phototaxic response occurred two days after the recovery of the morphology of eyes and their connection with the brain. The participation of conserved and novel genes in early development of the eye function is discussed. PMID:20968081

She?man, I M; Kreshchenko, N D; Netreba, M V

2010-01-01

230

The cellular basis for animal regeneration  

PubMed Central

The ability of animals to regenerate missing parts is a dramatic and poorly understood aspect of biology. The sources of new cells for these regenerative phenomena have been sought for decades. Recent advances involving cell fate tracking in complex tissues have shed new light on the cellular underpinnings of regeneration in Hydra, planarians, zebrafish, Xenopus, and Axolotl. Planarians accomplish regeneration with use of adult pluripotent stem cells, whereas several vertebrates utilize a collection of lineage-restricted progenitors from different tissues. Together, an array of cellular strategies—from pluripotent stem cells to tissue-specific stem cells and dedifferentiation—are utilized for regeneration. PMID:21763617

Tanaka, Elly; Reddien, Peter W.

2011-01-01

231

[Acetylcholinesterase activity in the nervous system of normal planaria and during regeneration].  

PubMed

The acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity was studied in the nervous system of planarians in the normal state and during regeneration. During the regeneration of the cephalic body end, the AChE appears in the cells of the newly formed ganglion on the 5th day. During the regeneration of caudal body end, the AChE activity in the residual ganglion after the cut exceeds the normal level. The possible role of the ACh system in the processes of planarian regeneration is discussed. PMID:673322

Tiras, Kh P

1978-01-01

232

Phylogenetic analysis of the suborder Plagiorchiata (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) based on partial lsrDNA sequences 1 Note: Nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper are available in the GenBank database under the accession numbers AF151910, AF151912–AF151942 (see Appendix A). 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships and systematic position of the members of the suborder Plagiorchiata, one of the derived and most diverse groups of Digenea, have always been controversial. Here, we present a phylogeny of this group based on the analysis of partial sequences of the lsrDNA in 28 species representing 13 families of Plagiorchiata, as well as four outgroups. Our results

Vasyl Tkach; Jan Pawlowski; Jean Mariaux

2000-01-01

233

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 96, pp. 50495054, April 1999  

E-print Network

- soma brucei (15), and Drosophila melanogaster (16), as well as in the plants Nicotiana tabaccum- nipulations of the commonly studied vertebrate models (the urodele amphibians). Here, we demonstrate that introduction of double-stranded RNA selectively abrogates gene function in planarians, a classic model

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

234

Different strategies for midline formation in bilaterians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionary emergence of the bilateral body plan and the central nervous system required the establishment of a midline organizer. The formation of a solitary, elongated but narrow organizing region for the dorsoventral (or mediolateral) axis requires rather complex molecular interactions. Different modes of midline formation evolved in vertebrates, insects and planarians, indicating that midline formation had a crucial role

Hans Meinhardt

2004-01-01

235

Cell Stem Cell Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their  

E-print Network

mediterranea provide an interesting model for studying both stem cell function and line- age commitment duringCell Stem Cell Article Molecular Analysis of Stem Cells and Their Descendants during Cell Turnover@neuro.utah.edu DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.002 SUMMARY In adult planarians, the replacement of cells lost

Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

236

Smed454 dataset: unravelling the transcriptome of Schmidtea mediterranea  

PubMed Central

Background Freshwater planarians are an attractive model for regeneration and stem cell research and have become a promising tool in the field of regenerative medicine. With the availability of a sequenced planarian genome, the recent application of modern genetic and high-throughput tools has resulted in revitalized interest in these animals, long known for their amazing regenerative capabilities, which enable them to regrow even a new head after decapitation. However, a detailed description of the planarian transcriptome is essential for future investigation into regenerative processes using planarians as a model system. Results In order to complement and improve existing gene annotations, we used a 454 pyrosequencing approach to analyze the transcriptome of the planarian species Schmidtea mediterranea Altogether, 598,435 454-sequencing reads, with an average length of 327 bp, were assembled together with the ~10,000 sequences of the S. mediterranea UniGene set using different similarity cutoffs. The assembly was then mapped onto the current genome data. Remarkably, our Smed454 dataset contains more than 3 million novel transcribed nucleotides sequenced for the first time. A descriptive analysis of planarian splice sites was conducted on those Smed454 contigs that mapped univocally to the current genome assembly. Sequence analysis allowed us to identify genes encoding putative proteins with defined structural properties, such as transmembrane domains. Moreover, we annotated the Smed454 dataset using Gene Ontology, and identified putative homologues of several gene families that may play a key role during regeneration, such as neurotransmitter and hormone receptors, homeobox-containing genes, and genes related to eye function. Conclusions We report the first planarian transcript dataset, Smed454, as an open resource tool that can be accessed via a web interface. Smed454 contains significant novel sequence information about most expressed genes of S. mediterranea. Analysis of the annotated data promises to contribute to identification of gene families poorly characterized at a functional level. The Smed454 transcriptome data will assist in the molecular characterization of S. mediterranea as a model organism, which will be useful to a broad scientific community. PMID:21194483

2010-01-01

237

Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data have revised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s). Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of

Hervé Philippe; Henner Brinkmann; Richard R. Copley; Leonid L. Moroz; Hiroaki Nakano; Albert J. Poustka; Andreas Wallberg; Kevin J. Peterson; Maximilian J. Telford

2011-01-01

238

The unique ultrastructure of the uterus of the Gyrocotylidea Poche, 1926 (Cestoda) and its phylogenetic implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The members of the order Gyrocotylidea are monozoic tapeworms and generally considered to be the most primitive group of the\\u000a Cestoda in terms of the evolution of this platyhelminth class. As part of a series of ultrastructural studies on Gyrocotyle urna (Wagener, 1852), three regions of the uterus were distinguished. The proximal region of the uterus is characterised by underlying

Larisa G. Poddubnaya; Roman Kuchta; Céline Levron; David I. Gibson; Tomáš Scholz

2009-01-01

239

Bell Pettigrew Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

. The lack of a circulatory system to distribute respiratory gases has required the flatworms to adopt. Platyhelminths have no circulatory system to move oxygen around the body and many species have become long (up that lack a body cavity, lack a blood system, lack a through gut and lack any distinguishing features

Brierley, Andrew

240

Asexual reproduction and the turbellarian archetype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turbellarian archetype is widely believed to have been a hermaphrodite lacking asexual reproduction, and such asexual reproduction as is now seen in the Turbellaria (as paratomy and architomy) is generally assumed to have arisen secondarily several times independently. Asexual reproduction clearly prevails among the most primitive metazoans such as the placozoans, sponges, and radiates, however, and if the Platyhelminthes

Reinhard M. Rieger

1986-01-01

241

Variation in Rates of Asexual Reproduction By Convolutriloba retrogemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convolutriloba retrogemma, an acoel turbellarian (phylum Platyhelminthes), engages in an obligate symbiotic relationship with unicellular algae, This species reproduces asexually by budding from the posterior end of the parent individual. The rate of reproduction of 24 newly budded flatworms of various sizes was studied over a period of six weeks, Flatworms were individually placed into 6 mL of 0.2 ?m

Rahim Sara

2003-01-01

242

Conservation and Diversification of Msx Protein in Metazoan Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Msx (\\/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the

Hirokazu Takahashi; Akiko Kamiya; Akira Ishiguro; Atsushi C. Suzuki; Naruya Saitou; Atsushi Toyoda; Jun Aruga

2007-01-01

243

HelmCoP: An Online Resource for Helminth Functional Genomics and Drug and Vaccine Targets Prioritization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast majority of the burden from neglected tropical diseases result from helminth infections (nematodes and platyhelminthes). Parasitic helminthes infect over 2 billion, exerting a high collective burden that rivals high-mortality conditions such as AIDS or malaria, and cause devastation to crops and livestock. The challenges to improve control of parasitic helminth infections are multi-fold and no single category of

Sahar Abubucker; John Martin; Christina M. Taylor; Makedonka Mitreva

2011-01-01

244

Using parasites to infer host population history: a new rationale for parasite conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only one of the 5000 extant louse species (Phthiraptera) and no species of flea (Siphonaptera), parasitic helminth (Platyhelminthes), parasitic nematode (Nemata), mite, or tick (Acari) is listed as threatened by the IUCN, despite impassioned pleas for parasite conservation beginning more than a decade ago. Although they should be conserved for their own sake, past arguments, highlighting the intrinsic and utilitarian

Noah Kerness Whiteman; Patricia G. Parker

2005-01-01

245

Diversity in the Monogenea and Digenea: does lifestyle matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the cestodes are excluded, then the parasitic platyhelminths of fishes divide neatly into the external and monoxenous Monogenea and the internal and heteroxenous Digenea. Both groups have apparently had long associations of coevolution, host switching and adaptation with fishes and have become highly successful in their respective habitats. Current estimates of species richness for the two groups suggest that

Thomas H. Cribb; Leslie A. Chisholm; Rodney A. Bray

2002-01-01

246

Toward next-generation sequencing of mitochondrial genomes — Focus on parasitic worms of animals and biotechnological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helminths (worms) include parasitic nematodes (roundworms) and platyhelminths (flatworms). These worms are abundant, and many of them are of agricultural, aquacultural, veterinary and medical importance and cause substantial socioeconomic losses worldwide. The genetic characterization of parasitic nematodes using advanced molecular tools is central to the diagnosis of infections and the control of parasitism. The accurate analysis of genetic variation also

Aaron R. Jex; D. Timothy J. Littlewood; Robin B. Gasser

2010-01-01

247

A New Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with a Venus Flytrap Binding Domain in Insects and Other Invertebrates Activated by Aminoacids  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors that regulate various cellular processes in cell biology of diverse organisms. We previously described an atypical RTK in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, composed of an extracellular Venus flytrap module (VFT) linked through a single transmembrane domain to an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of the insulin

Arnaud Ahier; Philippe Rondard; Nadège Gouignard; Naji Khayath; Siluo Huang; Jacques Trolet; Daniel J. Donoghue; Monique Gauthier; Jean-Philippe Pin; Colette Dissous; Gordon Langsley

2009-01-01

248

A New Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with a Venus Flytrap Binding Domain in Insects and Other Invertebrates Activated by Aminoacids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors that regulate various cellular processes in cell biology of diverse organisms. We previously described an atypical RTK in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, composed of an extracellular Venus flytrap module (VFT) linked through a single transmembrane domain to an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of the

Arnaud Ahier; Philippe Rondard; Nadège Gouignard; Naji Khayath; Siluo Huang; Jacques Trolet; Daniel J. Donoghue; Monique Gauthier; Jean-Philippe Pin; Colette Dissous

2009-01-01

249

Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms  

PubMed Central

Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

2013-01-01

250

Regeneration across metazoan phylogeny: lessons from model organisms.  

PubMed

Comprehending the diversity of the regenerative potential across metazoan phylogeny represents a fundamental challenge in biology. Invertebrates like Hydra and planarians exhibit amazing feats of regeneration, in which an entire organism can be restored from minute body segments. Vertebrates like teleost fish and amphibians can also regrow large sections of the body. While this regenerative capacity is greatly attenuated in mammals, there are portions of major organs that remain regenerative. Regardless of the extent, there are common basic strategies to regeneration, including activation of adult stem cells and proliferation of differentiated cells. Here, we discuss the cellular features and molecular mechanisms that are involved in regeneration in different model organisms, including Hydra, planarians, zebrafish and newts as well as in several mammalian organs. PMID:25697100

Li, Qiao; Yang, Hao; Zhong, Tao P

2015-02-20

251

Towards a bioinformatics of patterning: a computational approach to understanding regulative morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying the regenerative abilities of certain model species are of central importance to the basic understanding of pattern formation. Complex organisms such as planaria and salamanders exhibit an exceptional capacity to regenerate complete body regions and organs from amputated pieces. However, despite the outstanding bottom-up efforts of molecular biologists and bioinformatics focused at the level of gene sequence, no comprehensive mechanistic model exists that can account for more than one or two aspects of regeneration. The development of computational approaches that help scientists identify constructive models of pattern regulation is held back by the lack of both flexible morphological representations and a repository for the experimental procedures and their results (altered pattern formation). No formal representation or computational tools exist to efficiently store, search, or mine the available knowledge from regenerative experiments, inhibiting fundamental insights from this huge dataset. To overcome these problems, we present here a new class of ontology to encode formally and unambiguously a very wide range of possible morphologies, manipulations, and experiments. This formalism will pave the way for top-down approaches for the discovery of comprehensive models of regeneration. We chose the planarian regeneration dataset to illustrate a proof-of-principle of this novel bioinformatics of shape; we developed a software tool to facilitate the formalization and mining of the planarian experimental knowledge, and cured a database containing all of the experiments from the principal publications on planarian regeneration. These resources are freely available for the regeneration community and will readily assist researchers in identifying specific functional data in planarian experiments. More importantly, these applications illustrate the presented framework for formalizing knowledge about functional perturbations of morphogenesis, which is widely applicable to numerous model systems beyond regenerating planaria, and can be extended to many aspects of functional developmental, regenerative, and evolutionary biology. PMID:23429669

Lobo, Daniel; Malone, Taylor J; Levin, Michael

2013-02-15

252

Towards a bioinformatics of patterning: a computational approach to understanding regulative morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary The mechanisms underlying the regenerative abilities of certain model species are of central importance to the basic understanding of pattern formation. Complex organisms such as planaria and salamanders exhibit an exceptional capacity to regenerate complete body regions and organs from amputated pieces. However, despite the outstanding bottom-up efforts of molecular biologists and bioinformatics focused at the level of gene sequence, no comprehensive mechanistic model exists that can account for more than one or two aspects of regeneration. The development of computational approaches that help scientists identify constructive models of pattern regulation is held back by the lack of both flexible morphological representations and a repository for the experimental procedures and their results (altered pattern formation). No formal representation or computational tools exist to efficiently store, search, or mine the available knowledge from regenerative experiments, inhibiting fundamental insights from this huge dataset. To overcome these problems, we present here a new class of ontology to encode formally and unambiguously a very wide range of possible morphologies, manipulations, and experiments. This formalism will pave the way for top-down approaches for the discovery of comprehensive models of regeneration. We chose the planarian regeneration dataset to illustrate a proof-of-principle of this novel bioinformatics of shape; we developed a software tool to facilitate the formalization and mining of the planarian experimental knowledge, and cured a database containing all of the experiments from the principal publications on planarian regeneration. These resources are freely available for the regeneration community and will readily assist researchers in identifying specific functional data in planarian experiments. More importantly, these applications illustrate the presented framework for formalizing knowledge about functional perturbations of morphogenesis, which is widely applicable to numerous model systems beyond regenerating planaria, and can be extended to many aspects of functional developmental, regenerative, and evolutionary biology. PMID:23429669

Lobo, Daniel; Malone, Taylor J.; Levin, Michael

2013-01-01

253

Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology  

PubMed Central

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP3R, the first intracellular Ca2+ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP3R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP3R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP3R counterparts. Expression of an NH2-terminal Dj.IP3R region (amino acid residues 223–585) recovered high affinity 3H-IP3 binding (0.9 ± 0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP3 coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP3R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP3R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP3R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology. PMID:23481272

Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

2013-01-01

254

The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids (Bilateria incertae sedis)  

PubMed Central

Acoels are among the simplest worms and therefore have often been pivotal in discussions of the origin of the Bilateria. Initially thought primitive because of their “planula-like” morphology, including their lumenless digestive system, they were subsequently dismissed by many morphologists as a specialized clade of the Platyhelminthes. However, since molecular phylogenies placed them outside the Platyhelminthes and outside all other phyla at the base of the Bilateria, they became the focus of renewed debate and research. We review what is currently known of acoels, including information regarding their morphology, development, systematics, and phylogenetic relationships, and put some of these topics in a historical perspective to show how the application of new methods contributed to the progress in understanding these animals. Taking all available data into consideration, clear-cut conclusions cannot be made; however, in our view it becomes successively clearer that acoelomorphs are a “basal” but “divergent” branch of the Bilateria. PMID:24098090

Chiodin, Marta; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tyler, Seth

2012-01-01

255

The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids (Bilateria incertae sedis).  

PubMed

Acoels are among the simplest worms and therefore have often been pivotal in discussions of the origin of the Bilateria. Initially thought primitive because of their "planula-like" morphology, including their lumenless digestive system, they were subsequently dismissed by many morphologists as a specialized clade of the Platyhelminthes. However, since molecular phylogenies placed them outside the Platyhelminthes and outside all other phyla at the base of the Bilateria, they became the focus of renewed debate and research. We review what is currently known of acoels, including information regarding their morphology, development, systematics, and phylogenetic relationships, and put some of these topics in a historical perspective to show how the application of new methods contributed to the progress in understanding these animals. Taking all available data into consideration, clear-cut conclusions cannot be made; however, in our view it becomes successively clearer that acoelomorphs are a "basal" but "divergent" branch of the Bilateria. PMID:24098090

Achatz, Johannes G; Chiodin, Marta; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tyler, Seth; Martinez, Pedro

2013-06-01

256

Molecular Phylogeny of Metazoan Intermediate Filament Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes,\\u000a the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported\\u000a here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha,\\u000a Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of

Andreas Erber; Dieter Riemer; Marc Bovenschulte; Klaus Weber

1998-01-01

257

The Phylogenetic Status of Arthropods, as Inferred from 18S rRNA Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial 18s rRNA sequences of five chelicemte arthropods plus a crustacean, myria- pod, insect, chordate, echinoderm, annelid, and platyhelminth were compared. The sequence data were used to infer phylogeny by using a maximum-parsimony method, an evolutionary-distance method, and the evolutionary-parsimony method. The phylogenetic inferences generated by maximum-parsimony and distance methods support both monophyly of the Arthropoda and monophyly of the

J. McClintock Turbeville; Katharine G. Field; Rudolf A. Rafl

258

Monohexosylceramides of larval and adult forms of the tapeworm, spirometra erinacei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of glycosphingolipids with unique carbohydrate structures in different species of cestode, Platyhelminth, which\\u000a had been shown, previously, prompted us to study the molecular species of the monohexosylceramides (cerebrosides) in the pseudophyllidean\\u000a cestode,Spirometra erinacei. The purpose of the study was to obtain a basis for future investigations of the physiological role of glycolipids in parasitism.\\u000a Cerebrosides were isolated froms.

Yasushi Kawakami; Hisako Kojima; Kazuo Nakamura; Minoru Suzuki; Akihiko Uchida; Yoshihiko Murata; Yoichi Tamai

1995-01-01

259

Phylogenetic analysis of the endoribonuclease Dicer family.  

