Physics Meets Philosophy at the Planck Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callender, Craig; Huggett, Nick
2001-04-01
Preface; 1. Introduction Craig Callendar and Nick Huggett; Part I. Theories of Quantum Gravity and their Philosophical Dimensions: 2. Spacetime and the philosophical challenge of quantum gravity Jeremy Butterfield and Christopher Isham; 3. Naive quantum gravity Steven Weinstein; 4. Quantum spacetime: what do we know? Carlo Rovelli; Part II. Strings: 5. Reflections on the fate of spacetime Edward Witten; 6. A philosopher looks at string theory Robert Weingard; 7. Black holes, dumb holes, and entropy William G. Unruh; Part III. Topological Quantum Field Theory: 8. Higher-dimensional algebra and Planck scale physics John C. Baez; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of General Relativity: 9. On general covariance and best matching Julian B. Barbour; 10. Pre-Socratic quantum gravity Gordon Belot and John Earman; 11. The origin of the spacetime metric: Bell's 'Lorentzian Pedagogy' and its significance in general relativity Harvey R. Brown and Oliver Pooley; Part IV. Quantum Gravity and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: 12. Quantum spacetime without observers: ontological clarity and the conceptual foundations of quantum gravity Sheldon Goldstein and Stefan Teufel; 13. On gravity's role in quantum state reduction Roger Penrose; 14. Why the quantum must yield to gravity Joy Christian.
Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holman, Richard; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.
1992-01-01
Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale.
Planck Scale Physics, Pregeometry and the Notion of Time
S. Roy
2003-11-04
Recent progress in quantum gravity and string theory has raised interest among scientists to whether or not nature behaves discretely at the Planck scale. There are two attitudes twoards this discretenes i.e. top-down and bottom-up approach. We have followed up the bottom-up approach. Here we have tried to describe how macroscopic space-time or its underlying mesoscopic substratum emerges from a more fundamental concept. The very concept of space-time, causality may not be valid beyond Planck scale. We have introduced the concept of generalised time within the framework of Sheaf Cohomology where the physical time emrges around and above Planck scale. The possible physical amd metaphysical implications are discussed.
The Time Dependence of Fundamental Constants and Planck Scale Physics
Frederick Rothwarfs; Sisir Roy
2003-11-14
A real aether model of the vacuum proposed by Allen Rothwarf based upon a degenerate Fermion fluid of polarizable particle-antiparticle pairs, leads to a big bang model of the universe where the velocity of light varies inversely with the square root of the cosmological time. Here, this model is used to determine the time dependence of certain fundamental constants, i.e. permittivity, permeability of free space : the Gravitational constant, and the Planck units: length, time and mass.
Planck scale physics and topology change through an exactly solvable model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Martinez-Asencio, Jesus; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.
2014-04-01
We consider the collapse of a charged radiation fluid in a Planck-suppressed quadratic extension of General Relativity (GR) formulated à la Palatini. We obtain exact analytical solutions that extend the charged Vaidya-type solution of GR, which allows to explore in detail new physics at the Planck scale. Starting from Minkowski space, we find that the collapsing fluid generates wormholes supported by the electric field. We discuss the relevance of our findings in relation to the quantum foam structure of space-time and the meaning of curvature divergences in this theory.
[Probing Planck-scale Physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman Maser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
The Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser is a recently developed device which employs co-located ensembles of Ne-21 and He-3 atoms to provide sensitive differential measurements of the noble gas nuclear Zeeman splittings as a function of time, thereby greatly attenuating common-mode systematic effects such as uniform magnetic field variations. The Ne-21 maser will serve as a precision magnetometer to stabilize the system's static magnetic field, while the He-3 maser is used as a sensitive probe for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry by searching for small variations in the 3He maser frequency as the spatial orientation of the apparatus changes due to the rotation of the Earth (or placement on a rotating table). In the context of a general extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Ne-21/He-3 maser will provide the most sensitive search to date for CPT and Lorentz violation of the neutron: better than 10(exp -32) GeV, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude over past experiments. This exceptional precision will offer a rare opportunity to probe physics at the Planck scale. A future space-based Ne-21/He-3 maser or related device could provide even greater sensitivity to violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, and hence to Planck-scale physics, because of isolation from dominant systematic effects associated with ground-based operation, and because of access to different positions in space-time.
Loss, Daniel
Brukner2,4 One of the main challenges in physics today is to merge quantum theory and the theory for a quantum theory of gravity is therefore one of the main challenges in modern physics. A major difficultyARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 18 MARCH 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2262 Probing Planck-scale physics
B. G. Sidharth
1998-09-11
Within the context of the usual semi classical investigation of Planck scale Schwarzchild Black Holes, as in Quantum Gravity, and later attempts at a full Quantum Mechanical description in terms of a Kerr-Newman metric including the spinorial behaviour, we attempt to present a formulation that extends from the Planck scale to the Hubble scale. In the process the so called large number coincidences as also the hitherto inexplicable relations between the pion mass and the Hubble Constant, pointed out by Weinberg, turn out to be natural consequences in a consistent description.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
1998-06-01
Special relativity has been tested at low energy with great accuracy, but these results cannot be extrapolated to very high-energy phenomena: this new domain of physics may actually provide the key to the, yet unsettled, question of the ether and the absolute rest frame. Introducing a critical distance scale, a, below 10-25 cm (the wavelength scale of the highest-energy observed cosmic rays) allows to consider models, compatible with standard tests of special relativity, where a small violation of Lorentz symmetry (a can, for instance, be the Planck length) leads to a deformed relativistic kinematics (DRK) producing dramatic effects on the properties of very high-energy cosmic rays. For instance, the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff does no longer apply and particles which are unstable at low energy (neutron, some hadronic resonances like the ?++, possibly several nuclei...) become stable at very high energy. In these models, an absolute local rest frame exists (the vacuum rest frame, VRF) and special relativity is a low-momentum limit. We discuss the possible effects of Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) on kinematics and dynamics, as well as the cosmic-ray energy range (well below the energy scale associated to the fundamental length) and experiments (on earth and from space) where they could be detected.
