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1

Planck Scale Physics, Pregeometry and the Notion of Time

Recent progress in quantum gravity and string theory has raised interest among scientists to whether or not nature behaves discretely at the Planck scale. There are two attitudes twoards this discretenes i.e. top-down and bottom-up approach. We have followed up the bottom-up approach. Here we have tried to describe how macroscopic space-time or its underlying mesoscopic substratum emerges from a more fundamental concept. The very concept of space-time, causality may not be valid beyond Planck scale. We have introduced the concept of generalised time within the framework of Sheaf Cohomology where the physical time emrges around and above Planck scale. The possible physical amd metaphysical implications are discussed.

S. Roy

2003-11-04

2

Planck scale physics and topology change through an exactly solvable model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the collapse of a charged radiation fluid in a Planck-suppressed quadratic extension of General Relativity (GR) formulated à la Palatini. We obtain exact analytical solutions that extend the charged Vaidya-type solution of GR, which allows to explore in detail new physics at the Planck scale. Starting from Minkowski space, we find that the collapsing fluid generates wormholes supported by the electric field. We discuss the relevance of our findings in relation to the quantum foam structure of space-time and the meaning of curvature divergences in this theory.

Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Martinez-Asencio, Jesus; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

2014-04-01

3

[Probing Planck-scale Physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman Maser

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser is a recently developed device which employs co-located ensembles of Ne-21 and He-3 atoms to provide sensitive differential measurements of the noble gas nuclear Zeeman splittings as a function of time, thereby greatly attenuating common-mode systematic effects such as uniform magnetic field variations. The Ne-21 maser will serve as a precision magnetometer to stabilize the system's static magnetic field, while the He-3 maser is used as a sensitive probe for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry by searching for small variations in the 3He maser frequency as the spatial orientation of the apparatus changes due to the rotation of the Earth (or placement on a rotating table). In the context of a general extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Ne-21/He-3 maser will provide the most sensitive search to date for CPT and Lorentz violation of the neutron: better than 10(exp -32) GeV, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude over past experiments. This exceptional precision will offer a rare opportunity to probe physics at the Planck scale. A future space-based Ne-21/He-3 maser or related device could provide even greater sensitivity to violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, and hence to Planck-scale physics, because of isolation from dominant systematic effects associated with ground-based operation, and because of access to different positions in space-time.

2003-01-01

4

Brukner2,4 One of the main challenges in physics today is to merge quantum theory and the theory for a quantum theory of gravity is therefore one of the main challenges in modern physics. A major difficultyARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 18 MARCH 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2262 Probing Planck-scale physics

Loss, Daniel

5

The Planck Scale Underpinning for Space Time

We provide a rationale for the Planck scale being the minimum scale in the universe, as also its specific numerical values. In the process we answer the question of why the Planck scale is $10^{20}$ times the Compton scale of elementary particles. These considerations show how the Planck scale provides an underpinning for space time.

Burra G. Sidharth

2005-09-03

6

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

2014-04-01

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the Higgs particle at around 126 GeV has given us a big hint towards the origin of the Higgs potential. The running quartic self-coupling decreases and crosses zero somewhere in the very high energy scale. It is usually considered as a signal of the instability of the standard model (SM) vacuum, but it can also indicate a link between the physics in the electroweak scale and the Planck scale. Furthermore, the LHC experiments as well as the flavor physics experiments give strong constraints on the physics beyond the SM. It urges us to reconsider the widely taken approach to the physics beyond the SM (BSM), namely the approach based on the gauge unification below the Planck scale and the resulting hierarchy problem. Motivated by the recent experiments, we first revisit the hierarchy problem and consider an alternative appoach based on a classical conformality of the SM without the Higgs mass term. In this talk, I review our recent proposal of a B-L extension of the SM with a flat Higgs potential at the Planck scale.1,2 This model can be an alternative solution to the hierarchy problem as well as being phenomenologically viable to explain the neutrino oscillations and the baryon asymmetry of the universe. With an assumption that the Higgs has a flat potential at the Planck scale, we show that the B-L symmetry is radiatively broken at the TeV scale via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, and it triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking through a radiatively generated scalar mixing. The ratio of these two breaking scales is dynamically determined by the B-L gauge coupling.

Iso, Satoshi

8

Probing Planck-Scale physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We completed a search for a sidereal annual variation in the frequency difference between co-located Xe-129 and He-3 Zeeman masers. This search sets a stringent limit of approximately 10(exp -27) GeV on boost-dependent Lorentz and CPT violation involving the neutron. A paper reporting this result has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. We also completed detailed modeling and design of the next-generation dual-noble-gas Zeeman maser for an improved test of Lorentz and CPT violation, and begin construction of this device.

Walsworth, Ronald L.; Phillips, David

2004-01-01

9

Proton Decay and the Planck Scale

Even without grand unification, proton decay can be a powerful probe of physics at the highest energy scales. Supersymmetric theories with conserved R-parity contain Planck-suppressed dimension 5 operators that give important contributions tonucleon decay. These operators are likely controlled by flavor physics, which means current and near future proton decay experiments might yield clues about the fermion mass spectrum. I present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in supersymmetric one-flavon Froggatt-Nielsen models with a single U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.

Larson, Daniel T.

2004-10-02

10

From the Planck to the Photon Scale

Using considerations from the Quantum Zero Point Field and Thermodynamics, we show that the Planck Scale is the minimum (maximum mass) and the Photon Scale is the maximum (minimum mass) Scale in the universe. The arguments also deduce the residual cosmic energy of $10^{-33}eV$ observed lately.

Burra G. Sidharth

2007-08-28

11

Planck Scale Cosmology in Resummed Quantum Gravity

We show that, by using resummation techniques based on the extension of the methods of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura to Feynman's formulation of Einstein's theory, we get quantum field theoretic predictions for the UV fixed-point values of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants. Connections to the phenomenological asymptotic safety analysis of Planck scale cosmology by Bonanno and Reuter are discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2008-08-22

12

Planck Scale Cosmology and Resummed Quantum Gravity

We show that, by using amplitude-based resummation techniques for Feynman's formulation of Einstein's theory, we get quantum field theoretic 'first principles' predictions for the UV fixed-point values of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants. Connections to the phenomenological asymptotic safety analysis of Planck scale cosmology by Bonanno and Reuter are discussed.

B. F. L. Ward

2009-10-02

13

Variable cosmological constant as a Planck scale effect

We construct a semiclassical Friedmann–Lema??tre–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) cosmological model assuming a running cosmological constant (CC). It turns out that the CC becomes variable at arbitrarily low energies due to the remnant quantum effects of the heaviest particles, e.g., the Planck scale physics. These effects are universal in the sense that they lead to a low-energy structure common to a large class

Ilya L. Shapiro; Joan Solà; Cristina EspanA-Bonet; Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente

2003-01-01

14

Planck-scale effects on Bose-Einstein condensates

The effects of a Planck-scale deformation of the Minkowski energy-momentum dispersion relation on the phenomenology of non-trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are examined. Such a deformation is shown to cause a shift in the condensation temperature $T_{c}$ of the BEC and, for a specific functional form of deformation, this shift can be as large as the current measured precision on $T_{c}$. For a $_{37}^{85}Rb$ cold-atom BEC with a particle density $n\\simeq 10^{12}cm^{-3}$ we find a fractional shift of order $10^{-4}$, but this can be much larger for even more dilute BECs. We discuss the possibility of planning specific experiments with BECs that might provide phenomenological constraints on Planck-scale physics. These corrections to $T_{c}$ are found to be extremely small for ultrarelativistic BECs implying that, in some cases, Planck-scale effects may be more important in low- rather than high-energy processes.

F. Briscese; M. Grether; M. de Llano

2012-04-20

15

Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck scale phenomenology

We present a simple algebraic argument for the conclusion that the low energy limit of a quantum theory of gravity must be a theory invariant, not under the Poincare group, but under a deformation of it parameterized by a dimensional parameter proportional to the Planck mass. Such deformations, called kappa-Poincare algebras, imply modified energy-momentum relations of a type that may be observable in near future experiments. Our argument applies in both 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions and assumes only 1) that the low energy limit of a quantum theory of gravity must involve also a limit in which the cosmological constant is taken very small with respect to the Planck scale and 2) that in 3+1 dimensions the physical energy and momenta of physical elementary particles is related to symmetries of the full quantum gravity theory by appropriate renormalization depending on Lambda l^2_{Planck}. The argument makes use of the fact that the cosmological constant results in the symmetry algebra of quantum gravity being quantum deformed, as a consequence when the limit \\Lambda l^2_{Planck} -> 0 is taken one finds a deformed Poincare invariance. We are also able to isolate what information must be provided by the quantum theory in order to determine which presentation of the kappa-Poincare algebra is relevant for the physical symmetry generators and, hence, the exact form of the modified energy-momentum relations. These arguments imply that Lorentz invariance is modified as in proposals for doubly special relativity, rather than broken, in theories of quantum gravity, so long as those theories behave smoothly in the limit the cosmological constant is taken to be small.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Lee Smolin; Artem Starodubtsev

2003-06-16

16

Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This expansive Web site features the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics' research dealing primarily with geometric analysis and gravitation, astrophysical relativity, quantum gravity and unified theories, and laser interferometry and gravitational wave astronomy. After learning about the Institute's origins in 1995, researchers can find out about the institute's intense efforts and hardships in developing a consistent theory of quantum gravity as well as its investigation in gravitational radiation and causal structures. The site provides visitors with downloads to many published articles as well as links to two free access electronic review journals: _Living Reviews in Relativity_ and _Living Reviews in Solar Physics_. While some content is not in English, all visitors can find valuable information about research in gravitational physics.

17

Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.

Craig Hogan

2010-01-08

18

Variable Cosmological Constant as a Planck Scale Effect

We construct a semiclassical FLRW cosmological model assuming a running cosmological constant (CC). It turns out that the CC becomes variable at arbitrarily low energies due to the remnant quantum effects of the heaviest particles, e.g. the Planck scale physics. These effects are universal in the sense that they lead to a low-energy structure common to a large class of high-energy theories. Remarkably, the uncertainty concerning the unknown high-energy dynamics is accumulated into a single parameter \

Ilya L. Shapiro; Joan Sola; Cristina Espana-Bonet; Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente

2003-03-13

19

Cosmological constant in SUGRA models with Planck scale SUSY breaking and degenerate vacua

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirical mass of the Higgs boson suggests small to vanishing values of the quartic Higgs self-coupling and the corresponding beta function at the Planck scale, leading to degenerate vacua. This leads us to suggest that the measured value of the cosmological constant can originate from supergravity (SUGRA) models with degenerate vacua. This scenario is realised if there are at least three exactly degenerate vacua. In the first vacuum, associated with the physical one, local supersymmetry (SUSY) is broken near the Planck scale while the breakdown of the SU(2)W×U(1)Y symmetry takes place at the electroweak (EW) scale. In the second vacuum local SUSY breaking is induced by gaugino condensation at a scale which is just slightly lower than ?QCD in the physical vacuum. Finally, in the third vacuum local SUSY and EW symmetry are broken near the Planck scale.

Froggatt, C. D.; Nevzorov, R.; Nielsen, H. B.; Thomas, A. W.

2014-10-01

20

Is a tabletop search for Planck scale signals feasible?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum gravity theory is untested experimentally. Could it be tested with tabletop experiments? While the common feeling is pessimistic, a detailed inquiry shows it possible to sidestep the onerous requirement of localization of a probe on the Planck length scale. I suggest a tabletop experiment which, given state-of-the-art ultrahigh vacuum and cryogenic technology, could already be sensitive enough to detect Planck scale signals. The experiment combines a single photon’s degree of freedom with that of a macroscopic probe to test Wheeler’s conception of “quantum foam,” the assertion that on length scales of the Planck order, spacetime is no longer a smooth manifold. The scheme makes few assumptions beyond energy and momentum conservations, and is not based on a specific quantum gravity scheme.

Bekenstein, Jacob D.

2012-12-01

21

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.

Blackwell, William C., Jr.

2004-01-01

22

Renormalization group and the Planck scale.

I discuss the renormalization group approach to gravity, and its link to Weinberg's asymptotic safety scenario, and give an overview of results with applications to particle physics and cosmology. PMID:21646277

Litim, Daniel F

2011-07-13

23

Astrophysical constraints on Planck scale dissipative phenomena.

The emergence of a classical spacetime from any quantum gravity model is still a subtle and only partially understood issue. If indeed spacetime is arising as some sort of large scale condensate of more fundamental objects, then it is natural to expect that matter, being a collective excitation of the spacetime constituents, will present modified kinematics at sufficiently high energies. We consider here the phenomenology of the dissipative effects necessarily arising in such a picture. Adopting dissipative hydrodynamics as a general framework for the description of the energy exchange between collective excitations and the spacetime fundamental degrees of freedom, we discuss how rates of energy loss for elementary particles can be derived from dispersion relations and used to provide strong constraints on the base of current astrophysical observations of high-energy particles. PMID:24785026

Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca

2014-04-18

24

Fokker-Planck Equations as Scaling Limits of Reversible Quantum Systems

Fokker-Planck Equations as Scaling Limits of Reversible Quantum Systems Francois Castella CNRS et the Fokker-Planck equation with friction for the Wigner distribution of the particle in the large temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.4 Derivation of Fokker-Planck equation via Boltzmann equation . . . . . . . . . . 15 4

Castella, FranÃ§ois

25

Astrophysical Polarimetric Signature Against TeV Fundamental Planck Scale

I present the analysis of data of astrophysical polarimetric observations that gives the signature of the fundamental extra dimension Planck scale magnitude essentially higher than $~1TeV$. Magnetic conversion of photons into the fundamental particles (scalars, gravitons) is the probable mechanism that can produce noticeable amount of polarization of optical radiation of astrophysical objects, especially, of distant extragalactic sources. The results of magnetic conversion process of optical light of extragalactic sources are presented for a number of situations including: (a) intergalactic magnetic field, (b) galaxy cluster magnetic field, (c) magnetic conversion in the typical galaxy magnetic field, (d) magnetic conversion of CMB radiation.

Yu. N. Gnedin

2001-11-16

26

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics: X-Ray Astronomy

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features the latest space science news, research activities, projects, and laboratories of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' X-Ray Astronomy group. Visitors can view images and read clear summaries of its research in the areas of galactic and extragalactic astronomy. Researchers can learn about the group's instrumental techniques using soft and hard X-rays such as imaging with Wolter telescopes and multi-wire proportional counters. In the Data Center, visitors can explore the group's data analysis software and user data archives. The site provides links to its innumerable collaborators.

27

Planck scale, Higgs mass, and scalar dark matter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is inspired by a scenario, in which the Standard Model enhanced by an additional dark-matter scalar could be extended up to the Planck scale, while accommodating the low measured value of the Higgs mass. To that end, we study a toy model for a gauge-singlet dark-matter scalar coupled to the Higgs-top-quark sector of the Standard Model. Using functional methods to derive renormalization group flow equations in that model, we examine several choices for the ultraviolet, bare potential in the Higgs-dark-matter sector. Our results indicate that the dark-matter scalar can decrease the lower bound on the Higgs mass in the Standard Model. We then use the fact that higher-order couplings which are driven to tiny values by the renormalization group flow towards low energies can easily be of order one at the ultraviolet cutoff scale. Our study indicates that the inclusion of these couplings can significantly increase the ultraviolet cutoff scale and therefore the range of validity of the model while yielding a low value for the Higgs mass in the infrared. This is achieved within a setting where the dark-matter scalar accounts for the complete dark-matter relic density in our Universe.

Eichhorn, Astrid; Scherer, Michael M.

2014-07-01

28

Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck-scale phenomenology

We present a simple algebraic mechanism for the emergence of deformations of Poincaré symmetries in the low-energy limit of quantum theories of gravity. The deformations, called kappa-Poincaré algebras, are parametrized by a dimensional parameter proportional to the Planck mass, and imply modified energy momentum relations of a type that may be observable in near future experiments. Our analysis assumes that

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia; Lee Smolin; Artem Starodubtsev

2004-01-01

29

Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly

Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.

Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab

2005-10-01

30

The International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) on Elementary Particle Physics in Munich, Germany invites applications for Ph.D. Fellowships in Elementary Particle Physics. The IMPRS is a joint of experimental or theoretical particle physics. The ability to work in a team is desired. Individual research

31

Planck-scale-induced speed of sound in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we analyze the corrections caused by an anomalous dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon the speed of sound in a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate, trapped in a potential of the form V(r)\\sim r^{2} . We show that the corresponding ground-state energy and consequently, the associated speed of sound, present corrections with respect to the usual case, which may be used to explore the sensitivity to Planck-scale effects on these relevant properties associated with the condensate. Indeed, we stress that this type of macroscopic bodies may be more sensitive, under certain conditions, to Planck-scale manifestations than its constituents. In addition, we prove that the inclusion of a trapping potential, together with many-body contributions, improves the sensitivity to Planck-scale signals, compared to the homogeneous system.

Castellanos, E.; Rivas, J. I.; Dominguez-Rocha, V.

2014-06-01

32

Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.

None

2010-06-02

33

Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.

None

2011-10-06

34

A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data

We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ?, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ? ? ?0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ? achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-? confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup ?4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup ?3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup ?5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup ?6}.

Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department, University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cooray, Asantha, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: acooray@uci.edu [Center for Cosmology, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

2009-08-01

35

Quantum dynamics via Planck-scale-stepped action-carrying 'Graph Paths'

A divergence-free, parameter-free, path-based discrete-time quantum dynamics is designed to not only enlarge the achievements of general relativity and the standard particle model, by approximations at spacetime scales far above Planck scale while far below Hubble scale, but to allow tackling of hitherto inaccessible questions. ''Path space'' is larger than and precursor to Hilbert-space basis. The wave-function-propagating paths are action-carrying structured graphs-cubic and quartic structured vertices connected by structured ''fermionic'' or ''bosonic'' ''particle'' and ''nonparticle'' arcs. A Planck-scale path step determines the gravitational constant while controlling all graph structure. The basis of the theory's (zero-rest-mass) elementary-particle Hilbert space (which includes neither gravitons nor scalar bosons) resides in particle arcs. Nonparticle arcs within a path are responsible for energy and rest mass.

Chew, Geoffrey F.

2003-05-05

36

Towards an axiomatic model of fundamental interactions at Planck scale

By exploring possible physical sense of notions, structures, and logic in a class of noncommutative geometries, we try to unify the four fundamental interactions within an axiomatic quantum picture. We identify the objects and algebraic operations which could properly encode the formation and structure of sub-atomic particles, antimatter, annihilation, CP-symmetry violation, mass endowment mechanism, three lepton-neutrino matchings, spin, helicity and chirality, electric charge and electromagnetism, as well as the weak and strong interaction between particles, admissible transition mechanisms (e.g., muon to muon neutrino, electron, and electron antineutrino), and decays (e.g., neutron to proton, electron, and electron antineutrino).

Arthemy V. Kiselev

2014-03-31

37

Towards an axiomatic model of fundamental interactions at Planck scale

By exploring possible physical sense of notions, structures, and logic in a class of noncommutative geometries, we try to unify the four fundamental interactions within an axiomatic quantum picture. We identify the objects and algebraic operations which could properly encode the formation and structure of sub-atomic particles, antimatter, annihilation, CP-symmetry violation, mass endowment mechanism, three lepton-neutrino matchings, spin, helicity and chirality, electric charge and electromagnetism, as well as the weak and strong interaction between particles, admissible transition mechanisms (e.g., muon to muon neutrino, electron, and electron antineutrino), and decays (e.g., neutron to proton, electron, and electron antineutrino).

Kiselev, Arthemy V

2014-01-01

38

The suspicion that the existence of a minimal uncertainty in position measurements violates Lorentz invariance seems unfounded. It is shown that the existence of such a nonzero minimal uncertainty in position is not only consistent with Lorentz invariance, but that the latter also fixes the algebra between position and momentum which gives rise to this minimal uncertainty. We also investigate how this algebra affects the underlying quantum mechanical structure, and why, at the Planck scale, space can no longer be considered homogeneous.

Arko Bose

2010-11-11

39

BOOK REVIEW Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been generally agreed that putting together the principles of quantum theory and general relativity will usher the next revolution in physics. The trouble, of course, is that we have been now waiting for several decades for this revolution to take place. While people get excited about different directions of development every once in a while (with some excitements propped up by a larger number of researchers than others), it is probably fair to say that nothing which can be called definitive progress has taken place in the last several decades. Given the state of affairs it is definitely worthwhile to keep an open mind regarding new ideas and have at least a small fraction of researchers working somewhat away from the mainstream. This could possibly lead to new insights which have been missed by the more conventional mainstream approaches and could even finally provide a much awaited breakthrough. The collection of articles in this book should probably be viewed against such a backdrop. A few of the articles contained in the book deal with topics which are probably not mainstream. But all the speakers have presented their ideas clearly and in a proper setting, making many of the articles quite useful for a person who wants to obtain a bird's eye view. The connecting thread is essentially whether some aspects of quantum gravitational physics can lead to potentially observable effects or provide explanations for known effects. The book also contains a few overview articles of exceptional clarity. In particular I would like to mention the one by E Alvarez on quantum gravity, the one by L Smolin on loop quantum gravity and J Martin's article on the origin of cosmological perturbations. The rest of the articles are more focussed on possible quantum gravity phenomenology and discuss diverse topics such as astrophysical bounds of Lorentz violations, doubly special relativity and the role of quantum form in quantum gravity phenomenon. I thoroughly enjoyed reading through the articles in this book and it must have been an exciting conference. (The book under review is based on the lectures given at the 40th Karpacz Winter School.) This is a valuable addition to any library and will serve as a useful source of information for any graduate student or researcher who wants to enter or appreciate this field.

Padmanabhan, Thanu

2007-08-01

40

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 084103 (2011) How accurate are the nonlinear chemical Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations? Ramon Grima,1,a) Philipp Thomas,1,2 and Arthur V. Straube2 1 School August 2011) The chemical Fokker-Planck equation and the corresponding chemical Langevin equation are com

Straube, Arthur V.

41

Steady states in plasma physics - The Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation

This paper investigates the nonlinear Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) equation, a physically and mathematically interesting modification of Vlasov's equation, which describes plasma in a thermal bath. It proves the existence, uniqueness, and representation results for steady states of the VFP equation both in the case of a mollified interaction potential and for the VFP-Poisson system. The uniqueness and representation results are of

Klaus Dressler

1990-01-01

42

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present precise Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect measurements in the direction of 62 nearby galaxy clusters (z < 0.5) detected at high signal-to-noise in the first Planck all-sky data set. The sample spans approximately a decade in total mass, 2 × 1014 M? < M500 < 2 × 1015 M?, where M500 is the mass corresponding to a total density contrast of 500. Combining these high quality Planck measurements with deep XMM-Newton X-ray data, we investigate the relations between DA2 Y500, the integrated Compton parameter due to the SZ effect, and the X-ray-derived gas mass Mg,500, temperature TX, luminosity LX,500, SZ signal analogue YX,500 = Mg,500 × TX, and total mass M500. After correction for the effect of selection bias on the scaling relations, we find results that are in excellent agreement with both X-ray predictions and recently-published ground-based data derived from smaller samples. The present data yield an exceptionally robust, high-quality local reference, and illustrate Planck's unique capabilities for all-sky statistical studies of galaxy clusters. Corresponding author: G. W. Pratt, e-mail: gabriel.pratt@cea.fr

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lanoux, J.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Liddle, A.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2011-12-01

43

Application of multi-scale finite element methods to the solution of the Fokker–Planck equation

This paper presents an application of multi-scale finite element methods to the solution of the multi-dimensional Fokker–Planck equation. The Fokker–Planck, or forward Kolmogorov, equation is a degenerate convective–diffusion equation arising in Markov-Process theory. It governs the evolution of the transition probability density function of the response of a broad class of dynamical systems driven by Gaussian noise, and completely describes

Arif Masud; Lawrence A. Bergman

2005-01-01

44

Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Sibiryakov, Sergei M.

2005-09-01

45

Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

D. S. Gorbunov; S. M. Sibiryakov

2005-06-08

46

THE Y {sub SZ}-Y{sub X} SCALING RELATION AS DETERMINED FROM PLANCK AND CHANDRA

Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) clusters surveys, such as Planck, the South Pole Telescope, and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, will soon be publishing several hundred SZ-selected systems. The key ingredient required to transport the mass calibration from current X-ray-selected cluster samples to these SZ systems is the Y {sub SZ}-Y{sub X} scaling relation. We constrain the amplitude, slope, and scatter of the Y {sub SZ}-Y{sub X} scaling relation using SZ data from Planck and X-ray data from Chandra. We find a best-fit amplitude of ln (D {sup 2} {sub A} Y {sub SZ}/CY{sub X} ) = -0.202 {+-} 0.024 at the pivot point CY{sub X} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup 2}. This corresponds to a Y {sub SZ}/Y{sub X} ratio of 0.82 {+-} 0.024, in good agreement with X-ray expectations after including the effects of gas clumping. The slope of the relation is {alpha} = 0.916 {+-} 0.032, consistent with unity at Almost-Equal-To 2.3{sigma}. We are unable to detect intrinsic scatter, and find no evidence that the scaling relation depends on cluster dynamical state.

Rozo, Eduardo; More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vikhlinin, Alexey [Space Research Institute (IKI), Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117810 (Russian Federation)

2012-11-20

47

The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent, but the rate of cosmic ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly high. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics. A study of cosmic ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper presents an evaluation of the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. In order to better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact ener...

Catalano, A; Atik, Y; Benoit, A; Bréele, E; Bock, J J; Camus, P; Chabot, M; Charra, M; Crill, B P; Coron, N; Coulais, A; Désert, F -X; Fauvet, L; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Guillaudin, O; Holmes, W; Jones, W C; Lamarre, J -M; Macías-Pérez, J; Martinez, M; Miniussi, A; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Patanchon, G; Pelissier, A; Piat, M; Puget, J -L; Renault, C; Rosset, C; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Spencer, L D; Sudiwala, R

2014-01-01

48

A Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code for high energy density physics

OSHUN is a parallel relativistic 2D3P Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, developed primarily to study electron transport and instabilities pertaining to laser-produced-including laser-fusion-plasmas. It incorporates a spherical harmonic expansion of the electron distribution function, where the number of terms is an input parameter that determines the angular resolution in momentum-space. The algorithm employs the full 3D electromagnetic fields and a rigorous linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. The numerical scheme conserves energy and number density. This enables simulations for plasmas with temperatures from MeV down to a few eV and densities from less than critical to more than solid. Kinetic phenomena as well as electron transport physics can be recovered accurately and efficiently.

Tzoufras, M., E-mail: m.tzoufras1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Norreys, P.A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Tsung, F.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2011-07-20

49

Vanishing Higgs potential at the Planck scale in a singlet extension of the standard model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the realization of a vanishing effective Higgs potential at the Planck scale, which is required by the multiple-point criticality principle (MPCP), in the standard model with singlet scalar dark matter and a right-handed neutrino. We find the scalar dark matter and the right-handed neutrino play crucial roles for realization of the MPCP, where a neutrino Yukawa becomes effective above the Majorana mass of the right-handed neutrino. Once the top mass is fixed, the MPCP at the (reduced) Planck scale and the suitable dark matter relic abundance determine the dark matter mass, mS, and the Majorana mass of the right-handed neutrino, MR, as 8.5(8.0)×102 GeV ?mS?1.4(1.2)×103 GeV and 6.3(5.5)×1013 GeV ?MR?1.6(1.2)×1014 GeV within current experimental values of the Higgs and top masses. This scenario is consistent with current dark matter direct search experiments and will be checked by future experiments such as LUX with further exposure and/or the XENON1T.

Haba, Naoyuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kaneta, Kunio; Takahashi, Ryo

2014-08-01

50

Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden, Germany MPI-PKS Institute Retreat

Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden, Germany MPI-PKS Institute Retreat 15:50 - 16:30 K Coffee Break Tutzing 16:30 - 18:30 o Soccer Match Dining Hall 19:00 - 20:30 Â© Dinner Chemistry in Solid-State Physics Â· Andreas Hilfinger The Physics of Cells Â· Benjamin Lindner Stochastic

JÃ¼licher, Frank

51

Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking model perturbative all the way to the Planck scale.

We discuss an extension of the standard model by fields not charged under standard model gauge symmetry in which the electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by the Higgs quartic coupling itself without the need for a negative mass term in the potential. This is achieved by a scalar field S with a large coupling to the Higgs field at the electroweak scale which is driven to very small values at high energies by the gauge coupling of a hidden symmetry under which S is charged. This model can remain perturbative all the way to the Planck scale. The Higgs boson is fully standard-model-like in its couplings to fermions and gauge bosons. However, the effective cubic and quartic self-couplings of the Higgs boson are significantly enhanced. PMID:25126909

Chway, Dongjin; Dermíšek, Radovan; Jung, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyung Do

2014-08-01

52

Radiative Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Model Perturbative All the Way to the Planck Scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss an extension of the standard model by fields not charged under standard model gauge symmetry in which the electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by the Higgs quartic coupling itself without the need for a negative mass term in the potential. This is achieved by a scalar field S with a large coupling to the Higgs field at the electroweak scale which is driven to very small values at high energies by the gauge coupling of a hidden symmetry under which S is charged. This model can remain perturbative all the way to the Planck scale. The Higgs boson is fully standard-model-like in its couplings to fermions and gauge bosons. However, the effective cubic and quartic self-couplings of the Higgs boson are significantly enhanced.

Chway, Dongjin; Dermíšek, Radovan; Jung, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyung Do

2014-08-01

53

Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25?. We use thetemperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting ?CDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z = 1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. When combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth to reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ~ 2.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

54

HigherDimensional Algebra and PlanckScale Physics

general relativity and quantum field theory? Or is this a technical business best left to the experts? I, and dare to imagine a world more strange, more beautiful, but ultimately more reasonable than our current on loop quantum gravity or some other approach. To make matters worse, experts often fail to emphasize

Baez, John

55

Planck-Scale Traces from the Interference Pattern of two Bose-Einstein Condensates

In the present report we analyze the possible effects arising from Planck scale regime upon the interference pattern of two non-interacting Bose-Einstein condensates. We start with the analysis of the free expansion of a condensate, taken into account the effects produced by a deformed dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum-gravity models. The analysis of the condensate free expansion, in particular, the modified free velocity expansion, suggests in a natural way, a modified uncertainty principle that could leads to new phenomenological implications related to the quantum structure of space time. Additionally, we analyze the corresponding separation between the interference fringes after two condensates overlap. Finally, we probe that a large expansion time together with a small initial separation between the condensates are required, in order to improve the sensitivity of the system to possible effects caused by quantum-structure of space-time, upon the corresponding interference pattern.

E. Castellanos; J. I. Rivas

2014-06-05

56

Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden, Germany MPI-PKS Institute Retreat

Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden, Germany MPI-PKS Institute Retreat of Biology Â· Sebastien Burdien Quantum Impurity Physics: From Nanoelectronic Devices to Uranium Compounds in Dresden #12;General Information Â· SOCIAL PROGRAM: Â· Thursday, January 24, 2008 - Table Soccer, starting

JÃ¼licher, Frank

57

I assume a universe whereby the speed of light and the planck constant are not constants but instead parameters that vary locally in time-and space. When describing motion, I am able to derive a modified path integral description at the quantum level, which offers a natural extension of quantum mechanics. At the microscopic level, this path integral intuitively describes a physics with many quantum realities thus leading to a novel concept of manifold of physics, which can be looked at as a novel action principle. This paradigm reflects the notion that the observed laws of physics on any given scale are determined by the underlying distribution of the fundamental parameters (i.e Quantum Mechanics is just one point on this manifold), thus leading to many possible physical-law based behaviors. By choosing a Gaussian distribution of the parameters, a quadratic action term appears in the path-integral, which in turns leads to a complex classical action (and by continuation a new description for inertia) at the classical level. In the accompanying manuscript the classical doublet equation of motion is applied to the Newtonian gravitation field, and a MOND-like, dark-energy-like, and pioneer-anomaly-like solutions are derived.

Roee Amit

2008-02-14

58

Summary The coarse-graining method for a gain-loss type master equation which describes time evolution of a system following a Markov\\u000a process, are discussed by introducing a scaling concept. The master equation expressed in new variables scaled by two characteristic\\u000a sizes of a system, is expanded in ?-1 and ?-1\\/2. Thus, not only a macroscopic equation of motion and the Fokker-Planck equation,

M. Ochiai

1984-01-01

59

We present connections between the problem of trend to equilibrium for the Fokker-Planck equation of statistical physics, and several inequalities from functional analysis, like logarithmic Sobolev or Poincare inequalities, together with some inequalities arising in the context of concentration of measures, introduced by Talagrand, or in the study of Gaussian isoperimetry.