PubMed

Dicers are proteins of the ribonuclease III family with the ability to process dsRNA, involved in regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Dicers are conserved from basal metazoans to higher metazoans and contain a number of functional domains that interact with dsRNA. The completed genome sequences of over 34 invertebrate species allowed us to systematically investigate Dicer genes over a diverse range of phyla. The majority of invertebrate Dicers clearly fell into the Dicer1 or Dicer2 subfamilies. Most nematodes possessed only one Dicer gene, a member of the Dicer1 subfamily, whereas two Dicer genes (Dicer1 and Dicer2) were present in all platyhelminths surveyed. Analysis of the key domains showed that a 5' pocket was conserved across members of the Dicer1 subfamily, with the exception of the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Interestingly, Nematostella vectensis DicerB grouped into Dicer2 subfamily harbored a 5' pocket, which is commonly present in Dicer1. Similarly, the 3' pocket was also found to be conserved in all Dicer proteins with the exceptions of Schmidtea mediterranea Dicer2 and Trichoplax adherens Dicer A. The loss of catalytic residues in the RNase III domain was noted in platyhelminths and cnidarians, and the 'ball' and 'socket' junction between two RNase III domains in platyhelminth Dicers was different from the canonical junction, suggesting the possibility of different conformations. The present data suggest that Dicers might have duplicated and diversified independently, and have evolved for various functions in invertebrates. PMID:24748168

Gao, Zeqian; Wang, Miao; Blair, David; Zheng, Yadong; Dou, Yongxi

2014-01-01

260

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Endoribonuclease Dicer Family  

PubMed Central

Dicers are proteins of the ribonuclease III family with the ability to process dsRNA, involved in regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Dicers are conserved from basal metazoans to higher metazoans and contain a number of functional domains that interact with dsRNA. The completed genome sequences of over 34 invertebrate species allowed us to systematically investigate Dicer genes over a diverse range of phyla. The majority of invertebrate Dicers clearly fell into the Dicer1 or Dicer2 subfamilies. Most nematodes possessed only one Dicer gene, a member of the Dicer1 subfamily, whereas two Dicer genes (Dicer1 and Dicer2) were present in all platyhelminths surveyed. Analysis of the key domains showed that a 5? pocket was conserved across members of the Dicer1 subfamily, with the exception of the nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Interestingly, Nematostella vectensis DicerB grouped into Dicer2 subfamily harbored a 5? pocket, which is commonly present in Dicer1. Similarly, the 3? pocket was also found to be conserved in all Dicer proteins with the exceptions of Schmidtea mediterranea Dicer2 and Trichoplax adherens Dicer A. The loss of catalytic residues in the RNase III domain was noted in platyhelminths and cnidarians, and the ‘ball’ and ‘socket’ junction between two RNase III domains in platyhelminth Dicers was different from the canonical junction, suggesting the possibility of different conformations. The present data suggest that Dicers might have duplicated and diversified independently, and have evolved for various functions in invertebrates. PMID:24748168

Gao, Zeqian; Wang, Miao; Blair, David; Zheng, Yadong; Dou, Yongxi

2014-01-01

261

Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitor displays anti-glutamate and anti-cocaine effects in an invertebrate assay  

PubMed Central

Summary Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors are promising anti-glutamatergic and anti-addictive agents. We hypothesized that a GCPII inhibitor 2 (phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) would display anti-stereotypical activity in planarians. Experiments revealed that 2-PMPA displayed no overt behavioral activity by itself but attenuated stereotypical counts (C-shape hyperkinesias) elicited by four compounds (2-PMPA rank order potency: glutamate > NMDA > pilocarpine > cocaine). These data suggest GCPII inhibitors display broad-spectrum efficacy against behavioral activity produced by glutamatergic and non-glutamatergic compounds in an invertebrate assay. PMID:21850438

Tallarida, Chris; Song, Kevin; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

2011-01-01

262

Homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Schistosomes are trematode parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are considered the most important of the human helminth\\u000a parasites in terms of morbidity and mortality. Draft genome sequences are now available forSchistosoma mansoniandSchistosoma japonicum. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) plays a crucial role in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis, and\\u000a pathogenesis. The genome-wide annotation of ncRNAs is a non-trivial

Claudia S Copeland; Manja Marz; Dominic Rose; Jana Hertel; Paul J Brindley; Bermudez Clara Santana; Stephanie Kehr; Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini; Peter F Stadler

2009-01-01

263

Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.  

PubMed

Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 ?M) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 ?M). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 ?M) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 ?M) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

2012-04-19

264

?-lactamase inhibitors display anti-seizure properties in an invertebrate assay  

PubMed Central

Summary Antibiotics containing a ?-lactam ring (e.g., ceftriaxone) display anti-glutamate effects that underlie their efficacy in animal models of CNS diseases (Rothstein et al., 2005). We hypothesized that the structurally related ?-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam)- which also contain a ?-lactam ring - will mimic ceftriaxone efficacy in an invertebrate (planarian) assay designed to screen for anti-seizure activity (Rawls et al., 2009). Glutamate or cocaine administration produced planarian seizure-like activity (pSLA). Glutamate- or cocaine-induced pSLA was inhibited by ceftriaxone, clavulanic acid, or tazobactam, but not by the non-?-lactam antibiotic vancomyocin. The present findings indicate ?-lactamase inhibitors display efficacy, and mimic ceftriaxone activity, in an invertebrate anti-seizure screen. These results suggest ?-lactamase inhibitors particularly ones such as clavulanic acid that display enhanced brain penetrability, oral bioavailability, and negligible anti-bacterial activity might offer an attractive alternative to direct antibiotic therapy for managing CNS diseases caused by increased glutamate transmission and provide a solution to the growing concern that ceftriaxone will be of only limited utility as a CNS-active therapeutic because of its intolerable side effects. PMID:20600649

Rawls, Scott M.; Karaca, Fatma; Madhani, Isha; Bhojani, Vineeta; Martinez, Rogelilo L.; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Raffa, Robert B.

2010-01-01

265

Mephedrone (‘bath salt’) pharmacology: insights from invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50 – 1000 µM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 µM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 µM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e., reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 µM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

Ramoz, Leda; Lodi, Sabah; Bhatt, Parth; Reitz, Allen B.; Tallarida, Chris; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

2014-01-01

266

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Echinococcus granulosus Larval Stages: Implications for Parasite Biology and Host Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background The cestode Echinococcus granulosus - the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide - is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated ?10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs) prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces), and pepsin/H+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i) a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep) that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs); (ii) an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii) highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv) candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v) a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi) a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. Conclusions/Significance This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the parasite genome and for further genomic and proteomic analyses focused on cestodes and platyhelminths. PMID:23209850

Parkinson, John; Wasmuth, James D.; Salinas, Gustavo; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Sanford, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Ferreira, Henrique B.; Zaha, Arnaldo; Blaxter, Mark L.; Maizels, Rick M.; Fernández, Cecilia

2012-01-01

267

SAPling: a Scan-Add-Print barcoding database system to label and track asexual organisms  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We have developed a ‘Scan-Add-Print’ database system, SAPling, to track and monitor asexually reproducing organisms. Using barcodes to uniquely identify each animal, we can record information on the life of the individual in a computerized database containing its entire family tree. SAPling has enabled us to carry out large-scale population dynamics experiments with thousands of planarians and keep track of each individual. The database stores information such as family connections, birth date, division date and generation. We show that SAPling can be easily adapted to other asexually reproducing organisms and has a strong potential for use in large-scale and/or long-term population and senescence studies as well as studies of clonal diversity. The software is platform-independent, designed for reliability and ease of use, and provided open source from our webpage to allow project-specific customization. PMID:21993779

Thomas, Michael A.; Schötz, Eva-Maria

2011-01-01

268

An In Vivo Requirement for the Mediator Subunit Med14 in the Maintenance of Stem Cell Populations  

PubMed Central

Summary The Mediator complex has recently been shown to be a key player in the maintenance of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the in vivo consequences of loss of many Mediator subunits are unknown. We identified med14 as the gene affected in the zebrafish logelei (log) mutant, which displayed a morphological arrest by 2 days of development. Surprisingly, microarray analysis showed that transcription was not broadly affected in log mutants. Indeed, log cells transplanted into a wild-type environment were able to survive into adulthood. In planarians, RNAi knockdown demonstrated a requirement for med14 and many other Mediator components in adult stem cell maintenance and regeneration. Multiple stem/progenitor cell populations were observed to be reduced or absent in zebrafish med14 mutant embryos. Taken together, our results show a critical, evolutionarily conserved, in vivo function for Med14 (and Mediator) in stem cell maintenance, distinct from a general role in transcription. PMID:25772472

Burrows, Jeffrey T.A.; Pearson, Bret J.; Scott, Ian C.

2015-01-01

269

Evolution of multicellular animals as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences: a possible early emergence of the Mesozoa.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a mesozoan Dicyema misakiense and three metazoan species, i.e., an acorn-worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a moss-animal Bugula neritina, and an octopus Octopus vulgaris have been determined. A phylogenic tree of multicellular animals has been constructed from 73 5S rRNA sequences available at present including those from the above four sequences. The tree suggests that the mesozoan is the most ancient multicellular animal identified so far, its emergence time being almost the same as that of flagellated or ciliated protozoans. The branching points of planarians and nematodes are a little later than that of the mesozoan but are clearly earlier than other metazoan groups including sponges and jellyfishes. Many metazoan groups seem to have diverged within a relatively short period. PMID:6539911

Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

1984-01-01

270

Evolution of multicellular animals as deduced from 5S rRNA sequences: a possible early emergence of the Mesozoa.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a mesozoan Dicyema misakiense and three metazoan species, i.e., an acorn-worm Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a moss-animal Bugula neritina, and an octopus Octopus vulgaris have been determined. A phylogenic tree of multicellular animals has been constructed from 73 5S rRNA sequences available at present including those from the above four sequences. The tree suggests that the mesozoan is the most ancient multicellular animal identified so far, its emergence time being almost the same as that of flagellated or ciliated protozoans. The branching points of planarians and nematodes are a little later than that of the mesozoan but are clearly earlier than other metazoan groups including sponges and jellyfishes. Many metazoan groups seem to have diverged within a relatively short period. PMID:6539911

Ohama, T; Kumazaki, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

1984-06-25

271

What RNAi screens in model organisms revealed about microbicidal response in mammals?  

PubMed Central

The strategies evolved by pathogens to infect hosts and the mechanisms used by the host to eliminate intruders are highly complex. Because several biological pathways and processes are conserved across model organisms, these organisms have been used for many years to elucidate and understand the mechanisms of the host-pathogen relationship and particularly to unravel the molecular processes enacted by the host to kill pathogens. The emergence of RNA interference (RNAi) and the ability to apply it toward studies in model organisms have allowed a breakthrough in the elucidation of host-pathogen interactions. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight and describe recent breakthroughs in the field of host-pathogen interactions using RNAi screens of model organisms. We will focus specifically on the model organisms Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Danio rerio. Moreover, a recent study examining the immune system of planarian will be discussed. PMID:25629007

Abnave, Prasad; Conti, Filippo; Torre, Cedric; Ghigo, Eric

2015-01-01

272

An in vivo requirement for the mediator subunit med14 in the maintenance of stem cell populations.  

PubMed

The Mediator complex has recently been shown to be a key player in the maintenance of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the in vivo consequences of loss of many Mediator subunits are unknown. We identified med14 as the gene affected in the zebrafish logelei (log) mutant, which displayed a morphological arrest by 2 days of development. Surprisingly, microarray analysis showed that transcription was not broadly affected in log mutants. Indeed, log cells transplanted into a wild-type environment were able to survive into adulthood. In planarians, RNAi knockdown demonstrated a requirement for med14 and many other Mediator components in adult stem cell maintenance and regeneration. Multiple stem/progenitor cell populations were observed to be reduced or absent in zebrafish med14 mutant embryos. Taken together, our results show a critical, evolutionarily conserved, in vivo function for Med14 (and Mediator) in stem cell maintenance, distinct from a general role in transcription. PMID:25772472

Burrows, Jeffrey T A; Pearson, Bret J; Scott, Ian C

2015-04-14

273

?-lactamase inhibitors display anti-seizure properties in an invertebrate assay.  

PubMed

Antibiotics containing a beta-lactam ring (e.g. ceftriaxone) display anti-glutamate effects that underlie their efficacy in animal models of central nervous system (CNS) diseases [Rothstein JD, Patel S, Regan MR, Haenggeli C, Huang YH, Bergles DE, Jin L, Dykes Hoberg M, Vidensky S, Chung DS, Toan SV, Bruijn LI, Su ZZ, Gupta P, Fisher PB (2005) Nature 433:73-77]. We hypothesized that the structurally related beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, tazobactam)--which also contain a beta-lactam ring--will mimic ceftriaxone efficacy in an invertebrate (planarian) assay designed to screen for anti-seizure activity [Rawls SM, Thomas T, Adeola M, Patil T, Raymondi N, Poles A, Loo M, Raffa RB (2009) Pharmacol Biochem Behav 93:363-367]. Glutamate or cocaine administration produced planarian seizure-like activity (pSLA). Glutamate- or cocaine-induced pSLA was inhibited by ceftriaxone, clavulanic acid, or tazobactam, but not by the non-beta-lactam antibiotic vancomyocin. The present findings indicate beta-lactamase inhibitors display efficacy, and mimic ceftriaxone activity, in an invertebrate anti-seizure screen. These results suggest beta-lactamase inhibitors--particularly ones such as clavulanic acid that display enhanced brain penetrability, oral bioavailability, and negligible anti-bacterial activity--might offer an attractive alternative to direct antibiotic therapy for managing CNS diseases caused by increased glutamate transmission and provide a solution to the growing concern that ceftriaxone will be of only limited utility as a CNS-active therapeutic because of its intolerable side effects. PMID:20600649

Rawls, S M; Karaca, F; Madhani, I; Bhojani, V; Martinez, R L; Abou-Gharbia, M; Raffa, R B

2010-09-15

274

Method of isolation and characterization of Girardia tigrina stem cells  

PubMed Central

Tissue regeneration is widely studied due to its importance for understanding the biology of stem cells, aiming at their application in medicine for therapeutic and various other purposes. The establishment of experimental models is necessary, as certain invertebrates and vertebrates have different regeneration abilities depending on their taxon position on the evolutionary scale. Planarians are an efficacious in vivo model for stem cell biology, but the correlation between planarian cellular and molecular neoblast pluripotency mechanisms and those of mammalian stem cells is unknown. The present study had the following objectives: i) Establish Girardia tigrina cell culture, ii) determine the time required for complete cell disintegration and iii) obtain neoblasts by cell subdivision. Twenty-four specimens were deprived of food for seven days. After this time, disintegration was performed by incubation protected at three temperatures for 48 h in an antibiotic, antimycotic and trypsin solution, after which the suspension was homogenized and centrifuged. Histopaque® 1077 was used for cell separation and interphases were collected and monitored by optical and fluorescence microscopy. Optical microscopy analysis informed the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, cell morphology and cell size. Under fluorescence microscopy, interphase 1 (I1) was subdivided into two groups and neoblasts were marked for characterization; one group was stained with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and the other was immunolabeled with octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) and isolated and observed after 10 days of cultivation. Neoblasts predominated in I1 with a small amount of other cell types. In conclusion, sample disintegration with a trypsin and antibiotic solution was effective at 18?C and Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum was adequate for the establishment of primary cell cultures after 48-h incubation and centrifugation. Antibody anti-OCT4 was used for the characterization of stem cells and was successfully labeled with concentrated neoblasts on interphase 1. PMID:25798241

LOPES, K.A.R.; DE CAMPOS VELHO, N.M.R.; PACHECO-SOARES, C.

2015-01-01

275

Synaptonemal complex extension from clustered telomeres mediates full-length chromosome pairing in Schmidtea mediterranea.  

PubMed

In the 1920s, József Gelei proposed that chromosome pairing in flatworms resulted from the formation of a telomere bouquet followed by the extension of synapsis from telomeres at the base of the bouquet, thus facilitating homolog pairing in a processive manner. A modern interpretation of Gelei's model postulates that the synaptonemal complex (SC) is nucleated close to the telomeres and then extends progressively along the full length of chromosome arms. We used the easily visible meiotic chromosomes, a well-characterized genome, and RNAi in the sexual biotype of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea to test that hypothesis. By identifying and characterizing S. mediterranea homologs of genes encoding synaptonemal complex protein 1 (SYCP1), the topoisomerase-like protein SPO11, and RAD51, a key player in homologous recombination, we confirmed that SC formation begins near the telomeres and progresses along chromosome arms during zygotene. Although distal regions pair at the time of bouquet formation, pairing of a unique interstitial locus is not observed until the formation of full-length SC at pachytene. Moreover, neither full extension of the SC nor homologous pairing is dependent on the formation of double-strand breaks. These findings validate Gelei's speculation that full-length pairing of homologous chromosomes is mediated by the extension of the SC formed near the telomeres. S. mediterranea thus becomes the first organism described (to our knowledge) that forms a canonical telomere bouquet but does not require double-strand breaks for synapsis between homologous chromosomes. However, the initiation of SC formation at the base of the telomere bouquet, which then is followed by full-length homologous pairing in planarian spermatocytes, is not observed in other species and may not be conserved. PMID:25404302

Xiang, Youbin; Miller, Danny E; Ross, Eric J; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro; Hawley, R Scott

2014-12-01

276

THE MICROMETAZOA AS MODEL SYSTEMS FOR STUDYING THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MEMORY  

E-print Network

Recent studies in molecular genetics have made clear the great usefulness of choosing appropriate organisms for the study of specific phenomena. Similarly, in the study of learning it would seem worthwhile to investigate the range of available organisms best suited to the studies of specific problems. In this regard, one may note that the vast majority of behavioral experiments have been confined to a very small number of species; only about 5 per cent of the learning experiments have been with invertebrates.' From the point of view of the molecular biologist it seems the time is appropriate to look for morphological, histochemical, and biochemical correlates of learning and memory. The mammalian systems currently used for most behavioral studies pose serious difficulties in finding these correlates. The large size of the brain and nervous system and the extremely large number of brain cells (the order of 1011 for humans and 107 for rats) make it difficult to localize any behavioral phenomenon at the cellular level. Recently, the planarians have received considerable attention as a model system that is much less complex than that of mammals. Their dimensions are of the order of centimeters in length and the brain the order of one cubic millimeter. Although planarian neurons are smaller than mammalian ones, their brain still contains the order of 105 cells. However, very little work has been done on learned behavior in most other invertebrate orders.`~ In seeking morphological and histochemical changes accompanying behavior it seems advantageous to us to use organisms possessing small size, gross structural simplicity and small total number of cells. If studies are to be carried out at the level of the central nervous system, organisms should be sought with a small total number of neural elements, thereby obtaining a reduction in neuronal interactions. If a more primitive nervous system is desired, the coelenterates, particularly Hydra,8 would be appropriate.

unknown authors

277

Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.  

PubMed

1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history. PMID:2907439

Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

1988-01-01

278

Phylogenetic study of the arginine-vasotocin/arginine-vasopressin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.  

PubMed

1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed. PMID:2907440

Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

1988-01-01

279

Platyzoan mitochondrial genomes.  

PubMed

Platyzoa is a putative lophotrochozoan (spiralian) subtaxon within the protostome clade of Metazoa, comprising a range of biologically diverse, mostly small worm-shaped animals. The monophyly of Platyzoa, the relationships between the putative subgroups Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha and Gnathifera (the latter comprising at least Gnathostomulida, "Rotifera" and Acanthocephala) as well as some aspects of the internal phylogenies of these subgroups are highly debated. Here we review how complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data contribute to these debates. We highlight special features of the mt genomes and discuss problems in mtDNA phylogenies of the clade. Mitochondrial genome data seem to be insufficient to resolve the position of the platyzoan clade within the Spiralia but can help to address internal phylogenetic questions. The present review includes a tabular survey of all published platyzoan mt genomes. PMID:23274056

Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

2013-11-01

280

New approaches for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in schistosomes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Treatment and control of schistosomiasis relies almost entirely on the single drug praziquantel (PZQ), making the prospect of emerging drug resistance particularly worrisome. This review will survey reports of PZQ (and other drug) resistance in schistosomes and other platyhelminths, and explore mechanisms by which drug resistance might develop. Newer genomic and post-genomic strategies that offer the promise of better understanding of how drug resistance might arise in these organisms will be discussed. These approaches could also lead to insights into the mode of action of these drugs and potentially provide markers for monitoring the emergence of resistance. PMID:23552512

GREENBERG, ROBERT M.

2013-01-01

281

Lophotrochozoan mitochondrial genomes  

SciTech Connect

Progress in both molecular techniques and phylogeneticmethods has challenged many of the interpretations of traditionaltaxonomy. One example is in the recognition of the animal superphylumLophotrochozoa (annelids, mollusks, echiurans, platyhelminthes,brachiopods, and other phyla), although the relationships within thisgroup and the inclusion of some phyla remain uncertain. While much ofthis progress in phylogenetic reconstruction has been based on comparingsingle gene sequences, we are beginning to see the potential of comparinglarge-scale features of genomes, such as the relative order of genes.Even though tremendous progress is being made on the sequencedetermination of whole nuclear genomes, the dataset of choice forgenome-level characters for many animals across a broad taxonomic rangeremains mitochondrial genomes. We review here what is known aboutmitochondrial genomes of the lophotrochozoans and discuss the promisethat this dataset will enable insight into theirrelationships.