Lifetime of the electroweak vacuum and sensitivity to Planck scale physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele; Sher, Marc
2015-01-01
If the Standard Model (SM) is valid up to extremely high energy scales, then the Higgs potential becomes unstable at approximately 1 011 GeV . However, calculations of the lifetime of the SM vacuum have shown that it vastly exceeds the age of the Universe. It was pointed out by two of us (V. B., E. M.) that these calculations are extremely sensitive to effects from Planck scale higher-dimensional operators and, without knowledge of these operators, firm conclusions about the lifetime of the SM vacuum cannot be drawn. The previous paper used analytical approximations to the potential and, except for Higgs contributions, ignored loop corrections to the bounce action. In this work, we do not rely on any analytical approximations and consider all contributions to the bounce action, confirming the earlier result. It is surprising that the Planck scale operators can have such a large effect when the instability is at 1 011 GeV . There are two reasons for the size of this effect. In typical tunneling calculations, the value of the field at the center of the critical bubble is much larger than the point of the instability; in the SM case, this turns out to be numerically within an order of magnitude of the Planck scale. In addition, tunneling is an inherently nonperturbative phenomenon and may not be as strongly suppressed by inverse powers of the Planck scale. We include effective ?6 and ?8 Planck-scale operators and show that they can have an enormous effect on the tunneling rate.
Planck Scale Physics, Gravi-Weak Unification and the Higgs Inflation
Laperashvili, L V; Sidharth, B G
2015-01-01
Starting with a theory of the discrete space-time at the Planck scale, we developed a Gravi-Weak Unification (GWU) - a $Spin(4,4)$-invariant model unified gravity with weak $SU(2)$ gauge and Higgs fields in the visible and invisible sectors of the Universe. Considering the Gravi-Weak symmetry breaking, we showed that the obtained sub-algebras contain the self-dual left-handed gravity in the OW, and the anti-self-dual right-handed gravity in the MW. Finally, at the low energy limit, we have only the Standard Model (SM) and the Einstein-Hilbert's gravity. The Froggatt-Nielsen's prediction of the top-quark and Higgs masses was given in the assumption that there exist two degenerate vacua in the SM. This prediction was improved by the next order calculations. We have developed a model of the Higgs Inflation using the GWU action. According to this inflationary model, a scalar field (inflaton) starts trapped from the "false vacuum" of the Universe at the Higgs field's VEV $v_2 \\sim 10^{18}$ GeV. The interaction bet...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, L.
2014-04-01
With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.
Probing the Planck Scale with Proton Decay
Roni Harnik; Daniel T. Larson; Hitoshi Murayama; Marc Thormeier
2004-08-28
We advocate the idea that proton decay may probe physics at the Planck scale instead of the GUT scale. This is possible because supersymmetric theories have dimension-5 operators that can induce proton decay at dangerous rates, even with R-parity conservation. These operators are expected to be suppressed by the same physics that explains the fermion masses and mixings. We present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in models with a string-inspired anomalous U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Protons and neutrons can decay via R-parity conserving non-renormalizable superpotential terms that are suppressed by the Planck scale and powers of the Cabibbo angle. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.
Probing Planck-Scale physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsworth, Ronald L.; Phillips, David
2004-01-01
We completed a search for a sidereal annual variation in the frequency difference between co-located Xe-129 and He-3 Zeeman masers. This search sets a stringent limit of approximately 10(exp -27) GeV on boost-dependent Lorentz and CPT violation involving the neutron. A paper reporting this result has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. We also completed detailed modeling and design of the next-generation dual-noble-gas Zeeman maser for an improved test of Lorentz and CPT violation, and begin construction of this device.
Proton Decay and the Planck Scale
Larson, Daniel T.
2004-10-02
Even without grand unification, proton decay can be a powerful probe of physics at the highest energy scales. Supersymmetric theories with conserved R-parity contain Planck-suppressed dimension 5 operators that give important contributions tonucleon decay. These operators are likely controlled by flavor physics, which means current and near future proton decay experiments might yield clues about the fermion mass spectrum. I present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in supersymmetric one-flavon Froggatt-Nielsen models with a single U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.
Proton Decay and the Planck Scale
Daniel T. Larson
2004-10-02
Even without grand unification, proton decay can be a powerful probe of physics at the highest energy scales. Supersymmetric theories with conserved R-parity contain Planck-suppressed dimension 5 operators that give important contributions to nucleon decay. These operators are likely controlled by flavor physics, which means current and near future proton decay experiments might yield clues about the fermion mass spectrum. I present a thorough analysis of nucleon partial lifetimes in supersymmetric one-flavon Froggatt-Nielsen models with a single U(1)_X family symmetry which is responsible for the fermionic mass spectrum as well as forbidding R-parity violating interactions. Many of the models naturally lead to nucleon decay near present limits without any reference to grand unification.