P. A. MARKOWICH; C. VILLANI

1999-01-01

60

Characterization and Physical Explanation of Energetic Particles on Planck HFI Instrument

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been surveying the sky continuously from the second Lagrangian point (L2) between August 2009 and January 2012. It operates with 52 high impedance bolometers cooled at 100 mK in a range of frequency between 100 GHz and 1 THz with unprecedented sensitivity, but strong coupling with cosmic radiation. At L2, the particle flux is about 5 and is dominated by protons incident on the spacecraft. Protons with an energy above 40 MeV can penetrate the focal plane unit box causing two different effects: glitches in the raw data from direct interaction of cosmic rays with detectors (producing a data loss of about 15 % at the end of the mission) and thermal drifts in the bolometer plate at 100 mK adding non-Gaussian noise at frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The HFI consortium has made strong efforts in order to correct for this effect on the time ordered data and final Planck maps. This work intends to give a view of the physical explanation of the glitches observed in the HFI instrument in-flight. To reach this goal, we performed several ground-based experiments using protons and particles to test the impact of particles on the HFI spare bolometers with a better control of the environmental conditions with respect to the in-flight data. We have shown that the dominant part of glitches observed in the data comes from the impact of cosmic rays in the silicon die frame supporting the micro-machined bolometric detectors propagating energy mainly by ballistic phonons and by thermal diffusion. The implications of these results for future satellite missions will be discussed.

Catalano, A.; Ade, P.; Atik, Y.; Benoit, A.; Bréele, E.; Bock, J. J.; Camus, P.; Charra, M.; Crill, B. P.; Coron, N.; Coulais, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Fauvet, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guillaudin, O.; Holmes, W.; Jones, W. C.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Martinez, M.; Miniussi, A.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelissier, A.; Piat, M.; Puget, J.-L.; Renault, C.; Rosset, C.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Spencer, L.; Sudiwala, R.

2014-09-01

61

The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)

Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.

1997-01-01

62

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) surveyed the sky continuously from August 2009 to January 2012. Its noise and sensitivity performance were excellent (from 11 to 40 aW Hz-1), but the rate of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detectors was unexpectedly higher than in other instruments. Furthermore, collisions of cosmic rays with the focal plane produced transient signals in the data (glitches) with a wide range of characteristics and a rate of about one glitch per second. A study of cosmic-ray impacts on the HFI detector modules has been undertaken to categorize and characterize the glitches, to correct the HFI time-ordered data, and understand the residual effects on Planck maps and data products. This paper evaluates the physical origins of glitches observed by the HFI detectors. To better understand the glitches observed by HFI in flight, several ground-based experiments were conducted with flight-spare HFI bolometer modules. The experiments were conducted between 2010 and 2013 with HFI test bolometers in different configurations using varying particles and impact energies. The bolometer modules were exposed to 23 MeV protons from the Orsay IPN Tandem accelerator, and to 241Am and 244Cm ?-particle and 55Fe radioactive X-ray sources. The calibration data from the HFI ground-based preflight tests were used to further characterize the glitches and compare glitch rates with statistical expectations under laboratory conditions. Test results provide strong evidence that the dominant family of glitches observed in flight are due to cosmic-ray absorption by the silicon die substrate on which the HFI detectors reside. Glitch energy is propagated to the thermistor by ballistic phonons, while thermal diffusion also contributes. The average ratio between the energy absorbed, per glitch, in the silicon die and thatabsorbed in the bolometer is equal to 650. We discuss the implications of these results for future satellite missions, especially those in the far-infrared to submillimeter and millimeter regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Catalano, A.; Ade, P.; Atik, Y.; Benoit, A.; Bréele, E.; Bock, J. J.; Camus, P.; Chabot, M.; Charra, M.; Crill, B. P.; Coron, N.; Coulais, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Fauvet, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guillaudin, O.; Holmes, W.; Jones, W. C.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Martinez, M.; Miniussi, A.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelissier, A.; Piat, M.; Puget, J.-L.; Renault, C.; Rosset, C.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Spencer, L. D.; Sudiwala, R.

2014-09-01

63

We investigate the physical background and implications of a space- and time-fractional diffusion equation which corresponds to a random walker which combines competing long waiting times and Lévy flight properties. Explicit solutions are examined, and the corresponding fractional Fokker–Planck–Smoluchowski equation is presented. The framework of fractional kinetic equations which control the systems relaxation to either Boltzmann–Gibbs equilibrium, or a far

Ralf Metzler; Theo F. Nonnenmacher

2002-01-01

64

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of the random walk is formulated to allow a simple computing procedure to replace the difficult problem of solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The step sizes and probabilities of taking steps in the various directions are expressed in terms of Fokker-Planck coefficients. Application is made to many particle systems with Coulomb interactions. The relaxation of a highly peaked velocity distribution of particles to equilibrium conditions is illustrated.

Englert, G. W.

1971-01-01

65

Scaling GDL for Multi-cores to Process Planck HFI Beams Monte Carlo on HPC

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After reviewing the majors progress done in GDL -now in 0.9.4- on performance and plotting capabilities since ADASS XXI paper (Coulais et al. 2012), we detail how a large code for Planck HFI beams Monte Carlo was successfully transposed from IDL to GDL on HPC.

Coulais, A.; Schellens, M.; Duvert, G.; Park, J.; Arabas, S.; Erard, S.; Roudier, G.; Hivon, E.; Mottet, S.; Laurent, B.; Pinter, M.; Kasradze, N.; Ayad, M.

2014-05-01

66

Fokker–Planck Equations as Scaling Limits of Reversible Quantum Systems

We consider a quantum particle moving in a harmonic exterior potential and linearly coupled to a heat bath of quantum oscillators. Caldeira and Leggett derived the Fokker–Planck equation with friction for the Wigner distribution of the particle in the large-temperature limit; however, their (nonrigorous) derivation was not free of criticism, especially since the limiting equation is not of Lindblad form.

Francois Castella; László Erd?s; Florian Frommlet; Peter A. Markowich

2000-01-01

67

EXCITATION OF PLASMA WAKEFIELDS WITH DESIGNER BUNCH TRAINS P. Muggli, Max Planck Institute. INTRODUCTION Advanced accelerator concepts, plasma or dielectric based, usually use a single bunche to either simply drive wakefields or to drive and sample the wakefields along a single bunch, about a wave period

Brookhaven National Laboratory

68

A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies that match those for high Reynolds number turbulence.

Carl H. Gibson

2003-04-24

69

Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics

Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.

Rudolf Muradyan

2011-06-07

70

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

2007-04-01

71

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An invariant statistical theory of fields from cosmic to tachyonic scales is presented. The invariant wavefunction is defined as the first perturbation of action S_? = ?_??_?, the product of density and velocity potential. The invariant Schrödinger equation is derived, and invariant forms of Planck constant, de Broglie matter wave hypothesis, and Heisenberg uncertainty relation are presented. The field of tachyon-dynamics is identified as the physical space that is the stochastic ether of Dirac, or the "hidden thermostat" of de Broglie, and is assumed to be compressible in harmony with compressible ether of Planck. Compressibility of physical space is suggested to account for Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction, thus providing an explanation of relativistic effects in harmony with the physical perceptions of Poincaré and Lorentz. Following the definition of Planck constant h = m_??_?c = 6.626x10-34 J-s, the definition of Boltzmann constant is introduced as k = m_??_?c = 1.381x10-23 J/K, where m_?, ?_?,?_?, and c are the photon mass, wavelength, frequency, and velocity. Parallel to the de Broglie relation ?_? = h/p_? for matter waves, the relation ?_? = k/p_? is introduced to give the frequency of matter waves. Therefore, the mass of the photon is predicted as m_? = (hk/c^3)^1/2 = 1.84278x10-41 kg.

Sohrab, S. H.

1998-03-01

72

Can we push the fundamental Planck scale above $10^{19}$ GeV?

The value of the quantum gravity scale is MPl = $10^{19}$ GeV. However, this is inherently a three-dimensional quantity. We know that we can bring this scale all the way down to TeV if we introduce extra dimensions with large volume. This will solve the hierarchy problem by destroying the desert between the electroweak and gravity scales, but will also introduce a host of new problems since some things (e.g. proton stability, neutrino masses etc) have their natural habitat in this desert. In contrast, we can also solve the hierarchy problem by reducing the number of dimensions at high energies. If the fundamental theory (which does not have to be gravity as we understand it today) is lower dimensional, then the fundamental energy scale might be much greater than 1019GeV. Then, some experimental and observational limits (e.g. on Lorentz invariance violation) which are coming close to or even exceeding the scale of 1019GeV can be evaded. In addition, scattering of particles at transplanckian energies will not p...

Stojkovic, Dejan

2014-01-01

73

Multiple Scales in Solid State Physics

The quest for an accurate simulations of the physical world, most vividly expressed in the vision of Laplace's daemon [1], is almost as old as quantitative science. Naturally, such a simulation requires the knowledge of all the relevant physical\\u000a laws, i.e., a Theory of Everything. For the phenomena involving scales larger than an atomic nucleus and smaller than a star,

Erik Koch; Eva Pavarini

74

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

2010-01-01

75

Planck-scale soccer-ball problem: a case of mistaken identity

Over the last decade it has been found that nonlinear laws of composition of momenta are predicted by some alternative approaches to "real" 4D quantum gravity, and by all formulations of dimensionally-reduced (3D) quantum gravity coupled to matter. The possible relevance for rather different quantum-gravity models has motivated several studies, but this interest is being tempered by concerns that a nonlinear law of addition of momenta might inevitably produce a pathological description of the total momentum of a macroscopic body. I here show that such concerns are unjustified, finding that they are rooted in failure to appreciate the differences between two roles for laws composition of momentum in physics. Previous results relied exclusively on the role of a law of momentum composition in the description of spacetime locality. However, the notion of total momentum of a multi-particle system is not a manifestation of locality, but rather reflects translational invariance. By working within an illustrative exa...

Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

2014-01-01

76

Planck-scale soccer-ball problem: a case of mistaken identity

Over the last decade it has been found that nonlinear laws of composition of momenta are predicted by some alternative approaches to "real" 4D quantum gravity, and by all formulations of dimensionally-reduced (3D) quantum gravity coupled to matter. The possible relevance for rather different quantum-gravity models has motivated several studies, but this interest is being tempered by concerns that a nonlinear law of addition of momenta might inevitably produce a pathological description of the total momentum of a macroscopic body. I here show that such concerns are unjustified, finding that they are rooted in failure to appreciate the differences between two roles for laws composition of momentum in physics. Previous results relied exclusively on the role of a law of momentum composition in the description of spacetime locality. However, the notion of total momentum of a multi-particle system is not a manifestation of locality, but rather reflects translational invariance. By working within an illustrative example of quantum spacetime I show explicitly that spacetime locality is indeed reflected in a nonlinear law of composition of momenta, but translational invariance still results in an undeformed linear law of addition of momenta building up the total momentum of a multi-particle system.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2014-07-29

77

When a scale-dependent fractal dispersivity is introduced in the convective-dispersive equation of transport in subsurface flow, the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE), also known as the second diffusion equation, is derived. Similarity solutions of the one-dimensional FPE, subject to a Dirac delta function input, are also presented. The similarity solution is shown to function as a kernel in the convolution integral to

Ninghu Su

1995-01-01

78

Overview of Icing Physics Relevant to Scaling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An understanding of icing physics is required for the development of both scaling methods and ice-accretion prediction codes. This paper gives an overview of our present understanding of the important physical processes and the associated similarity parameters that determine the shape of Appendix C ice accretions. For many years it has been recognized that ice accretion processes depend on flow effects over the model, on droplet trajectories, on the rate of water collection and time of exposure, and, for glaze ice, on a heat balance. For scaling applications, equations describing these events have been based on analyses at the stagnation line of the model and have resulted in the identification of several non-dimensional similarity parameters. The parameters include the modified inertia parameter of the water drop, the accumulation parameter and the freezing fraction. Other parameters dealing with the leading edge heat balance have also been used for convenience. By equating scale expressions for these parameters to the values to be simulated a set of equations is produced which can be solved for the scale test conditions. Studies in the past few years have shown that at least one parameter in addition to those mentioned above is needed to describe surface-water effects, and some of the traditional parameters may not be as significant as once thought. Insight into the importance of each parameter, and the physical processes it represents, can be made by viewing whether ice shapes change, and the extent of the change, when each parameter is varied. Experimental evidence is presented to establish the importance of each of the traditionally used parameters and to identify the possible form of a new similarity parameter to be used for scaling.

Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

2005-01-01

79

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for Planck's constant: h = 6.7 ± 0.4 × 10-34 kg m2 s-1. A digital camera is thus sufficiently good equipment to measure a constant directly related to quantum mechanics. The simplicity of the proposed experiments makes this paper appropriate for undergraduate students interested in the experimental aspects of fundamental physics.

Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

2010-11-01

80

Perspective on TeV-scale physics

These lectures review theoretical motivations and experimental prospects for the study of TeV-scale physics. Three clues to the importance of TeV physics are discussed: implications of quantum corrections for the masses of a fourth generation quark-lepton family, the gauge hierarchy problem and known solutions, and implications of symmetry and unitarity for the symmetry-breaking sector of the electroweak gauge theory. The experimental prospects are reviewed with emphasis on the multi-TeV pp colliders that may be built in the 1990's. The topics include new phenomena that might occur - e.g., a fourth generation, heavy gauge bosons, composite structure, and supersymmetry - as well as the signals of the unknown SU(2)/sub L/ /times/ U(1)/sub Y/ breaking mechanism that must occur within the TeV domain. 96 refs., 21 figs.

Chanowitz, M.S.

1989-02-01

81

Artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem

It is shown that the usual choice of units obtained by taking G = c = Planck constant = 1, giving the Planck units of mass, length and time, introduces an artificial contradiction between cosmology and particle physics: the lambda problem that we associate with Planck constant. We note that the choice of Planck constant = 1 does not correspond to the scale of quantum physics. For this scale we prove that the correct value is Planck constant \\hbar; 1/10^122, while the choice of Planck constant = 1 corresponds to the cosmological scale. This is due to the scale factor of 10^61 that converts the Planck scale to the cosmological scale. By choosing the ratio G/c^3 = constant = 1, which includes the choice G = c = 1, and the momentum conservation mc = constant, we preserve the derivation of the Einstein field equations from the action principle. Then the product Gm/c^2 = rg, the gravitational radius of m, is constant. For a quantum black hole we prove that Planck constant \\hbar; rg^2 \\hbar; (mc)^2. We also prove that the product lambda x Planck constant is a general constant of order one, for any scale. The cosmological scale implies lambda \\hbar; Planck constant \\hbar; 1, while the Planck scale gives lambda \\hbar; 1/Planck constant \\hbar; 10^122. This explains the lambda problem. We get two scales: the cosmological quantum black hole (QBH), size \\Lambda; 10^28 cm, and the quantum black hole (qbh) that includes the fundamental particles scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-13 cm, as well as the Planck scale, size \\Lambda; 10^-33 cm.

Antonio Alfonso-Faus

2008-11-24

82

This author's recent proposal of interferometric tests of Planck-scale-related properties of space-time is here revisited from a strictly phenomenological viewpoint. The results announced previously are rederived using elementary dimensional considerations. The dimensional analysis is then extended to the other two classes of experiments (observations of neutral kaons at particle accelerators and observations of the gamma rays we detect from distant astrophysical sources) which have been recently considered as opportunities to explore "foamy" properties of space-time. The emerging picture suggests that there is an objective and intuitive way to connect the sensitivities of these three experiments with the Planck length. While in previous studies the emphasis was always on some quantum-gravity scenario and the analysis was always primarily aimed at showing that the chosen scenario would leave a trace in a certain class of doable experiments, the analysis here reported takes as starting point the experiments and, by relating in a direct quantitative way the sensitivities to the Planck length, provides a model-independent description of the status of Planck-length phenomenology.

Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

2000-08-04

83

Relic neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. We summarize the main aspects of cosmological neutrinos and describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties. In particular, we discuss how cosmology provides information on the absolute scale of neutrino masses, complementary to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We explain why the combination of Planck temperature data with measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation angular scale provides a strong bound on the sum of neutrino masses, 0.23 eV at the 95% confidence level, while the lensing potential spectrum and the cluster mass function measured by Planck are compatible with larger values. We also review the constraints from current data on other neutrino properties. Finally, we describe the very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements, which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses cl...

Lesgourgues, Julien

2014-01-01

84

Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .

Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport

85

Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct three-dimensional space R?3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time M?,?4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in R?3 is developed. We state that M?,?4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ??0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ??0, where ?0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS?4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.

Balankin, Alexander S.

2013-10-01

86

MAP and Planck vs the Real Universe

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) and Planck Surveyor satellites promise to provide accurate maps of the sky at a range of frequencies and angular scales, from which it will be possible to extract estimates for cosmological parameters. But the real Universe is a nasty, messy place, full of non-linear astrophysics. It is certainly clear that MAP and Planck will fix the background cosmology at an unprecedented level. However, they will have to contend with everything that the Universe throws at them: multiple foregrounds; structure formation effects; and other complications we haven't even thought of yet. Some examples of such effects will be presented. Only an ideal, theorist's universe can be described by a number of free parameters in the single digits, while in reality it is likely that a greater wealth of information waits to be discovered. These `higher-order' processes should be considered as potentially measurable signals, rather than contaminants. The capabilities of Planck seem ideally suited to fully understanding the physics encoded in the microwave sky.

Douglas Scott

1998-10-21

87

A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

Rovelli, Carlo

2014-01-01

88

A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density ---not by size--- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. We consider arguments for $n=1/3$ and for $n=1$. There is no causality violation or faster-than-light propagation. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

Carlo Rovelli; Francesca Vidotto

2014-01-25

89

Broken scale invariance in particle physics

Recent theoretical efforts to understand how scale invariance is broken are reviewed in this paper. Various formulations of approximate scale invariance are considered, with emphasis on the structure of the energy-momentum tensor and the short distance behaviour of field theory. Present address: Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850.

P. Carruthers

1971-01-01

90

Phenomenology of SUSY with intermediate scale physics

The presence of fields at an intermediate scale between the Electroweak and the Grand Unification scale modifies the evolution of the gauge couplings and consequently the running of other parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, such as gauginos and scalar masses. The net effect is a modification of the low energy spectrum which affects both the collider phenomenology and the dark matter relic density.

C. Biggio

2012-06-01

91

Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ?, covering 2 ? ? ? 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ? ? 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ?s. For ? < 50, our likelihood exploits all Planck frequency channels from 30 to 353 GHz, separating the cosmological CMB signal from diffuse Galactic foregrounds through a physically motivated Bayesian component separation technique. At ? ? 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on a fine-grained set of angular cross-spectra derived from multiple detector combinations between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency channels, marginalising over power spectrum foreground templates. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-? cross-spectra with residuals below a few ?K2 at ? ? 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ?CDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ?CDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ? ? 1500. One specific example is the spectral index of scalar perturbations, for which we report a 5.4? deviation from scale invariance, ns = 1. Increasing the multipole range beyond ? ? 1500 does not increase our accuracy for the ?CDM parameters, but instead allows us to study extensions beyond the standard model. We find no indication of significant departures from the ?CDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the Planck best-fit ?CDM model and the low-? spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at ? ? 40, with a statistical significance of 2.5-3?. Without a theoretically motivated model for this power deficit, we do not elaborate further on its cosmological implications, but note that this is our most puzzling finding in an otherwise remarkably consistent data set.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

92

Relic neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. We summarize the main aspects of cosmological neutrinos and describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties. In particular, we discuss how cosmology provides information on the absolute scale of neutrino masses, complementary to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We explain why the combination of Planck temperature data with measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation angular scale provides a strong bound on the sum of neutrino masses, 0.23 eV at the 95% confidence level, while the lensing potential spectrum and the cluster mass function measured by Planck are compatible with larger values. We also review the constraints from current data on other neutrino properties. Finally, we describe the very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements, which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses close the minimum values guaranteed by flavour oscillations.

Julien Lesgourgues; Sergio Pastor

2014-04-07

93

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relic neutrinos play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. We summarize the main aspects of cosmological neutrinos and describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties. In particular, we discuss how cosmology provides information on the absolute scale of neutrino masses, complementary to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We explain why the combination of Planck temperature data with measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation angular scale provides a strong bound on the sum of neutrino masses, 0.23 eV at the 95% confidence level, while the lensing potential spectrum and the cluster mass function measured by Planck are compatible with larger values. We also review the constraints from current data on other neutrino properties. Finally, we describe the very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements, which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses close to the minimum values guaranteed by flavour oscillations.

Lesgourgues, Julien; Pastor, Sergio

2014-06-01

94

Small-scale physics of the ocean

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations and theoretical models of small-scale phenomena in the oceans are reviewed, with a focus on progress during the period 1983-1986. Topics examined include surface layers, equatorial turbulence, off-equator mixed layers, the scaling of mixing, turbulence concepts, laboratory results, internal waves and mixing, rings, the nature of the bottom layer, double diffusion and intrusions, salt fingers, and biological interactions. Also discussed are developments in instrumentation (fast sampling profilers with upward-profiling capability, deep profilers, ship-motion correction, horizontal samplers, small submersibles, submarines, towed packages, conductivity sensors, dissolved-oxygen sensors, and acoustic Doppler current profilers) and goals for future research.

Caldwell, Douglas R.

1987-01-01

95

Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires*

Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires* Departments of Physics by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean

Quake, Stephen R.

96

Extending Higgs inflation with TeV scale new physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higgs inflation is among the most economical and predictive inflation models, although the original Higgs inflation requires tuning the Higgs or top mass away from its current experimental value by more than 2? deviations, and generally gives a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio r ~ 10-3 (if away from the vicinity of critical point). In this work, we construct a minimal extension of Higgs inflation, by adding only two new weak-singlet particles at TeV scale, a vector-quark Script T and a real scalar Script S. The presence of singlets (Script T, Script S) significantly impact the renormalization group running of the Higgs boson self-coupling. With this, our model provides a wider range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r=Script O(0.1)-Script O(10-3), consistent with the favored r values by either BICEP2 or Planck data, while keeping the successful prediction of the spectral index ns simeq 0.96. It allows the Higgs and top masses to fully fit the collider measurements. We also discuss implications for searching the predicted TeV-scale vector-quark Script T and scalar Script S at the LHC and future high energy pp colliders.

He, Hong-Jian; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

2014-10-01

97

The Physical Education Predisposition Scale: Preliminary development and validation

The main aim of this study was to develop and test psychometrically the Physical Education Predisposition Scale, to assess secondary school students' cost–benefit assessment of physical education (PE) participation (PE attitude affective and attitude cognitive) and self-perceptions (PE perceived competence and self-efficacy). Secondary aims were to explore how the two variables were related, and to investigate age and gender differences.

Toni A. Hilland; Gareth Stratton; Don Vinson; Stuart Fairclough

2009-01-01

98

The physical basis of glacier volume-area scaling

Ice volumes are known for only a few of the roughly 160,000 glaciers worldwide but are important components of many climate and sea level studies which require water flux estimates. A scaling analysis of the mass and momentum conservation equations shows that glacier volumes can be related by a power law to more easily observed glacier surface areas. The relationship requires four closure choices for the scaling behavior of glacier widths, slopes, side drag and mass balance. Reasonable closures predict a volume-area scaling exponent which is consistent with observations, giving a physical and practical basis for estimating ice volumes. Glacier volume is insensitive to perturbations in the mass balance scaling, but changes in average accumulation area ratios reflect significant changes in the scaling of both mass balance and ice volume. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

Bahr, D.B.; Meier, M.F.; Peckham, S.D.

1997-01-01

99

Symmetry, scale types, and generalizations of classical physical measurement

A review is presented of a number of recent results concerning fundamental measurement structures with a particular emphasis on generalizations of physical measurement. Relational structures are classified in terms of richness and redundancy of their automorphism groups (i.e., in terms of their symmetries). By means of this classification, the possible types of measurement scales are described, and the possibilities for

R. DUNCAN LUCE; LOUIS NARENS

1983-01-01

100

Physical naturalness and dynamical breaking of classical scale invariance

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model of a confining dark sector, dark technicolor, that communicates with the Standard Model (SM) through the Higgs portal. In this model electroweak (EW) symmetry breaking and dark matter (DM) share a common origin, and the EW scale is generated dynamically. Our motivation to suggest this model is the absence of evidence for new physics from recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data. Although the conclusion is far from certain at this point, this lack of evidence may suggest that no mechanism exists at the EW scale to stabilize the Higgs mass against radiative corrections from ultraviolet (UV) physics. The usual reaction to this puzzling situation is to conclude that the stabilizing new physics is either hidden from us by accident, or that it appears at energies that are currently inaccessible, such that nature is indeed fine-tuned. In order to re-examine the arguments that have led to this dichotomy, we review the concept of naturalness in effective field theories, discussing in particular the role of quadratic divergences in relation to different energy scales. This leads us to suggest classical scale invariance as a guideline for model building, implying that explicit mass scales are absent in the underlying theory.

Heikinheimo, Matti; Racioppi, Antonio; Spethmann, Christian; Raidal, Martti; Tuominen, Kimmo

2014-05-01

101

Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE

The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.

DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL

2011-01-01

102

Physical scales in the Wigner-Boltzmann equation

The Wigner–Boltzmann equation provides the Wigner single particle theory with interactions with bosonic degrees of freedom associated with harmonic oscillators, such as phonons in solids. Quantum evolution is an interplay of two transport modes, corresponding to the common coherent particle-potential processes, or to the decoherence causing scattering due to the oscillators. Which evolution mode will dominate depends on the scales of the involved physical quantities. A dimensionless formulation of the Wigner–Boltzmann equation is obtained, where these scales appear as dimensionless strength parameters. A notion called scaling theorem is derived, linking the strength parameters to the coupling with the oscillators. It is shown that an increase of this coupling is equivalent to a reduction of both the strength of the electric potential, and the coherence length. Secondly, the existence of classes of physically different, but mathematically equivalent setups of the Wigner–Boltzmann evolution is demonstrated. PMID:23504194

Nedjalkov, M.; Selberherr, S.; Ferry, D.K.; Vasileska, D.; Dollfus, P.; Querlioz, D.; Dimov, I.; Schwaha, P.

2013-01-01

103

ON THE TREND TO EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION : AN INTERPLAY

ON THE TREND TO EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION : AN INTERPLAY BETWEEN PHYSICS of trend to equilibrium for the Fokker-Planck equation of statistical physics, and several inequalities of Gaussian isoperimetry. Contents 1. The Fokker-Planck equation 2 2. Trend to equilibrium 3 3. Entropy

Villani, CÃ©dric

104

Large lattice fractional Fokker–Planck equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An equation of long-range particle drift and diffusion on a 3D physical lattice is suggested. This equation can be considered as a lattice analog of the space-fractional Fokker–Planck equation for continuum. The lattice approach gives a possible microstructural basis for anomalous diffusion in media that are characterized by the non-locality of power law type. In continuum limit the suggested 3D lattice Fokker–Planck equations give fractional Fokker–Planck equations for continuous media with power law non-locality that is described by derivatives of non-integer orders. The consistent derivation of the fractional Fokker–Planck equation is proposed as a new basis to describe space-fractional diffusion processes.

Tarasov, Vasily E.

2014-09-01

105

A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical cloud resolving models (CRMs), which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that CRMs agree with observations in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and regional scale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a szrper-parameterization or multi-scale modeling -framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign can provide initial conditions as well as validation through utilizing the Earth Satellite simulators. At Goddard, we have developed a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics. The modeling system consists a coupled GCM-CRM (or MMF); a state-of-the-art weather research forecast model (WRF) and a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model). In these models, the same microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 3ICE), radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models are applied. In addition, a comprehensive unified Earth Satellite simulator has been developed at GSFC, which is designed to fully utilize the multi-scale modeling system. A brief review of the multi-scale modeling system with unified physics/simulator and examples is presented in this article.

Tao, W.K.; Anderson, D.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.; Houser, P.; Hou, A.; Lang, S.; Lau, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kakar, R.; Kumar, S.; Lapenta, W.; Li, X.; Matsui, T.; Rienecker, M.; Shen, B.W.; Shi, J.J.; Simpson, J.; Zeng, X.

2008-01-01

106

2T Physics, Scale Invariance and Topological Vector Fields

We construct, in classical two-time physics, the necessary structure for the most general configuration space formulation of quantum mechanics containing gravity in d+2 dimensions. This structure is composed of a symmetric Riemannian metric tensor and of a vector field that defines a section of a flat U(1) bundle over space-time. This construction is possible because of the existence of a finite local scale invariance of the Hamiltonian and because two-time physics contains, at the classical level, a local generalization of the discrete duality symmetry between position and momentum that underlies the structure of quantum mechanics.

W. Chagas-Filho

2007-06-04

107

The Planck Mission: Early Results

The ESA Planck space mission, launched on May 14, 2009, is dedicated to high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the first light of the universe, both in temperature and polarization. The satellite observes the full sky from a far-Earth orbit with two cryogenic instruments in the 30-850 GHz range at the focal plane of a 1.5-meter telescope. The primary objective of Planck is to measure with unprecedented precision the key cosmological parameters and to provide accurate tests of physics in the early universe. Planck has recently completed the fifth full-sky survey. The data analysis is underway. The first cosmology results are expected in early 2013 while a number of astrophysical results have been recently delivered to the community, including galactic and extragalactic astrophysics and a rich catalogue of radio and infrared sources. These results demonstrate the excellent in-orbit performance of the instruments and give excellent prospects for the forthcoming cosmological results.

Marco Bersanelli (University of Milan, Italy) [University of Milan, Italy

2012-03-07

108

Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2012-01-01

109

MaxPlanckInstitut fur Physik Munich, Germany

background physics. The Max Planck Society wishes to increase the participation of women in its rese- arch activities. Therefore, applications from women are particularly welcome. The Max Planck Society is committed and analysis. The successful candidate is expected to take leadership responsibility in one or more

110

Pre-big bang model has Planck problem

The pre-big bang's kinetic driven inflationary mechanism is not an adequate form of inflation: the Planck length grows more rapidly than the scale factor. In order to explain our large universe, the resulting post-big bang universe requires the same unnatural constants (Planck problem) as those of any other non-inflationary big bang model.

D. H. Coule

1997-12-12

111

The Planck Surveyor mission: astrophysical prospects

Although the Planck Surveyor mission is optimized to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, it will also provide extremely valuable information on astrophysical phenomena. We review our present understanding of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds relevant to the mission and discuss on one side, Planck{close_quote}s impact on the study of their properties and, on the other side, to what extent foreground contamination may affect Planck{close_quote}s ability to accurately determine cosmological parameters. Planck{close_quote}s multifrequency surveys will be unique in their coverage of large areas of the sky (actually, of the full sky); this will extend by two or more orders of magnitude the flux density interval over which mm/sub-mm counts of extragalactic sources can be determined by instruments already available (like SCUBA) or planned for the next decade (like the LSA-MMA or the space mission FIRST), which go much deeper but over very limited areas. Planck will thus provide essential complementary information on the epoch-dependent luminosity functions. Bright radio sources will be studied over a poorly explored frequency range where spectral signatures, essential to understand the physical processes that are going on, show up. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, with its extremely rich information content, will be observed in the direction of a large number of rich clusters of Galaxies. Thanks again to its all sky coverage, Planck will provide unique information on the structure and on the emission properties of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy. At the same time, the foregrounds are unlikely to substantially limit Planck{close_quote}s ability to measure the cosmological signals. Even measurements of polarization of the primordial Cosmic Microwave background fluctuations appear to be feasible. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

De Zotti, Gianfranco; Toffolatti, Luigi [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)] Toffolatti, Luigi [Dep. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, c.le Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)] Argueso, Francisco [Dep. de Matematicas, Universidad de Oviedo, c.le Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)] Davies, Rodney D. [Nuffield Radio Astron. Lab., University of Manchester, Jodrell Bank, Macclesfield Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom)] Smoot, George F. [LBNL, SSL, Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vittorio, Nicola [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy)] Partridge, R. Bruce [Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041-1392 (United States)

1999-05-01

112

On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data

The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit large and small scale TT power spectrum, scalar power index smaller than one and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB, urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion, can account for small scale - large scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negativ...

Palle, Davor

2014-01-01

113

This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ±.54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses

Justin B. Moore; Zenong Yin; John Hanes; Joan Duda; Bernard Gutin; Paule Barbeau

2009-01-01

114

Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: Physics for Many Different Scales

The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as ``small'' as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the universe itself, with ``intermediate'' sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple) fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the ``standard'' text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor, in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an ``integrability'' condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion) interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.