Valles, Yvonne; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2005-10-01

282

Evolution of the let-7 microRNA Family  

PubMed Central

The increase of bodyplan complexity in early bilaterian evolution is correlates with the advent and diversification of microRNAs. These small RNAs guide animal development by regulating temporal transitions in gene expression involved in cell fate choices and transitions between pluripotency and differentiation. One of the two known microRNAs whose origins date back before the bilaterian ancestor is mir-100. In Bilateria, it appears stably associated in polycistronic transcripts with let-7 and mir-125, two key regulators of development. In vertebrates, these three microRNA families have expanded to form a complex system of developmental regulators. In this contribution, we disentangle the evolutionary history of the let-7 locus, which was restructured independently in nematodes, platyhelminths, and deuterostomes. The foundation of a second let-7 locus in the common ancestor of vertebrates and urochordates predates the vertebrate-specific genome duplications, which then caused a rapid expansion of the let-7 family. PMID:22617875

Hertel, Jana; Bartschat, Sebastian; Wintsche, Axel; Otto, Christian; of the Bioinformatics Computer Lab, The Students; Stadler, Peter F.

2012-01-01

283

Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.  

PubMed

Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

2014-01-01

284

Egg formation and the early embryonic development of Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1835 (Aspidogastrea: Aspidogastridae), with comments on their phylogenetic significance.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural aspects of the early embryonic development of the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides are described and their phylogenetic implications discussed. Whereas the proximal regions of the uterine lumen usually contain unembryonated eggs or eggs with early embryos, the posterior or distal regions of the uterus are filled with eggs containing a fully-developed cotylocidium. The eggs of A. limacoides can be classified as polylecithal due to the presence of numerous vitellocytes which accompany each fertilized oocyte or ovum during egg formation. The results of the study are described in details under six headings: (1) general characteristics of the intrauterine eggs; (2) eggshell and operculum formation; (3) unembryonated eggs; (4) zygote formation and early cleavage divisions; (5) embryonic envelope formation; and (6) early degeneration or apoptosis of some blastomeres. The late differentiation of the operculum, possible functions of GER-bodies, and the early degeneration of vitellocytes and some blastomeres in this species are compared, drawn and discussed with corresponding observations reported for other parasitic Platyhelminthes. The most important differences are apparent in the number of egg envelopes and their mode of formation in A. limacoides compared with previous reports for both digeneans and cestodes. The results of the present TEM study indicate that the three macromeres, resulting from two cleavage divisions, take part in the formation of a single embryonic outer envelope in A. limacoides, and that this takes place at a very early stage of embryogenesis. Their fusion results in the formation of a single continuous cytoplasmic layer surrounding the early embryo, which is composed of only a small number of undifferentiated blastomeres. The early separation of the macromeres may indicate an equal cleavage pattern. These results suggest that the systematic position of the Aspidogastrea among the Platyhelminthes still remains somewhat equivocal, and indicate the need for more studies on the embryonic development, larval morphogenesis and molecular phylogeny for the elucidation of the relationships between this enigmatic group and related taxa. PMID:21718799

Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Gibson, David I; Levron, Céline; M?ocicki, Daniel

2011-12-01

285

The invasive New Guinea flatworm Platydemus manokwari in France, the first record for Europe: time for action is now.  

PubMed

Non-indigenous terrestrial flatworms (Platyhelminthes) have been recorded in thirteen European countries. They include Bipalium kewense and Dolichoplana striata that are largely restricted to hothouses and may be regarded as non-invasive species. In addition there are species from the southern hemisphere such as the invasive New Zealand flatworm Arthurdendyus triangulatus in the United Kingdom, Eire and the Faroe Islands, the Australian flatworm Australoplana sanguinea alba in Eire and the United Kingdom, and the Australian Blue Garden flatworm Caenoplana coerulea in France, Menorca and the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom has some twelve or more non-indigenous species most of which are Australian and New Zealand species. These species may move to an invasive stage when optimum environmental and other conditions occur, and the flatworms then have the potential to cause economic or environmental harm. In this paper, we report the identification (from morphology and molecular analysis of COI sequences) of non-indigenous terrestrial flatworms found in a hothouse in Caen (France) as the New Guinea flatworm Platydemus manokwari de Beauchamp, 1963 (Platyhelminthes, Continenticola, Geoplanidae, Rhynchodeminae). Platydemus manokwari is among the "100 World's Worst Invader Alien Species". Lists of World geographic records, prey in the field and prey in laboratories of P. manokwari are provided. This species is considered a threat to native snails wherever it is introduced. The recent discovery of P. manokwari in France represents a significant extension of distribution of this Invasive Alien Species from the Indo-Pacific region to Europe. If it escaped the hothouse, the flatworm might survive winters and become established in temperate countries. The existence of this species in France requires an early warning of this incursion to State and European Union authorities, followed by the eradication of the flatworm in its locality, tightening of internal quarantine measures to prevent further spread of the flatworm to and from this site, identifying if possible the likely primary source of the flatworm, and tracing other possible incursions that may have resulted from accidental dispersal of plants and soil from the site. PMID:24688873

Justine, Jean-Lou; Winsor, Leigh; Gey, Delphine; Gros, Pierre; Thévenot, Jessica

2014-01-01

286

Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88?µM and 1.9?s(-1); 45?µM and 12.6?s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3?µM and 0.96?s(-1); 4?µM and 1.62?s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I???=?3.25, 2.29?nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I???=?5.6, 25.4?nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase in T. solium, as has been described for very few other platyhelminths. PMID:25541385

Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

2015-02-01

287

Detection of rat lungworm in intermediate, definitive, and paratenic hosts obtained from environmental sources.  

PubMed

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The geographical distribution of this disease has changed dramatically in the last few decades. Various methods have been used to detect A. cantonensis in host animals around the world. A survey of mollusks collected on the island of Hawa'i in 2005 using PCR showed an infection rate of 24-78% depending on the mollusk species. In this study, samples from intermediate, definitive, and paratenic hosts were analyzed to further determine the presence of A. cantonensis in the United States. All samples were from Hawa'i, except for the apple snails (Pomacea maculata) that were collected in New Orleans, Louisiana. Angiostrongylus cantonensis was detected in the majority of species examined, including the apple snails from New Orleans and flatworms (planarians) from Hawa'i. Among the mollusks examined, the semi-slug Parmarion martensi had the highest parasite load, with an average larval burden of 445 larvae in 25 mg of tissue, as estimated by real-time PCR. In contrast, slime excreted from these highly infected mollusks contained no or very little A. cantonensis DNA. Analysis of definitive hosts (Rattus spp.) showed discrepancies between morphological and PCR-based identification; 54% of the rats were positive based on morphology, while 100% of tissue samples from these animals were positive by real-time PCR. This indicates that necropsies of rodents could underestimate the infection rates in definitive hosts of A. cantonensis. PMID:23901387

Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J

2013-06-01

288

Detection of Rat Lungworm in Intermediate, Definitive, and Paratenic Hosts Obtained from Environmental Sources  

PubMed Central

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis worldwide. The geographical distribution of this disease has changed dramatically in the last few decades. Various methods have been used to detect A. cantonensis in host animals around the world. A survey of mollusks collected on the island of Hawa‘i in 2005 using PCR showed an infection rate of 24–78% depending on the mollusk species. In this study, samples from intermediate, definitive, and paratenic hosts were analyzed to further determine the presence of A. cantonensis in the United States. All samples were from Hawa‘i, except for the apple snails (Pomacea maculata) that were collected in New Orleans, Louisiana. Angiostrongylus cantonensis was detected in the majority of species examined, including the apple snails from New Orleans and flatworms (planarians) from Hawa‘i. Among the mollusks examined, the semi-slug Parmarion martensi had the highest parasite load, with an average larval burden of 445 larvae in 25 mg of tissue, as estimated by real-time PCR. In contrast, slime excreted from these highly infected mollusks contained no or very little A. cantonensis DNA. Analysis of definitive hosts (Rattus spp.) showed discrepancies between morphological and PCR-based identification; 54% of the rats were positive based on morphology, while 100% of tissue samples from these animals were positive by real-time PCR. This indicates that necropsies of rodents could underestimate the infection rates in definitive hosts of A. cantonensis. PMID:23901387

Bishop, Henry S; da Silva, Alexandre J

2013-01-01

289

Apoptosis, Stem Cells, and Tissue Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs—including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system—have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer. PMID:20978240

Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

2010-01-01

290

Functional genomic characterization of neoblast-like stem cells in larval Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Schistosomes infect hundreds of millions of people in the developing world. Transmission of these parasites relies on a stem cell-driven, clonal expansion of larvae inside a molluscan intermediate host. How this novel asexual reproductive strategy relates to current models of stem cell maintenance and germline specification is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that this proliferative larval cell population (germinal cells) shares some molecular signatures with stem cells from diverse organisms, in particular neoblasts of planarians (free-living relatives of schistosomes). We identify two distinct germinal cell lineages that differ in their proliferation kinetics and expression of a nanos ortholog. We show that a vasa/PL10 homolog is required for proliferation and maintenance of both populations, whereas argonaute2 and a fibroblast growth factor receptor-encoding gene are required only for nanos-negative cells. Our results suggest that an ancient stem cell-based developmental program may have enabled the evolution of the complex life cycle of parasitic flatworms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00768.001 PMID:23908765

Wang, Bo; Collins, James J; Newmark, Phillip A

2013-01-01

291

Origin and Evolution of Dishevelled  

PubMed Central

Dishevelled (Dsh or Dvl) is an important signaling protein, playing a key role in Wnt signaling and relaying cellular information for several developmental pathways. Dsh is highly conserved among metazoans and has expanded into a multigene family in most bilaterian lineages, including vertebrates, planarians, and nematodes. These orthologs, where explored, are known to have considerable overlap in function, but evidence for functional specialization continues to mount. We performed a comparative analysis of Dsh across animals to explore protein architecture and identify conserved and divergent features that could provide insight into functional specialization with an emphasis on invertebrates, especially nematodes. We find evidence of dynamic evolution of Dsh, particularly among nematodes, with taxa varying in ortholog number from one to three. We identify a new domain specific to some nematode lineages and find an unexpected nuclear localization signal conserved in many Dsh orthologs. Our findings raise questions of protein evolution in general and provide clues as to how animals have dealt with the complex intricacies of having a protein, such as Dsh, act as a central messenger hub connected to many different and vitally important pathways. We discuss our findings in the context of functional specialization and bring many testable hypotheses to light. PMID:23390601

Dillman, Adler R.; Minor, Paul J.; Sternberg, Paul W.

2013-01-01

292

Charles Manning Child (1869-1954): the past, present, and future of metabolic signaling.  

PubMed

Charles Manning Child's work focused on metabolic gradients and their influence on organismal development. Early in the 20th century, his work had considerable currency, but by the second half of the century he had become little more than a historical footnote. Yet today Child's ideas are once again topical. While there were issues of cause and effect that Child and his students were never able to address adequately, in hindsight the extent of his eclipse hardly seems warranted. In fact, the demise of Child's theories may have resulted from larger changes in the nature of biology in the early 20th century. Child frequently studied planarians, hydroids, and other animals that are capable of asexual, agametic reproduction, and his theories most clearly apply to such organisms. In contrast, Thomas Hunt Morgan, initially one of Child's competitors in studies of regeneration, later developed the field of transmission genetics based on fruit flies, which can only reproduce via gametes. Child's theories and model systems were largely casualties of the success of Morgan's mechanistic paradigm. Nevertheless, in modern biology metabolic gradients, recast in terms of redox signaling, have become central to understanding both normal and pathological development. PMID:16353198

Blackstone, Neil W

2006-01-15

293

Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo  

PubMed Central

Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. PMID:24440755

Tallarida, Christopher S.; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D.; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

2014-01-01

294

Parthenolide Blocks Cocaine's Effect on Spontaneous Firing Activity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area.  

PubMed

Chronic cocaine administration leads to catecholamine reuptake inhibition which enhances reward and motivational behaviors. Ventral Tegmental Area dopaminergic (VTA DA) neuronal firing is associated with changes in reward predictive signals. Acute cocaine injections inhibit putative VTA DA cell firing in vertebrates. Parthenolide, a compound isolated from the feverfew plant (Tanacetum parthenium), has been shown to substantially inhibit cocaine's locomotion effects in a planarian animal model (Pagán et al., 2008). Here we investigated the effects of parthenolide on the spontaneous firing activity of putative VTA DA neurons in anesthetized male rats (250-300g). Single-unit recordings were analyzed after intravenous (i.v.) parthenolide administration followed by 1mg/kg i.v. cocaine injection. Results showed that parthenolide at 0.125 mg/kg and 0.250mg/kg significantly blocked cocaine's inhibitory effect on DA neuronal firing rate and bursting activity (p< 0.05, two way ANOVA). We propose that parthenolide might inhibit cocaine's effects on VTA DA neurons via its interaction with a common binding site at monoamine transporters. It is suggested that parthenolide could have a potential use as an overdose antidote or therapeutic agent to cocaine intoxication. PMID:21886554

Schwarz, David; Bloom, Damaris; Castro, Rocío; Pagán, Oné R; Jiménez-Rivera, C A

2011-03-01

295

A sex-specific transcription factor controls male identity in a simultaneous hermaphrodite  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy. PMID:23652002

Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J.; Brubacher, John L.; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A.

2013-01-01

296

In vivo comparison of harmine efficacy against psychostimulants: preferential inhibition of the cocaine response through a glutamatergic mechanism  

PubMed Central

Harmine is a ?-carboline compound that targets glutamatergic, monoaminergic, and GABAergic pathways underlying drug addiction. We compared the efficacy of harmine against different psychoactive drugs using an invertebrate (planarian) assay designed to quantify ‘C-shape’ responses. Harmine itself (0.01 – 10 µM) did not produce C-shapes. However, when applied over the same concentration range, harmine significantly inhibited C-shapes elicited by cocaine, with a concentration of 0.1 µM producing almost 90% inhibition. Consistent with its putative actions, harmine produced a similar, though less efficacious, inhibition of C-shapes elicited by the substituted amphetamines methamphetamine and mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) but was much less effective against nicotine. When tested in the presence of the glutamate transporter inhibitor dihydrokainate (DHK) (0.1, 1 µM), harmine (0.1 µM) efficacy against cocaine-induced C-shapes was significantly reduced. Harmine also attenuated C-shapes elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and by glutamate itself. The present data suggest that harmine displays preferential efficacy against different addictive substances (cocaine > amphetamines > nicotine) and, at least for cocaine, is dependent on the glutamate system. PMID:22877698

Owaisat, Suzan; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

2012-01-01

297

Intracellular Immunohistochemical Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda) and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria).  

PubMed

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring. PMID:25636158

Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; Winsor, Leigh; Cary, Stephen Craig

2015-01-01

298

Intracellular Immunohistochemical Detection of Tetrodotoxin in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda) and Stylochoplana sp. (Turbellaria)  

PubMed Central

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), is a potent neurotoxin targeting sodium channels that has been identified in multiple marine and terrestrial organisms. It was recently detected in the Opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea maculata and a Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from New Zealand. Knowledge on the distribution of TTX within these organisms is important to assist in elucidating the origin and ecological role of this toxin. Intracellular micro-distribution of TTX was investigated using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic technique. Tetrodotoxin was strongly localized in neutral mucin cells and the basement membrane of the mantle, the oocytes and follicles of the gonad tissue, and in the digestive tissue of P. maculata. The ova and pharynx were the only two structures to contain TTX in Stylochoplana sp. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, TTX was identified in the larvae and eggs, but not the gelatinous egg cases of P. maculata. Tetrodotoxin was present in egg masses of Stylochoplana sp. These data suggest that TTX has a defensive function in adult P. maculata, who then invest this in their progeny for protection. Localization in the digestive tissue of P. maculata potentially indicates a dietary source of TTX. Stylochoplana sp. may use TTX in prey capture and for the protection of offspring. PMID:25636158

Salvitti, Lauren R.; Wood, Susanna A.; Winsor, Leigh; Cary, Stephen Craig

2015-01-01

299

A generation time effect on the rate of molecular evolution in invertebrates.  

PubMed

The rate of genome evolution varies significantly between species. Evidence is growing that at least some of this variation is associated with species characteristics, such as body size, diversification rate, or population size. One of the strongest correlates of the rate of molecular evolution in vertebrates is generation time (GT): Species with faster generation turnover tend to have higher rates of molecular evolution, presumably because their genomes are copied more frequently and therefore collect more DNA replication errors per unit time. But the GT effect has never been tested for nonvertebrate animals. Here, we present the first general test of the GT effect in invertebrates, using 15 genes from 143 species spread across the major eumetazoan superphyla (including arthropods, nematodes, molluscs, annelids, platyhelminthes, cnidarians, echinoderms, and urochordates). We find significant evidence that rates of molecular evolution are correlated with GT in invertebrates and that this effect applies consistently across genes and taxonomic groups. Furthermore, the GT effect is evident in nonsynonymous substitutions, whereas theory predicts (and most previous evidence has supported) a relationship only in synonymous changes. We discuss both the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. PMID:20083649

Thomas, Jessica A; Welch, John J; Lanfear, Robert; Bromham, Lindell

2010-05-01

300

Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella.  

PubMed

Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data have revised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s). Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of Bilateria. Here we assemble three independent data sets-mitochondrial genes, a phylogenomic data set of 38,330 amino-acid positions and new microRNA (miRNA) complements-and show that the position of Acoelomorpha is strongly affected by a long-branch attraction (LBA) artefact. When we minimize LBA we find consistent support for a position of both acoelomorphs and Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes. The most likely phylogeny links Xenoturbella and Acoelomorpha in a clade we call Xenacoelomorpha. The Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group of the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). We show that analyses of miRNA complements have been affected by character loss in the acoels and that both groups possess one miRNA and the gene Rsb66 otherwise specific to deuterostomes. In addition, Xenoturbella shares one miRNA with the ambulacrarians, and two with the acoels. This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, such as ciliary ultrastructure and diffuse nervous system, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenacoelomorpha including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits. PMID:21307940

Philippe, Hervé; Brinkmann, Henner; Copley, Richard R; Moroz, Leonid L; Nakano, Hiroaki; Poustka, Albert J; Wallberg, Andreas; Peterson, Kevin J; Telford, Maximilian J

2011-02-10

301

Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.  

PubMed

This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37?. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05) of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region. PMID:22990810

Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

2012-08-01

302

Kicking in the Guts: Schistosoma mansoni Digestive Tract Proteins are Potential Candidates for Vaccine Development  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that represents a major health problem in at least 74 tropical and subtropical countries. Current disease control strategies consist mainly of chemotherapy, which cannot prevent recurrent re-infection of people living in endemic area. In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection. Parasitic platyhelminthes of Schistosoma genus, which cause the disease, live in the blood vessels of definitive hosts where they are bathed in host blood for many years. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the host–parasite interface, so numerous tegument antigens have been assessed and the achieved protection never got even close to 100%. Besides the tegument, the digestive tract is the other major site of host–parasite interface. Since parasites feed on blood, they need to swallow a considerable amount of blood for nutrient acquisition. Host blood ingested by schistosomes passes through the esophagus and reaches the gut where many peptidases catalyze the proteolysis of blood cells. Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake. Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:25674091

Figueiredo, Barbara Castro-Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Assis, Natan Raimundo Gonçalves; de Morais, Suellen Batistoni; Fonseca, Cristina Toscano; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

2015-01-01

303

Lessons from parasitic flatworms about evolution and historical biogeography of their vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Cophylogenetic studies investigate the evolutionary trends within host-parasite associations. Examination of the different levels of fidelity between host and parasite phylogenies provides a powerful tool to inspect patterns and processes of parasite diversification over host evolution and geological times. Within the phylum Platyhelminthes, the monogeneans are mainly fish parasites. The Polystomatidae, however, are known from the sarcopterygian Australian lungfish and tetrapods such as amphibians, freshwater turtles, and the African hippopotamus. Cophylogenetic and biogeographic vicariance analyses, supplemented by molecular calibrations, showed that the Polystomatidae may track the evolutionary history of the first aquatic tetrapods in the Palaeozoic age. Evolutionary lines of the major polystome lineages would also be intimately related to the evolution of their hosts over hundreds of millions years. Since the Mesozoic, evolution of polystomes would have been shaped mainly by plate tectonics during the break-up of Gondwanaland and subsequent dispersal of ancestral neobatrachian host lineages. Therefore the Polystomatidae could serve as a novel model to improve cophylogenetic tools and to inspect a suite of questions about the evolution of vertebrate hosts. PMID:19281948

Verneau, Olivier; Du Preez, Louis; Badets, Mathieu

2009-01-01

304

ClonorESTdb: a comprehensive database for Clonorchis sinensis EST sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchiasis, which is primarily caused by liver fluke (Platyhelminthes), is a fatal infectious disease that is mainly associated with bile duct malignancy and the subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. Thus, a genomic approach now represents an important step to further our knowledge of biology and the pathology of these parasites. The results of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing need to be well organized into databases to provide an integrated set of tools and functional information. Findings Here, the ClonorESTdb database represents a collection of Clonorchis sinensis ESTs that is intended as a resource for parasite functional genomics. A total of 55,736 successful EST sequences, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant 13,305 C. sinensis assembled EST sequences (6,497 clusters and 6,808 singletons), were obtained from three in-house prepared cDNA libraries of C. sinensis at different developmental stages. The assembled consensus sequences were annotated using the BLAST algorithm or/and hmm against NCBI NR, UniProt, KEGG and InterProScan. The ClonorESTdb database provides functional annotation, their expression profiles, tandem repeats and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms with utility tools such as local BLAST search and text retrieval. Conclusions This resource enables the researcher to identify and compare expression signatures under different biological stages and promotes ongoing parasite drug and vaccine development and biological research. Database URL: http://pathod.cdc.go.kr/clonorestdb/ PMID:24957044

2014-01-01

305

Diagnostic PCR can be used to illuminate meiofaunal diets and trophic relationships.  