Requardt, M
1996-01-01
Starting from the hypothesis that both physics, in particular space-time and the physical vacuum, and the corresponding mathematics are discrete on the Planck scale we develop a certain framework in form of a class of '{\\it cellular networks}' consisting of cells (nodes) interacting with each other via bonds according to a certain {\\it 'local law'} which governs their evolution. Both the internal states of the cells and the strength/orientation of the bonds are assumed to be dynamical variables. We introduce a couple of candidates of such local laws which, we think, are capable of catalyzing the unfolding of the network towards increasing complexity and pattern formation. In section 3 the basis is laid for a version of '{\\it discrete analysis}' and {\\it 'discrete topology/geometry'} which, starting from different, perhaps more physically oriented principles, manages to make contact with the much more abstract machinery of Connes et al. and may complement the latter approach. In section 4 a, as far as we can s...
Manfred Requardt
1997-05-14
Starting from the hypothesis that both physics, in particular space-time and the physical vacuum, and the corresponding mathematics are discrete on the Planck scale we develop a certain framework in form of a class of ' cellular networks' consisting of cells (nodes) interacting with each other via bonds according to a certain 'local law' which governs their evolution. Both the internal states of the cells and the strength/orientation of the bonds are assumed to be dynamical variables. We introduce a couple of candidates of such local laws which, we think, are capable of catalyzing the unfolding of the network towards increasing complexity and pattern formation. In section 3 the basis is laid for a version of 'discrete analysis' on 'graphs' and 'networks' which, starting from different, perhaps more physically oriented principles, manages to make contact with the much more abstract machinery of Connes et al. and may complement the latter approach. In section 4 several more advanced geometric/topological concepts and tools are introduced which allow to study and classify such irregular structures as (random)graphs and networks. We show in particular that the systems under study carry in a natural way a 'groupoid structure'. In section 5 a, as far as we can see, promising concept of 'topological dimension' (or rather: ' fractal dimension') in form of a 'degree of connectivity' for graphs, networks and the like is developed. The possibility of dimensional phase transitions is discussed.
Bare Higgs mass at Planck scale
Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kin-ya Oda
2015-01-19
We compute one- and two-loop quadratic divergent contributions to the bare Higgs mass in terms of the bare couplings in the Standard Model. We approximate the bare couplings, defined at the ultraviolet cutoff scale, by the MS-bar ones at the same scale, which are evaluated by the two-loop renormalization group equations for the Higgs mass around 126GeV in the Standard Model. We obtain the cutoff scale dependence of the bare Higgs mass, and examine where it becomes zero. We find that when we take the current central value for the top quark pole mass, 173GeV, the bare Higgs mass vanishes if the cutoff is about 10^{23}GeV. With a 1.3 sigma smaller mass, 170GeV, the scale can be of the order of the Planck scale.
Dynamically Induced Planck Scale and Inflation
Kannike, Kristjan; Pizza, Liberato; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single-field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions $n_s \\approx 0.96$ for the spectral index and $r \\approx 0.13$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, close to those of a quadratic potential. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multi-field inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory that predicts $n_s\\approx 0.96$ and $0.003inflation. These theories relate the smallness of the weak scale to the smallness of inflationary perturbations: both arise naturally because of small couplings, implying a reheating temperature of $10^{7-9}$ GeV. A measurement of $r$ by Keck/Bicep3 would give us information on quantum gravity in the dimensionless scenario.
A probe of Planck energy physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Occhionero, F.
Large scale voids are a very prominent feature in recent redshift surveys: here we attempt an explanation in terms of a first order phase transition occurring during the slow roll epoch of a two field inflation, a process where one field, omega, drives the slow rolling while the other, psi, undergoes quantum tunneling through a potential barrier. The ensuing bubble like perturbations are thought to be the precursors of the voids we observe today, while the zero-point fluctuations of the inflaton are the small, Gaussian perturbations seen by COBE on the large angular scales. The underlying physics is here assumed to be fourth order gravity (FOG, a theory derived from quadratic corrections to the Hilbert--Einstein Lagrangian) for different reasons, foremost among which the simplicity of the (conformal) potential which governs the tunneling and the slow rolling: another advantage of this theory is that one need not postulate an omega to drive inflation because gravity itself takes care of it; in fact, omega, the conformal factor which casts the theory in Einstein's form, is simply related to Ricci's scalar, R. Of course, one can obtain the same results in canonical general relativity by postulating ad hoc fields and potential. Bubbles grow to astrophysically interesting sizes only if they are nucleated a sufficient number of e-folds N before of the end of inflation: FOG can be tuned to achieve an N ~50 (unlike extended inflation, where N ~0). We display bubble spectra that generate the observed large scale structure and yet pass the constraints set by COBE. In fact, we use a toy model of bubbles in the MDE to show that caustics may be easily produced at any given redshift z_*: this may signal the formation of the first generation of galactic objects and the onset of reionization of the cosmic medium. A cosmogony where galaxies are born on spherical shells explains easily the claims of fractality (with D ~2), but only up to a maximal scale (of the order of 100 h^{-1} Mpc), homogeneity being restored thereabove. Another application of primordial bubbles is that they explain why, in apparent conflict with inflation, several authors claim that the Universe is open: it is sufficient that we live in a superhorizon bubble enucleated around N ~60 and that the Universe itself be a collection of such bubbles. Again a model based on FOG can be tuned to yield bubble spectra sharply peaked at Omega_0 .2, so that our probability of living in the right bubble is close to one. By unleashing one's fantasy, one can even envision a sequence of two phase transitions, at N ~60 and N ~50, where bubbles are born within bubbles and the bubbly topology and cosmogony are assigned to the open Universe. In conclusion, the study of the large scale structure may turn out to be a powerful probe -- and most likely the only one -- of Planck scale physics.