N. Andersson; G. L. Comer

2006-05-01

115

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency (hereafter ESA) Planck satellite was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and the submillimeter sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations. In this contribution we present the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are well described by the standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (?CDM) cosmological model based on six parameters. We find a low value of the Hubble parameter, H 0 = 67.3 ± 1.2 km/s/Mpc, and, consequently, an high value of the matter parameter density ? m = 0.315±0.017 (±1 ? errors), in agreement with the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. We also present results from several possible extensions of the standard cosmological model, by using astrophysical datasets in addition to the Planck data. None of these models are favored significantly over the standard ?CDM. Using BAO and CMB data, we find N eff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.25 eV for the summed neutrino mass.

Pagano, Luca

2014-09-01

116

Precision measurements of Higgs couplings: implications for new physics scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measured properties of the recently discovered Higgs boson are in good agreement with predictions from the Standard Model. However, small deviations in the Higgs couplings may manifest themselves once the currently large uncertainties will be improved as part of the LHC program and at a future Higgs factory. We review typical new physics scenarios that lead to observable modifications of the Higgs interactions. They can be divided into two broad categories: mixing effects as in portal models or extended Higgs sectors, and vertex loop effects from new matter or gauge fields. In each model we relate coupling deviations to their effective new physics scale. It turns out that with percent level precision the Higgs couplings will be sensitive to the multi-TeV regime.

Englert, C.; Freitas, A.; Mühlleitner, M. M.; Plehn, T.; Rauch, M.; Spira, M.; Walz, K.

2014-11-01

117

Physical vacuum as a system manifesting itself on various scales - from nuclear physics to cosmology

Suggested here is an attempt to resolve on a phenomenological basis the most keenly discussed enigma of the Universe, namely, the essence of its base medium, "dark energy", which is usually associated with the physical vacuum and accounts for 73% of the energy content of the Universe. To what extent are this vacuum of the standard model of the dynamics of the Universe and the vacuum introduced to describe the phenomena of the microworld; i.e., the vacuum in chromodynamics and quantum electrodynamics, one and the same vacuum? And what is the reason for the catastrophic difference, "discrepancy of many orders of magnitude", between the cosmological constant values evaluated on the basis of the vacuum of the microworld and that of the macroworld? It has been demonstrated that a key point in the solution of the variety of the above problems should be the rejection of the standard model associated with a single-stage matter-generation process that had taken its course during the Big Bang. It turned out that the principal dynamics specificities of the expanding Universe could be due to the constant action of an energy-mass source of the Planck power, developed at the instant of the Big Bang. In that case, the well-known problems of the standard model of the dynamics of the Universe, associated with the introduction of such hypothetical entities as dark energy and dark matter, can be solved in a non-contradictory fashion on a phenomenological basis, and the paradox of the "discrepancy of many orders of magnitude" between cosmological constant values can be resolved.

Serge F. Timashev

2011-07-09

118

The CMB Derivatives of Planck's Beam Asymmetry

We investigate the anisotropy in cosmic microwave background Planck maps due to the coupling between its beam asymmetry and uneven scanning strategy. Introducing a pixel space estimator based on the temperature gradients, we find a highly significant (~20 \\sigma) preference for these to point along ecliptic latitudes. We examine the scale dependence, morphology and foreground sensitivity of this anisotropy, as well as the capability of detailed Planck simulations to reproduce the effect, which is crucial for its removal, as we demonstrate in a search for the weak lensing signature of cosmic defects.

Rathaus, Ben

2014-01-01

119

The CMB derivatives of Planck's beam asymmetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the anisotropy in cosmic microwave background Planck maps due to the coupling between its beam asymmetry and uneven scanning strategy. Introducing a pixel space estimator based on the temperature gradients, we find a highly significant (˜20?) preference for these to point along ecliptic latitudes. We examine the scale dependence, morphology and foreground sensitivity of this anisotropy, as well as the capability of detailed Planck simulations to reproduce the effect, which is crucial for its removal, as we demonstrate in a search for the weak-lensing signature of cosmic defects.

Rathaus, Ben; Kovetz, Ely D.

2014-09-01

120

Anomalous physical effects from artificial numerical length scales

Shock capturing algorithms are widely used for simulations of compressible fluid flow. Though these algorithms resolve a shock wave within a couple of grid points, the artificial length scale from the numerical shock profile can have side effects. The side effects are similar to physical effects that occur when a relaxation process gives rise to fully or partly dispersed shock waves. Two anomalies due to a non-zero shock width are discussed: (1) in one-dimension, a non-decaying entropy spike results from a transient when a shock profile is formed or changed; (2) in multi-dimensions, front curvature affects the propagation of a shock wave. The authors show that both the entropy anomaly and the curvature effect are a natural consequence of the conservation laws. The same analysis applies both to the continuum equations and to their finite difference approximations in conservation form. Consequently, the artificial length scale inherent in a shock capturing algorithm can mimic real physical effects that are associated with partly dispersed shock waves.

Menikoff, R.; Lackner, K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1995-09-01

121

Background: The 29-item Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) was developed to examine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on physical and psychological functioning from a patient’s perspective. Objective: To determine the responder definition (RD) of the MSIS-29 physical impact subscale (PHYS) in a group of patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) participating in a clinical trial. Methods: Data from the SELECT trial comparing daclizumab high-yield process with placebo in patients with RRMS were used. Physical function was evaluated in SELECT using three patient-reported outcomes measures and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Anchor- and distribution-based methods were used to identify an RD for the MSIS-29. Results: Results across the anchor-based approach suggested MSIS-29 PHYS RD values of 6.91 (mean), 7.14 (median) and 7.50 (mode). Distribution-based RD estimates ranged from 6.24 to 10.40. An RD of 7.50 was selected as the most appropriate threshold for physical worsening based on corresponding changes in the EDSS (primary anchor of interest). Conclusion: These findings indicate that a ?7.50 point worsening on the MSIS-29 PHYS is a reasonable and practical threshold for identifying patients with RRMS who have experienced a clinically significant change in the physical impact of MS. PMID:24740371

Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Guo, Shien; Medori, Rossella; Altincatal, Arman; Wagner, Linda; Elkins, Jacob

2014-01-01

122

BACKGROUND: Many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Parents and friends are likely to influence children's physical activity but there is a shortage of measures that are able to capture these influences. METHODS: A new questionnaire with the following three scales was developed: 1) Parental influence on physical activity; 2) Motives for activity with friends scale; and 3) Physical

Russell Jago; Kenneth R Fox; Angie S Page; Rowan Brockman; Janice L Thompson

2009-01-01

123

Stable mass hierarchies and dark matter from hidden sectors in the scale-invariant standard model

Scale invariance may be a classical symmetry which is broken radiatively. This provides a simple way to stabilize the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking against radiative corrections. But for such a theory to be fully realistic, it must actually incorporate a hierarchy of scales, including the Planck and the neutrino mass scales in addition to the electroweak scale. The dark matter sector and the physics responsible for baryogenesis may or may not require new scales, depending on the scenario. We develop a generic way of using hidden sectors to construct a technically-natural hierarchy of scales in the framework of classically scale-invariant theories. We then apply the method to generate the Planck mass and to solve the neutrino mass and dark matter problems through what may be termed the ''scale-invariant standard model.'' The model is perturbatively renormalizable for energy scales up to the Planck mass.

Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

2010-08-01

124

A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. The following is presented in this report: (1) a brief review of the GCE model and its applications on the impact of aerosols on deep precipitation processes, (2) the Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) a discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications).

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2008-01-01

125

The theory of scale relativity is a new approach to the problem of the origin of fundamental scales and of scaling laws in physics, that consists of generalizing Einstein's principle of relativity (up to now applied to motion laws) to scale transformations. Namely, we redefine space-time resolutions as characterizing the state of scale of the reference system and require that

L. Nottale

1996-01-01

126

A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems. In addition, high - resolution (spatial. 2km, and temporal, I minute) visualization showing the model results will be presented.

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2010-01-01

127

Some Physics Aspects of Isotope Scaling of Ion Thermal Transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have already reported results of isotopic scaling experiments in the Columbia Linear Machine which indicate inverse dependence of ion thermal conductivity due to ITG modes on the isotopic mass close to K_bot ˜ A_i-0.5[1]. This is similar to the tokamak results, but in stark contrast to most present theoretical models. We now experimentally study some of the possible physics basis of this result using the following possible causal chain for transport: (i) Linear instability drive (?) causes fluctuation => (ii) Saturated fluctuation level (tilden) via nonlinear coupling => (iii) Statistical mechanics of scattering of energy and particles. The isotopic scaling of linear growth rate is measured via a feedback diagnostic for two gases, Hydrogen and Deuterium. Our preliminary experiments indicated that linear growth rate is mass dependent and lower for Deuterium. Secondly, we will report on the isotopic effect on the nonlinear dynamics, say 3-wave coupling, via changes in the bi-coherence between the two gases. *The research is supported by U.S. DOE grant DE - FG02-98ER54464. [1] V.Sokolov and A.K.Sen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., DPP, 46 (8), p. 243 (2001).

Sokolov, Vladimir; Sen, Amiya K.; Fan, Wenli

2002-11-01

128

The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) Questionnaire; Does It Predict Physical Health?

A lack of physical activity is common in older adults. With the increasing Canadian senior population, identifying the minimum amount of physical activity required to maintain the health of older adults is essential. This study determined whether relationships existed between the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire scores and health-related measurements in community-dwelling older adults who were meal delivery volunteers. Based on observed relationships between PASE scores and health parameters, the study attempted to predict an optimal PASE score that would ensure health parameters fell in desired ranges for older adults. 297 community-dwelling older adults (61.3% female) 60–88 years (72.1 ± 6.5) completed the PASE and were measured for body composition, cardiovascular and blood parameters, flexibility, and handgrip strength. Significant regression models using PASE were produced for the health-related measures, but the relationships were not meaningful due to low predictive capacity. However, correlational data suggested that a minimum PASE score of ~140 for males and ~120 for females predicted a favorable waist circumference. In conclusion, findings demonstrated that PASE scores cannot be used to predict healthy physical measures, although the relationships between PASE and WC could be used to encourage older adults to become more physically active. PMID:23999546

Logan, Samantha L.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.; Meegan, Dan; Spriet, Lawrence L.

2013-01-01

129

Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

2005-10-01

130

Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8° to 15' are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement (measured by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ? ? ? 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ? range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematicerrors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described. Subsequent analysis of the beams quantifies the importance of asymmetry in the near sidelobes, which was not fully accounted for initially, affecting the 70/100 ratio. Correcting for this, the 70, 100, and 143 GHz power spectra agree to 0.4% over the first two acoustic peaks. The likelihood analysis that produced the 2013 cosmological parameters incorporated uncertainties larger than this. We show explicitly that correction of the missing near sidelobe power in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3? except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1?. We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and find a roughly 2% difference between the Planck and WMAP power spectra in the region of the first acoustic peak.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

131

RELATING GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES USING FIELD-SCALE ROCK PHYSICS

CMWRXVI 1 RELATING GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES USING FIELD-SCALE ROCK PHYSICS STEPHEN has been made by rock physics investigations that define how pore-scale variations in properties like, geophysical properties must be converted to hydrologic properties (or vice versa) using a rock physics

Knight, Rosemary

132

Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to be ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5?.Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r< 0.11 (95% CL). The Planck data thus shrink the space of allowed standard inflationary models, preferring potentials with V''< 0. Exponential potential models, the simplest hybrid inflationary models, and monomial potential models of degree n ? 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining dns/ dlnk = - 0.0134 ± 0.0090. We verify these conclusions through a numerical analysis, which makes no slow-roll approximation, and carry out a Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection analysis for a number of inflationary models including monomial, natural, and hilltop potentials. For each model, we present the Planck constraints on the parameters of the potential and explore several possibilities for the post-inflationary entropy generation epoch, thus obtaining nontrivial data-driven constraints. We also present a direct reconstruction of the observable range of the inflaton potential. Unless a quartic term is allowed in the potential, we find results consistent with second-order slow-roll predictions. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit by ??2eff ? 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining power spectrum data with Planck bounds on fNL. Planck constrains with unprecedented accuracy the amplitude and possible correlation (with the adiabatic mode) of non-decaying isocurvature fluctuations. The fractional primordial contributions of cold dark matter (CDM) isocurvature modes of the types expected in the curvaton and axion scenarios have upper bounds of 0.25% and 3.9% (95% CL), respectively. In models with arbitrarily correlated CDM or neutrino isocurvature modes, an anticorrelated isocurvature component can improve the ?2eff by approximately 4 as a result of slightly lowering the theoretical prediction for the ? ? 40 multipoles relative to the higher multipoles. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with adiabatic initial conditions.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tréguer-Goudineau, J.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

133

Planck 2013 results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNLlocal = 2.7 ± 5.8, fNLequil = -42 ± 75, and fNLorth = -25 ± 39 (68% CL statistical). Non-Gaussianity is detected in the data; using skew-C? statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the integrated-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ?CDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C?, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and thus derive constraints on early-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Davies vacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, cs ? 0.02 (95% CL), in an effective field theory parametrization, and the curvaton decay fraction rD ? 0.15 (95% CL). The Planck data significantly limit the viable parameter space of the ekpyrotic/cyclic scenarios. The amplitude of the four-point function in the local model ?NL< 2800 (95% CL). Taken together, these constraints represent the highest precision tests to date of physical mechanisms for the origin of cosmic structure.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A. Affiliation: AE(; ), AI(; ), AK(; ), AL(; ), AN(; ), AP(

2014-11-01

134

Inflationary schism after Planck2013

Classic inflation, the theory described in textbooks, is based on the idea that, beginning from typical initial conditions and assuming a simple inflaton potential with a minimum of fine-tuning, inflation can create exponentially large volumes of space that are generically homogeneous, isotropic and flat, with nearly scale-invariant spectra of density and gravitational wave fluctuations that are adiabatic, Gaussian and have generic predictable properties. In a recent paper, we showed that, in addition to having certain conceptual problems known for decades, classic inflation is for the first time also disfavored by data, specifically the most recent data from WMAP, ACT and Planck2013. Guth, Kaiser and Nomura and Linde have each recently published critiques of our paper, but, as made clear here, we all agree about one thing: the problematic state of classic inflation. Instead, they describe an alternative inflationary paradigm that revises the assumptions and goals of inflation, and perhaps of science generally.

Anna Ijjas; Paul J. Steinhardt; Abraham Loeb

2014-02-27

135

A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the ph ysical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2010-01-01

136

Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model – that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian – are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates of the CMB that are compared to simulations using a fiducial ?CDM model and incorporating essential aspects of the Planck measurement process. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice, and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3?). However, we find little evidence of non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance in the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist on scales corresponding to about ? = 600 and can be described in the low-? regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial power asymmetry is strongly scale-dependent and does not extend to arbitrarily small angular scales. Finally, it is plausible that some of these features may be reflected in the angular power spectrum of the data, which shows a deficit of power on similar scales. Indeed, when the power spectra of two hemispheres defined by a preferred direction are considered separately, one shows evidence of a deficit in power, while its opposite contains oscillations between odd and even modes that may be related to the parity violation and phase correlations also detected in the data. Although these analyses represent a step forward in building an understanding of the anomalies, a satisfactory explanation based on physically motivated models is still lacking.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Räth, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

137

Theory & motivation Physics Analysis Results Summary Scaled momentum distributions of charged

Theory & motivation Physics Analysis Results Summary Scaled momentum distributions of charged.morris@cern.ch DIS09 29th April 2009 1 / 18 #12;Theory & motivation Physics Analysis Results Summary Talk outline 1 Theoretical framework: The MLLA and LPHD; Physics motivation. 2 Physics Analysis: Analysis strategy; Data

138

Particle Physics Aspects of Antihydrogen Studies with ALPHA at CERN

discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA technical developments are required in order to produce, detect, trap, cool and interrogate anti- atoms

Fajans, Joel

139

Finite difference approximations for the fractional Fokker–Planck equation

The fractional Fokker–Planck equation has been used in many physical transport problems which take place under the influence of an external force field. In this paper we examine some practical numerical methods to solve a class of initial-boundary value problems for the fractional Fokker–Planck equation on a finite domain. The solvability, stability, consistency, and convergence of these methods are discussed.

S. Chen; F. Liu; P. Zhuang; V. Anh

2009-01-01

140

An entropic scheme for an angular moment model for the classical Fokker-Planck-Landau equation of

An entropic scheme for an angular moment model for the classical Fokker-Planck-Landau equation physics domain, the electron transport is described with the Fokker- Planck-Landau equation. The direct, Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, moment systems, entropic scheme. 1 Introduction Classically in kinetic

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

141

to a Fokker-Planck Equation C. Ates,1,2 J. P. Garrahan,1 and I. Lesanovsky1,2 1 School of Physics that the evolution into thermal equilibrium is governed by a Fokker-Planck equation derived from the underlying- laxation is often described by an effective evolution equa- tion, such as a master or Fokker-Planck

Garrahan, Juan P.

142

Planck Oscillators in the Background Dark Energy

We consider a model for an underpinning of the universe: there are oscillators at the Planck scale in the background dark energy. Starting from a coherent array of such oscillators it is possible to get a description from elementary particles to Black Holes including the usual Hawking-Beckenstein theory. There is also a description of Gravitation in the above model which points to a unified description with electromagnetism.

Burra G. Sidharth

2009-12-08

143

Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…

Quincey, Paul

2013-01-01

144

Algorithms for the scaling toward nanometer VLSI physical synthesis

Along the history of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), we have successfully scaled down the size of transistors, scaled up the speed of integrated circuits (IC) and the number of transistors in a chip - these are just a few examples of our...

Sze, Chin Ngai

2007-04-25

145

Neutrinos help reconcile Planck measurements with the local universe.

Current measurements of the low and high redshift Universe are in tension if we restrict ourselves to the standard six-parameter model of flat ?CDM. This tension has two parts. First, the Planck satellite data suggest a higher normalization of matter perturbations than local measurements of galaxy clusters. Second, the expansion rate of the Universe today, H0, derived from local distance-redshift measurements is significantly higher than that inferred using the acoustic scale in galaxy surveys and the Planck data as a standard ruler. The addition of a sterile neutrino species changes the acoustic scale and brings the two into agreement; meanwhile, adding mass to the active neutrinos or to a sterile neutrino can suppress the growth of structure, bringing the cluster data into better concordance as well. For our fiducial data set combination, with statistical errors for clusters, a model with a massive sterile neutrino shows 3.5? evidence for a nonzero mass and an even stronger rejection of the minimal model. A model with massive active neutrinos and a massless sterile neutrino is similarly preferred. An eV-scale sterile neutrino mass--of interest for short baseline and reactor anomalies--is well within the allowed range. We caution that (i) unknown astrophysical systematic errors in any of the data sets could weaken this conclusion, but they would need to be several times the known errors to eliminate the tensions entirely; (ii) the results we find are at some variance with analyses that do not include cluster measurements; and (iii) some tension remains among the data sets even when new neutrino physics is included. PMID:24580585

Wyman, Mark; Rudd, Douglas H; Vanderveld, R Ali; Hu, Wayne

2014-02-01

146

Neutrinos Help Reconcile Planck Measurements with the Local Universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current measurements of the low and high redshift Universe are in tension if we restrict ourselves to the standard six-parameter model of flat ?CDM. This tension has two parts. First, the Planck satellite data suggest a higher normalization of matter perturbations than local measurements of galaxy clusters. Second, the expansion rate of the Universe today, H0, derived from local distance-redshift measurements is significantly higher than that inferred using the acoustic scale in galaxy surveys and the Planck data as a standard ruler. The addition of a sterile neutrino species changes the acoustic scale and brings the two into agreement; meanwhile, adding mass to the active neutrinos or to a sterile neutrino can suppress the growth of structure, bringing the cluster data into better concordance as well. For our fiducial data set combination, with statistical errors for clusters, a model with a massive sterile neutrino shows 3.5? evidence for a nonzero mass and an even stronger rejection of the minimal model. A model with massive active neutrinos and a massless sterile neutrino is similarly preferred. An eV-scale sterile neutrino mass—of interest for short baseline and reactor anomalies—is well within the allowed range. We caution that (i) unknown astrophysical systematic errors in any of the data sets could weaken this conclusion, but they would need to be several times the known errors to eliminate the tensions entirely; (ii) the results we find are at some variance with analyses that do not include cluster measurements; and (iii) some tension remains among the data sets even when new neutrino physics is included.

Wyman, Mark; Rudd, Douglas H.; Vanderveld, R. Ali; Hu, Wayne

2014-02-01

147

Physical modeling and analysis of rain and clouds by anisotropic scaling multiplicative processes

We argue that the basic properties of rain and cloud fields (particularly their scaling and intermittency) are best understood in terms of coupled (anisotropic and scaling) cascade processes. We show how such cascades provide a framework not only for theoretically and empirically investigating these fields, but also for constructing physically based stochastic models. This physical basis is provided by cascade

Daniel Schertzer; Shaun Lovejoy

1987-01-01

148

Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim of our experiments is to reproduce the instability trigger that occurs in saturated or partially unsaturated conditions depending on the specific characteristics of the soil and its initial conditions; the retention curve of fine sand and the initial porosity are taken into account to highlight the hydrological condition of the surface layer during the trigger occurrence. Through our experimental setup we can investigate the succession of phases and their magnitude that cause the landslide trigger, in order to understand the instability mechanism that heavy rainfall can induce in fine sandy hillslopes. Particular attention is given on the role of water pressure head, not only with respect to the violation of Coulomb failure within a sloping soil, but also with respect to the subsequent deformation that involves the upper hillslope layers. In particular, we report here on the characterization of the sandy terrain used in the experiments and the preliminary results, together with a first discussion of the observed data.

Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

2013-12-01

149

Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes a section that describes efforts already underway or planned at NERSC that address requirements collected at the workshop. NERSC has many initiatives in progress that address key workshop findings and are aligned with NERSC's strategic plans.

Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

2010-11-24

150

Physical Activity Recognition from Accelerometer Data Using a Multi-Scale Ensemble Method

Physical Activity Recognition from Accelerometer Data Using a Multi-Scale Ensemble Method Yonglei Accurate and detailed measurement of an individual's physical activity is a key requirement for helping re- searchers understand the relationship between physical activity and health. Accelerometers have become

Wong, Weng-Keen

151

Rho-Star Scaling and Physically Realistic Gyrokinetic Simulations of Transport in DIII-D

This paper briefly reviews the DIII-D experiments to determine rho-star ({rho}{sub *}) confinement scaling to reactors, the theory of broken gyro-Bohm scaling from local rotational shear stabilization and various nonlocal effects, and how the gyrokinetic code GYRO is being used for physically realistic simulations to understand Bohm scaling in L-modes.

Waltz, R.E. [General Atomics (United States)

2005-10-15

152

Does Planck really rule out monomial inflation?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the modifications of monomial chaotic inflation models due to radiative corrections induced by inflaton couplings to bosons and/or fermions necessary for reheating. To the lowest order, ignoring gravitational corrections and treating the inflaton as a classical background field, they are of the Coleman-Weinberg type and parametrized by the renormalization scale ?. In cosmology, there are not enough measurements to fix ? so that we end up with a family of models, each having a slightly different slope of the potential. We demonstrate by explicit calculation that within the family of chaotic phi2 models, some may be ruled out by Planck whereas some remain perfectly viable. In contrast, radiative corrections do not seem to help chaotic phi4 models to meet the Planck constraints.

Enqvist, Kari; Kar?iauskas, Mindaugas

2014-02-01

153

Asymptotic series for singularly perturbed Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck equations

The authors derive limit theorems for the transition densities of diffusion processes and develop asymptotic expansions for solutions of a class of singularly perturbed Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck equations. The model under consideration can be viewed as a Markov process having two time scales. One of them is a rapidly changing scale, and the other is a slowly varying one. The study is

R. Z. Khasminskii; G. Yin

1996-01-01

154

On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data

The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit large and small scale TT power spectrum, scalar power index smaller than one and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB, urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion, can account for small scale - large scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negative, thus it can provide partial cancellation of the large scale power of the TT CMB spectrum. The observed violation of the isotropy appears as a natural ingredient of the Einstein-Cartan model caused by the spin densities of light Majorana neutrinos in the early stage of the evolution of the Universe and bound to the lepton CP violation and matter-antimatter asymmetry.

Davor Palle

2014-05-14

155

On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit the large and small scale TT power spectrum, the scalar power index smaller than unity, and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion can account for small-scale-large-scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negative, and it can therefore provide partial cancellation of the large-scale power of the TT CMB spectrum. The observed violation of the isotropy appears as a natural ingredient of the Einstein-Cartan model caused by the spin densities of light Majorana neutrinos in the early stage of the evolution of the Universe and bound to the lepton CP violation and matter-antimatter asymmetry.

Palle, D.

2014-04-01

156

Physical meaning of one-machine and multimachine tokamak scalings

Specific features of energy confinement scalings constructed using different experimental databases for tokamak plasmas are considered. In the multimachine database, some pairs of engineering variables are collinear; e.g., the current I and the input power P both increase with increasing minor radius a. As a result, scalings derived from this database are reliable only for discharges in which such ratios as I/a{sup 2} or P/a{sup 2} are close to their values averaged over the database. The collinearity of variables allows one to exclude the normalized Debye radius d* from the scaling expressed in a nondimensional form. In one-machine databases, the dimensionless variables are functionally dependent, which allow one to cast a scaling without d*. In a database combined from two devices, the collinearity may be absent, so the Debye radius cannot generally be excluded from the scaling. It is shown that the experiments performed in support of the absence of d* in the two-machine scaling are unconvincing. Transformation expressions are given that allow one to compare experiments for the determination of scaling in any set of independent variables.

Dnestrovskij, Yu. N., E-mail: dnyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation); Ongena, J. [Euratom-Belgium State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium)] [Euratom-Belgium State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium)

2013-04-15

157

Physical meaning of one-machine and multimachine tokamak scalings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific features of energy confinement scalings constructed using different experimental databases for tokamak plasmas are considered. In the multimachine database, some pairs of engineering variables are collinear; e.g., the current I and the input power P both increase with increasing minor radius a. As a result, scalings derived from this database are reliable only for discharges in which such ratios as I/ a 2 or P/ a 2 are close to their values averaged over the database. The collinearity of variables allows one to exclude the normalized Debye radius d* from the scaling expressed in a nondimensional form. In one-machine databases, the dimensionless variables are functionally dependent, which allow one to cast a scaling without d*. In a database combined from two devices, the collinearity may be absent, so the Debye radius cannot generally be excluded from the scaling. It is shown that the experiments performed in support of the absence of d* in the two-machine scaling are unconvincing. Transformation expressions are given that allow one to compare experiments for the determination of scaling in any set of independent variables.

Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E.; Ongena, J.

2013-04-01

158

The environmental setting (e.g., climate, topography, geology) and land use affect stream physical characteristics singly and cumulatively. At broad geographic scales, we determined the importance of environmental setting and land use in explaining variation in stream physical characteristics. We hypothesized that as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, land use would explain more of the variation in stream physical characteristics because environmental settings become more homogeneous. At a national scale, stepwise linear regression indicated that environmental setting was more important in explaining variability in stream physical characteristics. Although statistically discernible, the amount of variation explained by land use was not remarkable due to low partial correlations. At level II ecoregion spatial scales (southeastern USA plains, central USA plains, and a combination of the western Cordillera and the western interior basins and ranges), environmental setting variables were again more important predictors of stream physical characteristics, however, as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, the portion of variability in stream physical characteristics explained by basin land use increased. Development of stream habitat indicators of land use will depend upon an understanding of relations between stream physical characteristics and environmental factors at multiple spatial scales. Smaller spatial scales will be necessary to reduce the confounding effects of variable environmental settings before the effects of land use can be reliably assessed. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.

Goldstein, R.M.; Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Short, T.M.

2007-01-01

159

Channel Meander Migration in Large-Scale Physical Model Study

A set of large-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study channel meander migration. Factors affecting the migration of banklines, including the ratio of curvature to channel width, bend angle, and the Froude number were tested...

Yeh, Po Hung

2010-10-12

160

Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25?. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (?8) derived from CMB data and that derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich data. The Planck and WMAP power spectra are offset from each other by an average level of about 2% around the first acoustic peak. Analysis of Planck polarization data is not yet mature, therefore polarization results are not released, although the robust detection of E-mode polarization around CMB hot and cold spots is shown graphically.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ili?, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.

2014-11-01

161

The Sport Motivation Scale for Children: preliminary analysis in physical education classes.

This study was done to test the psychometric properties of the modified version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for children in physical education. Participants were elementary school students (N = 452, M(age) = 13.9 +/- 1.04) who responded to the Sport Motivation Scale for Children. The scale assesses three types of motivation at the contextual level, namely, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation. Results supported the construct validity (CFI = .95), and internal consistency of the scale (Cronbach alpha > .65). Correlations indicated Sport Motivation Scale for Children simplex pattern exhibiting higher correlations among adjacent subscales than subscales farther apart. The concurrent validity, examined through correlations with scores on the Physical Self-description Questionnaire was satisfactory. Sex differences were examined to assess the discriminant validity. Boys were more intrinsically motivated than girls. Overall, the scale seems a useful one for assessment of motivation in physical education. PMID:16350608

Zahariadis, Panayotis N; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

2005-08-01

162

Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (? ? 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ?CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be ?? = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, ?bh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, ?ch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, ?m = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ?CDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ?CDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ?CDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ? ? ? 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

163

On a relativistic Fokker-Planck equation in kinetic theory

A relativistic kinetic Fokker-Planck equation that has been recently proposed in the physical literature is studied. It is shown that, in contrast to other existing relativistic models, the one considered in this paper is invariant under Lorentz transformations in the absence of friction. A similar property (invariance by Galilean transformations in the absence of friction) is verified in the non-relativistic case. In the first part of the paper some fundamental mathematical properties of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation are established. In particular, it is proved that the model is compatible with the finite propagation speed of particles in relativity. In the second part of the paper, two non-linear relativistic mean-field models are introduced. One is obtained by coupling the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics, and is therefore of interest in plasma physics. The other mean-field model couples the Fokker-Planck dynamics to a relativistic scalar theory of gravity (the Nordstr\\"om theory) and is therefore of interest in gravitational physics. In both cases the existence of steady states for all possible prescribed values of the mass is established. In the gravitational case this result is better than for the corresponding non-relativistic model, the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck system, for which existence of steady states is known only for small mass.

José Antonio Alcántara Félix; Simone Calogero

2010-11-24

164

PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The primordial power spectrum describes the initial perturbations that seeded the large-scale structure we observe today. It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this Letter, we recover the primordial power spectrum from the Planck PR1 dataset, using our recently published algorithm PRISM. Methods: PRISM is a sparsity-based inversion method that aims at recovering features in the primordial power spectrum from the empirical power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This ill-posed inverse problem is regularised using a sparsity prior on features in the primordial power spectrum in a wavelet dictionary. Although this non-parametric method does not assume a strong prior on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, it is able to recover both its general shape and localised features. As a results, this approach presents a reliable way of detecting deviations from the currently favoured scale-invariant spectrum. Results: We applied PRISM to 100 simulated Planck data to investigate its performance on Planck-like data. We then applied PRISM to the Planck PR1 power spectrum to recover the primordial power spectrum. We also tested the algorithm's ability to recover a small localised feature at k ~ 0.125 Mpc-1, which caused a large dip at ? ~ 1800 in the angular power spectrum. Conclusions: We find no significant departures from the fiducial Planck PR1 near scale-invariant primordial power spectrum with As = 2.215 × 10-9 and ns = 0.9624.

Lanusse, F.; Paykari, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.; Rassat, A.

2014-11-01

165

tools for the simulation of laser-plasma interaction at ultra-high laser intensities (UHI). In parallel of applications, from physics and engineering to medicine. At cur- rently available intensities (up to 1020 W/cm2 interaction with the target front- side (the one irradiated by the laser) creates hot relativistic electrons

Skupin, Stefan

166

Physical Scale Modeling of VHF/UHF SAR Collection Geometries

Intelligence Center, 2055 Boulders Road, Charlottesville, VA 22911 Ph: (434) 980-7352 Fax: (434) 980 comparisons are to be made between scale-model and field imagery. The advantage of collecting data in a linear/UHF frequencies is demonstrated by comparing linear flight path ISAR imagery with traditional fixed grazing angle

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

167

Planck's Legacy to Statistical Mechanics

In this talk I will describe the deep influence Planck had on the development of statistical mechanics. At this end I will first outline the theoretical situation of statistical mechanics before Planck. I will then describe his main contributions to this field and the progresses obtained as an immediate consequence of his work. I will also outline the later evolution of statistical mechanics in relation with Planck's work. I will finally report on a still unsolved problem in statistical mechanics, historically related to the properties of black-body radiation.