PubMed

Analysis of the meiofaunal food web is hampered because few prey have features that persist long enough in a predator's digestive tract to allow identification to species. Hence, at least for platyhelminth predators, direct observations of prey preference are almost nonexistent, and where they occur, prey identification is often limited to phylum. Studies using an in vitro approach are rare because they are extremely time-consuming and are subject to the criticism that predators removed from their natural environment may exhibit altered behaviors. Although PCR-based approaches have achieved wide application in food-web analysis, their application to meiofaunal flatworms suffers from a number of limitations. Most importantly, the microscopic size of both the predator and prey does not allow for removal of prey material from the digestive tract of the predator, and thus the challenge is to amplify prey sequences in the presence of large quantities of predator sequence. Here, we report on the successful use of prey-taxon-specific primers in diagnostic PCR to identify, to species level, specific prey items of 13 species of meiofaunal flatworms. Extension of this method will allow, for the first time, the development of a species-level understanding of trophic interactions among the meiofauna. PMID:25071364

Maghsoud, Hanna; Weiss, Austin; Smith, Julian P S; Litvaitis, Marian K; Fegley, Stephen R

2014-06-01

306

The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

2014-01-01

307

The complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi reveals a unique transfer RNA set and provides further support for the ecdysozoa hypothesis.  

PubMed

Onychophora (velvet worms) play a crucial role in current discussions on position of arthropods. The ongoing Articulata/Ecdysozoa debate is in need of additional ground pattern characters for Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora). Hence, Onychophora is an important outgroup taxon in resolving the relationships among arthropods, irrespective of whether morphological or molecular data are used. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from onychophorans. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an onychophoran, Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae), which shows several characteristic features. Specifically, the gene order is considerably different from that in other arthropods and other bilaterians. In addition, there is a lack of 9 tRNA genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. All these missing tRNAs have anticodon sequences corresponding to 4-fold degenerate codons, whereas the persisting 13 tRNAs all have anticodons pairing with 2-fold degenerate codons. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provides a robust support for a clade consisting of Onychophora, Priapulida, and Arthropoda, which confirms the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. However, resolution of the internal ecdysozoan relationships suffers from a cluster of long-branching taxa (including Nematoda and Platyhelminthes) and a lack of data from Tardigrada and further nemathelminth taxa in addition to nematodes and priapulids. PMID:17934206

Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Mayer, Georg

2008-01-01

308

Discovery and molecular characterization of a Bcl-2–regulated cell death pathway in schistosomes  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the phylum platyhelminthe. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a Bcl-2–regulated apoptosis pathway in Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Genomic, biochemical, and cell-based mechanistic studies provide evidence for a tripartite pathway, similar to that in humans including BH3-only proteins that are inhibited by prosurvival Bcl-2–like molecules, and Bax/Bak-like proteins that facilitate mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization. Because Bcl-2 proteins have been successfully targeted with “BH3 mimetic” drugs, particularly in the treatment of cancer, we investigated whether schistosome apoptosis pathways could provide targets for future antischistosomal drug discovery efforts. Accordingly, we showed that a schistosome prosurvival protein, sjA, binds ABT-737, a well-characterized BH3 mimetic. A crystal structure of sjA bound to a BH3 peptide provides direct evidence for the feasibility of developing BH3 mimetics to target Bcl-2 prosurvival proteins in schistosomes, suggesting an alternative application for this class of drugs beyond cancer treatment. PMID:21444803

Lee, Erinna F.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Evangelista, Marco; Feng, Zhiping; Speed, Terence P.; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B.; Strasser, Andreas; Kalinna, Bernd H.; Colman, Peter M.; Fairlie, W. Douglas

2011-01-01

309

Dispersal of Udonella australis (Monogenea: Udonellidae) between caligid copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis on Chilean rock cod.  

PubMed

Udonella australis is a platyhelminth that lives on the surface of the ectoparasite copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis, which coexist on the Chilean rock cod Eleginops maclovinus. The absence of a planktonic oncomiracidium stage in the life cycle of udonellids may limit their dispersal ability. However, the high prevalence and intensity of U. australis on C. rogercresseyi suggest they have developed dispersal strategies to compensate for the lack of a free-living larval stage. The goals of this study were to determine the main dispersal mechanisms of U. australis in 1 copepod species and to compare the dispersal ability of U. australis between 2 different copepod species. Chilean rock cods were infected with female (without udonellids) and male (with and without udonellids) C. rogercresseyi. Other fishes were also infected with this copepod (with U. australis) and with L. mugiloidis (without U. australis). The dispersal of udonellids among copepods occurs through both intraspecific and interspecific processes. The main dispersal mechanism appears to be copepod mating; contact between same-sex individuals is less important. Intraspecific dispersal seems to be more dependent on the number of udonellids per fish than on copepod abundance, as observed for interspecific dispersal. PMID:17539406

Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; George-Nascimento, Mario

2007-04-01

310

The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

2014-01-01

311

Evolutionarily Ancient Association of the FoxJ1 Transcription Factor with the Motile Ciliogenic Program  

PubMed Central

It is generally believed that the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) was a unicellular organism with motile cilia. In the vertebrates, the winged-helix transcription factor FoxJ1 functions as the master regulator of motile cilia biogenesis. Despite the antiquity of cilia, their highly conserved structure, and their mechanism of motility, the evolution of the transcriptional program controlling ciliogenesis has remained incompletely understood. In particular, it is presently not known how the generation of motile cilia is programmed outside of the vertebrates, and whether and to what extent the FoxJ1-dependent regulation is conserved. We have performed a survey of numerous eukaryotic genomes and discovered that genes homologous to foxJ1 are restricted only to organisms belonging to the unikont lineage. Using a mis-expression assay, we then obtained evidence of a conserved ability of FoxJ1 proteins from a number of diverse phyletic groups to activate the expression of a host of motile ciliary genes in zebrafish embryos. Conversely, we found that inactivation of a foxJ1 gene in Schmidtea mediterranea, a platyhelminth (flatworm) that utilizes motile cilia for locomotion, led to a profound disruption in the differentiation of motile cilia. Together, all of these findings provide the first evolutionary perspective into the transcriptional control of motile ciliogenesis and allow us to propose a conserved FoxJ1-regulated mechanism for motile cilia biogenesis back to the origin of the metazoans. PMID:23144623

Ho, Hao Kee; Babu, Deepak; Eitel, Michael; Narasimhan, Vijayashankaranarayanan; Tiku, Varnesh; Westbrook, Jody; Schierwater, Bernd; Roy, Sudipto

2012-01-01

312

Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatically converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G/H in animals and has importance during pregnancy, digestion, and other physiological functions in mammals. COX genes have mainly been described from vertebrates, where gene duplications are common, but few studies have examined COX in invertebrates. Given the increasing ease in generating genomic data, as well as recent, although incomplete descriptions of potential COX sequences in Mollusca, Crustacea, and Insecta, assessing COX evolution across Metazoa is now possible. Here, we recover 40 putative COX orthologs by searching publicly available genomic resources as well as ~250 novel invertebrate transcriptomic datasets. Results suggest the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria possessed a COX homolog similar to those of vertebrates, although such homologs were not found in poriferan and ctenophore genomes. COX was found in most crustaceans and the majority of molluscs examined, but only specific taxa/lineages within Cnidaria and Annelida. For example, all octocorallians appear to have COX, while no COX homologs were found in hexacorallian datasets. Most species examined had a single homolog, although species-specific COX duplications were found in members of Annelida, Mollusca, and Cnidaria. Additionally, COX genes were not found in Hemichordata, Echinodermata, or Platyhelminthes, and the few previously described COX genes in Insecta lacked appreciable sequence homology (although structural analyses suggest these may still be functional COX enzymes). This analysis provides a benchmark for identifying COX homologs in future genomic and transcriptomic datasets, and identifies lineages for future studies of COX. PMID:25758350

Havird, Justin C; Kocot, Kevin M; Brannock, Pamela M; Cannon, Johanna T; Waits, Damien S; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

2015-04-01

313

Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria.  

PubMed

Conventional wisdom suggests that bilateral organisms arose from ancestors that were radially, rather than bilaterally, symmetrical and, therefore, had a single body axis and no mesoderm. The two main hypotheses on how this transformation took place consider either a simple organism akin to the planula larva of extant cnidarians or the acoel Platyhelminthes (planuloid-acoeloid theory), or a rather complex organism bearing several or most features of advanced coelomate bilaterians (archicoelomate theory). We report phylogenetic analyses of bilaterian metazoans using quantitative (ribosomal, nuclear and expressed sequence tag sequences) and qualitative (HOX cluster genes and microRNA sets) markers. The phylogenetic trees obtained corroborate the position of acoel and nemertodermatid flatworms as the earliest branching extant members of the Bilateria. Moreover, some acoelomate and pseudocoelomate clades appear as early branching lophotrochozoans and deuterostomes. These results strengthen the view that stem bilaterians were small, acoelomate/pseudocoelomate, benthic organisms derived from planuloid-like organisms. Because morphological and recent gene expression data suggest that cnidarians are actually bilateral, the origin of the last common bilaterian ancestor has to be put back in time earlier than the cnidarian-bilaterian split in the form of a planuloid animal. A new systematic scheme for the Bilateria that includes the Cnidaria is suggested and its main implications discussed. PMID:18192186

Baguñà, Jaume; Martinez, Pere; Paps, Jordi; Riutort, Marta

2008-04-27

314

HelmCoP: An Online Resource for Helminth Functional Genomics and Drug and Vaccine Targets Prioritization  

PubMed Central

A vast majority of the burden from neglected tropical diseases result from helminth infections (nematodes and platyhelminthes). Parasitic helminthes infect over 2 billion, exerting a high collective burden that rivals high-mortality conditions such as AIDS or malaria, and cause devastation to crops and livestock. The challenges to improve control of parasitic helminth infections are multi-fold and no single category of approaches will meet them all. New information such as helminth genomics, functional genomics and proteomics coupled with innovative bioinformatic approaches provide fundamental molecular information about these parasites, accelerating both basic research as well as development of effective diagnostics, vaccines and new drugs. To facilitate such studies we have developed an online resource, HelmCoP (Helminth Control and Prevention), built by integrating functional, structural and comparative genomic data from plant, animal and human helminthes, to enable researchers to develop strategies for drug, vaccine and pesticide prioritization, while also providing a useful comparative genomics platform. HelmCoP encompasses genomic data from several hosts, including model organisms, along with a comprehensive suite of structural and functional annotations, to assist in comparative analyses and to study host-parasite interactions. The HelmCoP interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, allows users to search for multi-factorial combinations of properties and serves readily accessible information that will assist in the identification of various genes of interest. HelmCoP is publicly available at: http://www.nematode.net/helmcop.html. PMID:21760913

Taylor, Christina M.; Mitreva, Makedonka

2011-01-01

315

Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net  

PubMed Central

Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

2015-01-01

316

Molecular and biochemical characterization of Paragonimus westermani tyrosinase.  

PubMed

Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5·0 to 8·0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype. PMID:25621413

Bae, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Ahn, C-S; Kim, J-G; Kong, Y

2015-05-01

317

[Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].  

PubMed

In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations. PMID:25223021

Wang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Ang; He, Yuan-Hao; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Tan, Yi-Min; Zhou, Jie-Chen

2014-06-01

318

New research tools for urogenital schistosomiasis.  

PubMed

Approximately 200,000,000 people have schistosomiasis (schistosome infection). Among the schistosomes, Schistosoma haematobium is responsible for the most infections, which are present in 110 million people globally, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. This pathogen causes an astonishing breadth of sequelae: hematuria, anemia, dysuria, stunting, uremia, bladder cancer, urosepsis, and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. Refined estimates of the impact of schistosomiasis on quality of life suggest that it rivals malaria. Despite S. haematobium's importance, relevant research has lagged. Here, we review advances that will deepen knowledge of S. haematobium. Three sets of breakthroughs will accelerate discoveries in the pathogenesis of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS): (1) comparative genomics, (2) the development of functional genomic tools, and (3) the use of animal models to explore S. haematobium-host interactions. Comparative genomics for S. haematobium is feasible, given the sequencing of multiple schistosome genomes. Features of the S. haematobium genome that are conserved among platyhelminth species and others that are unique to S. haematobium may provide novel diagnostic and drug targets for UGS. Although there are technical hurdles, the integrated use of these approaches can elucidate host-pathogen interactions during this infection and can inform the development of techniques for investigating schistosomes in their human and snail hosts and the development of therapeutics and vaccines for the control of UGS. PMID:25240172

Rinaldi, Gabriel; Young, Neil D; Honeycutt, Jared D; Brindley, Paul J; Gasser, Robin B; Hsieh, Michael H

2015-03-15

319

Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

2014-01-01

320

Complete mitochondrial genome of Haplorchis taichui and comparative analysis with other trematodes.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial genomes have been extensively studied for phylogenetic purposes and to investigate intra- and interspecific genetic variations. In recent years, numerous groups have undertaken sequencing of platyhelminth mitochondrial genomes. Haplorchis taichui (family Heterophyidae) is a trematode that infects humans and animals mainly in Asia, including the Mekong River basin. We sequenced and determined the organization of the complete mitochondrial genome of H. taichui. The mitochondrial genome is 15,130 bp long, containing 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Like other trematodes, it does not encode the atp8 gene. All genes are transcribed from the same strand. The ATG initiation codon is used for 9 protein-coding genes, and GTG for the remaining 3 (nad1, nad4, and nad5). The mitochondrial genome of H. taichui has a single long non-coding region between trnE and trnG. H. taichui has evolved as being more closely related to Opisthorchiidae than other trematode groups with maximal support in the phylogenetic analysis. Our results could provide a resource for the comparative mitochondrial genome analysis of trematodes, and may yield genetic markers for molecular epidemiological investigations into intestinal flukes. PMID:24516279

Lee, Dongmin; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

2013-12-01

321

The bilaterian roots of cordon-bleu  

PubMed Central

Background The actin cytoskeleton is essential for many physiological processes of eukaryotic cells. The emergence of new actin fibers is initiated by actin nucleators. Whereas most of them are evolutionary old, the cordon-bleu actin nucleator is classified as vertebrate specific. Findings Using sensitive methods for sequence similarity detection, we identified homologs of cordon-bleu not only in non-vertebrate chordates but also in arthropods, molluscs, annelids and platyhelminthes. These genes contain only a single WH2 domain and therefore resemble more the vertebrate cordon-bleu related 1 protein than the three WH2 domain containing cordon-bleu. Furthermore, we identified a homolog of the N-terminal, ubiquitin like, cobl domain of cordon-bleu in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Conclusion Our results suggest that the ur-form of the cordon-bleu protein family evolved already with the emergence of the bilateria by the combination of existing cobl and WH2 domains. Following a vertebrate specific gene-duplication, one copy gained two additional WH2 domains leading to the actin nucleating cordon-bleu. The function of the ur-form of the cordon-bleu protein family is so far unknown. The identification of a homolog in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster could facilitate its experimental characterization. PMID:24079804

2013-01-01

322

Mixed Infections and Hybridisation in Monogenean Parasites  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that sexual reproduction promotes disease invasion by increasing the evolutionary potential of the parasite, whereas asexual reproduction tends to enhance establishment success and population growth rate. Gyrodactylid monogeneans are ubiquitous ectoparasites of teleost fish, and the evolutionary success of the specious Gyrodactylus genus is thought to be partly due to their use of various modes of reproduction. Gyrodactylus turnbulli is a natural parasite of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small, tropical fish used as a model for behavioural, ecological and evolutionary studies. Using experimental infections and a recently developed microsatellite marker, we conclusively show that monogenean parasites reproduce sexually. Conservatively, we estimate that sexual recombination occurs and that between 3.7–10.9% of the parasites in our experimental crosses are hybrid genotypes with ancestors from different laboratory strains of G. turnbulli. We also provide evidence of hybrid vigour and/or inter-strain competition, which appeared to lead to a higher maximum parasite load in mixed infections. Finally, we demonstrate inbreeding avoidance for the first time in platyhelminths which may influence the distribution of parasites within a host and their subsequent exposure to the host's localized immune response. Combined reproductive modes and inbreeding avoidance may explain the extreme evolutionary diversification success of parasites such as Gyrodactylus, where host-parasite coevolution is punctuated by relatively frequent host switching. PMID:22808040

Schelkle, Bettina; Faria, Patricia J.; Johnson, Mireille B.; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

2012-01-01

323

An Infectious Topic in Reticulate Evolution: Introgression and Hybridization in Animal Parasites  

PubMed Central

Little attention has been given to the role that introgression and hybridization have played in the evolution of parasites. Most studies are host-centric and ask if the hybrid of a free-living species is more or less susceptible to parasite infection. Here we focus on what is known about how introgression and hybridization have influenced the evolution of protozoan and helminth parasites of animals. There are reports of genome or gene introgression from distantly related taxa into apicomplexans and filarial nematodes. Most common are genetic based reports of potential hybridization among congeneric taxa, but in several cases, more work is needed to definitively conclude current hybridization. In the medically important Trypanosoma it is clear that some clonal lineages are the product of past hybridization events. Similarly, strong evidence exists for current hybridization in human helminths such as Schistosoma and Ascaris. There remain topics that warrant further examination such as the potential hybrid origin of polyploid platyhelminths. Furthermore, little work has investigated the phenotype or fitness, and even less the epidemiological significance of hybrid parasites. PMID:24710013

Detwiler, Jillian T.; Criscione, Charles D.

2010-01-01

324

What helminth genomes have taught us about parasite evolution.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The genomes of more than 20 helminths have now been sequenced. Here we perform a meta-analysis of all sequenced genomes of nematodes and Platyhelminthes, and attempt to address the question of what are the defining characteristics of helminth genomes. We find that parasitic worms lack systems for surface antigenic variation, instead maintaining infections using their surfaces as the first line of defence against the host immune system, with several expanded gene families of genes associated with the surface and tegument. Parasite excretory/secretory products evolve rapidly, and proteases even more so, with each parasite exhibiting unique modifications of its protease repertoire. Endoparasitic flatworms show striking losses of metabolic capabilities, not matched by nematodes. All helminths do however exhibit an overall reduction in auxiliary metabolism (biogenesis of co-factors and vitamins). Overall, the prevailing pattern is that there are few commonalities between the genomes of independently evolved parasitic worms, with each parasite having undergone specific adaptations for their particular niche. PMID:25482650

Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Berriman, Matt

2015-02-01

325

Invasive species threat: parasite phylogenetics reveals patterns and processes of host-switching between non-native and native captive freshwater turtles.  