The Holometer: A Measurement of Planck Scale Quantum Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Stephan
2013-04-01
Direct experiments show that light and matter obey fundamental quantum principles such as nonlocality, superposition and entanglement. On the other hand, standard, experimentally verified particle theory generally assumes that space-time itself obeys classical determinism and locality — an approximation that cannot be reconciled with quantum matter and general relativity at intervals shorter than the Planck scale, or with the theory of black holes. These suggest that geometry has nonlocal quantum states and finite, holographic information content. The hints of new Planck scale physics open up a new experimental path: in some theories of quantum geometry, new degrees of freedom cause fluctuations in position with detectable, uniquely quantum correlations. We are developing an experiment called the Fermilab Holometer, a correlated pair of high-bandwidth Michelson interferometers. It is the first, and at present unique experiment designed to prepare and measure a coherent quantum state of position over an extended region in space. The sensitivity to transverse position noise, expressed in spectral density units, is smaller than a Planck time. When operating at its design noise limit, it will either detect or rule out some candidate forms of holographic quantum geometry.
Planck-Scale Spacetime Fuzziness in ?-MINKOWSKI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosati, Giacomo
2015-01-01
Several approaches to the quantum-gravity problem predict that spacetime should be "fuzzy". On the basis of semi-heuristic arguments, in particular involving an irreducible Planck-scale contribution to the uncertainty of the energy of a particle, a rather active phenomenological programme has been developed, looking for blurring of images of distant astrophysical sources that would result from such energy uncertainties. I here summarize some of the results reported by Amelino-Camelia, Astuti and myself in Ref. 1, where we investigate spacetime fuzziness within the quantum picture of spacetime provided by ?-Minkowski/?-Poincaré spacetime noncommutativity. This manuscript can be considered as the following of the talk given by Astuti reported in Ref. 2.
Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This expansive Web site features the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics' research dealing primarily with geometric analysis and gravitation, astrophysical relativity, quantum gravity and unified theories, and laser interferometry and gravitational wave astronomy. After learning about the Institute's origins in 1995, researchers can find out about the institute's intense efforts and hardships in developing a consistent theory of quantum gravity as well as its investigation in gravitational radiation and causal structures. The site provides visitors with downloads to many published articles as well as links to two free access electronic review journals: _Living Reviews in Relativity_ and _Living Reviews in Solar Physics_. While some content is not in English, all visitors can find valuable information about research in gravitational physics.
Craig Hogan
2010-01-08
Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.
Cosmological constant in SUGRA models with Planck scale SUSY breaking and degenerate vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froggatt, C. D.; Nevzorov, R.; Nielsen, H. B.; Thomas, A. W.
2014-10-01
The empirical mass of the Higgs boson suggests small to vanishing values of the quartic Higgs self-coupling and the corresponding beta function at the Planck scale, leading to degenerate vacua. This leads us to suggest that the measured value of the cosmological constant can originate from supergravity (SUGRA) models with degenerate vacua. This scenario is realised if there are at least three exactly degenerate vacua. In the first vacuum, associated with the physical one, local supersymmetry (SUSY) is broken near the Planck scale while the breakdown of the SU(2)W×U(1)Y symmetry takes place at the electroweak (EW) scale. In the second vacuum local SUSY breaking is induced by gaugino condensation at a scale which is just slightly lower than ?QCD in the physical vacuum. Finally, in the third vacuum local SUSY and EW symmetry are broken near the Planck scale.
Planck Scale Gravity Test with Accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharibyan, V.
2015-01-01
Quantum or torsion gravity models predict unusual properties of space-time at very short distances. In particular, near the Planck length, around 10-35m, empty space may behave as a crystal, singly or doubly refractive. However, this hypothesis remains uncheckable for any direct measurement since the smallest distance accessible in experiment is about 10-19m at the LHC. Here I propose a laboratory test to measure the space refractivity and birefringence induced by gravity. A sensitivity from 10-31m down to the Planck length could be reached at existent GeV and future TeV energy lepton accelerators using laser Compton scattering. There are already experimental hints for gravity signature at distances approaching the Planck length by 5-7 orders of magnitude, derived from SLC and HERA data.
Signatures of Planck-scale interactions in the cosmic microwave background?
Friedemann Queisser; Michael Uhlmann; Ralf Schützhold
2006-01-25
Based on a rather general low-energy effective action (interacting quantum fields in classical curved space-times), we calculate potential signatures of new physics (such as quantum gravity) at ultra-high energies (presumably the Planck scale) in the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. These Planck-scale interactions create non-Gaussian contributions, where special emphasis is laid on the three-point function as the most promising observable, which also allows the discrimination between models violating and those obeying Lorentz invariance. PACS: 98.80.Cq, 04.62.+v, 98.70.Vc, 98.80.Qc.
Hubble and Planck scale limits on the determination of orbital angular momentum states of light
F. Tamburini; B. Thidé; A. Sponselli
2012-01-16
We review Heisenberg's uncertainty principle for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. By taking into account the largest and smallest scales present in nature, such as the the Hubble radius and the Planck length, we have found that there exist upper and lower physical limits to the determination of the OAM of a photon.