Giorgio Parisi

2001-01-18

168

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

-dimensional parabolic problems in the TT/QTT-format with initial application to the Fokker-Planck equation (revised application to the Fokker-Planck equation S. V. Dolgov1 , B. N. Khoromskij2 and I. V. Oseledets3 1,2 Max-Planck-format, DMRG, higher dimensions, tensor methods, Fokker-Planck equation, dumbbell model Abstract. In this paper

169

GEOMETRIC FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATIONS

We study the large deviation function and small time asymptotics near the diagonal for the heat equation associated to Geometric Fokker-Planck equations (GFK) on the cotangent bundle ? = TX of a Riemannian smooth compact connected variety X.

Gilles Lebeau

2005-01-01

170

Nuclear Physics from QCD: The Anticipated Impact of Exa-Scale Computing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss highlights in the progress that is being made toward calculating processes of importance in nuclear physics from QCD using high performance computing. As exa-scale computing resources are expected to become available around 2017, I present current estimates of the computational resources required to accomplish central goals of nuclear physics.

Savage, Martin J.

2011-05-01

171

Vacuum Polarization in High Energy Physics: (MZ) and at ILC scale 1. Introduction

Vacuum Polarization in High Energy Physics: (MZ) and at ILC scale 1. Introduction 2. (MZ. The running electric charge at high energies 179-1 #12;Physics of vacuum polarization ... 1. Introduction Non" (E) (charge screening by vacuum polarization) Of particular interest: (MZ) and aÂµ (g - 2)Âµ/2 (mÂµ

RÃ¶der, Beate

172

A framework for inferring field-scale rock physics relationships through numerical simulation

the scale of an individual geo- physical measurement has a significant effect on rock physics relationships water content and dielectric constant for layered and spatially correlated media, respectively. The authors used ray theory and effective medium theory to demonstrate that spatial heterogeneity below

Singha, Kamini

173

The Effects of Peripheral Vision and Physical Navigation on Large Scale Visualization

is physical movement of the focal vision to access different portions of the display, such as eye saccadesThe Effects of Peripheral Vision and Physical Navigation on Large Scale Visualization Robert Ball reasons for the advantage are (1) the wider field of view that exploits peripheral vision to provide

174

Scaling concepts are applied to three problems in condensed matter physics. The N -orbital, single impurity Kondo problem is shown to be equivalent to an N -state Potts model in one dimension with inverse-square interactions. Using renormalization techniques, it is found that the peak in the static magnetic susceptibility at finite N develops into a discontinuity as Ntoinfty. A scaling

Madeleine Patrice Gelband

1987-01-01

175

'Power law scaling during physical vapor deposition under extreme shadowing conditions

interisland separation, which scales for metallic systems with the homologous growth temperature =Ts'Power law scaling during physical vapor deposition under extreme shadowing conditions S. Mukherjee as well as surface islands on the rod growth fronts control the morphological evolution which

Gall, Daniel

176

The physics behind the larger scale organization of DNA in eukaryotes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss in detail the organization of chromatin during a cell cycle at several levels. We show that current experimental data on large-scale chromatin organization have not yet reached the level of precision to allow for detailed modeling. We speculate in some detail about the possible physics underlying the larger scale chromatin organization.

Emanuel, Marc; Radja, Nima Hamedani; Henriksson, Andreas; Schiessel, Helmut

2009-06-01

177

Deformed Fokker-Planck Equations

Based on the well-known relation between Fokker-Planck equations and Schroedinger equations of quantum mechanics (QM), we propose new deformed Fokker-Planck (FP) equations associated with the Schroedinger equations of "discrete" QM. The latter is a natural discretization of QM and its Schroedinger equations are difference instead of differential equations. Exactly solvable FP equations are obtained corresponding to exactly solvable "discrete" QM, whose eigenfunctions include various deformations of the classical orthogonal polynomials.

Choon-Lin Ho; Ryu Sasaki

2006-12-13

178

Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the Cosmic Microwave Background

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck Mission, launched May 14, 2009, will measure the sky over nine frequency channels, with temperature sensitivity of a few microKelvin, and angular resolution of up to 5 arc minutes. Planck is expected to provide the data needed to set tight constraints on cosmological parameters, study the ionization history of the Universe, probe the dynamics of the inflationary era, and test fundamental physics. The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University are preparing a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Two products currently under development are an interactive simulation of the mission which can be run in a virtual reality environment, and an interactive presentation on interpreting the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background with music. In this paper we present a brief overview of CMB research and the Planck Mission, and discuss how to explain, to non-technical audiences, the theory of how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music.

van der Veen, J.

2010-08-01

179

Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.

A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we compare this to cylindrical array results in the context of a K-shell yield scaling model. We have also performed an initial study of compact 3 mm diameter cylindrical wire arrays, which are alternate candidates for a multi-pinch vacuum hohlraum concept. These massive 3.4 and 6 mg/cm loads may have been impacted by opacity, producing a maximum x-ray power of 7 TW at 4.5 MA, 45 ns. Future research directions in compact x-ray sources are discussed.

Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Laboratoire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I. (Icarus Research, Bethesda, MD); Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Vigil, Marcelino Patricio

2008-09-01

180

Countability of Planck Boxes in Quantum Branching Models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two popular paradigms of cosmological quantum branching are Many World (MW) model of parallel universes (Everett, Deutsch) and inflationary quantum foam (IQF) model (Guth, Linde). Taking Planck L,T units as physically smallest, our Big Bang miniverse with size 10E28 cm and duration 10E18 sec has some 10E244 (N) elementary 4D Planck Boxes (PB) in its entire spacetime history. Using combinatorics, N! (about 10E10E247) is upper estimate for number of all possible 4D states, i.e. scale of "eternal return" (ER; Nietzsche, Eliade) for such miniverses. To count all states in full Megaverse (all up and down branches of infinite tree of all MW and/or IQF miniverses) we recall that all countable infinities have same (aleph-naught) cardinality (Cantor). Using Godel-type numbering, count PB in our miniverse by primes. This uses first N primes. Both MW and IQF models presume splitting of miniverses as springing (potentially) from each PB, making each PB infinitely rich, inexhaustible and unique. Next branching level is counted by integers p1Ep2, third level by p1Ep2Ep3 integers, etc, ad infinitum. To count in up and down directions from "our" miniverse, different branching subsets of powers of primes can be used at all levels of tower exponentiation. Thus, all PB in all infinitude of MW and/or IQF branches can be uniquely counted by never repeating integers (tower exponents of primes), offering escape from grim ER scenarios.

Berezin, Alexander A.

2002-04-01

181

Effects of pore-scale physics on uranium geochemistry in Hanford sediments

Overall, this work examines a key scientific issue, mass transfer limitations at the pore-scale, using both new instruments with high spatial resolution, and new conceptual and modeling paradigms. The complementary laboratory and numerical approaches connect pore-scale physics to macroscopic measurements, providing a previously elusive scale integration. This Exploratory research project produced five peer-reviewed journal publications and eleven scientific presentations. This work provides new scientific understanding, allowing the DOE to better incorporate coupled physical and chemical processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship.

Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.

2013-11-25

182

arXiv:1010.2791v3[math.AP]20Jan2012 THE WIGNER-FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION: STATIONARY

arXiv:1010.2791v3[math.AP]20Jan2012 THE WIGNER-FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION: STATIONARY STATES AND LARGE, AND CHRISTOF SPARBER Abstract. We consider the linear Wigner-Fokker-Planck equation subject to confining of the Wigner-Fokker-Planck equation (WFP), considered in the following dimensionless form (where all physical

183

Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate

We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.

Amos Nur

2009-01-08

184

Probing TeV scale physics in precision UCN decays

We present the calculation of matrix elements of iso-vector scalar, axial and tensor charges between a neutron and a proton state on dynamical $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration using valence clover fermions. These matrix elements are needed to probe novel scalar and tensor interactions in neutron beta-decay that can arise in extensions to the Standard Model at the TeV scale. Results are presented at one value of the lattice spacing, $a=0.12$ fm, and two values of light quarks corresponding to $M_\\pi=310$ and $220$ MeV. We discuss two sources of systematic errors, contribution of excited states to these matrix elements and the renormalization constants, and the efficacy of methods used to control them.

Gupta, Rajan; Joseph, Anosh; Cohen, Saul D; Lin, Huey-Wen

2014-01-01

185

Probing TeV scale physics in precision UCN decays

We present the calculation of matrix elements of iso-vector scalar, axial and tensor charges between a neutron and a proton state on dynamical $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration using valence clover fermions. These matrix elements are needed to probe novel scalar and tensor interactions in neutron beta-decay that can arise in extensions to the Standard Model at the TeV scale. Results are presented at one value of the lattice spacing, $a=0.12$ fm, and two values of light quarks corresponding to $M_\\pi=310$ and $220$ MeV. We discuss two sources of systematic errors, contribution of excited states to these matrix elements and the renormalization constants, and the efficacy of methods used to control them.

Rajan Gupta; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Anosh Joseph; Saul D. Cohen; Huey-Wen Lin

2014-03-11

186

Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external voltages. Extensive numerical experiments show that there is an excellent consistency between the results predicted from the present PBNP model and those obtained from the PNP model in terms of the electrostatic potentials, ion concentration profiles, and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The present PBNP model is further validated by a comparison with experimental measurements of I-V curves under various ion bulk concentrations. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed PBNP model is more efficient than the original PNP model in terms of simulation time.

Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei

2011-05-01

187

Some Aspects of Planck Scale Quantum Optics

This paper considers the effects of gravitational induced uncertainty on some well-known quantum optics issues. First we will show that gravitational effects at quantum level destroy the notion of harmonic oscillations. Then it will be shown that, although it is possible(at least in principle) to have complete coherency and vanishing broadening in usual quantum optics, gravitational induced uncertainty destroys complete coherency and it is impossible to have a monochromatic ray. We will show that there is an additional wave packet broadening due to quantum gravitational effects.

Kourosh Nozari

2005-08-11

188

The transient solution of the laser Fokker-Planck equation

The transient solution of the laser Fokker-Planck equation is investigated in the threshold region. Especially for the initial condition, that no photons are present att=0, the transient of the laser distribution function, of the mean intensity and of the mean squared deviation (variance) into the stationary values are shown. Finally we give a physical explanation of the effects involved and

H. Risken; H. D. Vollmer

1967-01-01

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible co-dependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations must account for both the physics of flow in heterogeneous landscapes, and the co-dependence of soil and topographic properties with climate, including possibly the mediating role of vegetation.

Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hong-yi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, L. Ruby; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu

2014-11-01

190

Planck Visualization Project: Seeing and Hearing the CMB

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck Education and Public Outreach collaborators at the University of California, Santa Barbara and Purdue University have prepared a variety of materials to present the science goals of the Planck Mission to the public. Here we present our interactive simulation of the Cosmic Microwave Background, in which the user can change the ingredients of the universe and hear the different harmonics. We also present how we derive information about the early universe from the power spectrum of the CMB by using the physics of music for the public.

Van Der Veen, Jatila; Lubin, P. M.; 2; Alper, B.; 3; Smith, W.; 4; McGee, R.; 5; US Planck Collaboration

2011-01-01

191

Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the “nominal” mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30–857 GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180 mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution (from 32.88' to 4.33') than previous all-sky surveys in this frequency band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected in at least two contiguous Planck channels. In this paper we present the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Argüeso, F.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

192

Is Planck data consistent with primordial deuterium measurements?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies provided by the Planck satellite experiment have significantly improved the constraints on several cosmological parameters. In this brief paper we point out a small but interesting tension present between recent values of the primordial deuterium measured from quasar absorption line systems and the same value inferred, albeit indirectly, from the Planck measurements assuming ? CDM and big bang nucleosynthesis. Here we discuss this tension in detail investigating the possible new physics that could be responsible for the tension. We found that, among 8 extra parameters, only an anomalous lensing component and a closed universe could change the Planck constraint towards a better consistency with direct deuterium measurements.

Salvati, Laura; Said, Najla; Melchiorri, Alessandro

2014-11-01

193

Entropy production and nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations.

The entropy time rate of systems described by nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations--which are directly related to generalized entropic forms--is analyzed. Both entropy production, associated with irreversible processes, and entropy flux from the system to its surroundings are studied. Some examples of known generalized entropic forms are considered, and particularly, the flux and production of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy, obtained from the linear Fokker-Planck equation, are recovered as particular cases. Since nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations are appropriate for the dynamical behavior of several physical phenomena in nature, like many within the realm of complex systems, the present analysis should be applicable to irreversible processes in a large class of nonlinear systems, such as those described by Tsallis and Kaniadakis entropies. PMID:23367922

Casas, G A; Nobre, F D; Curado, E M F

2012-12-01

194

Implications of SCUBA observations for the Planck Surveyor

We investigate the implications for the Planck Surveyor of the recent sub-millimetre number counts obtained using the SCUBA camera. Since it observes at the same frequency as one of the higher frequency science channels on Planck, SCUBA can provide constraints on the point-source contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum, which require no extrapolation in frequency. We have calculated the two-point function of these sub-millimetre sources, using a Poisson model normalized to the observed counts. While the current data are uncertain, under reasonable assumptions the point-source contribution to the anisotropy is comparable to the noise in the 353GHz channel. The clustering of these sources is currently unknown, however if they cluster like the z~3 Lyman-break galaxies their signal would be larger than the primary anisotropy signal on scales smaller than about 10 arcmin. We expect the intensity of these sources to decrease for wavelengths longward of 850 microns. At the next lowest Planck frequency, 217GHz, the contribution from both the clustered and Poisson terms are dramatically reduced. Hence we do not expect these sources to seriously affect Planck's main science goal, the determination of the primordial anisotropy power spectrum. Rather, the potential determination of the distribution of sub-mm sources is a further piece of cosmology that Planck may be able to tackle.

Douglas Scott; Martin White

1998-08-01

195

This paper summarizes a series of studies conducted to test the reliability and validity of a new scale intended for the assessment of early childhood development centers (such as child care centers, nursery schools, kindergartens, and the like). The physical environment of early childhood facilities—e.g., size, density, plan type, activity settings—is related to children's cognitive and social development. While a

Gary T. Moore; Takemi Sugiyama

196

From the Perron-Frobenius equation to the Fokker-Planck equation

We show that for certain classes of deterministic dynamical systems the Perron-Frobenius equation reduces to the Fokker-Planck equation in an appropriate scaling limit. By perturbative expansion in a small time scale parameter, we also derive the equations that are obeyed by the first- and second-order correction terms to the Fokker-Planck limit case. In general, these equations describe non-Gaussian corrections to

Christian Beck

1995-01-01

197

Fully Kinetic Fokker-Planck Model of Thermal Smoothing in Nonuniform Laser-Target Interactions

Using a fully kinetic 2D Fokker-Planck model, the generation and evolution of ion density perturbations from nonuniform laser deposition in a plasma slab have been studied. It is found that significant smoothing of the ion density perturbations from nonuniform optically smoothed single beam laser deposition can be achieved on hydrodynamic times scales over a range of scale sizes. In addition, it is observed that the Fokker-Planck model predicts more smoothing than the hydrodynamic Spitzer model.

Keskinen, M. J. [Charged Particle Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

2009-07-31

198

Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ? = 2000. The parameter constraints on ?CDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about ? = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (?< -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of ?> -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

199

The calculations of reduction of the rate of scale formation at heat exchanger walls with time are presented. A physical model\\u000a describing a decrease in the scale formation by decreasing the area of the wall surface of the heat exchanger in comparison\\u000a with the surface area of the suspended crystals generated by the magnetic device has been analyzed.

S. I. Koshoridze; Yu. K. Levin

2009-01-01

200

Visible sector inflation and the right thermal history in light of Planck data

Inflation creates perturbations for the large scale structures in the universe, but it also dilutes everything. Therefore it is pertinent that the end of inflation must explain how to excite the Standard Model dof along with the dark matter. In this paper we will briefly discuss the role of visible sector inflaton candidates which are embedded within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and discuss their merit on how well they match the current data from the Planck. Since the inflaton carries the Standard Model charges their decay naturally produces all the relevant dof with no dark/hidden sector radiation and no isocurvature fluctuations. We will first discuss a single supersymmetric flat direction model of inflation and demonstrate what parameter space is allowed by the Planck and the LHC. We will also consider where the perturbations are created by another light field which decays after inflation, known as a curvaton. The late decay of the curvaton can create observable non-Gaussianity. In the end we will discuss the role of a spectator field whose origin may not lie within the visible sector physics, but its sheer presence during inflation can still create all the perturbations responsible for the large scale structures including possible non-Gaussianity, while the inflaton is embedded within the visible sector which creates all the relevant matter including dark matter, but no dark radiation.

Wang, Lingfei; Pukartas, Ernestas; Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

201

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity in Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) galileon models in which an induced gravity term is added to the DBI action. In this model, the non-Gaussianity of orthogonal shape can be generated. We provide a relation between theoretical parameters and orthogonal/equilateral nonlinear parameters using the Fisher matrix approach for the CMB bispectrum. In doing so, we include the effect of the CMB transfer functions and experimental noise properties by employing the recently developed second order non-Gaussianity code. The relation is also shown in the language of effective theory so that it can be applied to general single-field models. Using the bispectrum Fisher matrix and the central values for equilateral and orthogonal non-Gaussianities found by the Planck temperature survey, we provide forecasts on the theoretical parameters of the DBI galileon model. We consider the upcoming Planck polarization data and the proposed post-Planck experiments Cosmic Origins Explore (COrE) and Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (PRISM). We find that Planck polarization measurements may provide a hint for a non-canonical sound speed at the 68% confidence level. COrE and PRISM will not only confirm a non-canonical sound speed but also exclude the conventional DBI inflation model at more than the 95% and 99% confidence level respectively, assuming that the central values will not change. This indicates that improving constraints on non-Gaussianity further by future CMB experiments is invaluable to constrain the physics of the early universe.

Koyama, Kazuya; Pettinari, Guido Walter; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Fidler, Christian

2014-06-01

202

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (? < 60), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (? > 500) the clustered cosmic infrared background and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We thus measure the tSZ power spectrum over angular scales 0.17° ? ? ? 3.0° that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with clear evidence of additional signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on ?8.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

203

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

in space and time (continuous process, for short) and that can be described by a Fokker-Planck equation. In 1955, by solving this Fokker-Planck equation de- rived from the Wright-Fisher model, Kimura obtained, 2013. Key words and phrases. Random genetic drift, Fokker-Planck equation, Wright-Fisher model, several

204

FRACTIONAL FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION ISABELLE TRISTANI

FRACTIONAL FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION ISABELLE TRISTANI Abstract. This paper deals with the long time behavior of solutions to a "fractional Fokker-Planck" equation of the form tf = I[f]+div(xf) where-differential operators; 35B40 Asymptotic behavior of solutions; 35Q84 Fokker-Planck equations. Keywords: Fractional

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

205

I recently demonstrated that the Earth is a mechanical oscillator in which springtide induced magnification of all-masses resonance forces tectonics. I here generalize this georesonator concept so to make it apply to any body, anywhere in all the universes, and at all times. It turns out that there is no distinction between physics at intergalactic, mechanist, quantum, and smaller scales. Instead of being a constant (of proportionality of physics at all scales), G is a parameter of most general form: G = s e^2, nonlinearly varying amongst different scales s. The so called scale variability of physics but not of G, imagined as such by Planck and Einstein, is due to springtide-induced extreme resonance of Earth masses critically impeding terrestrial experiments for estimating G, while providing artificial settings for quantum experiments to all trivially "work". Thus the derived equation is that of levitation. Reality is a system of near infinitely many magnifying oscillators, where permanent energy decay of all oscillation forbids constancy of known "physical constants". This hyperresonator concept explains the magnetism (as every forced oscillator feature), as well as the gravitation (as forward propagation of mechanical vibrations along the aether i.e. throughout the vacuum structure). To test my claim I propose a Space mission to collect on site measurements of eigenperiods of the Sun, its planets, and their satellites. The levitation equitation enables propulsionless Space travel via gravity sailing: Space vehicle hull ought to be engineered so as to automatically adjust its grave mode, to the vehicle instant gravitational surroundings, akin to trout up swimming.

M. Omerbashich

2008-01-06

206

Psychometric Properties of the “Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)” Adapted to Physical Education

The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (?2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (?2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (?2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model.

Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo

2014-01-01

207

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

2010-01-01

208

Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need to examine whether measurement structure holds across groups (e.g., active vs.

Laura C. Carpenter; Sara Anne Tompkins; Sarah J. Schmiege; Renea Nilsson; Angela Bryan

2010-01-01

209

Equating the MOS SF36 and the LSU HSI Physical Functioning Scales.

This study equates the physical functioning subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF36) and the Louisiana State University Health Status Instruments (LSU HSI). Data from the SF36's 10-item physical functioning scale, the PF10, and the LSU HSI's 29-item Physical Functioning Scale (PFS), were fit to separate and mixed Rasch rating scale models. Data were provided by a convenience sample of 285 patients waiting for appointments in a public hospital general medicine clinic. Difficulty estimates for a subset of similar items from the two instruments were highly correlated (.95), indicating that the items from the two scales are working together to measure the same variable. The measures from the two equated instruments correlate .80 (.86 when disattenuated for error). Of the two instruments, the PFS's error is lower, model fit is better, and reliability coefficients are higher. Both instruments measure physical functioning, and can do so in a common unit of measurement. Conversion tables are provided for transforming raw scores from either instrument into the common metric. PMID:9661727

Fisher, W P; Eubanks, R L; Marier, R L

1997-01-01

210

Physical Education Teacher Attitudes toward Fitness Tests Scale: Cross-Revalidation and Modification

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to provide further evidence of validity and reliability for the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS), which consisted of affective and cognitive domains. There were two subdomains in the affective domain (i.e., enjoyment of implementing fitness tests and enjoyment of using test results) and one…

Keating, Xiaofen D.; Guan, Jianmin; Ferguson, Robert H.; Chen, Li; Bridges, Dwan M.

2008-01-01

211

Novel algorithm for large-scale physical calculation algorithm Takeo Hoshi Tottori University

Novel algorithm for large-scale physical calculation algorithm Takeo Hoshi Tottori University (2010) [c] R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, and T. Fujiwara, PRB 73. Yamamoto, T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang and T. Fujiwara, JPSJ 77,114713 (2008).[e

Hoshi, Takeo

212

Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education Activities Scale

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…

Memis, Ugur Altay

2013-01-01

213

The Children's Perceived Locus of Causality Scale for Physical Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mixed methods design was applied to evaluate the application of the Perceived Locus of Causality scale (PLOC) to preadolescent samples in physical education settings. Subsequent to minor item adaptations to accommodate the assessment of younger samples, qualitative pilot tests were performed (N = 15). Children's reports indicated the need…

Pannekoek, Linda; Piek, Jan P.; Hagger, Martin S.

2014-01-01

214

Scaling Properties of Rainfall-Induced Landslides Predicted by a Physically Based Model

Natural landslides exhibit scaling properties, including the frequency of the size of the landslides, and the rainfall conditions responsible for landslides. Reasons for the scaling behavior of landslides are poorly known, and only a few attempts were made to describe the empirical evidences of the self-similar scaling behavior of landslides with physically based models. We investigate the possibility of using the TRIGRS code, a consolidated, physically motivated, numerical model to describe the stability conditions of natural slopes forced by rainfall, to determine the frequency of the area of the unstable slopes and the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) conditions that result in landslides in a region.We apply TRIGRS in a portion of the Upper Tiber River Basin, Central Italy. The spatially distributed model predicts the stability conditions of individual grid cells, given the terrain and rainfall conditions. We run TRIGRS using multiple rainfall histories, and we compare the results to empirical evidences o...

Alvioli, M; Rossi, M

2013-01-01

215

Full linearized Fokker-Planck collisions in neoclassical transport simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator has been implemented in the drift-kinetic code NEO (Belli and Candy 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 095010) for the calculation of neoclassical transport coefficients and flows. A key aspect of this work is the development of a fast numerical algorithm for treatment of the field particle operator. This Eulerian algorithm can accurately treat the disparate velocity scales that arise in the case of multi-species plasmas. Specifically, a Legendre series expansion in ? (the cosine of the pitch angle) is combined with a novel Laguerre spectral method in energy to ameliorate the rapid numerical precision loss that occurs for traditional Laguerre spectral methods. We demonstrate the superiority of this approach to alternative spectral and finite-element schemes. The physical accuracy and limitations of more commonly used model collision operators, such as the Connor and Hirshman-Sigmar operators, are studied, and the effects on neoclassical impurity poloidal flows and neoclassical transport for experimental parameters are explored.

Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

2012-01-01

216

A scale for the measurement of attitudes toward physically disabled adults.

The ATDPs have been the instruments most commonly used for the measurement of attitudes toward disabled persons. However, it has become increasingly apparent that these scales have serious shortcomings and that a new scale is due. A New Scale was developed for the purpose of measuring attitudes towards permanently and seriously physically disabled adults. The subjects used for the development of this scale consisted of students studying for a Bachelor of Science degree in physiotherapy. The scale has 50 scored statements and 25 interest statements. The scored statements were created so that they could not be answered on the basis of factual knowledge, and would be difficult to answer on the basis of remembered experience and reasonable argument. The interest statements did not contribute to the subject's score and were included for the purpose of keeping the subject's interest in responding to all the statements on the scale. A psychometric analysis of the 50 scored statements demonstrated that the New Scale has excellent discriminative ability, internal consistency, and reliability, good validity, and that the influence of agreement response and social desirability is minimal. In addition it is believed that the New Scale has a high degree of unidimensionality. PMID:2534515

Speakman, H G

1989-01-01

217

Inflationary paradigm after Planck 2013

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models of cosmic inflation posit an early phase of accelerated expansion of the universe, driven by the dynamics of one or more scalar fields in curved spacetime. Though detailed assumptions about fields and couplings vary across models, inflation makes specific, quantitative predictions for several observable quantities, such as the flatness parameter (?k=1-?) and the spectral tilt of primordial curvature perturbations (ns-1=dln PR/dln k), among others-predictions that match the latest observations from the Planck satellite to very good precision. In the light of data from Planck as well as recent theoretical developments in the study of eternal inflation and the multiverse, we address recent criticisms of inflation by Ijjas, Steinhardt, and Loeb. We argue that their conclusions rest on several problematic assumptions, and we conclude that cosmic inflation is on a stronger footing than ever before.

Guth, Alan H.; Kaiser, David I.; Nomura, Yasunori

2014-06-01

218

Numerical algorithm for the time fractional Fokker Planck equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous diffusion is one of the most ubiquitous phenomena in nature, and it is present in a wide variety of physical situations, for instance, transport of fluid in porous media, diffusion of plasma, diffusion at liquid surfaces, etc. The fractional approach proved to be highly effective in a rich variety of scenarios such as continuous time random walk models, generalized Langevin equations, or the generalized master equation. To investigate the subdiffusion of anomalous diffusion, it would be useful to study a time fractional Fokker-Planck equation. In this paper, firstly the time fractional, the sense of Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fokker-Planck equation is transformed into a time fractional ordinary differential equation (FODE) in the sense of Caputo derivative by discretizing the spatial derivatives and using the properties of Riemann-Liouville derivative and Caputo derivative. Then combining the predictor-corrector approach with the method of lines, the algorithm is designed for numerically solving FODE with the numerical error O(k)+O(h2), and the corresponding stability condition is got. The effectiveness of this numerical algorithm is evaluated by comparing its numerical results for ?=1.0 with the ones of directly discretizing classical Fokker-Planck equation, some numerical results for time fractional Fokker-Planck equation with several different fractional orders are demonstrated and compared with each other, moreover for ?=0.8 the convergent order in space is confirmed and the numerical results with different time step sizes are shown.

Deng, Weihua

2007-12-01

219

Planck high-frequency instrument

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Frequency Instrument of the Planck satellite is dedicated to the measurement of the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Its main goal is to map the CMB with a sensitivity of ?T/T=2.10-6 and an angular resolution of 5 arcmin in order to constrain cosmological parameters. Planck is a project of the European Space Agency based on a wide international collaboration, including United States and Canadian laboratories. The architecture of the satellite is driven by the thermal requirements resulting from the search for low photon noise. Especially, the passively cooled telescope should be at less than 50K, while a cascade of cryo-coolers will ensure the cooling of the HFI bolometers down to 0.1K. This last temperature will be produced by a gravity insensitive 3He/4He dilution cooler. This will be achieved at the L2 Lagrangian point of the Sun-Earth system. The whole sky will be observed two times in the 14 months mission with a scanning strategy based on a 1RPM rotation of the satellite. In addition to the cosmological parameters that can be derived from the CMB maps, Planck will deliver nine high sensitivity submillimeter maps of the whole sky that will constitute unique data available to the whole astronomical community.

Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Puget, Jean L.; Piat, M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Lange, Andrew E.; Benoit, Alain; De Bernardis, Pierluigi; Bouchet, F. R.; Bock, James J.; Desert, F. X.; Emery, Roger J.; Giard, Martin; Maffei, Bruno; Murphy, J. A.; Torre, Jean-Pierre; Bhatia, Ravinder; Sudiwala, Rashmi V.; Yourchenko, V.

2003-03-01

220

Microphysics in the Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (l) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, the microphysics developments of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the heavy precipitation processes will be presented.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.

2011-01-01

221

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are various approaches available for assessing the flood vulnerability and damage to buildings and critical infrastructure. They cover pre- and post-event methods for different scales. However, there can hardly be found any method that allows for a large-scale pre-event assessment of the built structures with a high resolution. To make advancements in this respect, the paper presents, first, a conceptual framework for understanding the physical flood susceptibility of buildings and, second, a methodological framework for its assessment. The latter ranges from semi-automatic extraction of buildings, mainly from remote sensing with a subsequent classification and systematic characterisation, to the assessment of the physical flood susceptibility on the basis of depth-impact functions. The work shows results of the methodology's implementation and testing in a settlement of the city of Magangué, along the Magdalena River in Colombia.

Blanco-Vogt, A.; Schanze, J.

2014-08-01

222

Fokker-Planck Theory of Nonequilibrium Systems Governed by Hierarchical Dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of complex systems is often hierarchically organized on different time scales. To understand the physics of such hierarchy, here Brownian motion of a particle moving through a fluctuating medium with slowly varying temperature is studied as an analytically tractable example, and a kinetic theory is formulated for describing the states of the particle. What is peculiar here is that the (inverse) temperature is treated as a dynamical variable. Dynamical hierarchy is introduced in conformity with the adiabatic scheme. Then, a new analytical method is developed to show how the Fokker-Planck equation admits as a stationary solution the Maxwellian distribution modulated by the temperature fluctuations, the distribution of which turns out to be determined by the drift term. A careful comment is also made on so-called superstatistics.

Abe, Sumiyoshi

2014-02-01

223

Sleuth at CDF, a quasi-model-independent search for new electroweak scale physics

These proceedings describe Sleuth, a quasi-model-independent search strategy targeting new electroweak scale physics, and its application to 927 pb^-1 of CDF II data. Exclusive final states are analyzed for an excess of data beyond the Standard Model prediction at large summed scalar transverse momentum. This analysis of high-pT data represents one of the most encompassing searches so far conducted for

CDF CollaborationGeorgios Choudalakis

2007-01-01

224

Fokker-Planck equation for the energy cascade in turbulence

We present a detailed analysis of the energy dissipation averaged over a distance r,?r, in terms of a stochastic process through scales. Using experimental data recorded in a low temperature helium jet, we give evidence that the probability density function of ln(?r) obeys a Fokker-Planck equation. The drift and diffusion coefficients are calculated directly from the data. The drift is

A. Naert; R. Friedrich; J. Peinke

1997-01-01

225

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently accepted perception assumes Oncorhynchus mykiss prefer different ranges of similar physical habitat elements for spawning than Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), taking into account their difference in size. While there is increasing research interest regarding O. mykiss habitat use and migratory behavior, research conducted to date distinguishing the physical habitat conditions utilized for O. mykiss spawning has not provided quantified understanding of their spawning habitat preferences. The purpose of this study was to use electivity indices and other measures to assess the physical habitat characteristics preferred for O. mykiss spawning in terms of both 1-m scale microhabitat attributes, and landforms at different spatial scales from 0.1-100 times channel width. The testbed for this study was the 37.5-km regulated gravel-cobble Lower Yuba River (LYR). Using spatially distributed 2D hydrodynamic model results, substrate mapping, and a census of O. mykiss redds from two years of observation, micro- and meso-scale representations of physical habitat were tested for their ability to predict spawning habitat preference and avoidance. Overall there was strong stratification of O. mykiss redd occurrence for all representation types of physical habitat. A strong preference of hydraulic conditions was shown for mean water column velocities of 1.18-2.25 ft/s, and water depths of 1.25-2.76 ft. There was a marked preference for the two most upstream alluvial reaches of the LYR (out of 8 total reaches), accounting for 92% of all redds observed. The preferred morphological units (MUs) for O. mykiss spawning were more variable than for Chinook salmon and changed with increasing discharge, demonstrating that O. mykiss shift spawning to different MUs in order to utilize their preferred hydraulic conditions. The substrate range preferred for O. mykiss spawning was within 32-90 mm. Overall, O. mykiss spawning behavior was highly predictable and required a holistic blend of hydraulic and geomorphic representations to explain.