PubMed

One of the major threats to biodiversity involves biological invasions with direct consequences on the stability of ecosystems. In this context, the role of parasites is not negligible as it may enhance the success of invaders. The red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta elegans, has been globally considered among the worst invasive species. Since its introduction through the pet trade, T. s. elegans is now widespread and represents a threat for indigenous species. Because T. s. elegans coexists with Emys orbicularis and Mauremys leprosa in Europe, it has been suggested it may compete with the native turtle species and transmit pathogens. We examined parasite transfer from American captive to the two native species that co-exist in artificial pools of a Turtle Farm in France. As model parasite species we used platyhelminth worms of the family Polystomatidae (Monogenea) because polystomes have been described from American turtles in their native range. Phylogenetic relationships among polystomes parasitizing chelonian host species that are geographically widespread show patterns of diversification more complex than expected. Using DNA barcoding to identify species from adult and/or polystome eggs, several cases of host switching from exotic to indigenous individuals were illustrated, corroborating that parasite transmission is important when considering the pet trade and in reintroduction programmes to reinforce wild populations of indigenous species. PMID:21767431

Verneau, O; Palacios, C; Platt, T; Alday, M; Billard, E; Allienne, J-F; Basso, C; DU Preez, L H

2011-11-01

326

Combined large and small subunit ribosomal RNA phylogenies support a basal position of the acoelomorph flatworms.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic position of the phylum Platyhelminthes has been re-evaluated in the past decade by analysis of diverse molecular datasets. The consensus is that the Rhabditophora + Catenulida, which includes most of the flatworm taxa, are not primitively simple basal bilaterians but are related to coelomate phyla such as molluscs. The status of two other groups of acoelomate worms, Acoela and Nemertodermatida, is less clear. Although many characteristics unite these two groups, initial molecular phylogenetic studies placed the Nemertodermatida within the Rhabditophora, but placed the Acoela at the base of the Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. This contradiction resulted in scepticism about the basal position of acoels and led to calls for further data. We have sequenced large subunit ribosomal RNA genes from 13 rhabditophorans + catenulids, three acoels and one nemertodermatid, tripling the available data. Our analyses strongly support a basal position of both acoels and nemertodermatids. Alternative hypotheses are significantly less well supported by the data. We conclude that the Nemertodermatida and Acoela are basal bilaterians and, owing to their unique body plan and embryogenesis, should be recognized as a separate phylum, the Acoelomorpha. PMID:12803898

Telford, Maximilian J; Lockyer, Anne E; Cartwright-Finch, Chloë; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2003-01-01

327

Haematological characteristics associated with parasitism in bream, Abramis brama orientalis.  

PubMed

A parasitological investigation was done on 175 specimens. Infections of A. brama orientalis were analyzed according to the age and sex. The fish also were examined for evaluation changes of haematological parameters in relation to parasitic infection. Four parasites were found, including-Caryophyllaeus laticeps and Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda), Diplostomum spathaceum (Platyhelminthes) and Trichodina sp. (Ciliophora). Among identified parasites maximum prevalence and mean intensity were related to Ligula intestinalis and Caryophyllaeus laticeps respectively. The values of prevalence and mean intensity showed significant differences among ages. Our results revealed prevalence, mean intensity and abundance had not significant difference between males and females. Parasite infection provoked reduction (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, mean cell volume and lymphocyte. On the other hand, significant increase (P < 0.05) in white blood cell (WBC), mean cell haemoglobin concentration and neutrophil in blood of infected fish was observed. Significant differences were detected for the WBC, lymphocyte and neutrophil (infected versus uninfected by Trichodina sp., Diplostomum spathaceum and Caryophyllaeus laticeps). In addition to WBC and lymphocytes, significant change was observed for the haemoglobin (Hb) (infected versus uninfected by Ligula intestinalis). PMID:25320488

Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Khara, Hossein; Movahed, Rashideh; Sayadborani, Mohammad; Rohi, Javad Daghigh; Ahmadnezhad, Mohadesseh; Rahbar, Mina; Rad, Amir Sajedi

2014-12-01

328

Comparative community-level associations of helminth infections and microparasite shedding in wild long-tailed macaques in Bali, Indonesia.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Helminthes have the capacity to modulate host immunity, leading to positive interactions with coinfecting microparasites. This phenomenon has been primarily studied during coinfections with a narrow range of geo-helminthes and intracellular microparasites in human populations or under laboratory conditions. Far less is known regarding differences in coinfection dynamics between helminth types, the range of microparasites that might be affected or the overall community-level effects of helminth infections on microparasites in wild systems. Here, we analysed the presence/absence and abundance patterns of enteric parasites in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Bali, Indonesia, to assess whether naturally occurring helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of the most common intracellular (Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora spp.) and extracellular (Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp.) microparasites. We also comparatively assessed the statistical correlations of different helminth taxa with microparasite shedding to determine if there were consistent relationships between the specific helminth taxa and microparasites. Helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of both intracellular and extracellular microparasites. Platyhelminthes repeatedly displayed strong positive correlations with several microparasites; while nematodes did not. Our results indicate that helminthes can influence microparasite community shedding dynamics under wild conditions, but that trends may be driven by a narrow range of helminthes. PMID:25249163

Wilcox, Justin J S; Lane-Degraaf, Kelly E; Fuentes, Agustin; Hollocher, Hope

2015-03-01

329

Quo vadis venomics? A roadmap to neglected venomous invertebrates.  

PubMed

Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I; Jenner, Ronald A

2014-01-01

330

Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net.  

PubMed

Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases' interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species' omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

2015-01-01

331

Kicking in the Guts: Schistosoma mansoni Digestive Tract Proteins are Potential Candidates for Vaccine Development.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that represents a major health problem in at least 74 tropical and subtropical countries. Current disease control strategies consist mainly of chemotherapy, which cannot prevent recurrent re-infection of people living in endemic area. In the last decades, many researchers made a remarkable effort in the search for an effective vaccine to provide long-term protection. Parasitic platyhelminthes of Schistosoma genus, which cause the disease, live in the blood vessels of definitive hosts where they are bathed in host blood for many years. Among the most promising molecules as vaccine candidates are the proteins present in the host-parasite interface, so numerous tegument antigens have been assessed and the achieved protection never got even close to 100%. Besides the tegument, the digestive tract is the other major site of host-parasite interface. Since parasites feed on blood, they need to swallow a considerable amount of blood for nutrient acquisition. Host blood ingested by schistosomes passes through the esophagus and reaches the gut where many peptidases catalyze the proteolysis of blood cells. Recent studies show the emergence of antigens related to the parasite blood feeding, such as esophageal gland proteins, proteases, and other proteins related to nutrient uptake. Herein, we review what is known about Schistosoma mansoni digestive tract proteins, emphasizing the ones described as potential vaccine candidates. PMID:25674091

Figueiredo, Barbara Castro-Pimentel; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; de Assis, Natan Raimundo Gonçalves; de Morais, Suellen Batistoni; Fonseca, Cristina Toscano; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

2015-01-01

332

First identification of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the flatworm Stylochoplana sp.; a source of TTX for the sea slug Pleurobranchaea maculata.  

PubMed

High concentrations of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the Platyhelminthes Stylochoplana sp. from Pilot Bay (Tauranga, New Zealand). This is the first detection of TTX in this genus. Concentrations were monitored from March to November (2013) and found to significantly decrease from a peak in July (avg. 551 mg kg(-1)) to November (avg. 140 mg kg(-1)). Stylochoplana sp. co-occurred with TTX-containing Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia). A Stylochoplana sp.-specific real-time PCR assay was developed targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene to determine if P. maculata consumed Stylochoplana sp. Positive Stylochoplana sp. signals were obtained for 7 of 19 P. maculata tested. Mass calculations indicate Stylochoplana sp. could supply Pilot Bay P. maculata with the TTX required to account for the concentrations reported in previous studies (ca. 1.04 mg TTX per individual) based on an ingestion rate of one individual every 2-3 days throughout their lifetime. However, due to the lack of Stylochoplana sp. in areas with dense P. maculata populations, and high concentration (ca. 1400 mg kg(-1)) of TTX detected in some individuals, it is unlikely that Stylochoplana sp. represent the sole source of TTX in P. maculata. PMID:25557071

Salvitti, Lauren; Wood, Susanna A; Taylor, David I; McNabb, Paul; Cary, S Craig

2015-03-01

333

Meiofauna in sandy back-reef platforms differently exposed to the monsoons in the Maldives (Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maldives comprise some of the most characteristic and significant atoll systems, but the meiobenthic assemblages of these islands are still largely unknown. A study on meiofauna was conducted on three Maldivian sandy back-reef platforms differently exposed to stronger westerly monsoons. Clear high energy effects of the waves causing currents and erosions were observed at the completely exposed and isolated offshore reef of Thoddoo Island. Wave energy of medium intensity was confirmed at Rasdhoo by depositional structures ( finolhu), while a medium to low energy level was recorded at Gulhi on the basis of the presence of a low sandy bar. The meiofaunal assemblage counted 17 major taxa. Copepods and nematodes were dominant, followed by platyhelminthes and polychaetes. The nematode assemblage was rather rich and composed of 28 families and 84 genera. Desmodoridae were the most abundant family, followed by Draconematidae, Xyalidae, Epsilonematidae and Chromadoridae. The meiofauna resulted strongly affected by erosion effects, both in terms of abundance and richness, but we were not able to distinguish the two different sedimentation rates. Instead, the structure of the nematode community seemed to be more sensitive in distinguishing each type of hydrodynamic condition and energy level.

Semprucci, F.; Colantoni, P.; Sbrocca, C.; Baldelli, G.; Rocchi, M.; Balsamo, M.

2011-09-01

334

Gene suppression in schistosomes using RNAi.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease responsible for the death of more than 300,000 people every year. The disease is caused by intravascular parasitic platyhelminths called schistosomes. Treatment and control of schistosomiasis rely on a single drug, praziquantel, and concern exists over the possible emergence of resistance to this drug. The recent completion of the genome sequences of the three main worm species that cause schistosomiasis in humans has raised hope for the development of new interventions to treat the disease. RNA interference (RNAi), a mechanism by which gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers degradation of homologous mRNA transcripts, has emerged as an important tool to evaluate and validate new potential drug targets. In addition, RNAi has been used to explore the basic biology of these debilitating parasites. RNAi can be achieved in all stages of the parasite's life cycle in which it has been tested. In this review, we describe methods for applying RNAi to suppress gene expression in the intra-mammalian life stages (adults and schistosomula) of Schistosoma mansoni. We describe procedures for isolating and culturing the parasites, preparing and delivering dsRNA targeting a specific gene, as well as a procedure to evaluate gene suppression by quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:25388112

Da'dara, Akram A; Skelly, Patrick J

2015-01-01

335

Evolutionary origin and status of two insect acetylcholinesterases and their structural conservation and differentiation.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a pivotal role in synaptic transmission in the cholinergic nervous system of most animals, including insects. Insects possess duplicated AChE gene loci (ace1 vs. ace2) encoding two distinct AChEs (AChE1 and AChE2). A phylogenetic analysis suggested that the last common ancestor of two aces shared its origin with Platyhelminthes. In addition, the ace duplication event likely occurred after the divergence of Protostomian but before the split of Ecdysozoa. The ace1 lineage exhibited a significantly lower evolutionary rate (d and dN/dS ratio) than the ace2 lineage, suggesting that the ace1 lineage has retained the essential function of synaptic transmission following its duplication. Therefore, the putative functional transition from ace1 to ace2 observed in some Hymenopteran insects appears to be a local and relatively recent event. The amino acid sequence comparison and three-dimensional modeling of insect AChEs identified a few consistent differences in the amino acid residues in functionally crucial domains between two AChEs, which are likely responsible for the functional differentiation between two AChEs. A unique amino acid substitution causing a dramatic reduction in the catalytic activity of AChE1 in some Hymenopteran insects was suggested to be responsible for the aforementioned functional transition of ace. PMID:25627717

Cha, Deok Jea; Lee, Si Hyeock

2015-01-01

336

A temperature-tolerant interstitial worm with associated epibiotic bacteria from the shallow water fumaroles of Deception Island, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent not previously identified species of Monocelidae (Platyhelminthes, Proseriata) was found in the vicinity of fumarole activity at Fumarole Bay. The distribution of this animal and the metazoan meiobenthos in the vicinity of this area suggests that this species constitutes the most abundant species and the bulk of the biomass at these shallow water fumaroles. In contrast to the other metazoan meiofauna, the distribution of this species is positively correlated with the water temperature and gas emissions, indicating a preference for the areas around fumaroles. The range of temperature tolerated by this animal was determined in in vivo experiments to be at least 30-40°C. The outer surface the animals is colonized by apparently symbiotic bacteria, which are usually rod-like and approximately 0.68 ?m wide and 2.07 ?m long. The results of this study revealed a remarkable difference between shallow-water and deep-sea hydrothermal vent meiobenthic communities. Generalists capable of tolerating extreme abiotic conditions appear to dominate shallow-water vents, whereas endemism seems to be the rule in the deep-sea vents.

Bright, M.; Arndt, C.; Keckeis, H.; Felbeck, H.

2003-06-01

337

New perspectives on eye development and the evolution of eyes and photoreceptors.  

PubMed

Recent experiments on the genetic control of eye development have opened up a completely new perspective on eye evolution. The demonstration that targeted expression of one and the same master control gene, that is, Pax6 can induce the formation of ectopic eyes in both insects and vertebrates, necessitates a reconsideration of the dogma of a polyphyletic origin of the various eye types in all the animal phyla. The involvement of Pax6 and six1 and six3 genes, which encode highly conserved transcription factors, in the genetic control of eye development in organisms ranging from planarians to humans argues strongly for a monophyletic origin of the eye. Because transcription factors can control the expression of any target gene provided it contains the appropriate gene regulatory elements, the conservation of the genetic control of eye development by Pax6 among all bilaterian animals is not due to functional constraints but a consequence of its evolutionary history. The prototypic eyes postulated by Darwin to consist of two cells only, a photoreceptor and a pigment cell, were accidentally controlled by Pax6 and the subsequent evolution of the various eye types occurred by building onto this original genetic program. A hypothesis of intercalary evolution is proposed that assumes that the eye morphogenetic pathway is progressively modified by intercalation of genes between the master control genes on the top of the hierarchy and the structural genes like rhodopsin at the bottom. The recruitment of novel genes into the eye morphogenetic pathway can be due to at least two different genetic mechanisms, gene duplication and enhancer fusion.In tracing back the evolution of eyes beyond bilaterians, we find highly developed eyes in some box-jellyfish as well as in some Hydrozoans. In Hydrozoans the same orthologous six genes (six1 and six3) are required for eye regeneration as in planarians, and in the box jellyfish Tripedalia a pax B gene, which may be a precursor of Pax6, was found to be expressed in the eyes. In contrast to the adults, which have highly evolved eyes, the Planula larva of Tripedalia has single- celled photoreceptors similar to some unicellular protists. For the origin of photoreceptor cells in metazoa, I propose two hypotheses, one based on cellular differentiation and a more speculative one based on symbiosis. The former assumes that photoreceptor cells originated from a colonial protist in which all the cells were photosensitive and subsequent cellular differentiation to give rise to photoreceptor cells. The symbiont hypothesis, which I call the Russian doll model, assumes that photosensitivity arose first in photosynthetic cyanobacteria that were subsequently taken up into red algae as primary chloroplasts. The red algae in turn were taken up by dinoflagellates as secondary chloroplasts and in some species evolved into the most sophisticated eye organelles, as found, for example, in some dinoflagellates like Erythropsis and Warnovia, which lack chloroplasts. Because dinoflagellates are commonly found as symbionts in cnidarians, the dinoflagellates may have transferred their photoreceptor genes to cnidarians. In cnidarians such as Tripedalia the step from photoreceptor organelles to multicellular eyes has occurred. These two hypotheses, the cellular differentiation and the symbiont hypothesis, are not mutually exclusive and are the subject of further investigations. PMID:15653558

Gehring, W J

2005-01-01

338

Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations  

PubMed Central

Background Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Results S. polychroa lives in allopatry or sympatry across Europe except for Central and North-Western Europe, where sexual individuals have never been reported. A phylogenetic relationship between 36 populations based on a 385 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that haplotypes were often similar over large geographic distances. In North Italian lakes, however, diversity was extreme, with sequence differences of up to 5% within the same lake in both sexuals and parthenogens. Mixed populations showed "endemic" parthenogenetic lineages that presumably originated from coexisting sexuals, and distantly related ones that probably result from colonization by parthenogens independent from sexuals. Conclusions Parthenogens originated repeatedly from sexuals, mainly in Italy, but the same may apply to other Mediterranean regions (Spain, Greece). The degree of divergence between populations suggests that S. polychroa survived the ice ages in separate ice-free areas in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and re-colonised Europe after the retreat of the major glaciers. Combining these results with those based on nuclear markers, the data suggest that repeated hybridisation between sexuals and parthenogenetic lineages in mixed populations maintains high levels of genetic diversity in parthenogens. This can explain why parthenogens persist in populations that were originally sexual. Exclusive parthenogenesis in central and western populations suggests better colonisation capacity, possibly because of inbreeding costs as well as hybridisation of sexuals with parthenogens. PMID:14622447

Pongratz, Norbert; Storhas, Martin; Carranza, Salvador; Michiels, Nicolaas K

2003-01-01

339

?-catenin specifies the endomesoderm and defines the posterior organizer of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.  