Max Planck and the ``black year'' of German physics
Joseph F. Mulligan
1994-01-01
1994 is the hundredth anniversary of what Max Planck described in 1935 as the ``black year'' of German physics. In the eight months between January 1st and September 8th 1894, Heinrich Hertz, August Kundt, and Hermann von Helmholtz died. This article reviews the lives of these three important physicists, their research contributions, and their unique positions in the German physics
Gravitational effects on vanishing Higgs potential at the Planck scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Kaneta, Kunio; Takahashi, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Yuya
2015-01-01
We investigate gravitational effects on the so-called multiple point criticality principle (MPCP) at the Planck scale. The MPCP requires two degenerate vacua, whose necessary conditions are expressed by vanishing Higgs quartic coupling [? (MPl)=0 ] and vanishing its ? function [??(MPl)=0 ]. We discuss a case that a specific form of gravitational corrections are assumed to contribute to ? functions of coupling constants [although it is accepted that gravitational corrections do not alter the running of the standard model (SM) couplings]. To satisfy the above two boundary conditions at the Planck scale, we find that the top pole mass and the Higgs mass should be 170.8 GeV ?Mt?171.7 GeV and Mh=125.7 ±0.4 GeV , respectively, as well as include suitable magnitude of gravitational effects (a coefficient of gravitational contribution as |a?|>2 ). In this case, however, since the Higgs quartic coupling ? becomes negative below the Planck scale, two vacua are not degenerate. We find that Mh?131.5 GeV with Mt?174 GeV is required by the realization of the MPCP. Therefore, the MPCP at the Planck scale cannot be realized in the SM, and also the SM with gravity since Mh?131.5 GeV is experimentally ruled out.
Gravitational effects on vanishing Higgs potential at the Planck scale
Naoyuki Haba; Kunio Kaneta; Ryo Takahashi; Yuya Yamaguchi
2015-04-01
We investigate gravitational effects on the so-called multiple point criticality principle (MPCP) at the Planck scale. The MPCP requires two degenerate vacua, whose necessary conditions are expressed by vanishing Higgs quartic coupling $\\lambda(M_{\\rm Pl})=0$ and vanishing its $\\beta$ function $\\beta_\\lambda(M_{\\rm Pl})=0$. We discuss a case that a specific form of gravitational corrections are assumed to contribute to $\\beta$ functions of coupling constants although it is accepted that gravitational corrections do not alter the running of the standard model (SM) couplings. To satisfy the above two boundary conditions at the Planck scale, we find that the top pole mass and the Higgs mass should be $170.8\\,{\\rm GeV} \\lesssim M_t\\lesssim 171.7\\,{\\rm GeV}$ and $M_h=125.7\\pm0.4\\,{\\rm GeV}$, respectively, as well as include suitable magnitude of gravitational effects (a coefficient of gravitational contribution as $|a_\\lambda| > 2$). In this case, however, since the Higgs quartic coupling $\\lambda$ becomes negative below the Planck scale, two vacua are not degenerate. We find that $M_h \\gtrsim 131.5\\,{\\rm GeV}$ with $M_t \\gtrsim 174\\,{\\rm GeV}$ is required by the realization of the MPCP. Therefore, the MPCP at the Planck scale cannot be realized in the SM and also the SM with gravity since $M_h \\gtrsim 131.5\\,{\\rm GeV}$ is experimentally ruled out.
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics: X-Ray Astronomy
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This website features the latest space science news, research activities, projects, and laboratories of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' X-Ray Astronomy group. Visitors can view images and read clear summaries of its research in the areas of galactic and extragalactic astronomy. Researchers can learn about the group's instrumental techniques using soft and hard X-rays such as imaging with Wolter telescopes and multi-wire proportional counters. In the Data Center, visitors can explore the group's data analysis software and user data archives. The site provides links to its innumerable collaborators.
The Fractal Universe: From the Planck to the Hubble Scale
B. G. Sidharth; B. M. Birla; Adarsh Nagar
1999-01-01
We examine the fractal structure of the physical universe from the large\\u000ascale to the smallest scale, including the phenomenon of fractal scaling. This\\u000ais explained in terms of a stochastic underpinning for the laws of physics. A\\u000apicture in pleasing agreement with experiment and observation at all scales\\u000aemerges, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's \\
Quantum Geometry and Quantum Dynamics at the Planck Scale
Bojowald, Martin [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2009-12-15
Canonical quantum gravity provides insights into the quantum dynamics as well as quantum geometry of space-time by its implications for constraints. Loop quantum gravity in particular requires specific corrections due to its quantization procedure, which also results in a discrete picture of space. The corresponding changes compared to the classical behavior can most easily be analyzed in isotropic models, but perturbations around them are more involved. For one type of corrections, consistent equations have been found which shed light on the underlying space-time structure at the Planck scale: not just quantum dynamics but also the concept of space-time manifolds changes in quantum gravity. Effective line elements provide indications for possible relationships to other frameworks, such as non-commutative geometry.
The Fractal Universe: From the Planck to the Hubble Scale
B. G. Sidharth
1999-07-17
We examine the fractal structure of the physical universe from the large scale to the smallest scale, including the phenomenon of fractal scaling. This is explained in terms of a stochastic underpinning for the laws of physics. A picture in pleasing agreement with experiment and observation at all scales emerges, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's "Law Without Law". It is argued that our depiction of the universe is akin to a broad brush delineation of a jagged coastline, the Compton wavelength being comparable to the thickness of the brush strokes.
The Planck scale, the Higgs mass and scalar dark matter
Astrid Eichhorn; Michael M. Scherer
2014-04-23
This study is inspired by a scenario, in which the Standard Model, enhanced by an additional dark matter scalar, could be extended up to the Planck scale, while accommodating the low measured value of the Higgs mass. To that end, we study a toy model for a gauge singlet dark matter scalar coupled to the Higgs-top-quark sector of the Standard Model. Using functional methods to derive Renormalization Group flow equations in that model, we examine several choices for the ultraviolet, bare potential in the Higgs-dark-matter sector. Our results indicate that the dark matter scalar can decrease the lower bound on the Higgs mass in the Standard Model. We then use the fact that higher-order couplings which are driven to tiny values by the Renormalization Group flow towards low energies can easily be of order one at the ultraviolet cutoff scale. Our study indicates that the inclusion of these couplings can significantly increase the ultraviolet cutoff scale and therefore the range of validity of the model while yielding a low value for the Higgs mass in the infrared. This is achieved within a setting where the dark matter scalar accounts for the complete dark matter relic density in our universe.