Kammel, L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Johnson, T.

2012-12-01

226

Unified scaling behavior of physical properties of clays in alcohol solutions.

This paper reports observation of universal scaling of physical properties of clay particles, Laponite (aspect ratio=30) (L) and Na Montmorillonite (MMT, aspect ratio=200), in aqueous alcohol solutions (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol) with solvent polarity, defined through reaction field factor f(OH)(?(0),n)=[(?(0) - 1/?(0) + 2) - (n(2) - 1/n(2) + 2)], at room temperature (20°C). Here, ?(0) and n are the static dielectric constant and refractive index of the solvent concerned. Physical properties (Z) such as zeta potential, effective aggregate size, viscosity and surface tension scaled with the relative solvent polarity as Z??f(?); ?f=(f(w)(?(0),n) - f(OH)(?(0),n)), where f(w)(?(0),n) is the reaction field factor for water, Z is the normalized physical property, and ? is its characteristic scaling exponent. The value of this exponent was found to be invariant of aspect ratio of the clay but dependent on the solvent polarity only. PMID:21945239

Pujala, Ravi Kumar; Pawar, Nisha; Bohidar, H B

2011-12-15

227

Understanding the correlation between soil hydraulic parameters and soil physical properties is a prerequisite for the prediction of soil hydraulic properties from soil physical properties. Th e objective of this study was to examine the scale- and location-dependent correlation between two water retention parameters (? and n) in the van Genuchten (1980) function and soil physical properties (sand content, bulk

Qiaosheng Shu; Zuoxin Liu; Bingcheng Si

2008-01-01

228

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

2008-01-01

229

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic.-M. Duan,5 and J. Kim4 1 Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland Department of Physics and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Department of Physics

Monroe, Christopher

230

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study employs Mixture Distribution Rasch models to compare the psychometric properties of two rating scale variants (original rating scale with six response categories, "N"?=?806 school students; a variant with four response categories, "N"?=?905 school students) for five specific scales of the Physical…

Freund, Philipp Alexander; Tietjens, Maike; Strauss, Bernd

2013-01-01

231

Recirculating induction accelerators (recirculators) have been investigated as possible drivers for inertial fusion energy production because of their potential cost advantage over linear induction accelerators. Point designs were obtained and many of the critical physics and technology issues that would need to be addressed were detailed. A collaboration involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers is now developing a small prototype recirculator in order to demonstrate an understanding of nearly all of the critical beam dynamics issues that have been raised. We review the design equations for recirculators and demonstrate how, by keeping crucial dimensionless quantities constant, a small prototype recirculator was designed which will simulate the essential beam physics of a driver. We further show how important physical quantities such as the sensitivity to errors of optical elements (in both field strength and placement), insertion/extraction, vacuum requirements, and emittance growth, scale from small-prototype to driver-size accelerator.

Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.; Callahan, D.A.

1996-02-06

232

The development and validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R).

The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS; Thompson, Heinberg, & Tantleff, 1991) was revised to assess appearance comparisons relevant to women and men in a wide variety of contexts. The revised scale (Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised, PACS-R) was administered to 1176 college females. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis and parallel analysis using one half of the sample suggested a single factor structure for the PACS-R. Study 2 utilized the remaining half of the sample to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, item analysis, and to examine the convergent validity of the scale. These analyses resulted in an 11-item measure that demonstrated excellent internal consistency and convergent validity with measures of body satisfaction, eating pathology, sociocultural influences on appearance, and self-esteem. Regression analyses demonstrated the utility of the PACS-R in predicting body satisfaction and eating pathology. Overall, results indicate that the PACS-R is a reliable and valid tool for assessing appearance comparison tendencies in women. PMID:24854806

Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

2014-04-01

233

Crocodile head scales are not developmental units but emerge from physical cracking.

Various lineages of amniotes display keratinized skin appendages (feathers, hairs, and scales) that differentiate in the embryo from genetically controlled developmental units whose spatial organization is patterned by reaction-diffusion mechanisms (RDMs). We show that, contrary to skin appendages in other amniotes (as well as body scales in crocodiles), face and jaws scales of crocodiles are random polygonal domains of highly keratinized skin, rather than genetically controlled elements, and emerge from a physical self-organizing stochastic process distinct from RDMs: cracking of the developing skin in a stress field. We suggest that the rapid growth of the crocodile embryonic facial and jaw skeleton, combined with the development of a very keratinized skin, generates the mechanical stress that causes cracking. PMID:23196908

Milinkovitch, Michel C; Manukyan, Liana; Debry, Adrien; Di-Poï, Nicolas; Martin, Samuel; Singh, Daljit; Lambert, Dominique; Zwicker, Matthias

2013-01-01

234

UNIVERSITAT Large-time behavior in Fokker-Planck equations

TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITï¿½AT WIEN Large-time behavior in Fokker-Planck equations Anton ARNOLD ( www ï¿½ Contents: 1 Entropy method for symmetric Fokker-Planck equations 2 Non-symmetric Fokker-Planck equations & application to a semi-linear model 5 Fokker-Planck model for polymeric fluid-flow 6 Fokker-Planck equations

Arnold, Anton

235

Planck Telescope: optical design and verification

The cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program Herschel\\/Planck is currently in the design manufacturing phase (phase C\\/D). The Planck satellite will be launched in 2007, together with Herschel. Located around the L2 Lagrange point, Planck aims at obtaining very accurate images of the Cosmic Wave Background fluctuations. Working up to high frequency (857 GHz, i.e. 350

Philippe Martin; Jean-Bernard Riti; Daniel de Chambure

2004-01-01

236

Planck intermediate results. XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the positions of the clusters, we obtain consistent constraints on the radial peculiar velocity average, root mean square (rms), and local bulk flow amplitude at different depths. For the whole cluster sample of average redshift 0.18, the measured average radial peculiar velocity with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to 72 ± 60 km s-1. This constitutes less than 1% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. While the linear ?CDM prediction for the typical cluster radial velocity rms at z = 0.15 is close to 230 km s-1, the upper limit imposed by Planck data on the cluster subsample corresponds to 800 km s-1 at 95% confidence level, i.e., about three times higher. Planck data also set strong constraints on the local bulk flow in volumes centred on the Local Group. There is no detection of bulk flow as measured in any comoving sphere extending to the maximum redshift covered by the cluster sample. A blind search for bulk flows in this sample has an upper limit of 254 km s-1 (95% confidence level) dominated by CMB confusion and instrumental noise, indicating that the Universe is largely homogeneous on Gpc scales. In this context, in conjunction with supernova observations, Planck is able to rule out a large class of inhomogeneous void models as alternatives to dark energy or modified gravity. The Planck constraints on peculiar velocities and bulk flows are thus consistent with the ?CDM scenario.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gonzáalez-Nuevo, J.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihánen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mak, D. S. Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Puisieux, S.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Roman, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

2014-01-01

237

Cosmological science enabled by Planck

Planck will be the first mission to map the entire cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with mJy sensitivity and resolution better than 10'. The science enabled by such a mission spans many areas of astrophysics and cosmology. In particular it will lead to a revolution in our understanding of primary and secondary CMB anisotropies, the constraints on many key cosmological parameters will be improved by almost an order of magnitude (to sub-percent levels) and the shape and amplitude of the mass power spectrum at high redshift will be tightly constrained.

Martin White

2006-06-27

238

Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale

The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key Points This study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the MCPES consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. Additionally, the results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate. Autonomy, social relatedness, and task climate were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego climate factor had low or negligible correlations with the other three factors. PMID:24570617

Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

2014-01-01

239

Factorial validity and internal consistency of the motivational climate in physical education scale.

The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key PointsThis study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories.The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the MCPES consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. Additionally, the results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions.The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate.Autonomy, social relatedness, and task climate were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego climate factor had low or negligible correlations with the other three factors. PMID:24570617

Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

2014-01-01

240

Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in a wind turbine array boundary layer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot-wire velocity signals from a model wind turbine array boundary layer flow wind tunnel experiment are analyzed. In confirming Markovian properties, a description of the evolution of the probability density function of velocity increments via the Fokker-Planck equation is attained. Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is possible due to the direct computation of the drift and diffusion coefficients from the experimental measurement data which were acquired within the turbine canopy. A good agreement is observed in the probability density functions between the experimental data and numerical solutions resulting from the Fokker-Planck equation, especially in the far-wake region. The results serve as a tool for improved estimation of wind velocity within the array and provide evidence that the evolution of such a complex and turbulent flow is also governed by a Fokker-Planck equation at certain scales.

Melius, Matthew S.; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán

2014-07-01

241

The Fokker-Planck equation for a bistable potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fokker-Planck equation is studied through its relation to a Schrödinger-type equation. The advantage of this combination is that we can construct the probability distribution of the Fokker-Planck equation by using well-known solutions of the Schrödinger equation. By making use of such a combination, we present the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for a bistable potential related to a double oscillator. Thus, we can observe the temporal evolution of the system describing its dynamic properties such as the time ? to overcome the barrier. By calculating the rates k=1/? as a function of the inverse scaled temperature 1/D, where D is the diffusion coefficient, we compare the aspect of the curve k×1/D, with the ones obtained from other studies related to four different kinds of activated process. We notice that there are similarities in some ranges of the scaled temperatures, where the different processes follow the Arrhenius behavior. We propose that the type of bistable potential used in this study may be used, qualitatively, as a simple model, whose rates share common features with the rates of some single rate-limited thermally activated processes.

Caldas, Denise; Chahine, Jorge; Filho, Elso Drigo

2014-10-01

242

Particle Physics on Ice: Constraints on Neutrino Interactions Far Above the Weak Scale

Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos probe energies far above the weak scale. Their usefulness might appear to be limited by astrophysical uncertainties; however, by simultaneously considering up- and down-going events, one may disentangle particle physics from astrophysics. We show that present data from the AMANDA experiment in the South Pole ice already imply an upper bound on neutrino cross sections at energy scales that will likely never be probed at man-made accelerators. The existing data also place an upper limit on the neutrino flux valid for any neutrino cross section. In the future, similar analyses of IceCube data will constrain neutrino properties and fluxes at the O(10%) level.

Luis A. Anchordoqui; Jonathan L. Feng; Haim Goldberg

2005-04-26

243

Electron electric dipole moment as a sensitive probe of PeV scale physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron electric dipole moment (EDM) within minimal supersymmetric standard model where the contributions to the EDM arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range. The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric (SUSY) contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a nonsupersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the nonsupersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases. This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.

Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran

2014-09-01

244

Electron EDM as a Sensitive Probe of PeV Scale Physics

We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron EDM within MSSM where the contributions to the electric dipole moment (EDM) arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range.The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a non-supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the non-supersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.

Tarek Ibrahim; Ahmad Itani; Pran Nath

2014-05-31

245

PERSPECTIVES New Max Planck Center in London

Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences (Arno Villringer) and the Wellcome Trust Centre- roscience Unit (Peter Dayan), the Max Planck Institute for Human Develop- ment (Ulman Lindenberger), the Max that are able to imitate the entire spectrum of human movement sequences. The new possibilities now available

Falge, Eva

246

PERSPEKTIVEN Neues Max Planck Center in London

Neuroscience Unit (Peter Dayan), das Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Bildungsforschung (Ulman Linden- berger), das Max PrÃ¤sidenten der Max- Planck-Gesellschaft, Peter Gruss, sprachen auf der ErÃ¶ff- nungsfeier auch David Willetts

247

Predicted Planck extragalactic point-source catalogue

An estimation of the number and amplitude (in flux) of the extragalactic point sources that will be observed by the Planck Mission is presented in this paper. The study is based on the Mexican Hat wavelet formalism introduced by Cayón et al. Simulations at Planck observing frequencies are analysed, taking into account all the possible cosmological, Galactic and extragalactic emissions

P. Vielva; E. Martínez-González; L. Cayón; J. M. Diego; J. L. Sanz; L. Toffolatti

2001-01-01

248

Test of cosmic isotropy in the Planck era

The two fundamental assumptions in cosmology are that the Universe is statistically homogeneous and isotropic when averaged on large scales. Given the big implication of these assumptions, there has been a lot of statistical tests carried out to verify their validity. Since the first high-precision Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data release by the WMAP satellite, many anomalies that challenges the isotropy assumption, including dipolar power asymmetry on large angular scales, have been reported. In this talk I will present a brief summary of the test of cosmic isotropy we carried out in the latest WMAP and Planck temperature data.

Fantaye, Yabebal

2014-01-01

249

Fundamental Scalings of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows (ZF) associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM) and ZF has been definitively identified [1]. However, in contrast to most tokamak experiments, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear to ITG appears to be small in CLM. We now report on the study of important scaling behavior of ZF. First and most importantly, we report on the collisional damping scaling of ZF, which is considered to be its saturation mechanism [2]. By varying the sum of ion-ion and ion-neutral collision frequency over nearly half an order of magnitude, we find no change in the amplitude of ZF. Secondly, we study the scaling of ZF amplitude with ITG amplitude via increasing ITG drive though ?i, as well as feedback (stabilizing / destabilizing). We have observed markedly different scaling near and far above marginal stability. [1] V. Sokolov, X. Wei, A.K. Sen and K. Avinash, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 48, S111 (2006). [2] P.H. Diamond, S.-I. Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S. Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005).

Sokolov, Vladimir; Wei, Xiao; Sen, Amiya K.

2007-11-01

250

Multi-physics and multi-scale characterization of shale anisotropy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shales are the most abundant sedimentary rock type in the Earth's shallow crust. In the past decade or so, they have attracted increased attention from the petroleum industry as reservoirs, as well as more traditionally for their sealing capacity for hydrocarbon/CO2 traps or underground waste repositories. The effectiveness of both fundamental and applied shale research is currently limited by (i) the extreme variability of physical, mechanical and chemical properties observed for these rocks, and by (ii) the scarce data currently available. The variability in observed properties is poorly understood due to many factors that are often irrelevant for other sedimentary rocks. The relationships between these properties and the petrophysical measurements performed at the field and laboratory scales are not straightforward, translating to a scale dependency typical of shale behaviour. In addition, the complex and often anisotropic micro-/meso-structures of shales give rise to a directional dependency of some of the measured physical properties that are tensorial by nature such as permeability or elastic stiffness. Currently, fundamental understanding of the parameters controlling the directional and scale dependency of shale properties is far from complete. Selected results of a multi-physics laboratory investigation of the directional and scale dependency of some critical shale properties are reported. In particular, anisotropic features of shale micro-/meso-structures are related to the directional-dependency of elastic and fluid transport properties: - Micro-/meso-structure (?m to cm scale) characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray tomography; - Estimation of elastic anisotropy parameters on a single specimen using elastic wave propagation (cm scale); - Estimation of the permeability tensor using the steady-state method on orthogonal specimens (cm scale); - Estimation of the low-frequency diffusivity tensor using NMR method on orthogonal specimens (scale). For each of the above properties, leading-edge experimental techniques have been associated with novel interpretation tools. In this contribution, these experimental and interpretation methods are described. Relationships between the measured properties and the corresponding micro-/meso-structural features are discussed. For example, P-wave velocity was measured along 100 different propagation paths on a single cylindrical shale specimen using miniature ultrasonic transducers. Assuming that (i) the elastic tensor of this shale is transversely isotropic; and (i) the sample has been cored perfectly perpendicular to the bedding plane (symmetry plane is horizontal), Thomsen's anisotropy parameters inverted from the measured velocities are: - P-wave velocity along the symmetry axis (perpendicular to the bedding plane) ?o=3.45km/s; - P-wave anisotropy ?=0.12; - Parameter controlling the wave front geometry ?=0.058. A novel inversion algorithm allows for recovering these parameters without assuming a priori a horizontal bedding (symmetry) plane. The inversion of the same data set using this algorithm yields (i) ?o=3.23km/s, ?=0.25 and ?=0.18, and (ii) the elastic symmetry axis is inclined of ?=30° with respect to the specimen's axis. Such difference can have strong impact on field applications (AVO, ray tracing, tomography).

Sarout, J.; Nadri, D.; Delle Piane, C.; Esteban, L.; Dewhurst, D.; Clennell, M. B.

2012-12-01

251

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 036706 (2012) Finite-size scaling for quantum criticality using the finite-element, the finite-element method was shown to be a powerful numerical method for ab initio electronic parameters by combining the finite-element method (FEM) with finite size scaling (FSS) using different ab

Kais, Sabre

252

Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child.Method: A 71-item scale was constructed based on a literature review and focus group sessions with social

Hans Grietens; Liesl Geeraert; Walter Hellinckx

2004-01-01

253

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child. Method: A 71-item scale was constructed based on a…

Grietens, Hans; Geeraert, Liesl; Hellinckx, Walter

2004-01-01

254

The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food Choices. The scores on each of these subscales show a moderate to high degree

Christina M. Perry; R. J. De Ayala; Ryan Lebow; Emily Hayden

2008-01-01

255

"This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst" This paper describes the Planck Low Frequency Instrument tuning activities performed through the ground test campaigns, from Unit to Satellite Levels. Tuning is key to achieve the best possible instrument performance and tuning parameters strongly depend on thermal and electrical conditions. For this reason tuning has been repeated several times during ground tests and it has been repeated in flight before starting nominal operations. The paper discusses the tuning philosophy, the activities and the obtained results, highlighting developments and changes occurred during test campaigns. The paper concludes with an overview of tuning performed during the satellite cryogenic test campaign (Summer 2008) and of the plans for the just started in-flight calibration.

Cuttaia, Francesco; Stringhetti, Luca; Maris, Michele; Terenzi, Luca; Tomasi, Maurizio; Villa, Fabrizio; Bersanelli, Marco; Butler, Christopher Reginald; Cappellini, Benedetta; Cuevas, Leticia Perez; D'Arcangelo, Ocleto; Davis, Richard; Frailis, Marco; Franceschet, Cristian; Franceschi, Enrico; Gregorio, Anna; Hoyland, Roger; Leonardi, Rodrigo; Lowe, Stuart; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Meinhold, Peter; Mendes, Luis; Roddis, Neil; Sandri, Maura; Valenziano, Luca; Wilkinson, Althea; Zacchei, Andrea; Zonca, Andrea; Battaglia, Paola; De Nardo, Stefania; Grassi, Stefano; Lapolla, Marco; Leutenegger, Paolo; Miccolis, Maurizio; Silvestri, Roberto; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12013

2010-01-01

256

PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE

A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadron colliders and three {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory.

KING,B.J.

2000-05-05

257

Resolving the problem of galaxy clustering on small scales: any new physics needed?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clustering sets strong constraints on the physics governing galaxy formation and evolution. However, most current models fail to reproduce the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales (r < 1 Mpc h-1). In this paper, we study the galaxy clusterings predicted from a few semi-analytical models. We first compare two Munich versions, Guo et al. and De Lucia & Blaizot. The Guo11 model well reproduces the galaxy stellar mass function, but overpredicts the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales. The DLB07 model provides a better fit to the clustering on small scales, but overpredicts the stellar mass function. These seem to be puzzling. The clustering on small scales is dominated by galaxies in the same dark matter halo, and there is slightly more fraction of satellite galaxies residing in massive haloes in the Guo11 model, which is the dominant contribution to the clustering discrepancy between the two models. However, both models still overpredict the clustering at 0.1 < r < 10 Mpc h-1 for low-mass galaxies. This is because both models overpredict the number of satellites by 30 per cent in massive haloes than the data. We show that the Guo11 model could be slightly modified to simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and clusterings, but that cannot be easily achieved in the DLB07 model. The better agreement of DLB07 model with the data actually comes as a coincidence as it predicts too many low-mass central galaxies which are less clustered and thus brings down the total clustering. Finally, we show the predictions from the semi-analytical models of Kang et al. We find that this model can simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and galaxy clustering if the supernova feedback in satellite galaxies is stronger. We conclude that semi-analytical models are now able to solve the small-scales clustering problem, without invoking of any other new physics or changing the dark matter properties, such as the recent favoured warm dark matter.

Kang, X.

2014-02-01

258

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive transport modeling in the presence of strong physical and chemical heterogeneities that characterize the subsurface media remains a fundamental challenge in hydrologic science. This study explores field-scale modeling of U(VI) reactive transport through incorporation of laboratory and field data at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hanford 300A site, Washington. Hanford 300A is one of the three “Integrated Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC)” sites supported by the DOE’s Office of Science. The primary objective of the Hanford 300A IFRC project is to test the latest theoretical understanding and laboratory-scale models of uranium reactive transport in a series of well-controlled field experiments in an effort to advance our field-scale predictive modeling capabilities that are required for cost-effective remediation of numerous uranium contaminated sites. In this study, a field-scale reactive transport model was developed that accommodates the combined effects of physical and chemical heterogeneities by incorporating laboratory-characterized U(VI) surface complexation reactions (SCR) and dual-domain, multi-rate mass transfer processes, and field-measured hydrogeochemical conditions. The field-scale model was used to assess the importance of multi-rate mass transfer processes on U(VI) reactive transport and to evaluate the effect of variable geochemical conditions caused by dynamic river water-groundwater interactions on U(VI) plume migration. Model simulations revealed complex spatio-temporal relationships between groundwater composition and U(VI) speciation, adsorption, and plume migration. In general, river water intrusion enhances uranium adsorption and lowers aqueous uranium concentration, as river water dilution increases pH and decreases aqueous bicarbonate concentration, leading to overall enhanced U(VI) surface complexation. Strong U(VI) retardation was computed for the field-measured hydrogeochemical conditions, suggesting a slow dissipation of the U(VI) plume, a phenomenon consistent with field observations. The simulations also showed that SCR-retarded U(VI) migration becomes more dynamic and synchronous with the groundwater flow field when multi-rate mass transfer processes are involved, in comparison with the equilibrium-controlled SCR model. Breakthrough curves at selected locations and the temporal changes in the calculated mass over a 20-year simulation period indicated that uranium adsorption/desorption never attained steady state because of the dynamic flow field and groundwater composition variations caused by river water intrusion. Thus, the multi-rate SCR model appears to be a crucial consideration for future reactive transport simulations of uranium contaminants at the Hanford 300A site and elsewhere under similar hydrogeochemical conditions. A detailed sensitivity analysis was further used to quantify the sensitivities of key physical and chemical model parameters in both laboratory- and field-scale models and to investigate the scaling issues associated with these model parameters as they are upscaled from the laboratory to field setting.

Zheng, C.; Ma, R.; Prommer, H.; Greskowiak, J.; Liu, C.; Zachara, J. M.; Rockhold, M. L.

2009-12-01

259

Can There BE Physics Without Experiments? Challenges and Pitfalls

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicists investigating space, time and matter at the Planck scale will probably have to work with much less guidance from experimental input than has ever happened before in the history of Physics. This may imply that we should insist on much higher demands of logical and mathematical rigour than before. Working with long chains of arguments linking theories to experiment, we must be able to rely on logical precision when and where experimental checks cannot be provided.

't Hooft, Gerard

2014-03-01

260

Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from Planck provide the highest-quality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This allows us to detect possible departures from the standard model of a globally homogeneous and isotropic cosmology on the largest scales. We search for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance ?rec), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius ?i of the largest sphere inscribed in topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio ?ln ? > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: in a flat Universe, ?i> 0.92?rec for the T3 cubic torus; ?i> 0.71?rec for the T2 chimney; ?i> 0.50?rec for the T1 slab; and in a positively curved Universe, ?i> 1.03?rec for the dodecahedral space; ?i> 1.0?rec for the truncated cube; and ?i> 0.89?rec for the octahedral space. The limit for a wider class of topologies, i.e., those predicting matching pairs of back-to-back circles, among them tori and the three spherical cases listed above, coming from the matched-circles search, is ?i> 0.94?rec at 99% confidence level. Similar limits apply to a wide, although not exhaustive, range of topologies. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 1.5 units of log-evidence. Indeed, the Bianchi pattern is quite efficient at accounting for some of the large-scale anomalies found in Planck data. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. In the physically motivated setting where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (?/H)0< 8.1 × 10-10 (95% confidence level).

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

261

Micrometer-Scale Physical Structure and Microbial Composition of Soil Macroaggregates

Soil macroaggregates are discrete, separable units of soil that we hypothesize contain smaller assemblages of microorganisms than bulk soil, and represent a scale potentially consistent with naturally occurring microbial communities. We posed two questions to explore microbial community composition in the context of the macroaggregate: 1) Is there a relationship between macroaggregate physical structure and microbial community composition in individual macroaggregates? And, 2) How similar are the bacterial communities in individual sub-millimeter soil macroaggregates sampled from the same 5-cm core? To address these questions, individual macroaggregates of three arbitrary size classes (250–425, 425–841, and 841–1000 ?m) were sampled from a grassland field. The physical structures of 14 individual macroaggregates were characterized using synchrotron-radiation based transmission X-ray tomography, revealing that a greater proportion of the pore space in the small- and medium-sized macroaggregates is as relatively smaller pores, resulting in greater overall porosity and pore–mineral interface area in these smaller macroaggregates. Microbial community composition was characterized using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing data. Rarefaction analyses indicated that the membership of each macroaggregate was sufficiently sampled with only a few thousand sequences; in addition, the community membership varied widely between macroaggregates and the structure varied from those communities strongly dominated by a few phylotypes to communities that were evenly distributed among several phylotypes. We found no strong relationship of physical structure with community membership; this may be due to the low number of aggregates (10) for which we have both physical and biological data. Our results do support our initial expectation that individual macroaggregate communities were significantly less diverse than bulk soil from the same grassland field site.

Bailey, Vanessa L.; McCue, Lee Ann; Fansler, Sarah J.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; DeCarlo, F.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Konopka, Allan

2013-10-01

262

Varying c cosmology and Planck value constraints

It has been suggested that by increasing the speed of light during the early universe various cosmological problems of standard big bang cosmology can be overcome, without requiring an inflationary phase. However, we find that as the Planck length and Planck time are then made correspondingly smaller, and together with the need that the universe should not re-enter a Planck epoch, the higher $c$ models have very limited ability to resolve such problems. For a constantly decreasing $c$ the universe will quickly becomes quantum gravitationally dominated as time increases: the opposite to standard cosmology where quantum behaviour is only ascribed to early times.

D. H. Coule

1998-11-17

263

Stability, Higgs boson mass, and new physics.

Assuming that the particle with mass ?126??GeV discovered at LHC is the standard model Higgs boson, we find that the stability of the electroweak (EW) vacuum strongly depends on new physics interaction at the Planck scale MP, despite of the fact that they are higher-dimensional interactions, apparently suppressed by inverse powers of MP. In particular, for the present experimental values of the top and Higgs boson masses, if ? is the lifetime of the EW vacuum, new physics can turn ? from ??TU to ??TU, where TU is the age of the Universe, thus, weakening the conclusions of the so called metastability scenario. PMID:24483644

Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele

2013-12-13

264

New physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background

I review the present status of the Cosmic Microwave Background, with some emphasis on the current and future implications for particle physics. Conclusions are: gravitational instability in a dark matter dominated universe grew today's structure; the Universe remained neutral until z<~50; the CMB power spectrum peaks at 150<~l<~350; the large-scale structure of spacetime appears to be simple; something like inflation is something like proven; we will learn a great deal about cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics from MAP and Planck.

Douglas Scott

1999-11-17

265

Constraining models of $f(R)$ gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data

In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking "dark" physics, we consider $f(R)$ modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterising the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter $B_0$, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on $B_0$ by an order of magnitude, giving ${\\rm log}_{10}(B_0) < -4.07$ at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude $A_{\\rm Lens}$ and the sum of the neutrino mass $\\sum m_\

Jason Dossett; Bin Hu; David Parkinson

2014-01-16

266

Constraining models of $f(R)$ gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data

In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking "dark" physics, we consider $f(R)$ modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterising the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter $B_0$, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on $B_0$ by an order of magnitude, giving ${\\rm log}_{10}(B_0) < -4.07$ at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude $A_{\\rm Lens}$ and the sum...

Dossett, Jason; Parkinson, David

2014-01-01

267

Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ``dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B0, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B0 by an order of magnitude, giving log10(B0) < -4.07 at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude ALens and the sum of the neutrino mass ?m? is able to reconcile current tensions present in these parameters, but find f(R) gravity an inadequate explanation.

Dossett, Jason; Hu, Bin; Parkinson, David

2014-03-01

268

Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from ? = 0.759 to ? = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from ? = 0.735 to ? = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained. Rephrasing the items and scoring items on a Likert-type scale enhanced greatly the subscales reliability. Identical factorial structure was extracted for both culturally different samples. The obtained factors, namely perceived physical competence, parents’ physical activity, perceived resources support, attitude toward physical activity and perceived parental support were hypothesized as for the original TPB constructs. PMID:24149606

Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

2009-01-01

269

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-scale physical phenomena and processes, especially those in electronics, have drawn great attention in the past decade. Experiments have shown that electronic and transport properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes are sensitive to adsorption of gas molecules such as H2, NO2, and NH3. Similar measurements have also been performed to study adsorption of proteins on other semiconductor nano-wires. These experiments suggest that nano-scale systems can be useful for making future chemical and biological sensors. Aiming to understand the physical mechanisms underlying and governing property changes at nano-scale, we start off by investigating, via first-principles method, the electronic structure of Pd-CNT before and after hydrogen adsorption, and continue with coherent electronic transport using non-equilibrium Green’s function techniques combined with density functional theory. Once our results are fully analyzed they can be used to interpret and understand experimental data, with a few difficult issues to be addressed. Finally, we discuss a newly developed multi-scale computing architecture, OPAL, that coordinates simultaneous execution of multiple codes. Inspired by the capabilities of this computing framework, we present a scenario of future modeling and simulation of multi-scale, multi-physical processes.

Cao, Chao

2009-03-01

270

Femtosecond torsional relaxation processes experimentally detected and recently reported by Clark et al. (Nature Phys. 8,225 (2012)) are theoretically dissected with a Hilbert/Fock quantum physical (QP) framework incorporating entanglement of photon/matter base states overcoming standard semi-classic vibrational descriptions. The quantum analysis of a generic Z/E (cis/trans) isomerization in abstract QP terms shed light to fundamental roles played by photonic spin and excited electronic singlet coupled to triplet states. It is shown that one photon activation cannot elicit femtosecond phenomenon, while a two-photon pulse would do. Estimated time scales for the two-photon case indicate the process to lie between a slower than electronic Franck-Condon-like transition yet faster than (semi-classic) vibration relaxation ones.

O. Tapia

2012-12-20

271

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) have so far failed to find application at the large physical scales necessary for the majority of aerodynamic testing. Three areas of technology relevant to such application are investigated. Two variants of the Spanwise Magnet roll torque generation scheme are studied. Spanwise Permanent Magnets are shown to be practical and are experimentally demonstrated. Extensive computations of the performance of the Spanwise Iron Magnet scheme indicate powerful capability, limited principally be electromagnet technology. Aerodynamic testing at extreme attitudes is shown to be practical in relatively conventional MSBSs. Preliminary operation of the MSBS over a wide range of angles of attack is demonstrated. The impact of a requirement for highly reliable operation on the overall architecture of Large MSBSs is studied and it is concluded that system cost and complexity need not be seriously increased.

Britcher, C. P.

1983-01-01

272

Type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets and the scale of new physics

We elaborate on an earlier proposal by Ernest Ma of a type II seesaw mechanism for suppressing the vacuum expectation values of some Higgs doublets. We emphasize that, by nesting this form of seesaw mechanism into various other seesaw mechanisms, one may obtain light neutrino masses in such a way that the new-physics scale present in the seesaw mechanism - the masses of scalar gauge-SU(2) triplets, scalar SU(2) doublets, or right-handed neutrinos - does not need to be higher than a few 10 TeV. We also investigate other usages of the type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets. For instance, the suppression of the vacuum expectation values of Higgs doublets may realize Froggatt-Nielsen suppression factors in some entries of the fermion mass matrices.