PubMed

The canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway is a key regulator of body plan organization and axis formation in metazoans, being involved in germ layer specification, posterior growth and patterning of the anteroposterior axis. Results from animals spanning a wide phylogenetic range suggest that a unifying function of ?-catenin in metazoans is to define the posterior/vegetal part of the embryo. Although the specification of vegetal territories (endoderm) by ?-catenin has been demonstrated in distantly related animals (cnidarians, a protostome, echinoderms and ascidians), the definition of the posterior part of the embryo is well supported only for vertebrates and planarians. To gain insights into ?-catenin functions during deuterostome evolution, we have studied the early development of the direct developing hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. We show that the zygote is polarized after fertilization along the animal-vegetal axis by cytoplasmic rearrangements resembling the ascidian vegetal contraction. This early asymmetry is translated into nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin at the vegetal pole, which is necessary and sufficient to specify endomesoderm. We show that endomesoderm specification is crucial for anteroposterior axis establishment in the ectoderm. The endomesoderm secretes as yet unidentified signals that posteriorize the ectoderm, which would otherwise adopt an anterior fate. Our results point to a conserved function at the base of deuterostomes for ?-catenin in germ layer specification and to a causal link in the definition of the posterior part of the embryonic ectoderm by way of activating posteriorizing endomesodermal factors. Consequently, the definition of the vegetal and the posterior regions of the embryo by ?-catenin should be distinguished and carefully re-examined. PMID:21303849

Darras, Sébastien; Gerhart, John; Terasaki, Mark; Kirschner, Marc; Lowe, Christopher J

2011-03-01

340

Application Of Stable Isotope Analysis To Study Temporal Changes In Foraging Ecology In A Highly Endangered Amphibian  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding dietary trends for endangered species may be essential to assessing the effects of ecological disturbances such as habitat modification, species introductions or global climate change. Documenting temporal variation in prey selection may also be crucial for understanding population dynamics. However, the rarity, secretive behaviours and obscure microhabitats of some endangered species can make direct foraging observations difficult or impossible. Furthermore, the lethality or invasiveness of some traditional methods of dietary analysis (e.g. gut contents analysis, gastric lavage) makes them inappropriate for such species. Stable isotope analysis facilitates non-lethal, indirect analysis of animal diet that has unrealized potential in the conservation of endangered organisms, particularly amphibians. Methodology/findings I determined proportional contributions of aquatic macroinvertebrate prey to the diet of an endangered aquatic salamander Eurycea sosorum over a two-year period using stable isotope analysis of 13/12C and 15/14N and the Bayesian stable isotope mixing model SIAR. I calculated Strauss’ dietary electivity indices by comparing these proportions with changing relative abundance of potential prey species through time. Stable isotope analyses revealed that a previously unknown prey item (soft-bodied planarian flatworms in the genus Dugesia) made up the majority of E. sosorum diet. Results also demonstrate that E. sosorum is an opportunistic forager capable of diet switching to include a greater proportion of alternative prey when Dugesia populations decline. There is also evidence of intra-population dietary variation. Conclusions/significance Effective application of stable isotope analysis can help circumvent two key limitations commonly experienced by researchers of endangered species: the inability to directly observe these species in nature and the invasiveness or lethality of traditional methods of dietary analysis. This study illustrates the feasibility of stable isotope analysis in identifying preferred prey species that can be used to guide conservation management of both wild and captive food sources for endangered species. PMID:23341920

Gillespie, J. Hayley

2013-01-01

341

The unique stem cell system of the immortal larva of the human parasite Echinococcus multilocularis  

PubMed Central

Background It is believed that in tapeworms a separate population of undifferentiated cells, the germinative cells, is the only source of cell proliferation throughout the life cycle (similar to the neoblasts of free living flatworms). In Echinococcus multilocularis, the metacestode larval stage has a unique development, growing continuously like a mass of vesicles that infiltrate the tissues of the intermediate host, generating multiple protoscoleces by asexual budding. This unique proliferation potential indicates the existence of stem cells that are totipotent and have the ability for extensive self-renewal. Results We show that only the germinative cells proliferate in the larval vesicles and in primary cell cultures that undergo complete vesicle regeneration, by using a combination of morphological criteria and by developing molecular markers of differentiated cell types. The germinative cells are homogeneous in morphology but heterogeneous at the molecular level, since only sub-populations express homologs of the post-transcriptional regulators nanos and argonaute. Important differences are observed between the expression patterns of selected neoblast marker genes of other flatworms and the E. multilocularis germinative cells, including widespread expression in E. multilocularis of some genes that are neoblast-specific in planarians. Hydroxyurea treatment results in the depletion of germinative cells in larval vesicles, and after recovery following hydroxyurea treatment, surviving proliferating cells grow as patches that suggest extensive self-renewal potential for individual germinative cells. Conclusions In E. multilocularis metacestodes, the germinative cells are the only proliferating cells, presumably driving the continuous growth of the larval vesicles. However, the existence of sub-populations of the germinative cells is strongly supported by our data. Although the germinative cells are very similar to the neoblasts of other flatworms in function and in undifferentiated morphology, their unique gene expression pattern and the evolutionary loss of conserved stem cells regulators suggest that important differences in their physiology exist, which could be related to the unique biology of E. multilocularis larvae. PMID:24602211

2014-01-01

342

The venus kinase receptor (VKR) family: structure and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) form a family of transmembrane proteins widely conserved in Metazoa, with key functions in cell-to-cell communication and control of multiple cellular processes. A new family of RTK named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR) has been described in invertebrates. The VKR receptor possesses a Venus Fly Trap (VFT) extracellular module, a bilobate structure that binds small ligands to induce receptor kinase activity. VKR was shown to be highly expressed in the larval stages and gonads of several invertebrates, suggesting that it could have functions in development and/or reproduction. Results Analysis of recent genomic data has allowed us to extend the presence of VKR to five bilaterian phyla (Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Echinodermata) as well as to the Cnidaria phylum. The presence of NveVKR in the early-branching metazoan Nematostella vectensis suggested that VKR arose before the bilaterian radiation. Phylogenetic and gene structure analyses showed that the 40 receptors identified in 36 animal species grouped monophyletically, and likely evolved from a common ancestor. Multiple alignments of tyrosine kinase (TK) and VFT domains indicated their important level of conservation in all VKRs identified up to date. We showed that VKRs had inducible activity upon binding of extracellular amino-acids and molecular modeling of the VFT domain confirmed the structure of the conserved amino-acid binding site. Conclusions This study highlights the presence of VKR in a large number of invertebrates, including primitive metazoans like cnidarians, but also its absence from nematodes and chordates. This little-known RTK family deserves to be further explored in order to determine its evolutionary origin, its possible interest for the emergence and specialization of Metazoa, and to understand its function in invertebrate development and/or reproductive biology. PMID:23721482

2013-01-01

343

RNA-Seq Reveals Infection-Induced Gene Expression Changes in the Snail Intermediate Host of the Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini  

PubMed Central

Background Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the snail intermediate host of the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in the Greater Mekong sub-region of Thailand. Despite the severe public health impact of Opisthorchis-induced CCA, knowledge of the molecular interactions occurring between the parasite and its snail intermediate host is scant. The examination of differences in gene expression profiling between uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos could provide clues on fundamental pathways involved in the regulation of snail-parasite interplay. Methodology/Principal Findings Using high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analyses, we characterized the transcriptomes of uninfected and O. viverrini-infected B. siamensis goniomphalos. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiling allowed the identification of 7,655 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), associated to 43 distinct biological pathways, including pathways associated with immune defense mechanisms against parasites. Amongst the DEGs with immune functions, transcripts encoding distinct proteases displayed the highest down-regulation in Bithynia specimens infected by O. viverrini; conversely, transcription of genes encoding heat-shock proteins and actins was significantly up-regulated in parasite-infected snails when compared to the uninfected counterparts. Conclusions/Significance The present study lays the foundation for functional studies of genes and gene products potentially involved in immune-molecular mechanisms implicated in the ability of the parasite to successfully colonize its snail intermediate host. The annotated dataset provided herein represents a ready-to-use molecular resource for the discovery of molecular pathways underlying susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of B. siamensis goniomphalos to O. viverrini and for comparative analyses with pulmonate snail intermediate hosts of other platyhelminths including schistosomes. PMID:24676090

Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Sotillo, Javier; Tesana, Smarn; Laha, Thewarach; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Nolan, Matthew J.

2014-01-01

344

The unique Morgue ubiquitination protein is conserved in a diverse but restricted set of invertebrates.  

PubMed

Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain where the active site cysteine is replaced by a glycine. Morgue also contains a single C4-type zinc finger motif. This architecture suggests potentially novel ubiquitination activities for Morgue. In this study, we address the evolutionary origins of this distinctive protein utilizing a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. We find that Morgue exhibits widespread but restricted phylogenetic distribution among metazoans. Morgue proteins were identified in a wide range of Protostome phyla, including Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Platyhelminthes. However, with one potential exception, Morgue was not detected in Deuterostomes, including Chordates, Hemichordates, or Echinoderms. Morgue was also not found in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, or Porifera. Characterization of Morgue sequences within specific animal lineages suggests that gene deletion or acquisition has occurred during divergence of nematodes and that at least one arachnid expresses an atypical form of Morgue consisting only of the variant E2 conjugase domain. Analysis of the organization of several morgue genes suggests that exon-shuffling events have contributed to the evolution of the Morgue protein. These results suggest that Morgue mediates conserved and distinctive ubiquitination functions in specific cell death pathways. PMID:19602541

Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W; Brennan, Gregory; Nambu, John R

2009-10-01

345

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Growth Factor Receptor Bound-Protein in Clonorchis sinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a potentially serious disease. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is a cytosolic protein conserved among animals and plays roles in cellular functions such as meiosis, organogenesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, we report first molecular characters of growth factor receptor bound-protein (CsGrb2) from C. sinensis as counter part of Grb2 from animals and its possible functions in development and organogenesis of C. sinensis. Methodology/Principal Findings A CsGrb2 cDNA clone retrieved from the C. sinensis transcriptome encoded a polypeptide with a SH3-SH2-SH3 structure. Recombinant CsGrb2 was bacterially produced and purified to homogeneity. Native CsGrb2 with estimated molecular weight was identified from C. sinensis adult extract by western blotting using a mouse immune serum to recombinant CsGrb2. CsGrb2 transcripts was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CsGrb2 was localized to the suckers, mesenchymal tissues, sperms in seminal receptacle and ovary in the adults, and abundantly expressed in most organs of the metacercariae. Recombinant CsGrb2 was evaluated to be little useful as a serodiagnostic reagent for C. sinesis human infections. Conclusion Grb2 protein found in C. sinensis was conserved among animals and suggested to play a role in the organogenesis, energy metabolism and mitotic spermatogenesis of C. sinensis. These findings from C. sinensis provide wider understanding on diverse function of Grb2 in lower animals such as platyhelminths. PMID:24454892

Bai, Xuelian; Lee, Ji-Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Dai, Fuhong; Lee, Tae-Jin; Hong, Sung-Jong

2014-01-01

346

BIOFRAG - a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in a consistent and flexible database permits simple data retrieval for subsequent analyses. We present a relational database that links such field data to taxonomic nomenclature, spatial and temporal plot attributes, and environmental characteristics. Field assessments include measurements of the response(s) (e.g., presence, abundance, ground cover) of one or more species linked to plots in fragments within a partially forested landscape. The database currently holds 9830 unique species recorded in plots of 58 unique landscapes in six of eight realms: mammals 315, birds 1286, herptiles 460, insects 4521, spiders 204, other arthropods 85, gastropods 70, annelids 8, platyhelminthes 4, Onychophora 2, vascular plants 2112, nonvascular plants and lichens 320, and fungi 449. Three landscapes were sampled as long-term time series (>10 years). Seven hundred and eleven species are found in two or more landscapes. Consolidating the substantial amount of primary data available on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in the context of land-use change and natural disturbances is an essential part of understanding the effects of increasing anthropogenic pressures on land. The consistent format of this database facilitates testing of generalizations concerning biologic responses to fragmentation across diverse systems and taxa. It also allows the re-examination of existing datasets with alternative landscape metrics and robust statistical methods, for example, helping to address pseudo-replication problems. The database can thus help researchers in producing broad syntheses of the effects of land use. The database is dynamic and inclusive, and contributions from individual and large-scale data-collection efforts are welcome. PMID:24967073

Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S; Hanson, Thor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Heartsill Scalley, Tamara; Klingbeil, Brian T; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F; Leal, Inara R; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J; Medina-Rangel, Guido F; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A; Overal, William L; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P; Possingham, Max L; Raheem, Dinarzarde C; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D; Douglas Robinson, W; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C; Struebig, Matthew J; Tylianakis, Jason M; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J; Urbina Cardona, Jose N; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P; Bradley, Andrew V; Ewers, Robert M

2014-05-01

347

Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.  

PubMed

Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family proteins contributed to the diversification of animal body organization. PMID:17940209

Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

2008-01-01

348

Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the larval tetraphyllideans and trypanorhynchs lacking evaginated tentacles and other key diagnostic features.

Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

2013-12-01

349

Recent evidence for evolution of the genetic code.  

PubMed Central

The genetic code, formerly thought to be frozen, is now known to be in a state of evolution. This was first shown in 1979 by Barrell et al. (G. Barrell, A. T. Bankier, and J. Drouin, Nature [London] 282:189-194, 1979), who found that the universal codons AUA (isoleucine) and UGA (stop) coded for methionine and tryptophan, respectively, in human mitochondria. Subsequent studies have shown that UGA codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma spp. and in all nonplant mitochondria that have been examined. Universal stop codons UAA and UAG code for glutamine in ciliated protozoa (except Euplotes octacarinatus) and in a green alga, Acetabularia. E. octacarinatus uses UAA for stop and UGA for cysteine. Candida species, which are yeasts, use CUG (leucine) for serine. Other departures from the universal code, all in nonplant mitochondria, are CUN (leucine) for threonine (in yeasts), AAA (lysine) for asparagine (in platyhelminths and echinoderms), UAA (stop) for tyrosine (in planaria), and AGR (arginine) for serine (in several animal orders) and for stop (in vertebrates). We propose that the changes are typically preceded by loss of a codon from all coding sequences in an organism or organelle, often as a result of directional mutation pressure, accompanied by loss of the tRNA that translates the codon. The codon reappears later by conversion of another codon and emergence of a tRNA that translates the reappeared codon with a different assignment. Changes in release factors also contribute to these revised assignments. We also discuss the use of UGA (stop) as a selenocysteine codon and the early history of the code. PMID:1579111

Osawa, S; Jukes, T H; Watanabe, K; Muto, A

1992-01-01

350

Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Expression Normalization in Echinococcus spp. Larval Stages  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (?TUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1?, ?ACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1? and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, ?ACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1? as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1? was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1? reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the Taenia genus. PMID:25014071

Espínola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

2014-01-01

351

Patterns of Diversity in Soft-Bodied Meiofauna: Dispersal Ability and Body Size Matter  

PubMed Central

Background Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine microscopic animals (meiofauna) in Northern Sardinia, we test for the effect of body size, dispersal ability, and habitat features on the patterns of distribution of several groups. Methodology/Principal Findings As a dataset we use the results of a workshop held at La Maddalena (Sardinia, Italy) in September 2010, aimed at studying selected taxa of soft-bodied meiofauna (Acoela, Annelida, Gastrotricha, Nemertodermatida, Platyhelminthes and Rotifera), in conjunction with data on the same taxa obtained during a previous workshop hosted at Tjärnö (Western Sweden) in September 2007. Using linear mixed effects models and model averaging while accounting for sampling bias and potential pseudoreplication, we found evidence that: (1) meiofaunal groups with more restricted distribution are the ones with low dispersal potential; (2) meiofaunal groups with higher probability of finding new species for science are the ones with low dispersal potential; (3) the proportion of the global species pool of each meiofaunal group present in each area at the regional scale is negatively related to body size, and positively related to their occurrence in the endobenthic habitat. Conclusion/Significance Our macroecological analysis of meiofauna, in the framework of the ubiquity hypothesis for microscopic organisms, indicates that not only body size but mostly dispersal ability and also occurrence in the endobenthic habitat are important correlates of diversity for these understudied animals, with different importance at different spatial scales. Furthermore, since the Western Mediterranean is one of the best-studied areas in the world, the large number of undescribed species (37%) highlights that the census of marine meiofauna is still very far from being complete. PMID:22457790

Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina; De Smet, Willem H.; Fontaneto, Diego; Jondelius, Ulf; Leasi, Francesca; Martínez, Alejandro; Meyer-Wachsmuth, Inga; Nilsson, Karin Sara; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Worsaae, Katrine; Todaro, M. Antonio

2012-01-01

352

Phylogeography and demographic history of Gotocotyla sawara (Monogenea: Gotocotylidae) on Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius) along the Coast of China.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that the northwestern Pacific Ocean is an ideal system in which to study and understand the roles of the Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and ocean currents in shaping phylogeographic patterns of species, but most of these investigations have been concerned with vertebrates, and only a few have focused on invertebrates. In the present study, we examined the genetic population structure and historic demography of a platyhelminth species, Gotocotyla sawara (Monogenea, Gotocotylidae), a gill parasite of Japanese Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus niphonius , along the coast of China. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for 169 individuals and the internal transcribed spacers for 24 individuals were sequenced from specimens representing 8 populations of this parasite along the coast of China. High levels of COI haplotype diversity (0.9994) and nucleotide diversity (0.015805) were detected for G. sawara. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no phylogeographical pattern for G. sawara in the sample area. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed no significant differences at all hierarchical levels, and pairwise FST analysis demonstrated a high rate of gene flow of this parasite among different populations in coastal Chinese waters. Moreover, the exact test of differentiation supported the null hypothesis that G. sawara along the coast of China constitutes a panmictic population. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution revealed that G. sawara underwent population expansion in the late Pleistocene era. Recent range expansion after the last glacial maximum and insufficient time to attain migration-drift equilibrium may account in part for the lack of genetic structure in the geographic areas considered in this study. Dispersal of parasite eggs and larvae along ocean currents, coupled with the long-distance migrations of host fishes, could also be responsible for genetic homogeneity of this parasite. It is also possible that other hosts of this monogean, such as the ridged-eye flounder, Pleruonichthys cornutus, may contribute to the genetic mixing of Gotocotyla sawara populations. PMID:23899268

Shi, Su-Fen; Li, Min; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Ming; Yang, Chao-Ping; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Ting-Bao

2014-02-01

353

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Taurocyamine Kinase from Clonorchis sinensis: A Candidate Chemotherapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

Background Adult Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct and causes endemic clonorchiasis in East Asian countries. Phosphagen kinases (PK) constitute a highly conserved family of enzymes, which play a role in ATP buffering in cells, and are potential targets for chemotherapeutic agents, since variants of PK are found only in invertebrate animals, including helminthic parasites. This work is conducted to characterize a PK from C. sinensis and to address further investigation for future drug development. Methology/Principal findings A cDNA clone encoding a putative polypeptide of 717 amino acids was retrieved from a C. sinensis transcriptome. This polypeptide was homologous to taurocyamine kinase (TK) of the invertebrate animals and consisted of two contiguous domains. C. sinensis TK (CsTK) gene was reported and found consist of 13 exons intercalated with 12 introns. This suggested an evolutionary pathway originating from an arginine kinase gene group, and distinguished annelid TK from the general CK phylogenetic group. CsTK was found not to have a homologous counterpart in sequences analysis of its mammalian hosts from public databases. Individual domains of CsTK, as well as the whole two-domain enzyme, showed enzymatic activity and specificity toward taurocyamine substrate. Of the CsTK residues, R58, I60 and Y84 of domain 1, and H60, I63 and Y87 of domain 2 were found to participate in binding taurocyamine. CsTK expression was distributed in locomotive and reproductive organs of adult C. sinensis. Developmentally, CsTK was stably expressed in both the adult and metacercariae stages. Recombinant CsTK protein was found to have low sensitivity and specificity toward C. sinensis and platyhelminth-infected human sera on ELISA. Conclusion CsTK is a promising anti-C. sinensis drug target since the enzyme is found only in the C. sinensis and has a substrate specificity for taurocyamine, which is different from its mammalian counterpart, creatine. PMID:24278491

Tokuhiro, Shinji; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Jarilla, Blanca R.; Nomura, Haruka; Kim, Tae Im; Hong, Sung-Jong; Agatsuma, Takeshi

2013-01-01

354

Recent evidence for evolution of the genetic code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The genetic code, formerly thought to be frozen, is now known to be in a state of evolution. This was first shown in 1979 by Barrell et al. (G. Barrell, A. T. Bankier, and J. Drouin, Nature [London] 282:189-194, 1979), who found that the universal codons AUA (isoleucine) and UGA (stop) coded for methionine and tryptophan, respectively, in human mitochondria. Subsequent studies have shown that UGA codes for tryptophan in Mycoplasma spp. and in all nonplant mitochondria that have been examined. Universal stop codons UAA and UAG code for glutamine in ciliated protozoa (except Euplotes octacarinatus) and in a green alga, Acetabularia. E. octacarinatus uses UAA for stop and UGA for cysteine. Candida species, which are yeasts, use CUG (leucine) for serine. Other departures from the universal code, all in nonplant mitochondria, are CUN (leucine) for threonine (in yeasts), AAA (lysine) for asparagine (in platyhelminths and echinoderms), UAA (stop) for tyrosine (in planaria), and AGR (arginine) for serine (in several animal orders) and for stop (in vertebrates). We propose that the changes are typically preceded by loss of a codon from all coding sequences in an organism or organelle, often as a result of directional mutation pressure, accompanied by loss of the tRNA that translates the codon. The codon reappears later by conversion of another codon and emergence of a tRNA that translates the reappeared codon with a different assignment. Changes in release factors also contribute to these revised assignments. We also discuss the use of UGA (stop) as a selenocysteine codon and the early history of the code.

Osawa, S.; Jukes, T. H.; Watanabe, K.; Muto, A.