Phenomenological scaling laws relating the observed galactic dimensions to Planck action constant
Salvatore Capozziello; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati
1999-03-30
It is shown that the characteristic observed radius, velocity, and temperature of a typical galaxy can be inferred from Planck action constant through a phenomenological scaling law on all cosmological scales.
Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2014-04-01
It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ? 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ? 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR phenomenology and weaken the status of the Planck scale hypothesis. Another crucial observation is that, already before incorporating standard matter and relativity, the SST geometry naturally yields a H t = 1 law where t is the age of the Universe and H the ratio between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale. As standard cosmology is not required to get such a fundamental result, the need for a conventional Planck scale is far from obvious and the study of UHECR can potentially yield evidence for an alternative approach including new physics and new ultimate constituents of matter. UHECR may in particular allow to explore the possible indications of the existence of a transition scale at very high energy where the standard laws would start becoming less and less dominant and new physics would replace the conventional fundamental principles. We discuss prospects of searches for potential signatures of such a phenomenon.
Planck early results. XII. Cluster Sunyaev-Zeldovich optical scaling relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
We present the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal-to-richness scaling relation (Y500 - N200) for the MaxBCG cluster catalogue. Employing a multi-frequency matched filter on the Planck sky maps, we measure the SZ signal for each cluster by adapting the filter according to weak-lensing calibrated mass-richness relations (N200 - M500). We bin our individual measurements and detect the SZ signal down to the lowest richness systems (N200 = 10) with high significance, achieving a detection of the SZ signal in systems with mass as low as M500 ? 5 × 1013 M?. The observed Y500 - N200 relation is well modeled by a power law over the full richness range. It has a lower normalisation at given N200 than predicted based on X-ray models and published mass-richness relations. An X-ray subsample, however, does conform to the predicted scaling, and model predictions do reproduce the relation between our measured bin-average SZ signal and measured bin-average X-ray luminosities. At fixed richness, we find an intrinsic dispersion in the Y500 - N200 relation of 60% rising to of order 100% at low richness. Thanks to its all-sky coverage, Planck provides observations for more than 13000 MaxBCG clusters and an unprecedented SZ/optical data set, extending the list of known cluster scaling laws to include SZ-optical properties. The data set offers essential clues for models of galaxy formation. Moreover, the lower normalisation of the SZ-mass relation implied by the observed SZ-richness scaling has important consequences for cluster physics and cosmological studies with SZ clusters. Corresponding author: J. G. Bartlett, e-mail: bartlett@apc.univ-paris7.fr
Shadows of the Planck Scale: The Changing Face of Compactification Geometry
Keith R. Dienes; Arash Mafi
2001-11-28
By studying the effects of the shape moduli associated with toroidal compactifications, we demonstrate that Planck-sized extra dimensions can cast significant ``shadows'' over low-energy physics. These shadows can greatly distort our perceptions of the compactification geometry associated with large extra dimensions, and place a fundamental limit on our ability to probe the geometry of compactification simply by measuring Kaluza-Klein states. We also discuss the interpretation of compactification radii and hierarchies in the context of geometries with non-trivial shape moduli. One of the main results of this paper is that compactification geometry is effectively renormalized as a function of energy scale, with ``renormalization group equations'' describing the ``flow'' of geometric parameters such as compactification radii and shape angles as functions of energy.
Planck-scale phenomenology with anti-de Sitter momentum space
Michele Arzano; Giulia Gubitosi; Joao Magueijo; Giovanni Amelino-Camelia
2014-12-05
We investigate the anti-de Sitter (AdS) counterpart to the well studied de Sitter (dS) model for energy-momentum space, viz "$\\kappa$-momentum space" space (with a structure based on the properties of the $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra). On the basis of previous preliminary results one might expect the two models to be "dual": dS exhibiting an invariant maximal spatial momentum but unbounded energy, AdS a maximal energy but unbounded momentum. If that were the case AdS momentum space could be used to implement a principle of maximal Planck-scale energy, just as several studies use dS momentum space to postulate of maximal Planck-scale spatial momentum. However several unexpected features are uncovered in this paper, which limit the scope of the expected duality, and interestingly they take different forms in different coordinatizations of AdS momentum space. "Cosmological" AdS coordinates mimic the dS construction used for $\\kappa$-momentum space, and produce a Carrol limit in the ultraviolet. However, unlike the $\\kappa$-momentum space, the boundary of the covered patch breaks Lorentz invariance, thereby introducing a preferred frame. In "horospherical" coordinates we achieve full consistency with frame independence as far as boost transformations are concerned, but find that rotational symmetry is broken, leading to an anisotropic model for the speed of light. Finally, in "static" coordinates we find a way of deforming relativistic transformations that successfully enforces frame invariance and isotropy, and produces a Carrol limit in the ultraviolet. However, the phenomenological implications appear to be too weak for any realistic chance of detection. Our results are also relevant for a long-standing debate on whether or not coordinate redefinitions in momentum space lead to physically equivalent theories: our three proposals are evidently physically inequivalent (abridged)
Conjecture on the Physical Implications of the Scale Anomaly
Christopher T. Hill
2005-10-21
Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, Lambda_{QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, \\hbar -> 0, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.
Conjecture on the Physical Implications of the Scale Anomaly
Hill, C T
2005-01-01
Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, Lambda_{QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, \\hbar -> 0, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.