W. Grimus; L. Lavoura; B. Radovcic

2009-02-13

273

Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

2012-08-01

274

Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik

Âconfigurations by Carl Friedrich Kreiner, Johannes Zimmer, and Isaac Chenchiah Preprint no.: 94 2003 #12; #12; Algebraic detection of T k Âconfigurations C.ÂF. Kreiner # , J. Zimmer # , I.V. Chenchiah + # Max Planck

275

Quantum Physics: An Introduction

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.

276

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy clusters form from the rarest peaks in the initial matter distribution, and hence are a sensitive probe of the amplitude of density fluctuations (?8), the amount of matter in the universe, and the growth rate of structure. Galaxy clusters have the potential to constrain dark energy and neutrino masses. However, cluster cosmology is currently limited by systematic uncertainties due to poorly understood intracluster gas physics. I will present new statistical approaches to understand clusters and improve their cosmological constraining power through the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. First, I will describe the first detection of the cross-correlation of the tSZ signal reconstructed from Planck data with the large-scale matter distribution traced by the Planck CMB lensing potential. This statistic measures the amount of hot gas found in moderately massive groups and clusters (M ~ 1013 - 1014.5 Msun), a mass scale below that probed by direct cluster detections. Second, I will describe the first measurement of the PDF of the tSZ field using ACT 148 GHz maps. This measurement contains information from all (zero-lag) moments of the tSZ field, beyond simply the 2- or 3-point functions. It is a very sensitive probe of ?8 and may also provide a method with which to break the degeneracy between ?8 and uncertainties in the physics of the intracluster gas.

Hill, James; Spergel, D. N.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Collaboration

2014-01-01

277

Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.

The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss. PMID:11443955

Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

2001-01-01

278

The Physical Origin of Intrinsic Scatter in the Cluster X-ray and SZ Scaling Relations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters of galaxies are invaluable cosmological probes, but systematic biases and the form and evolution of scatter in the mass-observable relations need to be understood to obtain accurate mass estimates. We use N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations including different physical processes to study the impact of halo concentration, dynamical state, radiative cooling and AGN feedback on scatter in the X-ray temperature-mass and the SZ flux-mass (Y-M) scaling relations. We find that the variation in concentration is a significant source of scatter in both relations, which can be used to tighten the relations for better mass estimates. Contrary to intuition, the effect of dynamical state is statistically negligible. Due to the sensitivity of the SZ effect to cluster morphology and projection effect, we find that the Y-M scatter has positive skewness and kurtosis to a degree that can bias cosmological constraints assuming lognormality. Fortunately, because the errors in the SZ and X-ray relations are not correlated, cross-calibrations of cluster masses can be effective in identifying the outliers due to projection errors. The influence of additional gas physics in cluster cores such as radiative cooling and AGN feedback is also discussed.

Yang, Hsiang-Yi; Ricker, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Sutter, P.

2011-01-01

279

Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915

Meacham, J Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G

2014-02-01

280

Resolving Lyman-alpha Emission On Physical Scales < 270 pc at z > 4

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose ACS-WFC Ramp narrowband imaging of six strongly lensed Lyman-alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z > 4 that will spatially resolve the Lyman-alpha line emitting regions on scales < 270 pc. The best available observations (HST, Spitzer, 10m ground based telescopes) are unable to provide robust measurements of the structure of these galaxies from blank field studies, but strong gravitational lensing provides a unique opportunity to peer into the heart of young star forming galaxies at high redshift and address outstanding questions regarding their morphology and evolution. Strong lensing magnifies each of our target LAEs, increasing the effective spatial resolution of ACS-WFC such that the point spread function will correspond to physical scales < 270 parsecs within all six z > 4 galaxies. Additionally, the boost in flux due to gravitational lensing makes our proposed targets the brightest sources of their kind at these redshifts, in spite of the fact that they are intrinsically ~L* LAEs. The proposed observations will probe the morphological properties of Lyman-alpha and UV continuum emission in typical/representative high-redshift LAEs with signal-to-noise and spatial resolution comparable to studies of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies in the z ~ 0.1 universe. The resulting data will bridge the gap between deep ground-based studies of blank field LAEs at high redshift, and detailed studies of low-redshift LAEs.

Bayliss, Matthew

2014-10-01

281

Thermal susceptibility of the Planck-LFI receivers

This paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst . This paper describes the impact of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument front end physical temperature fluctuations on the output signal. The origin of thermal instabilities in the instrument are discussed, and an analytical model of their propagation and impact on the receivers signal is described. The experimental test setup dedicated to evaluate these effects during the instrument ground calibration is reported together with data analysis methods. Finally, main results obtained are discussed and compared to the requirements.

Terenzi, L; Colin, A; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Tomasi, M; Battaglia, P; Lapolla, M; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Cuttaia, F; D'Arcangelo, O; Davis, R; Franceschet, C; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Hughes, N; Jukkala, P; Kettle, D; Laaninen, M; Leutenegger, P; Leonardi, R; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Meinhold, P; Miccolis, M; Roddis, N; Sambo, L; Sandri, M; Silvestri, R; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Villa, F; Wilkinson, A; Zonca, A; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12012

2010-01-01

282

Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report on a laboratory study, the Spray Production and Dynamics Experiment (SPANDEX), conducted at the University of New South Wales Water Research Laboratory in Australia. The goals of SPANDEX were to illuminate physical aspects of spume droplet production and dispersion; verify theoretical simplifications used to estimate the source function from ambient droplet concentration measurements; and examine the relationship between the implied source strength and forcing parameters such as wind speed, surface turbulent stress, and wave properties. Observations of droplet profiles give reasonable confirmation of the basic power law profile relationship that is commonly used to relate droplet concentrations to the surface source strength. This essentially confirms that, even in a wind tunnel, there is a near balance between droplet production and removal by gravitational settling. The observations also indicate considerable droplet mass may be present for sizes larger than 1.5 mm diameter. Phase Doppler Anemometry observations revealed significant mean horizontal and vertical slip velocities that were larger closer to the surface. The magnitude seems too large to be an acceleration time scale effect. Scaling of the droplet production surface source strength proved to be difficult. The wind speed forcing varied only 23% and the stress increased a factor of 2.2. Yet, the source strength increased by about a factor of 7. We related this to an estimate of surface wave energy flux through calculations of the standard deviation of small-scale water surface disturbance, a wave-stress parameterization, and numerical wave model simulations. This energy index only increased by a factor of 2.3 with the wind forcing. Nonetheless, a graph of spray mass surface flux versus surface disturbance energy is quasi-linear with a substantial threshold.

Fairall, C. W.; Banner, M. L.; Peirson, W. L.; Asher, W.; Morison, R. P.

2009-10-01

283

Scaling properties of rainfall induced landslides predicted by a physically based model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural landslides exhibit scaling properties revealed by power law relationships. These relationships include the frequency of the size (e.g., area, volume) of the landslides, and the rainfall conditions responsible for slope failures in a region. Reasons for the scaling behavior of landslides are poorly known. We investigate the possibility of using the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability analysis code (TRIGRS), a consolidated, physically-based, numerical model that describes the stability/instability conditions of natural slopes forced by rainfall, to determine the frequency statistics of the area of the unstable slopes and the rainfall intensity (I)-duration (D) conditions that result in landslides in a region. We apply TRIGRS in a portion of the Upper Tiber River Basin, Central Italy. The spatially distributed model predicts the stability/instability conditions of individual grid cells, given the local terrain and rainfall conditions. We run TRIGRS using multiple, synthetic rainfall histories, and we compare the modeling results with empirical evidences of the area of landslides and of the rainfall conditions that have caused landslides in the study area. Our findings revealed that TRIGRS is capable of reproducing the frequency of the size of the patches of terrain predicted as unstable by the model, which match the frequency size statistics of landslides in the study area, and the mean rainfall D, I conditions that result in unstable slopes in the study area, which match rainfall I - D thresholds for possible landslide occurrence. Our results are a step towards understanding the mechanisms that give rise to landslide scaling properties.

Alvioli, Massimiliano; Guzzetti, Fausto; Rossi, Mauro

2014-05-01

284

Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model - a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen through the telescope's far sidelobes, and place limits on possible contamination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) results from both zodiacal and far-sidelobe emission. When necessary, the results are used in the Planck pipeline to make maps with zodiacal emission and far sidelobes removed. We show that the zodiacal correction to the CMB maps is small compared to the Planck CMB temperature power spectrum and give a list of flux densities for small solar system bodies.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

285

Abstract The high prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important public health issue. Studying reasons for disliking PA might help researchers better understand its underlying mechanisms, yet this psychological construct has been understudied. This study established the psychometric properties of the German language version of the Girls' Disinclination for Physical Activity Scale (G-DAS-Ger). Data were collected on a sample of 257 adolescent girls in Austria (mean age: 13.0 ± 0.7 years) using the G-DAS-Ger and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. One week after the first assessment, the questionnaires were re-administered to 78 girls. Between two administrations, PA of 215 girls was monitored for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Confirmatory factor analysis of G-DAS-Ger showed good fit for a three-factor model (?(2)/df = 2.025; Bollen-Stine (B-S) p = 0.159; root mean square error of approximation = 0.063; standardised root mean square residual = 0.054; comparative fit index = 0.950). Cronbach's alphas for G-DAS-Ger factors/subscales ranged 0.64-0.76. The test-retest reliability assessed by Spearman's rank correlation ranged 0.62-0.75. Only one subscale correlated significantly with vigorous-intensity PA (Spearman's rho = -0.16) and none with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, which indicated poor predictive validity of the G-DAS-Ger. Correlations between G-DAS-Ger subscales and enjoyment of PA ranged from -0.29 to -0.41, indicating satisfactory convergent validity. The G-DAS-Ger may be used in its present form to assess disinclination for PA among adolescent girls in German-speaking countries. However, our results put into question the stability of the originally proposed factor structure of the questionnaire and its predictive validity among German-speaking adolescent girls. Methodological refinements to the G-DAS-Ger may be required to improve its psychometric properties in this population. PMID:24678713

Pedisic, Zeljko; Matouschek, Stefanie; Stückler, Martina; Basaric, Amir; Titze, Sylvia

2014-10-01

286

Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4?, depending on which method is used. We investigated three separate approaches, which essentially cover all previous studies, and also break new ground. (i) We correlated the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection was made using the lensing-induced bispectrum between the low-? and high-? temperature anisotropies; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5?. (ii) We cross-correlated with tracers of large-scale structure, which yielded a significance of about 3?, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) We used aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yielded and confirms a 4? signal, over a broader spectral range, when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies in amplitude and scale when compared with expectations. More recent catalogues give more moderate results that range from negligible to 2.5? at most, but have a more consistent scale and amplitude, the latter being still slightly higher than what is expected from numerical simulations within ?CMD. Where they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes it preferable for ISW detection. As a final step we used tracers of large-scale structure to filter the CMB data, from which we present maps of the ISW temperature perturbation. These results provide complementary and independent evidence for the existence of a dark energy component that governs the currently accelerated expansion of the Universe.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ili?, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

287

Existence of solutions and diffusion approximation for a model Fokker-Planck equation

We study a simplified model of the Fokker-Planck equation of plasma physics. This model only involves a linear angular diffusion for a monoenergetic beam. We discuss the problem of existence and uniqueness of solutions in both the evolution and the stationary cases; Then we justify the diffusion approximation, with either the Dirichlet, or the Robin boundary conditions. For that purpose,

Pierre Degond; Sylvie Mas-Gallic

1987-01-01

288

On the Numerical Accuracy of the Fokker-Planck Approximation to the Hierarchy of Master Equations

Many physical processes are described by birth and death phenomena and can generally be treated with either a master equation or Fokker-Planck formulation. We present a numerical study for one such process which describes the agglomeration of atomic clusters on clean surfaces during the early stages of thin film formation. We develop moment equations which describe the evolving size distribution

C. A. Stone; M. Vicanek; N. M. Ghoniem

1993-01-01

289

We have examined the correlations between the large-scale environment of galaxies and their physical properties, using a sample of 28,354 nearby galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the large-scale tidal field reconstructed in real space from the 2Mass Redshift Survey and smoothed over a radius of $\\sim 6 h^{-1}$Mpc. The large-scale environment is expressed in terms of the overdensity, the ellipticity of the shear and the type of the large-scale structure. The physical properties analyzed include $r$-band absolute magnitude $M_{^{0.1}r}$, stellar mass $M_\\ast$, $g-r$ colour, concentration parameter $R_{90}/R_{50}$ and surface stellar mass density $\\mu_\\ast$. Both luminosity and stellar mass are found to be statistically linked to the large-scale environment, regardless of how the environment is quantified. More luminous (massive) galaxies reside preferentially in the regions with higher densities, lower ellipticities and halo-like structures. At fixed luminosity, the large-scale overdensity depends strongly on parameters related to the recent star formation history, that is colour and D(4000), but is almost independent of the structural parameters $R_{90}/R_{50}$ and $\\mu_\\ast$. All the physical properties are statistically linked to the shear of the large-scale environment even when the large-scale density is constrained to a narrow range. This statistical link has been found to be most significant in the quasi-linear regions where the large-scale density approximates to an order of unity, but no longer significant in highly nonlinear regimes with $\\delta_{\\rm LS}\\gg 1$.

Jounghun Lee; Cheng Li

2008-03-12

290

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide risk must be assessed at the appropriate scale in order to allow effective risk management. At the moment, few deterministic models exist that can do all the computations required for a complete landslide risk assessment at a regional scale. This arises from the difficulty to precisely define the location and volume of the released mass and from the inability of the models to compute the displacement with a large amount of individual initiation areas (computationally exhaustive). This paper presents a medium-scale, dynamic physical model for rapid mass movements in mountainous and volcanic areas. The deterministic nature of the approach makes it possible to apply it to other sites since it considers the frictional equilibrium conditions for the initiation process, the rheological resistance of the displaced flow for the run-out process and fragility curve that links intensity to economic loss for each building. The model takes into account the triggering effect of an earthquake, intense rainfall and a combination of both (spatial and temporal). The run-out module of the model considers the flow as a 2-D continuum medium solving the equations of mass balance and momentum conservation. The model is embedded in an open source environment geographical information system (GIS), it is computationally efficient and it is transparent (understandable and comprehensible) for the end-user. The model was applied to a virtual region, assessing landslide hazard, vulnerability and risk. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme was applied to quantify, propagate and communicate the effects of uncertainty in input parameters on the final results. In this technique, the input distributions are recreated through sampling and the failure criteria are calculated for each stochastic realisation of the site properties. The model is able to identify the released volumes of the critical slopes and the areas threatened by the run-out intensity. The obtained final outcome is the estimation of individual building damage and total economic risk. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement No 265138 New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX).

Luna, Byron Quan; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Liu, Zhongqiang; Eidsvig, Unni; Nadim, Farrokh

2013-04-01

291

Cosmic ray knee and new physics at the TeV scale

We analyze the possibility that the cosmic ray knee appears at an energy threshold where the proton-dark matter cross section becomes large due to new TeV physics. It has been shown that such interactions could break the proton and produce a diffuse gamma ray flux consistent with MILAGRO observations. We argue that this hypothesis implies knees that scale with the atomic mass for the different nuclei, as KASKADE data seem to indicate. We find that to explain the change in the spectral index in the flux from E^{-2.7} to E^{-3.1} the cross section must grow like E^{0.4+\\beta} above the knee, where \\beta=0.3-0.6 parametrizes the energy dependence of the age (\\tau \\propto E^{-\\beta}) of the cosmic rays reaching the Earth. The hypothesis also requires mbarn cross sections (that could be modelled with TeV gravity) and large densities of dark matter (that could be clumped around the sources of cosmic rays). We argue that neutrinos would also exhibit a threshold at E=(m_\\chi/m_p)E_{knee}\\approx 10^8 GeV where their interaction with a nucleon becomes strong. Therefore, the observation at ICECUBE or ANITA of standard neutrino events above this threshold would disprove the scenario.

Roberto Barcelo; Manuel Masip; Iacopo Mastromatteo

2009-03-30

292

Cosmic ray knee and new physics at the TeV scale

We analyze the possibility that the cosmic ray knee appears at an energy threshold where the proton-dark matter cross section becomes large due to new TeV physics. It has been shown that such interactions could break the proton and produce a diffuse gamma ray flux consistent with MILAGRO observations. We argue that this hypothesis implies knees that scale with the atomic mass for the different nuclei, as KASKADE data seem to indicate. We find that to explain the change in the spectral index in the flux from E{sup ?2.7} to E{sup ?3.1} the cross section must grow like E{sup 0.4+?} above the knee, where ? = 0.3–0.6 parametrizes the energy dependence of the age (??E{sup ??}) of the cosmic rays reaching the Earth. The hypothesis also requires mbarn cross sections (that could be modelled with TeV gravity) and large densities of dark matter (that could be clumped around the sources of cosmic rays). We argue that neutrinos would also exhibit a threshold at E = (m{sub ?}/m{sub p}) E{sub knee} ? 10{sup 8} GeV where their interaction with a nucleon becomes strong. Therefore, the observation at ICECUBE or ANITA of standard neutrino events above this threshold would disprove the scenario.

Barceló, Roberto; Masip, Manuel [CAFPE and Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Mastromatteo, Iacopo, E-mail: rbarcelo@ugr.es, E-mail: masip@ugr.es, E-mail: mastroma@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy)

2009-06-01

293

Cosmic Physics: The High Energy Frontier

Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies $10^8$ times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violation of Lorentz invariance, as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity.

F. W. Stecker

2003-09-01

294

We introduce a class of generalized Fokker-Planck equations that conserve energy and mass and increase a generalized entropy functional until a maximum entropy state is reached. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations associated with Tsallis entropies are a special case of these equations. Applications of these results to stellar dynamics and vortex dynamics are proposed. Our prime result is a relaxation equation that should offer an easily implementable parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence. Usual parametrizations (including a single turbulent viscosity) correspond to the infinite temperature limit of our model. They forget a fundamental systematic drift that acts against diffusion as in Brownian theory. Our generalized Fokker-Planck equations can have applications in other fields of physics such as chemotaxis for bacterial populations. We propose the idea of a classification of generalized entropies in "classes of equivalence" and provide an aesthetic connection between topics (vortices, stars, bacteria, em leader ) which were previously disconnected. PMID:14524833

Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

2003-09-01

295

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…

Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith

2011-01-01

296

Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served three distinct purposes in the design of this

Gillian Hampden-Thompson; Fred Lubben; Judith Bennett

2011-01-01

297

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study sought to develop and conduct preliminary testing of the psychometric properties of a job-seeking self-efficacy (JSS) scale that reflected the experiences of people with physical disabilities. Greater job seeking self-efficacy and perceived ability to manage disability at interview were associated with more positive psychological well-being.…

Barlow, Julie; Wright, Chris; Cullen, Lesley

2002-01-01

298

This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specifi c means of assessment. Participants included 1,195 undergraduate students recruited from three geographically diverse universities. Agreement was high across the two

David DiLillo; Michelle A. Fortier; Sarah A. Hayes; Emily Trask; Andrea R. Perry; Terri Messman-Moore; Angèle Fauchier

299

Towards a Full-sky, High-resolution Dust Extinction Map with WISE and Planck

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently completed a custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-sky imaging data set. The result is a full-sky map of diffuse, mid-infrared Galactic dust emission with angular resolution of 15 arcseconds, and with contaminating artifacts such as compact sources removed. At the same time, the 2013 Planck HFI maps represent a complementary data set in the far-infrared, with zero-point relatively immune to zodiacal contamination and angular resolution superior to previous full-sky data sets at similar frequencies. Taken together, these WISE and Planck data products present an opportunity to improve upon the SFD (1998) dust extinction map, by virtue of enhanced angular resolution and potentially better-controlled systematics on large scales. We describe our continuing efforts to construct and test high-resolution dust extinction and temperature maps based on our custom WISE processing and Planck HFI data.

Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, D. P.

2014-01-01

300

The Physical and Emotional Tormenting Against Animals Scale (P.E.T.) is a new self-administered scale to measure physical and emotional abuse against animals among adolescents. This study is a first attempt to establish the reliability and validity of this newly developed scale with a non-clinical sample of 1396 Italian adolescents, aged 11-17 years.The scale measures different dimensions of animal abuse, ranging

Anna C. Baldry

2004-01-01

301

Physical descriptors that characterize Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) based on the presence of ports should assess the degree of water exchange. The main goal of this study is to determine the optimal procedure for estimating Transport Time Scales (TTS) as physical descriptors in order to characterize and manage HMWB near ports in coastal zones. Flushing Time (FT) and Residence Time (RT), using different approaches-analytical and exponential function methods-and different hydrodynamic scenarios, were computed using numerical models. El Musel (Port of Gijon) was selected to test different transport time scales (FT and RT), methods (analytical and exponential function methods) and hydrodynamic conditions (wind and tidal forcings). FT, estimated by the exponential function method while taking into account a real tidal wave and a mean annual regime of wind as hydrodynamic forcing, was determined to be the optimal physical descriptor to characterize HMWB. PMID:24568939

Gómez, Aina G; Bárcena, Javier F; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Sámano, María L

2014-04-01

302

Cosmological Analyses Based On The Combined Planck And WMAP Mission Datasets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to: (1) make a detailed comparison of WMAP, Planck, and other cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to understand areas of conflict, and if possible, resolve them; (2) combine WMAP and Planck data into a unified cosmological dataset; and (3)extend cosmological analyses with the combined data. Recent cosmological measurements have revolutionized cosmology and the CMB has played a crucial role. The Planck mission team just released cosmological data and papers, this on the heels of the WMAP team's release of final nine-year data and papers. This proposal is to compare and attempt to understand the subtle but important differences between the two recently released WMAP and Planck cosmological results, to combine the data so as to benefit from the full available small and larger scale measurements, and to use this to enhance cosmological solutions. The WMAP and Planck CMB cosmology datasets are broadly consistent with one another. Yet, differences exist beyond the fact that Planck data extend to finer angular scales than WMAP data. We propose to go beyond the "quick look" we have done so far to identify and help resolve discrepancies. We provide two examples of the kinds of discrepancies that should be resolved. Even though the Planck data release relied on the absolute calibration established by WMAP the two sets of analyzed data appear to be off by a factor of 0.975. This small but significant discrepancy is difficult to explain and merits investigation. Also, while cosmological parameters from Planck agree with WMAP parameters within 1.1# of the larger WMAP uncertainty, this large a discrepancy is difficult to explain in detail since the cosmic variance uncertainties that play a large role in the parameter uncertainties are common to Planck and WMAP: both missions view the same sky. These are just two examples; additional careful and detailed comparisons are required. Over the course of the last several years a number of scientists around the world independently analyzed the WMAP data. Most reproduced WMAP results, while others uncovered additional useful insights into the data, and still others found issues, which the WMAP team examined more carefully. Independent replication was quite important, as was the work extending the results and calling attention to issues. This process was not only helpful for getting the most out of the WMAP mission results, it was essential for establishing confidence in the mission datasets. WMAP team discussions with independent scientists were fruitful and provided invaluable replication and additional peer-review of the WMAP team work, in addition to new analysis and results. We expect that the Planck team will benefit from similar interactions with independent scientists. WMAP team members are especially important for computing detailed comparisons between Planck and WMAP data. Now that the WMAP project has ended, the WMAP team no longer has funding to carry out this crucial and compelling comparison of WMAP and Planck data at the level of detail needed for precision cosmology. This proposal requests that four of the most active and experienced WMAP team members with specialized knowledge in temperature calibration, beam calibration, foreground separation, simulations, power spectrum computation, and more, be supported to reconcile WMAP and Planck data in detail, to combine the datasets to obtain optimal results, and to produce improved cosmological results.

Bennett, Charles

303

Effect of transitions in the Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of sudden transitions in the effective Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra. Specifically, we consider models in which this variation results from the nonminimal coupling of a Brans-Dicke type scalar field. We find that the scalar power spectra develop features at the scales corresponding to those leaving the horizon during the transition. In addition, we observe that the tensor perturbations are largely unaffected, so long as the variation of the Planck mass is below the percent level. Otherwise, the tensor power spectra exhibit damped oscillations over the same scales. Due to significant features in the scalar power spectra, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r shows variation over the corresponding scales. Thus, by studying the spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations, one can constrain sudden but small variations of the Planck mass during inflation. We illustrate these effects with a number of benchmark single- and two-field models. In addition, we comment on their implications and the possibility to alleviate the tension between the observations of the tensor-to-scalar ratio performed by the Planck and BICEP2 experiments.

Ashoorioon, Amjad; van de Bruck, Carsten; Millington, Peter; Vu, Susan

2014-11-01

304

Planck 2013 results. XXIX. The Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) × 1015 M?. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization of the catalogue in terms of completeness and statistical reliability. The outputs of the validation process are provided as additional information. This gives, in particular, an ensemble of 813 cluster redshifts, and for all these Planck clusters we also include a mass estimated from a newly-proposed SZ-mass proxy. A refined measure of the SZ Compton parameter for the clusters with X-ray counter-parts is provided, as is an X-ray flux for all the Planck clusters not previously detected in X-ray surveys. The catalogue of SZ sources is available at Planck Legacy Archive and http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?page=Planck_Legacy_Archive&project=planck

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Groeneboom, N., E.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Spencer, L. D.; Stanford, S. A.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

305

The deviation of non-reactive solute transport from that predicted by classical convection-dispersion equations is usually attributed to physical non-equilibrium caused by small- and large-scale pore structures in porous media. Diffusion of fluid and solute into micropores or rock matrix may occur locally, while fluid and solutes can also be channeled preferentially through interconnected macropores or fractures. A multiple-pore-region (MPR) approach with local advective-diffusive mass exchange is adopted to simulate soil column tracer breakthrough and field-scale tracer releases in the Melton Branch Subsurface Transport Facility within the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The soil column simulation indicates that both inter-region mass exchange and intra-region convection-dispersion contribute to small-scale solute transport in approximately the same order of magnitude. The field-scale study suggests that advective mass exchange has minor effect on subsurface hydrographs, and that large diffusive mass exchange may retain tracers near the source area. Comparison of modeling results and field data suggests that subsurface bedding planes on the field site may be the cause of large-scale heterogeneity and preferential mass transport.

Gwo, J.P.; Jardine, P.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, G.V. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Yeh, G.-T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

306

Monitoring Physical and Biogeochemical Dynamics of Uranium Bioremediation at the Intermediate Scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface uranium above desired levels for aquifer use categories exists naturally and from historic mining and milling practices. In situ bioimmobilization offers a cost effective alternative to conventional pump and treat methods by stimulating growth of microorganisms that lead to the reduction and precipitation of uranium. Vital to the long-term success of in situ bioimmobilization is the ability to successfully predict and demonstrate treatment effectiveness to assure that regulatory goals are met. However, successfully monitoring the progress over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship to ensure effective treatment due to complex physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity. In order to better understand these complexities and the resultant effect on uranium immobilization, innovative systematic monitoring approaches with multiple performance indicators must be investigated. A key issue for uranium bioremediation is the long term stability of solid-phase reduction products. It has been shown that a combination of data from electrode-based monitoring, self-potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and water level sensors provides insight for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and can provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change such as pore clogging. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve redox activity from other electric potential changing events, an intermediate scale 3D tank experiment has been developed. Well-characterized materials will be packed into the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through a constant-head boundary. The experiment will utilize these sensing methods to image the electrical current produced by bacteria as well as indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring, such as with the reduction of radionuclides. This work will expand upon current knowledge by exploring the behavior of uranium bioremediation at an intermediate scale, as well as examining the effects from introducing a flow field in a laboratory setting. Data collected from this experiment will help further characterize which factors are contributing to current increases. Additional information concerning the effect of geochemical changes in porosity may also be observed. The results of this work will allow the creation of a new data set collected from a more comprehensive laboratory monitoring network and will allow stakeholders to develop effective decision-making tools on the long-term remediation management at uranium contaminated sites. The data will also aid in the long-term prediction abilities of a reactive transport models. As in situ bioremediation offers a low cost alternative to ex situ treatment methods, the results of this work will help to both reduce cost at existing sites and enable treatment of sites that otherwise have no clear solution.

Tarrell, A. N.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.

2011-12-01

307

Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations

We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical est...

Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Draine, B T; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rubio-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

2014-01-01

308

Current dependence of spin torque switching rate based on Fokker-Planck approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spin torque switching rate of an in-plane magnetized system in the presence of an applied field is derived by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that three scaling currents are necessary to describe the current dependence of the switching rate in the low-current limit. The dependences of these scaling currents on the applied field strength are also studied.

Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Imamura, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

309

Stochastic stability of fractional Fokker-Planck equation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an Itô-Doeblin type formula for fractional Fokker-Planck equation. Using this formula, we study stochastic stability of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation. A concrete example is given to illustrate our stochastic stability result.

Zhang, Yutian; Chen, Feng

2014-09-01

310

Scaling laws of the heat transport mechanism in steam displacement processes are developed based upon an integral energy balance equation. Unlike the differential approach adopted by previous workers, the above scaling laws do not necessitate the use of any empirical correction factor as has been done in previous scaling calculations. The results provide a complete and consistent scale-down of the energy transport behavior, which is the critical mechanism for the success of a steam injection process. In the course of the study, the scaling problems associated with relative permeability and capillary pressure are also discussed. A method which has often been used in scaling nonthermal displacement processes is applied to reduce errors due to scaling in relative permeability. Both dimensional and inspectional analyses are applied to illustrate their use in steam processes. Scale-up laws appeared in the literature and those used in this study are compared and numerical examples are given.

Doscher, T M

1980-12-01

311

In December 2000, physicists from all over the world will be in Berlin, celebrating the 100th anniversary of quantum physics. On 14 December 1900, Max K Planck presented his theory of black-body radiation at the German Physical Society meeting in Berlin. This day is recognized as the birthday of quantum physics. One hundred years later we can look back at

Ireneusz Stralkowski

2000-01-01

312

The Development and Validation of the Physical Self-Concept Scale for Older Adults

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical self-concept plays a central role in older adults' physical health, mental health and psychological well-being; however, little attention has been paid to the underlying dimensions of physical self-concept in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new measurement for older adults. First, a qualitative…

Hsu, Ya-Wen; Lu, Frank Jing-Horng

2013-01-01

313

Higgs boson mass and new physics

We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling alpha_s to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure ("one-loop matching--two-loop running"). This results in reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in the Higgs boson mass bounds and predictions, associated with the Standard Model physics, to 1-2 GeV. We find that with the account of existing experimental uncertainties in the mass of the top quark and alpha_s (taken at 2sigma level) the bound reads M_H>=M_min (equality corresponds to the asymptotic safety prediction), where M_min=129+-6 GeV. We argue that the discovery of the SM Higgs boson in this range would be in agreement with the hypothesis of the absence of new energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales, whereas the coincidence of M_H with M_min would suggest that the electroweak scale is determined by Planck physics. In order to clarify the relation between the Fermi and Planck scale a construction of an electron-positron or muon collider with a center of mass energy ~200+200 GeV (Higgs and t-quark factory) would be needed.

Fedor Bezrukov; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl; Mikhail Shaposhnikov

2012-05-13

314

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model development at NOAA/GSD spans a wide range of spatial scales: global scale (Flow-following finite-volume Icosohedral Model, FIM; 10-250 km grid spacing), continental scale (RAP; 13 km grid spacing), CONUS scale (HRRR; 3 km grid spacing), and regional modeling (experimental nesting at 1 km grid spacing over complex terrain). As the model resolution changes, the proportion of resolved vs unresolved physical processes changes; therefore, physical parameterizations need to adapt to different model resolutions to more accurately handle the unresolved processes. The Limited Area Model (LAM) component of the Grey Zone Experiment was designed to assess the change in behavior of numerical weather prediction models between 16 and 1 km by simulating a cold-air outbreak over the North Atlantic and North Sea. The RAP and HRRR model physics were tested in this case study in order to examine the change in behavior of the model physics at 16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 km grid spacings with and without the use a convective parameterization. The primary purpose of these tests is to better understand the change in behavior of the boundary layer and convective schemes across the grey zone, such that further targeted modifications can then help improve general performance at various scales. The RAP currently employs a modified form of the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) PBL scheme, which is an improved TKE-based scheme tuned to match large-eddy simulations. Modifications have been performed to better match observations at 13 km (RAP) grid spacing but more multi-scale testing is required before modifications are introduced to make it scale-aware. A scale-aware convective parameterization, the Grell-Freitas scheme (both deep- and shallow-cumulus scheme), has been developed to better handle the transition in behavior of the sub-grid scale convective processes through the grey zone. This study examines the change in behavior of both schemes across the grey zone. Their transitional behavior is characterized and strategies to improve each scheme are explored. Further tests are performed to elucidate the impacts of specific model configurations and parameters that may improve weather prediction across the grey zone.