1992-01-01

355

Chromatin structural changes around satellite repeats on the female sex chromosome in Schistosoma mansoni and their possible role in sex chromosome emergence  

PubMed Central

Background In the leuphotrochozoan parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni, male individuals are homogametic (ZZ) whereas females are heterogametic (ZW). To elucidate the mechanisms that led to the emergence of sex chromosomes, we compared the genomic sequence and the chromatin structure of male and female individuals. As for many eukaryotes, the lower estimate for the repeat content is 40%, with an unknown proportion of domesticated repeats. We used massive sequencing to de novo assemble all repeats, and identify unambiguously Z-specific, W-specific and pseudoautosomal regions of the S. mansoni sex chromosomes. Results We show that 70 to 90% of S. mansoni W and Z are pseudoautosomal. No female-specific gene could be identified. Instead, the W-specific region is composed almost entirely of 36 satellite repeat families, of which 33 were previously unknown. Transcription and chromatin status of female-specific repeats are stage-specific: for those repeats that are transcribed, transcription is restricted to the larval stages lacking sexual dimorphism. In contrast, in the sexually dimorphic adult stage of the life cycle, no transcription occurs. In addition, the euchromatic character of histone modifications around the W-specific repeats decreases during the life cycle. Recombination repression occurs in this region even if homologous sequences are present on both the Z and W chromosomes. Conclusion Our study provides for the first time evidence for the hypothesis that, at least in organisms with a ZW type of sex chromosomes, repeat-induced chromatin structure changes could indeed be the initial event in sex chromosome emergence. PMID:22377319

2012-01-01

356

In silico studies of Echinococcus granulosus FABPs.  

PubMed

Fatty acid (FA) binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity and low similarity at the primary structure level, but a highly conserved three-dimensional structure. Characterised by a high-affinity non-covalent binding of hydrophobic ligands, these proteins have a molecular mass of 14-15 kDa with a characteristic ?-barrel structure. Members of this family have been identified along the zoological scale, with Platyhelminthes being the more primitive organisms where they have been reported. Two FA binding proteins (FABPs), EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, with 88% similarity have been identified in Echinococcus granulosus. In an effort to understand why two such similar proteins are expressed by this organism, we performed an in silico analysis of the binding capabilities of both proteins. The crystallographic structure of EgFABP1 was utilised as a template to model EgFABP2, and both were docked against palmitate, oleate, linoleate and arachidonate. The docked structures were submitted to 4 ns molecular dynamics simulations, and their protein-ligand interaction energies were measured. The collected data demonstrated that linoleate and arachidonate had the higher interaction energies when bound to EgFABP1 and that palmitate and linoleate had the higher interaction energies when bound to EgFABP2. External and internal binding surfaces were analysed, showing differences at both levels. Internal surface compositions suggested that both proteins could have preferences for certain FAs. Comparisons of the holo and apo forms of each protein indicated that the ligand imposed subtle, but specific modifications that could trigger surface signals. The differences found between the proteins under study suggest that they could have functional uniqueness in the parasite's metabolism. PMID:22830314

Esteves, Adriana; Paulino, Margot; Zunini, Margot Paulino

2013-01-01

357

Tracking the fate of iron in early development of human blood flukes  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe) is an important trace element found in nearly all organisms, and is used as a cofactor in many biological reactions. One role for Fe in some invertebrates is in stabilization of extracellular matrices. The human blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum, is responsible for significant human disease in developing and tropical nations. Disease in humans arises from host immunological reaction to parasite eggs that lodge in tissues. Schistosomes require Fe for development in their hosts, and store abundant Fe in vitelline (eggshell-forming) cells of the female system. The understanding of Fe metabolism and functionality are aspects of its biology that may be exploited in future therapeutics. The biology of Fe stores in vitelline cells of S. japonicum was investigated to illuminate possible functions of this element in early development of these parasites. Vitelline Fe is stored in yolk ferritin that is upregulated in females and is also expressed at low levels in egg-stages and adult males. Laser microdissection microscopy, coupled with reverse transcriptase- and real time-PCR amplification of schistosome ferritin sequences, confirmed that the vitelline cells are the likely progenitor cells of yolk ferritin. Assessment of Fe concentrations in whole male and whole female adult worms, eggs and purified eggshells by colorimetric assays and mass spectroscopy demonstrated higher levels of Fe in the female parasite, but also high levels of the element in whole parasite eggs and purified eggshell. Qualitative energy dispersive spectroscopy of purified eggshells, revealed that Fe is abundant in the eggshell, the matrix of which is composed of heavily cross-linked eggshell precursor proteins. Thus, vitelline stores of Fe are implicated in eggshell cross-linking in platyhelminths. These observations emphasise the importance of Fe in schistosome metabolism and egg formation and suggest new avenues for disruption of egg formation in these pathogenic parasites. PMID:17556009

Jones, Malcolm K.; McManus, Donald P.; Sivadorai, Padma; Glanfield, Amber; Moertel, Luke; Belli, Sabina I.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.

2007-01-01

358

Near intron pairs and the metazoan tree.  

PubMed

Gene structure data can substantially advance our understanding of metazoan evolution and deliver an independent approach to resolve conflicts among existing hypotheses. Here, we used changes of spliceosomal intron positions as novel phylogenetic marker to reconstruct the animal tree. This kind of data is inferred from orthologous genes containing mutually exclusive introns at pairs of sequence positions in close proximity, so-called near intron pairs (NIPs). NIP data were collected for 48 species and utilized as binary genome-level characters in maximum parsimony (MP) analyses to reconstruct deep metazoan phylogeny. All groupings that were obtained with more than 80% bootstrap support are consistent with currently supported phylogenetic hypotheses. This includes monophyletic Chordata, Vertebrata, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes and Trochozoa. Several other clades such as Deuterostomia, Protostomia, Arthropoda, Ecdysozoa, Spiralia, and Eumetazoa, however, failed to be recovered due to a few problematic taxa such as the mite Ixodesand the warty comb jelly Mnemiopsis. The corresponding unexpected branchings can be explained by the paucity of synapomorphic changes of intron positions shared between some genomes, by the sensitivity of MP analyses to long-branch attraction (LBA), and by the very unequal evolutionary rates of intron loss and intron gain during evolution of the different subclades of metazoans. In addition, we obtained an assemblage of Cnidaria, Porifera, and Placozoa as sister group of Bilateria+Ctenophora with medium support, a disputable, but remarkable result. We conclude that NIPs can be used as phylogenetic characters also within a broader phylogenetic context, given that they have emerged regularly during evolution irrespective of the large variation of intron density across metazoan genomes. PMID:23201572

Lehmann, Jörg; Stadler, Peter F; Krauss, Veiko

2013-03-01

359

A role for p38 MAPK in the regulation of ciliary motion in a eukaryote  

PubMed Central

Background Motile cilia are essential to the survival and reproduction of many eukaryotes; they are responsible for powering swimming of protists and small multicellular organisms and drive fluids across respiratory and reproductive surfaces in mammals. Although tremendous progress has been made to comprehend the biochemical basis of these complex evolutionarily-conserved organelles, few protein kinases have been reported to co-ordinate ciliary beat. Here we present evidence for p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) playing a role in the ciliary beat of a multicellular eukaryote, the free-living miracidium stage of the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Results Fluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that non-motile miracidia trapped within eggs prior to hatching displayed phosphorylated (activated) p38 MAPK associated with their ciliated surface. In contrast, freshly-hatched, rapidly swimming, miracidia lacked phosphorylated p38 MAPK. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that treatment of miracidia with the p38 MAPK activator anisomycin resulted in a rapid, sustained, activation of p38 MAPK, which was primarily localized to the cilia associated with the ciliated epidermal plates, and the tegument. Freshly-hatched miracidia possessed swim velocities between 2.17 - 2.38 mm/s. Strikingly, anisomycin-mediated p38 MAPK activation rapidly attenuated swimming, reducing swim velocities by 55% after 15 min and 99% after 60 min. In contrast, SB 203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, increased swim velocity by up to 15% over this duration. Finally, by inhibiting swimming, p38 MAPK activation resulted in early release of ciliated epidermal plates from the miracidium thus accelerating development to the post-miracidium larval stage. Conclusions This study supports a role for p38 MAPK in the regulation of ciliary-beat. Given the evolutionary conservation of signalling processes and cilia structure, we hypothesize that p38 MAPK may regulate ciliary beat and beat-frequency in a variety of eukaryotes. PMID:21269498

2011-01-01

360

Molecular characterization of Fasciola gigantica from Mauritania based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) is considered the most important helminth infection of ruminants in tropical countries, causing considerable socioeconomic problems. From Africa, F. gigantica has been previously characterized from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Kenya, Zambia and Mali, while F. hepatica has been reported from Morocco and Tunisia, and both species have been observed from Ethiopia and Egypt on the basis of morphometric differences, while the use of molecular markers is necessary to distinguish exactly between species. Samples identified morphologically as F. gigantica (n=60) from sheep and cattle from different geographical localities of Mauritania were genetically characterized by sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes and the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) gene. Comparison of the sequences of the Mauritanian samples with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. gigantica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA of F. gigantica showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S, and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all samples examined and those from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Egypt and Iran. The phylogenetic trees based on the ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences showed a close relationship of the Mauritanian samples with isolates of F. gigantica from different localities of Africa and Asia. The COI genotypes of the Mauritanian specimens of F. gigantica had a high level of diversity, and they belonged to the F. gigantica phylogenically distinguishable clade. The present study is the first molecular characterization of F. gigantica in sheep and cattle from Mauritania, allowing a reliable approach for the genetic differentiation of Fasciola spp. and providing basis for further studies on liver flukes in the African countries. PMID:21763690

Amor, Nabil; Farjallah, Sarra; Salem, Mohamed; Lamine, Dia Mamadou; Merella, Paolo; Said, Khaled; Ben Slimane, Badreddine

2011-10-01

361

Towards an Understanding of Mesocestoides vogae Fatty Acid Binding Proteins’ Roles  

PubMed Central

Two fatty acid binding proteins, MvFABPa and MvFABPb were identified in the parasite Mesocestoides vogae (Platyhelmithes, Cestoda). Fatty acid binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity. Proteins of this family have been identified in many organisms, of which Platyhelminthes are among the most primitive. These proteins have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo synthesis of fatty acids is absent. Fatty acids should be captured from the media needing an efficient transport system to uptake and distribute these molecules. While HLBPs could be involved in the shuttle of fatty acids to the surrounding host tissues and convey them into the parasite, FABPs could be responsible for the intracellular trafficking. In an effort to understand the role of MvFABPs in fatty acid transport of M. vogae larvae, we analysed the intracellular localization of both MvFABPs and the co-localization with in vivo uptake of fatty acid analogue BODIPY FL C16. Immunohistochemical studies on larvae sections using specific antibodies, showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of each protein with some expression in nuclei and mitochondria. MvFABPs distribution was confirmed by mass spectrometry identification from 2D-electrophoresis of larvae subcellular fractions. This work is the first report showing intracellular distribution of MvFABPs as well as the co-localization of these proteins with the BODIPY FL C16 incorporated from the media. Our results suggest that fatty acid binding proteins could target fatty acids to cellular compartments including nuclei. In this sense, M. vogae FABPs could participate in several cellular processes fulfilling most of the functions attributed to vertebrate’s counterparts. PMID:25347286

Alvite, Gabriela; Garrido, Natalia; Kun, Alejandra; Paulino, Margot; Esteves, Adriana

2014-01-01

362

EST based phylogenomics of Syndermata questions monophyly of Eurotatoria  

PubMed Central

Background The metazoan taxon Syndermata comprising Rotifera (in the classical sense of Monogononta+Bdelloidea+Seisonidea) and Acanthocephala has raised several hypotheses connected to the phylogeny of these animal groups and the included subtaxa. While the monophyletic origin of Syndermata and Acanthocephala is well established based on morphological and molecular data, the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, the monophyletic origin of Monogononta, Bdelloidea, and Seisonidea and the acanthocephalan sister group are still a matter of debate. The comparison of the alternative hypotheses suggests that testing the phylogenetic validity of Eurotatoria (Monogononta+Bdelloidea) is the key to unravel the phylogenetic relations within Syndermata. The syndermatan phylogeny in turn is a prerequisite for reconstructing the evolution of the acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Results Here we present our results from a phylogenomic approach studying i) the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia, ii) the monophyletic origin of monogononts and bdelloids and iii) the phylogenetic relations of the latter two taxa to acanthocephalans. For this analysis we have generated EST libraries of Pomphorhynchus laevis, Echinorhynchus truttae (Acanthocephala) and Brachionus plicatilis (Monogononta). By extending these data with database entries of B. plicatilis, Philodina roseola (Bdelloidea) and 25 additional metazoan species, we conducted phylogenetic reconstructions based on 79 ribosomal proteins using maximum likelihood and bayesian approaches. Our findings suggest that the phylogenetic position of Syndermata within Spiralia is close to Platyhelminthes, that Eurotatoria are not monophyletic and that bdelloids are more closely related to acanthocephalans than monogononts. Conclusion Mapping morphological character evolution onto molecular phylogeny suggests the (partial or complete) reduction of the corona and the emergence of a retractable anterior end (rostrum, proboscis) before the separation of Acanthocephala. In particular, the evolution of a rostrum might have been a key event leading to the later evolution of the acanthocephalan endoparasitism, given the enormous relevance of the proboscis for anchoring of the adults to the definitive hosts' intestinal wall. PMID:19113997

2008-01-01

363

Advanced stages of embryonic development and cotylocidial morphogenesis in the intrauterine eggs of Aspidogaster limacoides Diesing, 1835 (Aspidogastrea), with comments on their phylogenetic implications.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural aspects of the advanced embryonic development and cotylocidial morphogenesis of the aspidogastrean Aspidogaster limacoides are described. The posterior or distal regions of the uterus are filled with eggs containing larvae at advanced stages of morphogenesis and fully-formed cotylocidia. Various stages and organs of this larva are described in detail, including the aspects of the developing and fully-differentiated cotylocidium, the body wall (tegument and musculature), glandular regions and the protonephridial excretory system. Blastomere multiplication by means of mitotic divisions takes place simultaneously with the degeneration or apoptosis of some micromeres; this frequently observed characteristic is compared and discussed in relation to corresponding reports for other neodermatans. During the advanced stages of the embryonic development of A. limacoides, the vitelline syncytium disappears and the size of the embryo increases rapidly. Evident polarization of the differentiating larva was observed; towards one pole of the egg, cytodifferentiation of the mouth, surrounded by the oral sucker and cephalic glands, takes place, whereas, towards the opposite pole, differentiation of the posterior sucker (incipient ventral disc) occurs. The oral and posterior suckers are formed from numerous embryonic cells which have differentiated into myocytes. The central part of the oral sucker undergoes invagination and forms the future pharynx and intestine. Fully-developed cotylocidia of A. limacoides have a neodermatan type of tegument, flame cells and two types of glandular structures. These results suggest a sister relationship between the Aspidogastrea and the Digenea, although the systematic position of aspidogastreans in relation to other platyhelminth taxa remains somewhat equivocal. PMID:22807049

?widerski, Zdzis?aw; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Gibson, David I; M?ocicki, Daniel

2012-06-01

364

Ultrastructural study of vitellogenesis in Maritrema feliui (Digenea, Microphallidae).  

PubMed

During vitellogenesis in the microphallid trematode Maritrema feliui, we distinguished four stages: (I) a stem cell stage of the gonial type; (II) an early differentiation stage with the main cell activity concentrated on the initiation of protein synthetic activity and the beginning of shell globule formation; (III) an advanced differentiation stage concentrated on a rapid intensification of protein synthetic activity, the progressive fusion of individual shell globules into large shell globule clusters and the formation of saturated lipid droplets and a small amount of ?-glycogen particles in the peripheral cytoplasm, considered as a store of nutritive reserves for the developing embryos; and (IV) the mature vitellocyte. Early vitellocyte maturation is characterised by: (1) an increase in cell volume; (2) extensive development of large, labyrinth-like cisternae of GER that produce proteinaceous granules; (3) the development of Golgi complexes engaged in packaging this material; and (4) a continuous enlargement of proteinaceous granules within vacuoles and their transformation into shell globule clusters composed of the heterogeneous material observed during vitellocyte cytodifferentiation. Mature vitelline cells are very rich in two types of cell inclusions accumulated in large amounts in their cytoplasm: (1) shell globule clusters, which play an important role in eggshell formation; and (2) a few osmiophobic lipid droplets of a saturated nature that undoubtedly represent nutritive reserves for the developing embryos. In addition, there are small numbers of ?-glycogen particles in the peripheral cytoplasm of mature vitellocytes of this species. The general pattern and ultrastructure of vitellogenesis in M. feliui greatly resembles those observed in another microphallid trematode, Maritrema linguilla, in other digeneans and in some lower cestodes. Quantitative and qualitative variations in lipids (saturated and unsaturated) and glycogen (?-glycogen rosettes and ?-glycogen particles) during platyhelminth vitellogenesis between the different species of trematodes and some lower cestodes are identified and discussed. PMID:21573812

Swiderski, Zdzis?aw; Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J S; Montoliu, Isabel; Feliu, Carlos; Gibson, David I; Miquel, Jordi

2011-12-01

365

BIOFRAG – a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in a consistent and flexible database permits simple data retrieval for subsequent analyses. We present a relational database that links such field data to taxonomic nomenclature, spatial and temporal plot attributes, and environmental characteristics. Field assessments include measurements of the response(s) (e.g., presence, abundance, ground cover) of one or more species linked to plots in fragments within a partially forested landscape. The database currently holds 9830 unique species recorded in plots of 58 unique landscapes in six of eight realms: mammals 315, birds 1286, herptiles 460, insects 4521, spiders 204, other arthropods 85, gastropods 70, annelids 8, platyhelminthes 4, Onychophora 2, vascular plants 2112, nonvascular plants and lichens 320, and fungi 449. Three landscapes were sampled as long-term time series (>10 years). Seven hundred and eleven species are found in two or more landscapes. Consolidating the substantial amount of primary data available on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in the context of land-use change and natural disturbances is an essential part of understanding the effects of increasing anthropogenic pressures on land. The consistent format of this database facilitates testing of generalizations concerning biologic responses to fragmentation across diverse systems and taxa. It also allows the re-examination of existing datasets with alternative landscape metrics and robust statistical methods, for example, helping to address pseudo-replication problems. The database can thus help researchers in producing broad syntheses of the effects of land use. The database is dynamic and inclusive, and contributions from individual and large-scale data-collection efforts are welcome. PMID:24967073

Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S; Hanson, Thor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Heartsill Scalley, Tamara; Klingbeil, Brian T; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F; Leal, Inara R; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J; Medina-Rangel, Guido F; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A; Overal, William L; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P; Possingham, Max L; Raheem, Dinarzarde C; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D; Douglas Robinson, W; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C; Struebig, Matthew J; Tylianakis, Jason M; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J; Urbina Cardona, Jose N; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P; Bradley, Andrew V; Ewers, Robert M

2014-01-01

366

The Unique Morgue Ubiquitination Protein Is Conserved in a Diverse but Restricted Set of Invertebrates  

PubMed Central

Drosophila Morgue is a unique ubiquitination protein that facilitates programmed cell death and associates with DIAP1, a critical cell death inhibitor with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Morgue possesses a unique combination of functional domains typically associated with distinct types of ubiquitination enzymes. This includes an F box characteristic of the substrate-binding subunit in Skp, Cullin, and F box (SCF)-type ubiquitin E3 ligase complexes and a variant ubiquitin E2 conjugase domain where the active site cysteine is replaced by a glycine. Morgue also contains a single C4-type zinc finger motif. This architecture suggests potentially novel ubiquitination activities for Morgue. In this study, we address the evolutionary origins of this distinctive protein utilizing a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. We find that Morgue exhibits widespread but restricted phylogenetic distribution among metazoans. Morgue proteins were identified in a wide range of Protostome phyla, including Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Nematoda, and Platyhelminthes. However, with one potential exception, Morgue was not detected in Deuterostomes, including Chordates, Hemichordates, or Echinoderms. Morgue was also not found in Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, or Porifera. Characterization of Morgue sequences within specific animal lineages suggests that gene deletion or acquisition has occurred during divergence of nematodes and that at least one arachnid expresses an atypical form of Morgue consisting only of the variant E2 conjugase domain. Analysis of the organization of several morgue genes suggests that exon-shuffling events have contributed to the evolution of the Morgue protein. These results suggest that Morgue mediates conserved and distinctive ubiquitination functions in specific cell death pathways. PMID:19602541

Zhou, Ying; Carpenter, Zachary W.; Brennan, Gregory

2009-01-01

367

Schistosomes versus platelets.  