Conjecture on the physical implications of the scale anomaly
Hill, Christopher T.; /Fermilab
2005-10-01
Murray Gell-Mann, after co-inventing QCD, recognized the interplay of the scale anomaly, the renormalization group, and the origin of the strong scale, {Lambda}{sub QCD}. I tell a story, then elaborate this concept, and for the sake of discussion, propose a conjecture that the physical world is scale invariant in the classical, {h_bar}, limit. This principle has implications for the dimensionality of space-time, the cosmological constant, the weak scale, and Planck scale.
Planck-scale-induced speed of sound in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanos, E.; Rivas, J. I.; Dominguez-Rocha, V.
2014-06-01
In the present work, we analyze the corrections caused by an anomalous dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon the speed of sound in a weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate, trapped in a potential of the form V(r)\\sim r^{2} . We show that the corresponding ground-state energy and consequently, the associated speed of sound, present corrections with respect to the usual case, which may be used to explore the sensitivity to Planck-scale effects on these relevant properties associated with the condensate. Indeed, we stress that this type of macroscopic bodies may be more sensitive, under certain conditions, to Planck-scale manifestations than its constituents. In addition, we prove that the inclusion of a trapping potential, together with many-body contributions, improves the sensitivity to Planck-scale signals, compared to the homogeneous system.
Planck Scale Induced Speed of Sound in a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate
E. Castellanos; J. I. Rivas; V. Domínguez-Rocha
2014-07-11
In the present work, we analyze the corrections caused by an anomalous dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon the speed of sound in a weakly interacting Bose--Einstein Condensate, trapped in a potential of the form $V(r)\\sim r^{2}$. We show that the corresponding ground state energy and consequently, the associated speed of sound, present corrections respect to the usual case, which may be used to explore the sensitivity to Planck--scale effects on these relevant properties associated with the condensate. Indeed, we stress that this type of macroscopic bodies may be more sensitive, under certain conditions, to Planck--scale manifestations than its constituents. In addition, we prove that the inclusion of a trapping potential, together with many--body contributions, improves the sensitivity to Planck--scale signals, compared to the homogeneous system.
None
2011-10-06
Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.
None
2010-06-02
Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.
Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale from 22 to 43 GHz using Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Bryan J.; Partridge, R. Bruce; Perley, Richard A.; Stevens, Jamie B.; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Rocha, Graca; Walter, Ben Z.; Zacchei, Andrea
2015-01-01
The Planck mission detected hundreds of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Since Planck's calibration is absolute, based on the satellite's annual motion around the Sun, and since its beams are well-characterized at the sub-percent levels, Planck's flux density measurements are absolute to percent-level accuracy. We have made coordinated Planck, VLA and ATCA observations of ~60 strong, unresolved sources in order to compare Planck's absolute calibration to that used by these two interferometers at 22, 28 and 43 GHz. The flux densities of the sources used to calibrate the VLA observations are taken from Perley and Butler (2013), which is fundamentally based on models of the planet Mars calibrated via WMAP observations. The flux densities of the sources used to calibrate the ATCA observations are based on models of the planet Uranus. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the three flux density scales are determined to agree to 1-2% accuracy.
Testing Scenarios of Lorentz Symmetry Violation Generated at the Planck Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2003-07-01
Using new theoretical to ols, which allow to better understand ultra-high energy (UHE) dynamics, several patterns of Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) are studied and compared with experiment. It is claimed that quadratically deformed relativistic kinematics (QDRK), where the parameter driving LSV varies like the square of the energy scale, remains the best suited pattern to describe LSV generated at the Planck scale. Implications of existing data are discussed and prosp ects are presented having in mind next-generation experiments.
Towards an axiomatic model of fundamental interactions at Planck scale
Arthemy V. Kiselev
2014-03-31
By exploring possible physical sense of notions, structures, and logic in a class of noncommutative geometries, we try to unify the four fundamental interactions within an axiomatic quantum picture. We identify the objects and algebraic operations which could properly encode the formation and structure of sub-atomic particles, antimatter, annihilation, CP-symmetry violation, mass endowment mechanism, three lepton-neutrino matchings, spin, helicity and chirality, electric charge and electromagnetism, as well as the weak and strong interaction between particles, admissible transition mechanisms (e.g., muon to muon neutrino, electron, and electron antineutrino), and decays (e.g., neutron to proton, electron, and electron antineutrino).
Low and high scale MSSM inflation, gravitational waves and constraints from Planck
Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Supratik [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Mazumdar, Anupam, E-mail: sayanphysicsisi@gmail.com, E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk, E-mail: supratik@isical.ac.in [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2013-07-01
In this paper we will analyze generic predictions of an inflection-point model of inflation with Hubble-induced corrections and study them in light of the Planck data. Typically inflection-point models of inflation can be embedded within Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) where inflation can occur below the Planck scale. The flexibility of the potential allows us to match the observed amplitude of the TT-power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation with low and high multipoles, spectral tilt, and virtually mild running of the spectral tilt, which can put a bound on an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r ? 0.12. Since the inflaton within MSSM carries the Standard Model charges, therefore it is the minimal model of inflation beyond the Standard Model which can reheat the universe with the right thermal degrees of freedom without any dark-radiation.