Olson, Joseph; Grell, Georg

2014-05-01

315

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A JEOL JEM-2000FX analytical transmission electron microscope, equipped with a cold stage and anticontamination device, has been used to study the physical characteristics and annealing behavior of artificially induced fission tracks in fluorapatite. Near the atomic level, unetched fission tracks are not continuous, but are comprised of segments of extended damage that are separated by gaps of undamaged microstructure. From dark-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it appears that the crystalline damage around tracks, although intensive, is not extensive. As such, the defect density may be represented by a Gaussian-type distribution function. The disordered nature of the track core and defect distribution geometry supports the Ion-Explosion Theory that has been proposed for track formation. TEM analysis reveals that track width is crystallographically controlled. Parallel to the c-axis, tracks display widths of 5 to 13 nm and hexagonal faceting on the (0001) plane. Tracks perpendicular to the c-axis display widths of 3 to 9 nm and prismatic faceting on the (1000) plane. The track cross-section facets mimic etch-pit morphologies and provide a relative measure of the crystal's surface free energy. A consequence of differential bond strengths and elastic properties in the fluorapatite structure, track-width anisotropy resolves etching- and annealing-rate anisotropy that has been reported for fission tracks in fluorapatite. TEM observation of the behavior of fission tracks in response to electron beam exposure (i.e., radiolytic annealing), and temperature increase (i.e., thermal annealing), yields a physical and a kinetic description of the annealing process. Annealing commences with bulging at the track's tapered ends, followed by detachment of a single sphere. This process is replicated until a critical track radius is encountered at which the track geometry approaches an ideal right cylinder. A sinusoidal boundary develops at the track-matrix interface and increases in amplitude until the track spontaneously collapses into a row of spheres and small rods. The rods continue to evolve into spheres until the track remnant is comprised solely of a row of spheres. Although the spheres possess a stable surface energy geometry, ultimately they are restored to the original microstructure and the track disappears. Documentation of annealing suggests that the process is analogous to that of drop detachment, ovulation, and spheroidization. From these better known processes, it is possible to formulate a kinetic equation that describes fission-track annealing. Unlike the empirically-derived or physically-based kinetic equations that are presently employed in the reconstruction of thermo -tectonic histories from apatite fission-track data, the equation proposed in this study accurately predicts fission -track behavior over all of the scales of interest (i.e., microscopic to macroscopic dimensions, high to low temperatures, laboratory to geologic timescales). Furthermore, the equation reveals that surface interface diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism that controls fission-track annealing.

Paul, Tracy Anne

1993-01-01

316

Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP

Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi- physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis. The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.

Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan

2013-04-30

317

A Lvy-Fokker-Planck equation: entropies and convergence to equilibrium

A LÃ©vy-Fokker-Planck equation: entropies and convergence to equilibrium I. Gentil CEREMADE, Paris-Uhlenbeck and Fokker-Planck equations Tools for the asymptotic behaviour 2 The LÃ©vy-Fokker-Planck equation The LÃ©vy-Fokker-Planck Introduction Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and Fokker-Planck equations Tools for the asymptotic behaviour 2 The LÃ©vy-Fokker-Planck

Gentil, Ivan

318

On a relativistic Fokker-Planck equation in kinetic theory

On a relativistic Fokker-Planck equation in kinetic theory JosÂ´e Antonio AlcÂ´antara FÂ´elix Simone Fokker-Planck equation that has been recently proposed in the phys- ical literature is studied mean-field models are introduced. One is obtained by coupling the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation

319

-estimates for the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation

L -estimates for the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation M. Pulvirenti, C. Simeoni Dipartimento We consider the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck equation, in three dimen- sions, as the backward on the spatial density, which are uniform in the diffusion parameters. 1 Introduction The Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck

Recanati, Catherine

320

Generalized Fokker-Planck Equation for Piecewise-Diffusion Processes

Generalized Fokker-Planck Equation for Piecewise-Diffusion Processes with Boundary Hitting Resets J of the usual Fokker-Planck equation for diffusion processes. The result involves a non-local boundary condition discretization. 1. Introduction This paper investigates the generalization of Fokker-Planck's equation

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

321

On the Fokker-Planck Equation for Stochastic Hybrid Systems

On the Fokker-Planck Equation for Stochastic Hybrid Systems: Application to a Wind Turbine Model of the formalism, we state the generalized Fokker-Planck equation, which is a partial differential equation: the generalized Fokker-Planck Equation (FPE). This is a partial differential equation (PDE) satisfied

Boyer, Edmond

322

The Ellipsoidal Universe in the Planck Satellite Era

Recent Planck data confirm that the cosmic microwave background displays the quadru-pole power suppression together with large scale anomalies. Progressing from previous results, that focused on the quadrupole anomaly, we strengthen the proposal that the slightly anisotropic ellipsoidal universe may account for these anomalies. We solved at large scales the Boltzmann equation for the photon distribution functions by taking into account both the effects of the inflation produced primordial scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the geometry in the ellipsoidal universe. We showed that the low quadrupole temperature correlations allowed us to fix the eccentricity at decoupling, $e_{\\rm dec} \\, = \\, (0.86 \\, \\pm \\, 0.14) \\, 10^{-2}$, and to constraint the direction of the symmetry axis. We found that the anisotropy of the geometry of the universe contributes only to the large scale temperature anisotropies without affecting the higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum. Moreover, we showed that the ellipsoidal geometry of the universe induces sizable polarization signal at large scales without invoking the reionization scenario. We explicitly evaluated the quadrupole TE and EE correlations. We found an average large scale polarization $\\Delta T_{pol} \\, = \\, (1.20 \\, \\pm \\, 0.38) \\; \\mu K $. We point out that great care is needed in the experimental determination of the large-scale polarization correlations since the average temperature polarization could be misinterpreted as foreground emission leading, thereby, to a considerable underestimate of the cosmic microwave background polarization signal.

Paolo Cea

2014-01-22

323

Bridging Fusion and Space and Astrophysical Plasma Physics

Bridging Fusion and Space and Astrophysical Plasma Physics Amitava Bhattacharjee Theory Department Planck-Princeton Plasma Physics Cent Â· Some of these ideas can intersect and leverage the work of the recently established Max Planck-Princeton Plasma Physics Center. #12;Opportunities in PPPL Â· Space Plasma

324

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

of binaural sounds by Wiktor Mlynarski and JÂ¨urgen Jost Preprint no.: 28 2014 #12;#12;Natural statistics of binaural sounds Wiktor Mlynarski1 and JÂ¨urgen Jost1,2 1 Max-Planck Institute for Mathematics Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural time (ITD

325

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

Max-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Learning Binaural Preprint no.: 44 2013 #12;#12;Learning Binaural Spectrogram Features for Azimuthal Speaker Localization- strates that this can be achieved with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) applied to binaural speech

326

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

, China University of Petroleum, 266580 Qingdao 2 Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences-positive under partial transposition. Afterwards, by using the method of positive maps the family Horodecki [13 is also used to study separability in [24]. It has been pointed out in [25] that the LUR criterion

327

Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck

We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m{sub ?} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.

Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Raffelt, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

2013-10-01

328

MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT Difference Unification

MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT F Â¨UR INFORMATIK Â© Â¨ Difference Unification David Basin Toby Walsh MPIÂIÂ93@mpi-sb.mpg.de Toby Walsh Department of AI, University of Edinburgh, 80 South Bridge, Edinburgh, EH1 1HN, Scotland tw Reasoning Group for their encouragement and criticism. In particular, we thank Alan Bundy, Andrew Ireland, S

329

Underlying probability distributions of Planck's radiation law

The derivation of Planck's radiation law can be considered as a transformation of a thermodynamic relation for black-body radiation into a fundamental relation in which the error law is the negative binomial distribution. In both limiting frequency ranges it transforms into Poisson distributions; in the Wien limit, it is the distribution of the number of photons, whose most probable value

B. H. Lavenda

1990-01-01

330

Herschel and Planck contacts STFC contact

Herschel and Planck contacts STFC contact Richard Holdaway Director STFC Space Science Director of Space Science & Exploration Tel: (0)1793 44 2174 mobile: 07901 514969 david. Christine Brockley-Blatt MSSL SPIRE Project Manager University College London Mullard Space Science

331

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

of Information Inequalities by Nihat Ay, and Walter Wenzel Preprint no.: 16 2011 #12;#12;On Solution Sets of Information Inequalities Nihat Ay1,2 & Walter Wenzel1,3 {nay, wenzel}@mis.mpg.de 1Max Planck Institute

332

Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

Fokker-Planck equation may be considered [10] to treat high-concentration systems, which can to global time-space-parametric discretization of chemical master equation (revised version: November 2012 time-space-parametric discretization of chemical master equation Sergey Dolgov$, , Boris Khoromskij

333

Component separation methods for the PLANCK mission

Context: The planck satellite will map the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. The CMB intensity and polarization that are its prime targets are contaminated by foreground emission. Aims: The goal of this paper is to compare proposed methods for separating CMB from foregrounds based on their different spectral and spatial characteristics, and to separate the

S. M. Leach; J.-F. Cardoso; C. Baccigalupi; R. B. Barreiro; M. Betoule; J. Bobin; A. Bonaldi; J. Delabrouille; G. de Zotti; C. Dickinson; H. K. Eriksen; J. González-Nuevo; F. K. Hansen; D. Herranz; M. Le Jeune; M. López-Caniego; E. Martínez-González; M. Massardi; J.-B. Melin; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; G. Patanchon; S. Prunet; S. Ricciardi; E. Salerno; J. L. Sanz; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; P. Vielva

2008-01-01

334

Background The aim of this study was to systematically review the content validity and measurement properties of all physical function (PF) scales which are currently validated for use with patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Systematic literature searches were performed in the Scopus and PubMed databases to identify articles on the development or psychometric evaluation of PF scales for patients with RA. The content validity of included scales was evaluated by linking their items to the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Furthermore, available evidence of the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and interpretability of the included scales was rated according to published quality criteria. Results The search identified 26 questionnaires with PF scales. Ten questionnaires were rated to have adequate content validity. Construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness was rated favourably for respectively 15, 11, 5, and 6 of the investigated scales. Information about the absolute measurement error and minimal important change scores were rarely reported. Conclusion Based on this literature review, the disease-specificHAQ and the generic SF-36 can currently be most confidently recommended to measure PF in RA for most research purposes. The HAQ, however, was frequently associated with considerable ceiling effects while the SF-36 has limited content coverage. Alternative scales that might be better suited for specific research purposes are identified along with future directions for research. PMID:22059801

2011-01-01

335

at hadron colliders Andreas Papaefstathioua and Bryan Webbera,b aCavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, UK bTheory Group, Physics Department, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland E-mail:andreas@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk,webber@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk Abstract... : a global inclusive variable for determining the mass scale of new physics in events with missing energy at hadron colliders,” arXiv:0812.1042 [hep-ph]. [42] A. D. Martin, W. J. Stirling, R. S. Thorne and G. Watt, “Parton distributions for the LHC...

Papaefstathiou, Andreas; Webber, Bryan R

336

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

337

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate system includes numerous highly interactive small-scale physical processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. During and since the International Polar Year 2007-2009, significant advances have been made in understanding these processes. Here, these recent advances are reviewed, synthesized, and discussed. In atmospheric physics, the primary advances have been in cloud physics, radiative transfer, mesoscale cyclones, coastal, and fjordic processes as well as in boundary layer processes and surface fluxes. In sea ice and its snow cover, advances have been made in understanding of the surface albedo and its relationships with snow properties, the internal structure of sea ice, the heat and salt transfer in ice, the formation of superimposed ice and snow ice, and the small-scale dynamics of sea ice. For the ocean, significant advances have been related to exchange processes at the ice-ocean interface, diapycnal mixing, double-diffusive convection, tidal currents and diurnal resonance. Despite this recent progress, some of these small-scale physical processes are still not sufficiently understood: these include wave-turbulence interactions in the atmosphere and ocean, the exchange of heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface, and the mechanical weakening of sea ice. Many other processes are reasonably well understood as stand-alone processes but the challenge is to understand their interactions with and impacts and feedbacks on other processes. Uncertainty in the parameterization of small-scale processes continues to be among the greatest challenges facing climate modelling, particularly in high latitudes. Further improvements in parameterization require new year-round field campaigns on the Arctic sea ice, closely combined with satellite remote sensing studies and numerical model experiments.

Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Fer, I.; Renfrew, I. A.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernström, M.; Lüpkes, C.; Nygård, T.; Notz, D.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Cheng, B.; Birnbaum, G.; Gerland, S.; Chechin, D.; Gascard, J. C.

2014-09-01

338

A large-scale digitizer (LSD) system for acquiring charge and time-of-arrival particle data from high-energy-physics experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The objective in this development was to significantly reduce the cost of instrumenting large-detector arrays which, for the 4..pi..-geometry of colliding-beam experiments, are proposed with an order of magnitude increase in channel count over previous detectors. In

R. F. Althaus; F. A. Kirsten; K. L. Lee; S. R. Olson; L. J. Wagner; J. M. Wolverton

1976-01-01

339

A large-scale digitizer (LSD) system for acquiring charge and time-of-arrival particle data from high-energy-physics experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The objective in this development was to significantly reduce the cost of instrumenting large-detector arrays which, for the 4¿-geometry of colliding-beam experiments, are proposed with an order of magnitude increase in channel count over previous detectors. In

R. F. Althaus; F. A. Kirsten; K. L. Lee; S. R. Olson; L. J. Wagner; J. M. Wolverton

1977-01-01

340

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate system includes numerous highly interactive small-scale physical processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. During and since the International Polar Year 2007-2008, significant advances have been made in understanding these processes. Here these advances are reviewed, synthesized and discussed. In atmospheric physics, the primary advances have been in cloud physics, radiative transfer, mesoscale cyclones, coastal and fjordic processes, as well as in boundary-layer processes and surface fluxes. In sea ice and its snow cover, advances have been made in understanding of the surface albedo and its relationships with snow properties, the internal structure of sea ice, the heat and salt transfer in ice, the formation of super-imposed ice and snow ice, and the small-scale dynamics of sea ice. In the ocean, significant advances have been related to exchange processes at the ice-ocean interface, diapycnal mixing, tidal currents and diurnal resonance. Despite this recent progress, some of these small-scale physical processes are still not sufficiently understood: these include wave-turbulence interactions in the atmosphere and ocean, the exchange of heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface, and the mechanical weakening of sea ice. Many other processes are reasonably well understood as stand-alone processes but challenge is to understand their interactions with, and impacts and feedbacks on, other processes. Uncertainty in the parameterization of small-scale processes continues to be among the largest challenges facing climate modeling, and nowhere is this more true than in the Arctic. Further improvements in parameterization require new year-round field campaigns on the Arctic sea ice, closely combined with satellite remote sensing studies and numerical model experiments.

Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Renfrew, I. A.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernström, M.; Nygård, T.; Fer, I.; Lüpkes, C.; Notz, D.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Cheng, B.; Birnbaum, G.; Gerland, S.; Chechin, D.; Gascard, J. C.

2013-12-01

341

Dedicated hardware for linearly-scaling algorithms in condensed-matter physics

The locality of the interactions in a Hamiltonian model gives origin to the linearization of the algorithms expressing the calculation of the interactions. This specific property, often used in condensed matter physics, has originated approximate models which, although preserving most of the physical insights of the parent exact models, display attractive computational properties which has determined their use in several

Fabrizio Cleri; Alessandro Marongiu; Vittorio Rosato

2001-01-01

342

Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and

Dori E Rosenberg; James F Sallis; Jacqueline Kerr; Jason Maher; Gregory J Norman; Nefertiti Durant; Sion K Harris; Brian E Saelens

2010-01-01

343

Universal Behavior of Crossover Scaling Functions for Continuous Phase Transitions S. LuÂ¨beck 1 Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel, and Institut the crossover from the mean-field-like to the non-mean-field scaling behavior. A phenomenological scaling form

LÃ¼beck, Sven

344

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 061103 (2011) Avalanche spatial structure and multivariable scaling functions

-Parisi-Zhang (qKPZ) equation. We fully characterize the spatial structure of these avalanches--we report universal scaling functions, including corrections to scaling and systematic error bars, facilitated by a novel be described by the same family of front-propagation models. In this paper, we study the spatial structures

Sethna, James P.

345

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical physics is the first step for the development of science and technology. For more than 100 years it has delivered new and sophisticated discoveries which have changed human views of their surroundings and universe. Theoretical physics has also revealed that the governing law in our universe is not deterministic, and it is undoubtedly the foundation of our modern civilization. Contrary to its importance, research in theoretical physics is not well advanced in some developing countries such as Indonesia. This workshop provides the formal meeting in Indonesia devoted to the field of theoretical physics and is organized to cover all subjects of theoretical physics as well as nonlinear phenomena in order to create a gathering place for the theorists in Indonesia and surrounding countries, to motivate young physicists to keep doing active researches in the field and to encourage constructive communication among the community members. Following the success of the tenth previous meetings in this conference series, the eleventh conference was held in Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Surakarta, Indonesia on 15 February 2014. In addition, the conference was proceeded by School of Advance Physics at Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta, on 16–17 February 2014. The conference is expected to provide distinguished experts and students from various research fields of theoretical physics and nonlinear phenomena in Indonesia as well as from other continents the opportunities to present their works and to enhance contacts among them. The introduction to the conference is continued in the pdf.

2014-10-01

346

NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

1973-01-01

347

This paper discusses state-of-the-art electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in advanced semiconductor technologies and emerging technologies. ESD physics, semiconductor process issues, device and circuit simulation, circuits, and devices are examined

Steven H. Voldman

1999-01-01

348

Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing

A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

349

Particles have tremendous potential as astronomical messengers, and conversely, studying the universe as a whole also teaches us about particle physics. This thesis encompasses both of these research directions. Many models ...

Swanson, Molly E. C. (Molly Ellen Crosby)

2008-01-01

350

Physical modeling of wind turbine generators in a small scale analog system

This project represents the physical modeling and experimental test of a Doubly-fed Induction Machine (DFIM), in order to substantially analyze the characteristic behaviors of wind turbines and its use in the micro-grid ...

Wang, Xuntuo

2014-01-01

351

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is now a strong scientific consensus that coastal marine systems of Western Europe are highly sensitive to the combined effects of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. However, it still remains challenging to assess the spatial and temporal scales at which climate influence operates. While large-scale hydro-climatic indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) and the weather regimes such as the Atlantic Ridge (AR), are known to be relevant predictors of physical processes, changes in coastal waters can also be related to local hydro-meteorological and geochemical forcing. Here, we study the temporal variability of physical and chemical characteristics of coastal waters located at about 48°N over the period 1998-2013 using (1) sea surface temperature, (2) sea surface salinity and (3) nutrient concentration observations for two coastal sites located at the outlet of the Bay of Brest and off Roscoff, (4) river discharges of the major tributaries close to these two sites and (5) regional and local precipitation data over the region of interest. Focusing on the winter months, we characterize the physical and chemical variability of these coastal waters and document changes in both precipitation and river runoffs. Our study reveals that variability in coastal waters is connected to the large-scale North Atlantic atmospheric circulation but is also partly explained by local river influences. Indeed, while the NAO is strongly related to changes in sea surface temperature at the Brest and Roscoff sites, the EAP and the AR have a major influence on precipitations, which in turn modulate river discharges that impact sea surface salinity at the scale of the two coastal stations.

Tréguer, Paul; Goberville, Eric; Barrier, Nicolas; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Morin, Pascal; Bozec, Yann; Rimmelin-Maury, Peggy; Czamanski, Marie; Grossteffan, Emilie; Cariou, Thierry; Répécaud, Michel; Quéméner, Loic

2014-11-01

352

Effect of Finite Computational Domain on Turbulence Scaling Law in Both Physical and Spectral Spaces

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The well-known translation between the power law of energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.

Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye

1998-01-01

353

Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home

Background: Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity,obesity-related behaviors and to child weight status, supporting the construct validity of these scales. Background

2010-01-01

354

Planck constraints on neutrino isocurvature density perturbations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent cosmic microwave background data from the Planck satellite experiment, when combined with Hubble Space Telescope determinations of the Hubble constant, are compatible with a larger, nonstandard number of relativistic degrees of freedom at recombination, parametrized by the neutrino effective number Neff . In the curvaton scenario, a larger value for Neff could arise from a nonzero neutrino chemical potential connected to residual neutrino isocurvature density (NID) perturbations after the decay of the curvaton field, the component of which is parametrized by the amplitude ?NID . Here we present new constraints on Neff and ?NID from an analysis of recent cosmological data. We find that the Planck+WMAP polarization data set does not show any indication of a NID component (severely constraining its amplitude), and that current indications for a nonstandard Neff are further relaxed.

Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro

2014-10-01

355

Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated by sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range ? < 20, most notably at 30 GHz, and is probably caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibration uncertainties.

Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

356

Application of Planck's law to thermionic conversion

A simple, highly accurate, mathematical model of heat-to-electricity conversion is developed from Planck's law for the distribution of the radiant exitance of heat at a selected temperature. An electrical power curve is calculated by integration of the heat law over a selected range of electromagnetic wavelength corresponding to electrical voltage. A novel wavelength-voltage conversion factor, developed from the known wavelength-electron volt conversion factor, establishes the wavelength ({lambda}) for the integration. The Planck law is integrated within the limits {lambda} to 2{lambda}. The integration provides the ideal electrical power that is available from heat at the emitter temperature. When multiplied by a simple ratio, the calculated ideal power closely matches published thermionic converter experimental data. The thermal power model of thermionic conversion is validated by experiments with thermionic emission of ordinary electron tubes. A theoretical basis for the heat law based model of thermionic conversion is found in linear oscillator theory.

Caldwell, F.

1998-07-01

357

Fokker-Planck response of stochastic satellites

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present investigation is concerned with the effects of stochastic geometry and random environmental torques on the pointing accuracy of spinning and three-axis stabilized satellites. The study of pointing accuracies requires a knowledge of the rates of error growth over and above any criteria for the asymptotic stability of the satellites. For this reason the investigation is oriented toward the determination of the statistical properties of the responses of the satellites. The geometries of the satellites are considered stochastic so as to have a phenomenological model of the motions of the flexible structural elements of the satellites. A widely used method of solving stochastic equations is the Fokker-Planck approach where the equations are assumed to define a Markoff process and the transition probability densities of the responses are computed directly as a function of time. The Fokker-Planck formulation is used to analyze the response vector of a rigid satellite.

Huang, T. C.; Das, A.

1982-01-01

358

Lattice Fokker Planck for dilute polymer dynamics.

We show that the actual diffusive dynamics, governing the momentum relaxation of a polymer molecule, and described by a Fokker-Planck equation, may be replaced by a BGK-type relaxation dynamics without affecting the slow (Smoluchowski) dynamics in configuration space. Based on the BGK-type description, we present a lattice-Boltzmann (LB) based direct discretization approach for the phase-space description of inertial polymer dynamics. We benchmark this formulation by determining the bulk rheological properties for both steady and time-dependent shear and extensional flows at moderate to large Weissenberg numbers. Finally, we compare the usefulness of the different discrete velocity models, typically used in the LB framework, for solving diffusive dynamics based on the Fokker-Planck equation. PMID:23944577

Singh, Shiwani; Subramanian, Ganesh; Ansumali, Santosh

2013-07-01

359

Gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck Collision Operator

The gyrokinetic linearized exact Fokker-Planck collision operator is obtained in a form suitable for plasma gyrokinetic equations, for arbitrary mass ratio. The linearized Fokker-Planck operator includes both the test-particle and field-particle contributions, and automatically conserves particles, momentum, and energy, while ensuring non-negative entropy production. Finite gyroradius effects in both field-particle and test-particle terms are evaluated. When implemented in gyrokinetic simulations, these effects can be precomputed. The field-particle operator at each time step requires the evaluation of a single two-dimensional integral, and is not only more accurate, but appears to be less expensive to evaluate than conserving model operators.

Li, B.; Ernst, D. R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-05-13

360

PLANCKATOR: an Astrophysical Accelerator to Planck Energies

A very early Universe is thought to be a site to create a plenty of planckeons - the particles of mass m_P~= (hbar c\\/G)^1\\/2 ~= 10-5 g and energy E_P~= m_Pc^2~= 10^28 eV. Although this very remote epoch is gone, we show that appropriate conditions to accelerate particles to Planck energies exist in the Universe even at very recent epochs

Leonid M. Ozernoy; Vladimir M. Lipunov

1996-01-01

361

Planck 2013 results. XIII. Galactic CO emission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy as a mass tracer and in particular in the study of star formation and Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists for the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available high sensitivity all-sky survey of CO emission to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the Planck HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels, respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps, in terms of signal to noise ratio and/or residual contamination by other emission, are selected. Three different sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced with different trade-offs between signal-to-noise, angular resolution, and reliability. Maps for the CO J = 1 ? 0, J = 2 ? 1, and J = 3 ? 2 rotational transitions are presented and described in detail. They are shown to be fully compatible with previous surveys of parts of the Galactic plane as well as with undersampled surveys of the high latitude sky. The Planck HFI velocity-integrated CO maps for the J = 1 ? 0, J = 2 ? 1, and J = 3 ?2 rotational transitions provide an unprecedented all-sky CO view of the Galaxy. These maps are also of great interest to monitor potential CO contamination of the Planck studies of the cosmological microwave background.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dempsey, J. T.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T. J. T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H. S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yoda, T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

362

Local Fractional Fokker-Planck Equation

New kind of differential equations, called local fractional differential\\u000aequations, has been proposed for the first time. They involve local fractional\\u000aderivatives introduced recently. Such equations appear to be suitable to deal\\u000awith phenomena taking place in fractal space and time. A local fractional\\u000aanalog of Fokker-Planck equation has been derived starting from the\\u000aChapman-Kolmogorov condition. Such an equation is

Kiran M. Kolwankar; Anil D. Gangal

1998-01-01

363

Sub-Planck structures and Quantum Metrology

The significance of sub-Planck structures in relation to quantum metrology is explored, in close contact with experimental setups. It is shown that an entangled cat state can enhance the accuracy of parameter estimations. The possibility of generating this state, in dissipative systems has also been demonstrated. Thereafter, the quantum Cramer-Rao bound for phase estimation through a pair coherent state is calculated, which achieves the maximum possible resolution in an interferometer.

Panigrahi, Prasanta K. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research-Kolkata (India); Kumar, Abhijeet [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (India); Roy, Utpal; Ghosh, Suranjana [Indian Institute of Technology Patna (India)

2011-09-23

364

We present the results of approximately three years of observations of Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources with the Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope (RTT150), as a part of the optical follow-up programme undertaken by the Planck collaboration. During this time period approximately 20% of all dark and grey clear time available at the telescope was devoted to observations of Planck objects. Some observations of distant clusters were also done at the 6-m Bolshoy Telescope Azimutal'ny (BTA) of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In total, deep, direct images of more than one hundred fields were obtained in multiple filters. We identified 47 previously unknown galaxy clusters, 41 of which are included in the Planck catalogue of SZ sources. The redshifts of 65 Planck clusters were measured spectroscopically and 14 more were measured photometrically. We discuss the details of cluster optical identifications and redshift measurements. We also present new spectroscopic redhifts f...

Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Barrena, R; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Chon, G; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Dahle, H; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Fromenteau, S; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Gilfanov, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Hempel, A; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Khamitov, I; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Mac\\'\\ias-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roman, M; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Mart\\'\\in, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vibert, L; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

2014-01-01

365

Model-independent forecasts of CMB angular power spectra for the Planck mission

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck mission, designed for making measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation with unprecedented accuracy and angular resolution, is expected to release its entire data in the near future. In this paper, we provide model-independent forecasts for the TT, EE, and TE angular power spectra for the Planck mission using synthetic data based on the best-fit Lambda cold dark matter (?CDM) model. The nonparametric function estimation methodology we use here is based on the agnostic viewpoint of allowing the data to speak for themselves rather than letting the models decide what is inferred from the data. Our analysis indicates that the three Planck angular power spectra will be determined sufficiently well for 2?l ?lmax, where lmax=25001ex" (TT1ex" ), 1377(EE), and 1727(TE) respectively. A key signature of reionization, namely, a bump at low values of l, is evident in our forecasts for the EE and TE power spectra. Nonparametric confidence bands in the phase shift (?m) versus acoustic scale (lA) plane, corresponding to the first eight peaks in the TT power spectrum, show a confluence region for 300?lA?305 which is in good agreement with the estimate lA=300 based on the best-fit ?CDM model. From our results, we expect that the final Planck data should lead to accurate model-independent estimates of CMB angular power spectra using our nonparametric regression formalism.

Aghamousa, Amir; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun

2014-01-01

366

North-South non-Gaussian asymmetry in Planck CMB maps

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of a statistical analysis performed with the four foreground-cleaned Planck maps by means of a suitably defined local-variance estimator. Our analysis shows a clear dipolar structure in Planck's variance map pointing in the direction (l,b) simeq (220°,-32°), thus consistent with the North-South asymmetry phenomenon. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous findings, removing the CMB quadrupole and octopole makes the asymmetry stronger. Our results show a maximal statistical significance, of 98.1% CL, in the scales ranging from l=4 to l=500. Additionally, through exhaustive analyses of the four foreground-cleaned and individual frequency Planck maps, we find unlikely that residual foregrounds could be causing this dipole variance asymmetry. Moreover, we find that the dipole gets lower amplitudes for larger masks, evidencing that most of the contribution to the variance dipole comes from a region near the galactic plane. Finally, our results are robust against different foreground cleaning procedures, different Planck masks, pixelization parameters, and the addition of inhomogeneous real noise.

Bernui, A.; Oliveira, A. F.; Pereira, T. S.

2014-10-01

367

Planck intermediate results. XIX. An overview of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust

This paper presents the large-scale polarized sky as seen by Planck HFI at 353 GHz, which is the most sensitive Planck channel for dust polarization. We construct and analyse large-scale maps of dust polarization fraction and polarization direction, while taking account of noise bias and possible systematic effects. We find that the maximum observed dust polarization fraction is high (pmax > 18%), in particular in some of the intermediate dust column density (AV polarization fraction with increasing dust column density, and we interpret the features of this correlation in light of both radiative grain alignment predictions and fluctuations in the magnetic field orientation. We also characterize the spatial structure of the polarization angle using the angle dispersion function and find that, in nearby fields at intermediate latitudes, the polarization angle is ordered over extended areas that are separated by filamentary structures, which appear a...

Ade, P A R; Alina, D; Alves, M I R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Magalhães, A M; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Poidevin, F; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

2014-01-01

368

Planck-scale modified dispersion relations and Finsler geometry

A common feature of all quantum gravity (QG) phenomenology approaches is to consider a modification of the mass-shell condition of the relativistic particle to take into account quantum gravitational effects. The framework for such approaches is therefore usually set up in the cotangent bundle (phase space). However it was recently proposed that this phenomenology could be associated with an energy dependent geometry that has been coined 'rainbow metric'. We show here that the latter actually corresponds to a Finsler geometry, the natural generalization of Riemannian geometry. We provide in this way a new and rigorous framework to study the geometrical structure possibly arising in the semiclassical regime of QG. We further investigate the symmetries in this new context and discuss their role in alternative scenarios like Lorentz violation in emergent spacetimes or deformed special relativity-like models.

Girelli, F.; Liberati, S.; Sindoni, L. [SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

2007-03-15

369

Quasilinear simulation of auroral kilometric radiation by a relativistic Fokker-Planck code

An intense terrestrial radiation called the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be generated by cyclotron maser instability. We study a quasilinear evolution of this instability by means of a two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code which treats waves and distributions self-consistently, including radiation loss and electron source and sink. We compare the distributions and wave amplitude with spacecraft observations to elucidate physical processes involved. 3 refs., 1 fig.

Matsuda, Y.