PubMed

Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that currently infect >200million people and cause the chronic debilitating disease schistosomiasis. While these large intravascular parasites can disturb blood flow, they do not appear to activate platelets and provoke thrombus formation. Host-interactive tegumental molecules have been proposed to be important in this regard. For example, tegumental apyrase, SmATPDase1 can degrade the platelet-activating molecule ADP in the extracellular environment. The parasites themselves can produce prostaglandins (or may induce prostaglandin production by host cells) which could inhibit platelet aggregation. Additional tegumental proteins have been proposed to impede the coagulation cascade and to promote fibrinolysis. Platelets have been shown to be directly toxic to schistosomes. Platelets recovered from infected rats are able to kill larval parasites in culture and platelets obtained at later times post-infection are generally better at killing. Even platelets from uninfected rats can rapidly kill larval schistosomes if first exposed to a variety of activators (such as: serum from infected rats, the IgE fraction of that serum, C-reactive protein, cytokines (TNF? or TNF?)). Passive transfer of stimulated platelets can protect rats against a challenge schistosome infection. Cytokines (TNF?, TNF?, IFN? or IL-6) have been shown to similarly promote normal human platelet killing of schistosomes in vitro. Platelet antimicrobial effector molecules (e.g. platelet microbicidal proteins) may mediate such killing. While platelets can be protective against schistosomes following infection of humans and mice, platelet numbers decline (but not so in the non-permissive rat host) and coagulopathy becomes more apparent as schistosome-induced pathology increases. PMID:25294585

Da'dara, Akram A; Skelly, Patrick J

2014-12-01

368

Ultrastructural study of the egg wall surrounding the developing miracidia of the digenean Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894) (Plagiorchiida: Pleurogenidae), with the description of a unique cocoon-like envelope.  

PubMed

Helminth eggs play a critical role in movement of the parasite from definitive to intermediate host. Eggs of the pleurogenid digenean trematode Prosotocus confusus (Looss, 1894), a parasite of naturally infected frogs Pelophylax lessonae (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Europe, are described here for the first time. Particular emphasis is placed on the ultrastructure on the egg wall and on the detailed description of a unique cocoon-like envelope. Each embryonating egg is composed of an early embryo surrounded by a four-layered egg wall: (1) an outer, anucleate layer external to the eggshell, which forms a thick cocoon; (2) the operculate eggshell; (3) not fully formed, a differentiating outer embryonic envelope containing large nuclei of macromeres; and (4) situated below, an undifferentiated layer of the future inner embryonic envelope containing mesomere nuclei. Layers enveloping the egg apparently play an important role in the protection, metabolism, and storage of nutritive reserves for the developing miracidium. The outer anucleate layer, or cocoon, is situated externally to the eggshell and composed of an electron-lucent substance with numerous electron-dense islands attached to its peripheral membrane. A cocoon envelope such as this has never been seen in previous TEM studies of the eggs of parasitic platyhelminths, with the exception of another pleurogenid Brandesia turgida. The origin, formation, functional ultrastructure, and chemical composition of this peculiar layer remain enigmatic, although its function appears to be protective. The thick, electron-dense eggshell resembles that of other trematodes, exhibiting a characteristic fissure zone around the operculum. Numerous lysosome-like structures observed in some eggs may be involved in the autolysis of both the embryonic envelopes (particularly the early degeneration of macromere nuclei of the outer envelope, characteristic for this species) and in the disintegration of several early micromeres. The inner envelope, which forms later from mesomeres, persists longer during embryogenesis. PMID:25320045

?widerski, Zdzis?aw; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Conn, David Bruce

2015-01-01

369

Faunal communities at sites of gas- and oil-bearing fluids in Lake Baikal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macro- and meiofaunal communities were examined at four geomorphologically distinct sites with different gas- and oil-bearing fluid characteristics in the northern, central and southern basins of Lake Baikal. All sites had elevated concentrations of bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate and chloride ions in pore fluids, with highest values at the Frolikha vent. Elevated levels of iron ions were found in pore waters of the St. Petersburg methane seep and the Gorevoy Utes oil seep. The chemical composition of pore waters at the Malenky mud volcano was similar to that reported in earlier work. Consistent with published data, the Frolikha vent (northern basin) and the St. Petersburg methane seep (central basin) were characterised by methane of mixed genesis (thermogenic + biogenic), whereas the methane source was mainly thermogenic at the Gorevoy Utes oil seep (central basin) and biogenic at the Malenky mud volcano (southern basin). In contrast to marine seep ecosystems, the macrofauna was dominated only by amphipods, giant planarians and oligochaetes, whereas bivalves were absent; the meiofauna was similar to its marine counterpart, being dominated by nematodes, cyclops, harpacticoids and ostracods. A statistically significant positive relationship was revealed between faunal abundance and the availability of bacterial mats on seep sediments. Moreover, ANOVA tests showed significant increases in both meiozoobenthic and macrozoobenthic densities at "hot spot" vent/seep sites relative to discharge-free reference sites. The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen at various trophic levels of these benthic vent/seep communities was found to differ markedly from that reported by earlier studies for the pelagic and other benthic food webs in Lake Baikal. As in marine seeps, the macrofauna had variable isotopic signatures. Light ?13C and ?15N values suggest the utilization of chemosynthetically fixed and/or methane-derived organic matter. By contrast, the heavy ?13C signatures of some mobile amphipods likely reflect consumption of photosynthetically derived carbon. These findings would at least partly explain why Lake Baikal is a notable outlier in global temperature-biodiversity patterns, exhibiting the highest biodiversity of any lake worldwide but at an extremely cold average temperature.

Zemskaya, Tamara I.; Sitnikova, Tatiana Y.; Kiyashko, Sergei I.; Kalmychkov, Gennady V.; Pogodaeva, Tatiana V.; Mekhanikova, Irina V.; Naumova, Tatiana V.; Shubenkova, Olga V.; Chernitsina, Svetlana M.; Kotsar, Oleg V.; Chernyaev, Evgeny S.; Khlystov, Oleg M.

2012-12-01

370

Closing the circle of germline and stem cells: the Primordial Stem Cell hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Background Germline determination is believed to occur by either preformation or epigenesis. Animals that undergo germ cell specification by preformation have a continuous germline. However, animals with germline determination by epigenesis have a discontinuous germline, with somatic cells intercalated. This vision is contrary to August Weismann’s Germ Plasm Theory and has led to several controversies. Recent data from metazoans as diverse as planarians, annelids and sea urchins reveal the presence of pluripotent stem cell populations that express germ plasm components, despite being considered to be somatic. These data also show that germ plasm is continuous in some of these animals, despite their discontinuous germline. Presentation of the hypothesis Here, based on recent molecular data on germ plasm components, I revise the germline concept. I introduce the concept of primordial stem cells, which are evolutionarily conserved stem cells that carry germ plasm components from the zygote to the germ cells. These cells, delineated by the classic concept of the Weismann barrier, can contribute to different extents to somatic tissues or be present in a rudimentary state. The primordial stem cells are a part of the germline that can drive asexual reproduction. Testing the hypothesis Molecular information on the expression of germ plasm components is needed during early development of non-classic model organisms, with special attention to those capable of undergoing asexual reproduction and regeneration. The cell lineage of germ plasm component-containing cells will also shed light on their position with respect to the Weismann barrier. This information will help in understanding the germline and its associated stem cells across metazoan phylogeny. Implications of the hypothesis This revision of the germline concept explains the extensive similarities observed among stem cells and germline cells in a wide variety of animals, and predicts the expression of germ plasm components in many others. The life history of these animals can be simply explained by changes in the extent of self-renewal, proliferation and developmental potential of the primordial stem cells. The inclusion of the primordial stem cells as a part of the germline, therefore, solves many controversies and provides a continuous germline, just as originally envisaged by August Weismann. PMID:23294912

2013-01-01

371

The Diterpenoid 7-Keto-Sempervirol, Derived from Lycium chinense, Displays Anthelmintic Activity against both Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica  

PubMed Central

Background Two platyhelminths of biomedical and commercial significance are Schistosoma mansoni (blood fluke) and Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke). These related trematodes are responsible for the chronic neglected tropical diseases schistosomiasis and fascioliasis, respectively. As no vaccine is currently available for anti-flukicidal immunoprophylaxis, current treatment is mediated by mono-chemical chemotherapy in the form of mass drug administration (MDA) (praziquantel for schistosomiasis) or drenching (triclabendazole for fascioliasis) programmes. This overreliance on single chemotherapeutic classes has dramatically limited the number of novel chemical entities entering anthelmintic drug discovery pipelines, raising significant concerns for the future of sustainable blood and liver fluke control. Methodology/ Principle Findings Here we demonstrate that 7-keto-sempervirol, a diterpenoid isolated from Lycium chinense, has dual anthelmintic activity against related S. mansoni and F. hepatica trematodes. Using a microtiter plate-based helminth fluorescent bioassay (HFB), this activity is specific (Therapeutic index = 4.2, when compared to HepG2 cell lines) and moderately potent (LD50 = 19.1 ?M) against S. mansoni schistosomula cultured in vitro. This anti-schistosomula effect translates into activity against both adult male and female schistosomes cultured in vitro where 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects motility/behaviour, surface architecture (inducing tegumental holes, tubercle swelling and spine loss/shortening), oviposition rates and egg morphology. As assessed by the HFB and microscopic phenotypic scoring matrices, 7-keto-sempervirol also effectively kills in vitro cultured F. hepatica newly excysted juveniles (NEJs, LD50 = 17.7 ?M). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of adult F. hepatica liver flukes co-cultured in vitro with 7-keto-sempervirol additionally demonstrates phenotypic abnormalities including breaches in tegumental integrity and spine loss. Conclusions/ Significance 7-keto-sempervirol negatively affects the viability and phenotype of two related pathogenic trematodes responsible for significant human and animal infectious diseases. This plant-derived, natural product is also active against both larval and adult developmental forms. As such, the data collectively indicate that 7-keto-sempervirol is an important starting point for anthelmintic drug development. Medicinal chemistry optimisation of more potent 7-keto-sempervirol analogues could lead to the identification of novel chemical entities useful for future combinatorial or replacement anthelmintic control. PMID:25768432

Edwards, Jennifer; Brown, Martha; Peak, Emily; Bartholomew, Barbara; Nash, Robert J.; Hoffmann, Karl F.

2015-01-01

372

Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida  

PubMed Central

Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92%) to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%). Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However, myxospores could not be isolated from the fish and confirmation was by PCR alone. The relationship between the myxosporean infection in gill monogeneans and the presence of parasitic DNA in fish is not yet fully understood. Nonetheless, myxospores with a Myxidium-like morphology, two of which we have shown to be phylogenetically related, have now been reported to develop in three different gill monogeneans, indicating that myxosporeans are true parasites of monogeneans. PMID:22115202

2011-01-01

373

The Sinbad retrotransposon from the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, and the distribution of related Pao-like elements  

PubMed Central

Background Of the major families of long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the Pao/BEL family is probably the least well studied. It is becoming apparent that numerous LTR retrotransposons and other mobile genetic elements have colonized the genome of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Results A proviral form of Sinbad, a new LTR retrotransposon, was identified in the genome of S. mansoni. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sinbad belongs to one of five discreet subfamilies of Pao/BEL like elements. BLAST searches of whole genomes and EST databases indicated that members of this clade occurred in species of the Insecta, Nematoda, Echinodermata and Chordata, as well as Platyhelminthes, but were absent from all plants, fungi and lower eukaryotes examined. Among the deuterostomes examined, only aquatic species harbored these types of elements. All four species of nematode examined were positive for Sinbad sequences, although among insect and vertebrate genomes, some were positive and some negative. The full length, consensus Sinbad retrotransposon was 6,287 bp long and was flanked at its 5'- and 3'-ends by identical LTRs of 386 bp. Sinbad displayed a triple Cys-His RNA binding motif characteristic of Gag of Pao/BEL-like elements, followed by the enzymatic domains of protease, reverse transcriptase (RT), RNAseH, and integrase, in that order. A phylogenetic tree of deduced RT sequences from 26 elements revealed that Sinbad was most closely related to an unnamed element from the zebrafish Danio rerio and to Saci-1, also from S. mansoni. It was also closely related to Pao from Bombyx mori and to Ninja of Drosophila simulans. Sinbad was only distantly related to the other schistosome LTR retrotransposons Boudicca, Gulliver, Saci-2, Saci-3, and Fugitive, which are gypsy-like. Southern hybridization and bioinformatics analyses indicated that there were about 50 copies of Sinbad in the S. mansoni genome. The presence of ESTs representing transcripts of Sinbad in numerous developmental stages of S. mansoni along with the identical 5'- and 3'-LTR sequences suggests that Sinbad is an active retrotransposon. Conclusion Sinbad is a Pao/BEL type retrotransposon from the genome of S. mansoni. The Pao/BEL group appears to be comprised of at least five discrete subfamilies, which tend to cluster with host species phylogeny. Pao/BEL type elements appear to have colonized only the genomes of the Animalia. The distribution of these elements in the Ecdysozoa, Deuterostomia, and Lophotrochozoa is discontinuous, suggesting horizontal transmission and/or efficient elimination of Pao-like mobile genetic elements from some genomes. PMID:15725362

Copeland, Claudia S; Mann, Victoria H; Morales, Maria E; Kalinna, Bernd H; Brindley, Paul J

2005-01-01

374

Embryonic and post-embryonic development of the polyclad flatworm Maritigrella crozieri; implications for the evolution of spiralian life history traits  

PubMed Central

Background Planktonic life history stages of spiralians share some muscular, nervous and ciliary system characters in common. The distribution of these characters is patchy and can be interpreted either as the result of convergent evolution, or as the retention of primitive spiralian larval features. To understand the evolution of these characters adequate taxon sampling across the Spiralia is necessary. Polyclad flatworms are the only free-living Platyhelminthes that exhibit a continuum of developmental modes, with direct development at one extreme, and indirect development via a trochophore-like larval stage at the other. Here I present embryological and larval anatomical data from the indirect developing polyclad Maritrigrella crozieri, and consider these data within a comparative spiralian context. Results After 196 h hours of embryonic development, M. crozieri hatches as a swimming, planktotrophic larva. Larval myoanatomy consists of an orthogonal grid of circular and longitudinal body wall muscles plus parenchymal muscles. Diagonal body wall muscles develop over the planktonic period. Larval neuroanatomy consists of an apical plate, neuropile, paired nerve cords, a peri-oral nerve ring, a medial nerve, a ciliary band nerve net and putative ciliary photoreceptors. Apical neural elements develop first followed by posterior perikarya and later pharyngeal neural elements. The ciliated larva is encircled by a continuous, pre-oral band of longer cilia, which follows the distal margins of the lobes; it also possesses distinct apical and caudal cilia. Conclusions Within polyclads heterochronic shifts in the development of diagonal bodywall and pharyngeal muscles are correlated with life history strategies and feeding requirements. In contrast to many spiralians, M. crozieri hatch with well developed nervous and muscular systems. Comparisons of the ciliary bands and apical organs amongst spiralian planktonic life-stages reveal differences; M. crozieri lack a distinct ciliary band muscle and flask-shaped epidermal serotonergic cells of the apical organ. Based on current phylogenies, the distribution of ciliary bands and apical organs between polyclads and other spiralians is not congruent with a hypothesis of homology. However, some similarities exist, and this study sets an anatomical framework from which to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms that will help to distinguish between parallelism, convergence and homology of these features. PMID:20426837

2010-01-01

375

Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes  

PubMed Central

Background The medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis, is an important model system for the study of nervous system structure, function, development, regeneration and repair. It is also a unique species in being presently approved for use in medical procedures, such as clearing of pooled blood following certain surgical procedures. It is a current, and potentially also future, source of medically useful molecular factors, such as anticoagulants and antibacterial peptides, which may have evolved as a result of its parasitizing large mammals, including humans. Despite the broad focus of research on this system, little has been done at the genomic or transcriptomic levels and there is a paucity of openly available sequence data. To begin to address this problem, we constructed whole embryo and adult central nervous system (CNS) EST libraries and created a clustered sequence database of the Hirudo transcriptome that is available to the scientific community. Results A total of ~133,000 EST clones from two directionally-cloned cDNA libraries, one constructed from mRNA derived from whole embryos at several developmental stages and the other from adult CNS cords, were sequenced in one or both directions by three different groups: Genoscope (French National Sequencing Center), the University of Iowa Sequencing Facility and the DOE Joint Genome Institute. These were assembled using the phrap software package into 31,232 unique contigs and singletons, with an average length of 827 nt. The assembled transcripts were then translated in all six frames and compared to proteins in NCBI's non-redundant (NR) and to the Gene Ontology (GO) protein sequence databases, resulting in 15,565 matches to 11,236 proteins in NR and 13,935 matches to 8,073 proteins in GO. Searching the database for transcripts of genes homologous to those thought to be involved in the innate immune responses of vertebrates and other invertebrates yielded a set of nearly one hundred evolutionarily conserved sequences, representing all known pathways involved in these important functions. Conclusions The sequences obtained for Hirudo transcripts represent the first major database of genes expressed in this important model system. Comparison of translated open reading frames (ORFs) with the other openly available leech datasets, the genome and transcriptome of Helobdella robusta, shows an average identity at the amino acid level of 58% in matched sequences. Interestingly, comparison with other available Lophotrochozoans shows similar high levels of amino acid identity, where sequences match, for example, 64% with Capitella capitata (a polychaete) and 56% with Aplysia californica (a mollusk), as well as 58% with Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth). Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed. PMID:20579359

2010-01-01

376

Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

This study presents a manually constructed alignment of nearly complete rRNA genes from most animal clades (371 taxa from ~33 of the ~36 metazoan phyla), expanded from the 197 sequences in a previous study. This thorough, taxon-rich alignment, available at http://www.wsu.edu/~jmallatt/research/rRNAalignment.html and in the Dryad Repository (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1v62kr3q), is based rigidly on the secondary structure of the SSU and LSU rRNA molecules, and is annotated in detail, including labeling of the erroneous sequences (contaminants). The alignment can be used for future studies of the molecular evolution of rRNA. Here, we use it to explore if the larger number of sequences produces an improved phylogenetic tree of animal relationships. Disappointingly, the resolution did not improve, neither when the standard maximum-likelihood method was used, nor with more sophisticated methods that partitioned the rRNA into paired and unpaired sites (stem, loop, bulge, junction), or accounted for the evolution of the paired sites. For example, no doublet model of paired-site substitutions (16-state, 16A and 16B, 7A-F, or 6A-C models) corrected the placement of any rogue taxa or increased resolution. The following findings are from the simplest, standard, ML analysis. The 371-taxon tree only imperfectly supported the bilaterian clades of Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, and this problem remained after 17 taxa with unstably positioned sequences were omitted from the analysis. The problem seems to stem from base-compositional heterogeneity across taxa and from an overrepresentation of highly divergent sequences among the newly added taxa (e.g., sequences from Cephalopoda, Rotifera, Acoela, and Myxozoa). The rogue taxa continue to concentrate in two locations in the rRNA tree: near the base of Arthropoda and of Bilateria. The approximately uncertain (AU) test refuted the monophyly of Mollusca and of Chordata, probably due to long-branch attraction of the highly divergent cephalopod and urochordate sequences out of those clades. Unlikely to be correct, these refutations show for the first time that rRNA phylogeny can support some 'wrong' clades. Along with its weaknesses, the rRNA tree has strengths: It recovers many clades that are supported by independent evidence (e.g., Metazoa, Bilateria, Hexapoda, Nonoculata, Ambulacraria, Syndermata, and Thecostraca with Malacostraca) and shows good resolution within certain groups (e.g., in Platyhelminthes, Insecta, Cnidaria). As another strength, the newly added rRNA sequences yielded the first rRNA-based support for Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla (dolphin+llama) in Mammalia, for basic subdivisions of Bryozoa ('Gymnolaemata+Stenolaemata' versus Phylactolaemata), and for Oligostraca (ostracods+branchiurans+pentastomids+mystacocarids). Future improvement could come from better sequence-evolution models that account for base-compositional heterogeneity, and from combining rRNA with protein-coding genes in phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:22641172

Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J

2012-09-01