1991-01-01

370

The stellar distribution around a black hole - Numerical integration of the Fokker-Planck equation

The steady-state stellar distribution around a central black hole in a star cluster is determined by means of a direct numerical integration of the Fokker-Planck equation in energy-angular momentum space. The loss cone in phase space resulting from tidal destruction of stars is treated by means of a detailed boundary-layer analysis. The process of stellar destruction by direct physical collisions

H. Cohn; R. M. Kulsrud

1978-01-01

371

Microscopic dynamics of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation: A phenomenological model

We derive a phenomenological model of the underlying microscopic Langevin equation of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, which is used to describe anomalous correlated diffusion. The resulting distribution-dependent stochastic equation is then analyzed and properties such as long-time scaling and the Hurst exponent are calculated both analytically and from simulations. Results of this microscopic theory are compared with those of fractional

Lisa Borland

1998-01-01

372

of these metrics is evaluated in the context of network performance. Â©2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes optical-electronic-optical conversion. Also, signal regeneration in optics cannot be easily accomplished networks are analyzed in terms of three physical-layer metrics (that play a critical role in determining

Bergman, Keren

373

Five laboratory studies of benthic macroinvertebrate recolonization were conducted for 6-wk periods to evaluate the effects of physical factors (i.e., microcosm size, seawater flow rates and sediment depth) on benthic community structure. esign variables included4 open-faced acry...

374

Large-Scale Simulations in Condensed Matter Physics THE Need for a Teraflop Computer

The introduction of vector processors {``supercomputers'' with a performance in the range of 109 floating point operations (1 GFLOP) per second} has had an enormous impact on computational condensed matter physics. The possibility of a substantially enhanced performance by massively parallel processors (``teraflop'' machines with 1012 floating point operations per second) will allow satisfactory treatment of a large range of

K. Binder

1992-01-01

375

Reconstruction of the primordial power spectra with Planck and BICEP2 data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the cubic spline interpolation method, we reconstruct the shape of the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra from the recently released Planck temperature and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background data. We find that the vanishing scalar index running (dns/dlnk) model is strongly disfavored at more than 3? confidence level on the k =0.0002 Mpc-1 scale. Furthermore, the power-law parametrization gives a blue-tilt tensor spectrum, no matter using only the first five bandpowers nt=1.20-0.64+0.56(95% C .L.) or the full nine bandpowers nt=1.24-0.58+0.51(95% C .L.) of BICEP2 data sets. Unlike the large tensor-to-scalar ratio value (r˜0.20) under the scale-invariant tensor spectrum assumption, our interpolation approach gives r0.002<0.060(95% C .L.) by using the first five bandpowers of BICEP2 data. After comparing the results with/without BICEP2 data, we find that Planck temperature with small tensor amplitude signals and BICEP2 polarization data with large tensor amplitude signals dominate the tensor spectrum reconstruction on the large and small scales, respectively. Hence, the resulting blue tensor tilt actually reflects the tension between Planck and BICEP2 data.

Hu, Bin; Hu, Jian-Wei; Guo, Zong-Kuan; Cai, Rong-Gen

2014-07-01

376

A Cross-Cultural Validation of Perceived Locus of Causality Scale in Physical Education Context

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the validity of the factor structure and invariance of the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale instrument scores across two nations endorsing collectivist (Singapore) and individualist (Great Britain) cultural values. Results indicated that confirmatory factor analytic models of the PLOC exhibited adequate ft according to…

Wang, C. K. John; Hagger, Martin; Liu, Woon Chia

2009-01-01

377

epidemics Sarabjeet Singh* Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace of epidemics is one such example where the scaling behavior near a critical point has been studied extensively is at or above the epidemic threshold, a driven SIR process can exhibit a richer spectrum of outbreak sizes

Myers, Chris

378

Physical scale modeling the millimeter-wave backscattering behavior of ground clutter

National Ground Intelligence Center, 220 Seventh Street Charlottesville, VA 22902 ABSTRACT The VV the dielectric constant of the scale models. Radar imagery of the rough surfaces were acquired in a 1.56 THz-dimensional imagery. The backscattering coefficient per unit illuminated area (s0 ) was calculated as a function

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

379

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 045416 (2012) Long-scale dynamics of crystalline membranes

dispersion laws for two acoustic in-plane sound modes (longitudinal and transversal) and one out, in the dimensionality D - , the attenuations are slave, following the same scaling laws as the dispersion laws. We in fixed connectivity (tethered or polymerized) lipid membranes when covalent cross links are replaced

Lebedev, Vladimir

380

Atmospheric surface layer turbulence over water surfaces and sub-grid scale physics

fluxes from LATEX. Then, we investigate the dynam- ics and models of small scale turbulence-Zeid et al. 2 Air-lake exchanges The measured latent heat flux (LE) was always positive at our site, i exchange at the surface than sensible heat. The consequence is that the ABL is almost always unstably

Bou-Zeid, Elie

381

The theory of Fechnerian scaling, as developed by the present authors, uses “same-different” discrimination probabilities defined on a stimulus set to derive from them a measure of local discriminability (of each stimulus from its neighbors), and by cumulating this measure along special paths in the stimulus space it obtains subjective (Fechnerian) distances among stimuli. Previously the theory has been developed

Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov; Hans Colonius

2005-01-01

382

The Nature of Light: I. A Historical Survey Up to the Pre-Planck Era and Implications for Teaching

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to contribute to the scant literature that exists on historical developments on the nature of light. It traces the nature of light from the times of the ancient Greeks to the classical theories prior to Planck. The development of thought that characterizes the evolution of a concept in physics over time affords…

Oon, Pey Tee; Subramaniam, R.

2009-01-01

383

Background The need for valid and reproducible questionnaires to routinely assess the physical activity level of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of particular concern in clinical settings. Aims of this study were to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE) questionnaire in TKA patients, with a particular view on gender differences. Methods A total of 50 elderly patients (25 women and 25 men aged 70?±?6 years) following primary unilateral TKA were recruited. The reproducibility was evaluated by administering the PASE questionnaire during two occasions separated by 7 days. The construct (criterion) validity was investigated by comparing the physical activity level reported by patients in the PASE questionnaire to that measured by accelerometry. Reproducibility was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,1) for reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC) for agreement, while validity was investigated with Pearson correlation coefficients. Results Reliability of the PASE total score was acceptable for men (ICC?=?0.77) but not for women (ICC?=?0.58). Its agreement was low for both men and women, as witnessed by high SEM (32% and 35%, respectively) and SDC (89% and 97%, respectively). Construct validity of the PASE total score was low in both men (r?=?0.45) and women (r?=?0.06). Conclusions The PASE questionnaire has several validity and reproducibility shortcomings, therefore its use is not recommended for the assessment of physical activity level in patients after TKA, particularly in women. PMID:24555852

2014-01-01

384

Exploring spatiotemporal patterns and physical controls of soil moisture at various spatial scales

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture variability of various spatial scales is analyzed based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) method using soil moisture datasets with various spatial resolutions: 1 km eco-hydrological model simulation, 0.25° passive microwave (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System, AMSR-E) dataset, and 0.5° land surface model simulation from Climate Predictor Center (CPC). All three datasets generate EOFs that explain similar variances with those generated from in situ observations from agro-meteorological network. Using AMSR-E product and eco-hydrological model simulation, it is found that the primary spatial pattern of soil moisture obtained from watershed scale has a strong connection to topographic attributes, followed by soil texture and rainfall variability, as suggested by the correlation between the primary EOF mode (EOF1) of soil moisture and landscape attributes. However, the EOF analysis of both AMSR-E and CPC datasets at regional scale reaches the conclusion that soil texture indices, such as sand and clay content, is of higher importance to soil moisture EOF1 spatial pattern (explaining 61 % variance) than topography is. Furthermore, correlation between soil moisture EOF1 and soil property is higher in spring than in autumn, which indicates that soil water-holding and drainage capabilities are more important under dry conditions. At national scale, the combined effects of topographic feature and soil property are clearly exhibited in EOF1. The study results reveal that different emphases should be placed on accurate acquisition of landscape attributes for soil moisture estimation according to various spatial scales.

Qiu, Jianxiu; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Suxia; Lin, Zhonghui

2014-10-01

385

FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION IN BOUNDED DOMAIN by Laurent CHUPIN

FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION IN BOUNDED DOMAIN by Laurent CHUPIN Abstract. We study the existence and the uniqueness of a solution to the linear Fokker-Planck equation - + div( F) = f in a bounded domain of Rd when and polymer flows. Equation de Fokker-Planck dans un domaine bornÂ´e RÂ´esumÂ´e. On Â´etudie l'existence et l

Sart, Remi

386

Bistable systems: Master equation versus Fokker-Planck modeling

Relaxation and fluctuations of nonlinear macroscopic systems, which are frequently described by means of Fokker-Planck or Langevin equations, are studied on the basis of a master equation. The problem of an approximate Fokker-Planck modeling of the dynamics is investigated. A new Fokker-Planck modeling is presented which is superior to the conventional method based on the truncated Kramers-Moyal expansion. The new

Peter Hanggi; Hermann Grabert; Peter Talkner; Harry Thomas

1984-01-01

387

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several thousand years the Mississippi River has formed one of the world's largest deltas and much of the Louisiana coast. However, in the last 100 years or so, anthropogenic controls have been placed on the system to maintain important navigation routes and for flood control resulting in the loss of the natural channel shifting necessary for replenishment of the deltaic coast with fresh sediment and resources. In addition, the high relative sea level rise in the lowermost portion of the river is causing a change in the distributary flow patterns of the river and deposition center. River and sediment diversions are being proposed as way to re-create some of the historical distribution of river water and sediments into the delta region. In response to a need for improving the understanding of the potential for medium- and large-scale river and sediment diversions, the state of Louisiana funded the construction of a small-scale physical model (SSPM) of the lower ~76 river miles (RM). The SSPM is a 1:12,000 horizontal, 1:500 vertical, highly-distorted, movable bed physical model designed to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative results regarding bulk noncohesive sediment transport characteristics in the river and through medium- and large-scale diversion structures. The SSPM was designed based on Froude similarity for the hydraulics and Shields similarity for sand transport and has a sediment time scale of 1 year prototype to 30 minutes model allowing for decadal length studies of the land building potential of diversions. Annual flow and sediment hydrographs were developed from historical records and a uniform relative sea level rise of 3 feet in 100 years is used to account for the combined effects of eustatic sea level rise and subsidence. Data collected during the experiments include river stages, dredging amounts and high-resolution video of transport patterns within the main channel and photographs of the sand deposition patterns in the diversion receiving areas. First, the similarity analysis that went into the model design along with a discussion of the resulting limitations will be presented. Next, calibration and validation results will be shown demonstrating the ability of the SSPM to capture the general lower Mississippi River sediment transport trends and deposition patterns. Third, results from a series of diversion experiments will be presented to semi-quantitatively show the effectiveness of diversion locations, sizes, and operating strategies on the quantities of sand diverted from the main river and the changes in main channel dredging volumes. These results will are then correlated with recent field and numerical studies of the study area. This talk will then close with a brief discussion of a new and improved physical model that will cover a larger domain and be designed to provide more quantitative results.

Willson, C. S.

2011-12-01

388

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fokker-Planck (FP) equation describing the dynamics of a single Brownian particle near a fixed external surface is derived using the multiple-time-scales perturbation method, previously used by Cukier and Deutch and Nienhuis in the absence of any external surfaces, and Piasecki et al. for two Brownian spheres in a hard fluid. The FP equation includes an explicit expression for the (time-independent) particle friction tensor in terms of the force autocorrelation function and equilibrium average force on the particle by the surrounding fluid and in the presence of a fixed external surface, such as an adsorbate. The scaling and perturbation analysis given here also shows that the force autocorrelation function must decay rapidly on the zeroth-order time scale ? 0, which physically requires N Kn?1, where N Kn is the Knudsen number (ratio of the length scale for fluid intermolecular interactions to the Brownian particle length scale). This restricts the theory given here to liquid systems where N Kn?1. For a specified particle configuration with respect to the external surface, equilibrium canonical molecular dynamics (MD) calculations are conducted, as shown here, in order to obtain numerical values of the friction tensor from the force autocorrelation expression. Molecular dynamics computations of the friction tensor for a single spherical particle in the absence of a fixed external surface are shown to recover Stokes' law for various types of fluid molecule-particle interaction potentials. Analytical studies of the static force correlation function also demonstrate the remarkable principle of force-time parity whereby the particle friction coefficient is nearly independent of the fluid molecule-particle interaction potential. Molecular dynamics computations of the friction tensor for a single spherical particle near a fixed external spherical surface (adsorbate) demonstrate a breakdown in continuum hydrodynamic results at close particle-surface separation distances on the order of several molecular diameters.

Peters, Michael H.

1999-02-01

389

Thermal dark matter implies new physics not far above the weak scale

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we complete a model independent analysis of dark matter constraining its mass and interaction strengths with data from astro- and particle physics experiments. We use the effective field theory framework to describe interactions of thermal dark matter particles of the following types: real and complex scalars, Dirac and Majorana fermions, and vector bosons. Using Bayesian inference we calculate posterior probability distributions for the mass and interaction strengths for the various spin particles. The observationally favoured dark matter particle mass region is 10-100 GeV with effective interactions that have a cut-off at 0.1-1 TeV. This mostly comes from the requirement that the thermal abundance of dark matter not exceed the observed value. Thus thermal dark matter coupled with present data implies new physics most likely under 10 TeV.

Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong; Newstead, Jayden L.

2014-08-01

390

Hypersonic expansion of the Fokker--Planck equation

A systematic study of the hypersonic limit of a heavy species diluted in a much lighter gas is made via the Fokker--Planck equation governing its velocity distribution function. In particular, two different hypersonic expansions of the Fokker--Planck equation are considered, differing from each other in the momentum equation of the heavy gas used as the basis of the expansion: in the first of them, the pressure tensor is neglected in that equation while, in the second expansion, the pressure tensor term is retained. The expansions are valid when the light gas Mach number is O(1) or larger and the difference between the mean velocities of light and heavy components is small compared to the light gas thermal speed. They can be applied away from regions where the spatial gradient of the distribution function is very large, but it is not restricted with respect to the temporal derivative of the distribution function. The hydrodynamic equations corresponding to the lowest order of both expansions constitute two different hypersonic closures of the moment equations. For the subsequent orders in the expansions, closed sets of moment equations (hydrodynamic equations) are given. Special emphasis is made on the order of magnitude of the errors of the lowest-order hydrodynamic quantities. It is shown that if the heat flux vanishes initially, these errors are smaller than one might have expected from the ordinary scaling of the hypersonic closure. Also it is found that the normal solution of both expansions is a Gaussian distribution at the lowest order.

Fernandez-Feria, R.

1989-02-01

391

The physical structure of two riffles in a lowland Danish stream was studied and its importance for the composition and density\\u000a of the macroinvertebrate communities was evaluated. The two riffles were visually assessed to be very similar, but measurements\\u000a revealed that they differed in overall hydraulic conditions, stability, substratum composition and consolidation. Differences\\u000a affected abundance of both burrowing and surface

Morten Lauge Pedersen; Nikolai Friberg

2007-01-01

392

Crystallization is the most serious bottleneck in high-throughput protein-structure determination by diffraction methods. We have used data mining of the large-scale experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium and experimental folding studies to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. This analysis leads to the conclusion that crystallization propensity depends primarily on the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes

W Nicholson Price II; Yang Chen; Samuel K Handelman; Helen Neely; Philip Manor; Richard Karlin; Rajesh Nair; Jinfeng Liu; Michael Baran; John Everett; Saichiu N Tong; Farhad Forouhar; Swarup S Swaminathan; Thomas Acton; Rong Xiao; Joseph R Luft; Angela Lauricella; George T DeTitta; Burkhard Rost; Gaetano T Montelione; John F Hunt

2008-01-01

393

Fermion Mass Hierarchy and New Physics at the TeV Scale

In this talk, I present a new framework to understand the long-standing fermion mass hierarchy puzzle. We extend the Standard Model gauge symmetry by an extra local U(1){sub S} symmetry, broken spontaneously at the electroweak scale. All the SM particles are singlet with respect to this U(1){sub S}. We also introduce additional flavor symmetries, U(1){sub F}'s, with flavon scalars F{sub i}, as well as vectorlike quarks and leptons at the TeV scale. The flavon scalars have VEV in the TeV scale. Only the top quark has the usual dimension four Yukawa coupling. EW symmetry breaking to all other quarks and leptons are propagated through the messenger field, S through their interactions involving the heavy vector-like fermions and S, as well as through their interactions involving the vector-like fermions and F{sub i}. In addition the explaining the hierarchy of the charged fermion masses and mixings, the model has several interesting predictions for Higgs decays, flavor changing neutral current processes in the top and the b quark decays, decays of the new singlet scalars to the new Z' boson, as well as productions of the new vectorlike quarks. These predictions can be tested at the LHC.

Nandi, S. [Department of Physics and Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

2010-02-10

394

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land loss in the Mississippi River Delta caused by subsidence and erosion has resulted in habitat loss, interference with human activities, and increased exposure of New Orleans and other settled areas to storm surge risks. Prior to dam and levee building and oil and gas production in the 20th century, the long term rates of land building roughly balanced land loss through subsidence. Now, however, sediment is being deposited at dramatically lower rates in shallow areas in and adjacent to the Delta, with much of the remaining sediment borne by the Mississippi being lost to the deep areas of the Gulf of Mexico. A few projects have been built in order to divert sediment from the river to areas where land can be built, and many more are under consideration as part of State of Louisiana and Federal planning processes. Most are small scale, although there have been some proposals for large engineered avulsions that would divert a significant fraction of the remaining available sediment (W. Kim, et al. 2009, EOS). However, there is debate over whether small or large diversions are the economically optimally and socially most acceptable size of such land building projects. From an economic point of view, the optimal size involves tradeoffs between scale economies in civil work construction, the relationship between depth of diversion and sediment concentration in river water, effects on navigation, and possible diminishing returns to land building at a single location as the edge of built land progresses into deeper waters. Because land building efforts could potentially involve billions of dollars of investment, it is important to gain as much benefit as possible from those expenditures. We present the result of a general analysis of scale economies in land building from engineered avulsions. The analysis addresses the question: how many projects of what size should be built at what time in order to maximize the amount of land built by a particular time? The analysis integrates three models: 1. coarse sediment diversion as a function of the width, depth, and timing of water diversions (using our field measurements of sediment concentration as a function of depth), 2. land building as a function of the location, water, and amount of sediment diverted, accounting for bathymetry, subsidence, and other factors, and 3. cost of building and operating the necessary civil works. Our statistical analysis of past diversions indicates existence of scale economies in width and scale of diseconomies in depth. The analysis explores general relationships between size, cost, and land building, and does not consider specific actual project proposals or locations. Sensitivity to assumptions about fine sediment capture, accumulation rates for organic material, and other inputs will be discussed.

Kenney, M. A.; Mohrig, D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Parker, G.

2011-12-01

395

103V.L. Popov and E. KrÃ¶ner / Physical Mesomechanics 1 (1998) 103-112 On the role of scaling in the theory of elastoplasticity V.L. Popov and E. KrÃ¶ner1 Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science

Berlin,Technische UniversitÃ¤t

396

Constraints on millicharged particles from Planck data

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit cosmic microwave background constraints on the abundance of millicharged particles based on the Planck data. The stringent limit ?mcph2<0.001 (95% CL) may be set using the cosmic microwave background data alone if millicharged particles participate in the acoustic oscillations of baryon-photon plasma at the recombination epoch. The latter condition is valid for a wide region of charges and masses of the particles. Adding the millicharged component to ?CDM shifts the preferred scalar spectral index of primordial perturbations to somewhat larger values as compared to the minimal model, even approaching the Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum under some assumptions.

Dolgov, A. D.; Dubovsky, S. L.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Tkachev, I. I.

2013-12-01

397

Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (includingthe level of out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the interferometric output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. Knowledge of the relative variations in the spectral response between HFI detectors allows for a more thorough analysis of the HFI data. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers describe the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI, this paper focusses on the analysis of the pre-flight spectral response measurements and the derivation of data products, e.g. band-average spectra, unit conversion coefficients, and colour correction coefficients, all with related uncertainties. Verifications of the HFI spectral response data are provided through comparisons with photometric HFI flight data. This validation includes use of HFI zodiacal emission observations to demonstrate out-of-band spectral signal rejection better than 108. The accuracy of the HFI relative spectral response data is verified through comparison with complementary flight-data based unit conversion coefficients and colour correction coefficients. These coefficients include those based upon HFI observations of CO, dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission. General agreement is observed between the ground-based spectral characterization of HFI and corresponding in-flight observations, within the quoted uncertainty of each; explanations are provided for any discrepancies.

Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

2014-11-01

398

A Neural-Network based estimator to search for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps

We present an upgraded combined estimator, based on Minkowski Functionals and a Neural Network, with excellent performance in detecting primordial non-Gaussianity in simulated maps that also contain a weighted mixture of Galactic contaminations, besides real pixel's noise from Planck cosmic microwave background radiation data. We rigorously test the ef\\/ficiency of our estimator considering several plausible scenarios for for residual non-Gaussianities in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps, with the intuition to optimize the training procedure of the Neural Network to discriminate between contaminations with primordial and secondary non-Gaussian signatures. With a validated estimator's performance, showing more than $97 \\%$ of hits in a variety of cases, we look for constraining the primordial non-Gaussianity in large angular scales analyses of the Planck maps. For the $\\mathtt{SMICA}$ map we found that ${f}_{\\rm \\,NL} = 44 \\pm 14$, at $2\\sigma$ confidence level, which is in excellent agreement with the WMAP-...

Novaes, C P; Ferreira, I S; Wuensche, C A

2014-01-01

399

Particles have tremendous potential as astronomical messengers, and conversely, studying the universe as a whole also teaches us about particle physics. This thesis encompasses both of these research directions. Many models predict a diffuse flux of high energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei and other astrophysical sources. The "Astrophysics Underground" portion of this thesis describes a search for this neutrino flux performed by looking for very high energy upward-going muons using the Super-K detector. In addition to using particles to do astronomy, we can also use the universe itself as a particle physics lab. The "Particle Physics in the Sky" portion of this thesis focuses on extracting cosmological information from galaxy surveys. To overcome technical challenges faced by the latest galaxy surveys, we produced a comprehensive upgrade to mangle, a software package that processes the angular masks defining the survey area on the sky. We added dramatically faster algorithms and new useful features that are necessary for managing complex masks of current and next-generation galaxy surveys. With this software in hand, we utilized SDSS data to investigate the relation between galaxies and dark matter by studying relative bias, i.e., the relation between different types of galaxies. Separating galaxies by their luminosities and colors reveals a complicated picture: red galaxies are clustered more strongly than blue galaxies, with both the brightest and the faintest red galaxies showing the strongest clustering. Furthermore, red and blue galaxies tend to occupy different regions of space. In order to make precise measurements from the next generation of galaxy surveys, it will be essential to account for this complexity.

Molly E. C. Swanson

2008-08-01

400

News about TeV-scale Black Holes

Collider produced black holes are the most exciting prediction from models with large extra dimensions. These black holes exist in an extreme region, in which gravity meets quantum field theory, particle physics, and thermodynamics. An investigation of the formation and decay processes can therefore provide us with important insights about the underlying theory and open a window to the understanding of Physics at the Planck scale. The production and the evaporation of TeV-scale black holes yields distinct signatures that have been examined closely during the last years, with analytical approaches as well as by use of numerical simulations. I present new results for the LHC, which take into account that, instead of a final decay, a black hole remnant can be left. This is a summary of the talk given at the Quark Matter 2005, Budapest, Hungary, Aug. 2005.

S. Hossenfelder

2005-10-18

401

Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property), but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer). The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music. PMID:23544047

Liu, Lu; Wei, Jianrong; Zhang, Huishu; Xin, Jianhong; Huang, Jiping

2013-01-01

402

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems is often accompanied with maintaining a nearly closed vegetation-soil nutrient cycle. The ability to retain nutrients in an ecosystem requires the capacity of the plant-soil system to draw down nutrient levels in soils effectually such that export concentrations in soil solutions remain low. Here we address the physical constraints of plant nutrient uptake which may be limited by the diffusive movement of nutrients in soils, the uptake at the root/mycorrhizal surface, and from interactions with soil water flow. We derive an analytical framework of soil nutrient transport and uptake and predict levels of plant available nutrient concentration and residence time. Our results, which we evaluate for nitrogen, show that the physical environment permits plants to lower soil solute concentration substantially. Our analysis confirms that plant uptake capacities in soils are considerable such that water movement in soils is generally too small to significantly erode dissolved plant available nitrogen. Inorganic nitrogen concentrations in headwater streams are congruent with the prediction of our theoretical framework. Our framework offers a physical-based parameterization of nutrient uptake in ecosystem models and has the potential to serve as an important tool towards scaling biogeochemical cycles from individual roots to landscapes.

Gerber, S.; Brookshire, J.

2013-12-01

403

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field-scale bacterial transport experiment was conducted at the Narrow Channel Focus Area of the South Oyster field site located in Oyster, Virginia. The goal of the field experiment was to determine the relative influence of subsurface heterogeneity and microbial population parameters on flow direction, velocity, and attachment of bacteria at the field scale. The field results were compared with results from laboratory-scale column experiments to develop a method for predicting field-scale bacterial transport. The field site is a shallow, sandy, unconfined, aerobic aquifer that has been characterized by geophysical, sedimentological, and hydrogeological methods. Comamonas sp. strain DA001 and a conservative tracer, bromide (Br), were injected into an area of high permeability for 12 hours. The Br and bacterial concentrations in the groundwater were monitored for 1 week at 192 sampling ports spaced over a 2-m vertical zone located from 0.5 to 7 m down-gradient of the injection well. The bacterial and Br plume was observed to move past 95 sampling ports. The densely characterized field site enabled the comparison of variations in DA001 transport to the aquifer properties. The velocity of the injected plume was correlated with geophysical estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The bacterial and Br plume appeared to follow flow paths not coincident with the hydraulic gradient but through a zone of higher permeability located off the flow axis. The amount of breakthrough of the bacteria was similar in both the high and low permeability layers with only a weak correlation between the observed hydraulic conductivity and amount of bacterial breakthrough. The uniformity in the observed attachment rates across varying grain sizes could be explained by heterogeneity of microbial properties within the single strain of injected bacteria. Application of colloid filtration theory to the field data indicated that variations in the microbial population were described by a lognormal distribution of the collision efficiency (?). Core-scale studies were used to predict the ? distribution and field-scale transport distances of DA001. In sandy aquifers, physical heterogeneity may play a secondary role in controlling field-scale bacterial transport, and future research should focus on the microbial factors affecting transport.

Mailloux, Brian J.; Fuller, Mark E.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Hall, James; Dong, Hailiang; Deflaun, Mary F.; Streger, Sheryl H.; Rothmel, Randi K.; Green, Maria; Swift, Donald J. P.; Radke, Jon

2003-06-01

404

The schizotypy model proposed by Meehl (1990) assumes a discontinuous distribution of schizophrenia liability. The "schizogene" is thought to determine if one is at risk for psychosis (i.e., whether one is a member of the taxon or its complement, which are considered to be the two latent classes). Using a German non-student sample (n = 809) we wanted to (1) replicate the results of prior research pertaining to the latent structure and base rate of schizotypy assessed by the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PER; Chapman, Chapman, & Raulin, 1978), and (2) investigate whether the same holds true for two other prominent psychometric indices, the Magical Ideation Scale (MI; Eckblad & Chapman, 1983) and the Physical Anhedonia Scale (PhA; Chapman et al., 1976), if one uses the same kind of analysis--the MAXCOV-HITMAX analysis based on subsets of items (Meehl, 1973). Pertaining to PER and PhA, our results are in accordance with prior research showing a latent class structure and a base rate of about 12% for schizotypy. However, for MI, there was no evidence of a taxonic structure. Possible reasons for MI's negative results are discussed as well as the role of the concept "anhedonia." PMID:11778394

Meyer, T D; Keller, F

2001-12-01

405

Scalings between Physical and their Observationally related Quantities of Merger Remnants

We present scaling relations between the virial velocity (V) and the one-dimensional central velocity dispersion (Sig0); the gravitational radius (Rv) and the effective radius (Re); and the total mass (M) and the luminous mass (ML) found in N-body simulations of binary mergers of spiral galaxies. These scalings are of the form V^2 ~ Sig0^alpha, Rv ~ Re^beta and M ~ ML^gamma. The particlar values obtained for (alpha,beta,gamma) depend on the method of fitting used [ordinary least-squares (ols) or orthogonal distance regression (odr)], the assumed profile [de Vaucouleurs (deV) or Sersic (S)], and the size of the radial interval where the fit is done. The alpha and gamma indexes turn out more sensitive to the fitting procedure, obtaining for the ols a mean alpha_ols=1.51 and gamma_ols=0.69, while for the odr alpha_odr=2.35 and gamma_odr=0.76. The beta index depends more on the adopted type of profile, with beta_deV=0.13 and beta_S=0.27. We conclude that dissipationless formed remnants of mergers have a strong breaking of structural and kinematical homology.

H. Aceves; H. Velazquez

2005-09-07

406

1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation

Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.

Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.

1993-01-01

407

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

Bromley, D. Allan

1980-01-01

408

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and

D. A. Bromley

1980-01-01

409

Scale of gravity and the cosmological constant within a landscape

It is possible that the scale of gravity, parametrized by the apparent Planck mass, may obtain different values within different universes in an encompassing multiverse. We investigate the range over which the Planck mass may scan while still satisfying anthropic constraints. The window for anthropically allowed values of the Planck mass may have important consequences for landscape predictions. For example, if the likelihood to observe some value of the Planck mass is weighted by the inflationary expansion factors of the universes that contain that value, then it appears extremely unlikely to observe the value of the Planck mass that is measured within our universe. This is another example of the runaway inflation problem discussed in recent literature. We also show that the window for the Planck mass significantly weakens the anthropic constraint on the cosmological constant when both are allowed to vary over a landscape.

Graesser, Michael L. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Salem, Michael P. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2007-08-15

410

Following the recent completion of a tomographic physical newborn dosimetry phantom with incorporated metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system, it was necessary to derive scaling factors in order to calculate organ doses in the physical phantom given point dose measurements via the MOSFET dosimeters (preceding article in this issue). In this study, we present the initial development of scaling factors using projection radiograph data. These point-to-organ dose scaling factors (SF{sub POD}) were calculated using a computational phantom created from the same data set as the physical phantom, but which also includes numerous segmented internal organs and tissues. The creation of these scaling factors is discussed, as well as the errors associated when using only point dose measurements to calculate mean organ doses and effective doses in physical phantoms. Scaling factors for various organs ranged from as low as 0.70 to as high as 1.71. Also, the ability to incorporate improvements in the computational phantom into the physical phantom using scaling factors is discussed. An comprehensive set of SF{sub POD} values is presented in this article for application in pediatric radiography of newborn patients.

Staton, Robert J.; Jones, A. Kyle; Lee, Choonik; Hintenlang, David E.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Bolch, Wesley E. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0374 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States)

2006-09-15

411

The best inflationary models after Planck

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the Bayesian evidence and complexity of 193 slow-roll single-field models of inflation using the Planck 2013 Cosmic Microwave Background data, with the aim of establishing which models are favoured from a Bayesian perspective. Our calculations employ a new numerical pipeline interfacing an inflationary effective likelihood with the slow-roll library ASPIC and the nested sampling algorithm MultiNest. The models considered represent a complete and systematic scan of the entire landscape of inflationary scenarios proposed so far. Our analysis singles out the most probable models (from an Occam's razor point of view) that are compatible with Planck data, while ruling out with very strong evidence 34% of the models considered. We identify 26% of the models that are favoured by the Bayesian evidence, corresponding to 15 different potential shapes. If the Bayesian complexity is included in the analysis, only 9% of the models are preferred, corresponding to only 9 different potential shapes. These shapes are all of the plateau type.

Martin, Jérôme; Ringeval, Christophe; Trotta, Roberto; Vennin, Vincent

2014-03-01

412

Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

2013-06-01

413

Outcrop-scale physical properties of Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rock mass rating (RMR) analysis was performed on an outcrop of Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars. RMR values were calculated for the present dry conditions (RMR = 63) and past wet conditions (RMR = 52). For present-day dry conditions, the rock mass has an in situ modulus of deformation (E*) of 21.1 GPa, cohesive strength (C*0) of 4.64 MPa, and tensile strength (T*0) of -0.24 MPa. These values were reduced by at most ~50% during previous water-saturated conditions. The critical grain crushing pressure (P*) for dry conditions is 19.5 GPa, with an uncertainty of about an order of magnitude. Analysis of the rover observations indicates that the physical properties of Burns Formation are in the range of analogous terrestrial porous rock masses such as sandstone and shale.

Nahm, Amanda L.; Schultz, Richard A.

2007-10-01

414

Scale-free flow of life: on the biology, economics, and physics of the cell

The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies. PMID:19416527

Kurakin, Alexei

2009-01-01

415

Black hole physics. Black hole lightning due to particle acceleration at subhorizon scales.

Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet. PMID:25378461

Aleksi?, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; Becerra González, J; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; de Oña Wilhelmi,