Modified Particle-Reaction Kinematics from Planck-Scale Spacetime Symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barcaroli, Leonardo; Loret, Niccoló Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2015-01-01
Several recent studies in the quantum-gravity literature have analyzed DSR-relativistic symmetries. This leads to a rich phenomenology but it has been established that there are no modifications of particle-reaction kinematics at leading order in the deformation scale (usually assumed to be of the order of the Planck scale). We here report preliminary results of our work in progress performing for the first time all-order analyses of particle-reaction kinematics. We here focus on the simple case of a two-body decay and on a specific DSR setup inspired by properties of the ?-Poincaré Hopf-algebra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lanoux, J.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Liddle, A.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
We present precise Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect measurements in the direction of 62 nearby galaxy clusters (z < 0.5) detected at high signal-to-noise in the first Planck all-sky data set. The sample spans approximately a decade in total mass, 2 × 1014 M? < M500 < 2 × 1015 M?, where M500 is the mass corresponding to a total density contrast of 500. Combining these high quality Planck measurements with deep XMM-Newton X-ray data, we investigate the relations between DA2 Y500, the integrated Compton parameter due to the SZ effect, and the X-ray-derived gas mass Mg,500, temperature TX, luminosity LX,500, SZ signal analogue YX,500 = Mg,500 × TX, and total mass M500. After correction for the effect of selection bias on the scaling relations, we find results that are in excellent agreement with both X-ray predictions and recently-published ground-based data derived from smaller samples. The present data yield an exceptionally robust, high-quality local reference, and illustrate Planck's unique capabilities for all-sky statistical studies of galaxy clusters. Corresponding author: G. W. Pratt, e-mail: gabriel.pratt@cea.fr
On the significance of power asymmetries in Planck CMB data at all scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quartin, Miguel; Notari, Alessio
2015-01-01
We perform an analysis of the CMB temperature data taken by the Planck satellite investigating if there is any significant deviation from cosmological isotropy. We look for differences in the spectrum between two opposite hemispheres and also for dipolar modulations. We propose a new way to avoid biases due to partial-sky coverage by producing a mask symmetrized in antipodal directions, in addition to the standard smoothing procedure. We also properly take into account both Doppler and aberration effects due to our peculiar velocity and the anisotropy of the noise, since these effects induce a significant hemispherical asymmetry. We are thus able to probe scales all the way to l = 2000. After such treatment we find no evidence for significant hemispherical anomalies along any of the analyzed directions (i.e. deviations are less than 1.5? when summing over all scales). Although among the larger scales there are sometimes higher discrepancies, these are always less than 3?. We also find results on a dipolar modulation of the power spectrum. Along the hemispheres aligned with the most asymmetric direction for 2 <= l <= 2000 we find a 3.3? discrepancy when comparing to simulations. However, if we do not restrict ourselves to Planck's maximal asymmetry axis, which can only be known a posteriori, and compare Planck data with the modulation of simulations along their respective maximal asymmetry directions, the discrepancy goes down to less than 1? (with, again, almost 3? discrepancies in some low-l modes). We thus conclude that no significant power asymmetries seem to be present in the full data set. Interestingly, without proper removal of Doppler and aberration effects one would find spurious anomalies at high l, between 3? and 5?. Even when considering only l < 600 we find that the boost is non-negligible and alleviates the discrepancy by roughly half-?.
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
D. S. Gorbunov; S. M. Sibiryakov
2005-06-08
We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.
Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbunov, Dmitry S.; Sibiryakov, Sergei M.
2005-09-01
We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca
2014-12-01
Quantum-gravitational pressure can stop gravitational collapse and cause a bounce. We observe that: (i) due to the huge time dilation, the process can last micro-seconds in local proper time and billions of years observed from the outside; (ii) the bounce volume can be much larger than planckian, because the onset of quantum-gravity effects is governed by density, not size; (iii) the emerging object can then be bigger than planckian by a factor (m/mP)n, where m is the initial mass, mP is the Planck mass, and n positive; (iv) the interior of an evaporating hole can keep memory of the initial mass, providing an independent scale for the physics of the final explosion. If so, primordial black holes could produce a detectable signal of quantum gravitational origin, which we estimate, under some hypotheses, around the wavelength 10-14 cm.
Vanishing Higgs potential at the Planck scale in a singlet extension of the standard model
Naoyuki Haba; Hiroyuki Ishida; Kunio Kaneta; Ryo Takahashi
2014-09-26
We discuss the realization of a vanishing effective Higgs potential at the Planck scale, which is required by the multiple-point criticality principle (MPCP), in the standard model with singlet scalar dark matter and a right-handed neutrino. We find the scalar dark matter and the right-handed neutrino play crucial roles for realization of the MPCP, where a neutrino Yukawa becomes effective above the Majorana mass of the right-handed neutrino. Once the top mass is fixed, the MPCP at the (reduced) Planck scale and the suitable dark matter relic abundance determine the dark matter mass, $m_S$, and the Majorana mass of the right-handed neutrino, $M_R$, as $8.5~(8.0)\\times10^2~{\\rm GeV}\\leq m_S\\leq1.4~(1.2)\\times10^3~{\\rm GeV}$ and $6.3~(5.5)\\times10^{13}~{\\rm GeV}\\leq M_R\\leq1.6~(1.2)\\times10^{14}~{\\rm GeV}$ within current experimental values of the Higgs and top masses. This scenario is consistent with current dark matter direct search experiments, and will be checked by future experiments such as LUX with further exposure and/or the XENON1T.
Detectability of Planck-scale-induced Blurring with Gamma-ray Bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbring, Eric
2015-03-01
Microscopic fluctuations inherent to the fuzziness of spacetime at the Planck scale might accumulate in wavefronts propagating a cosmological distance and lead to noticeable blurring in an image of a pointlike source. Distant quasars viewed in the optical and ultraviolet with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) may show this weakly, and if real suggests a stronger effect should be seen for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in X-rays and ?-rays. Those telescopes, however, operate far from their diffraction limits. A description of how Planck-scale-induced blurring could be sensed at high energy, including with cosmic rays, while still agreeing with the HST results is discussed. It predicts dilated apparent source size and inflated uncertainties in positional centroids, effectively a threshold angular accuracy restricting knowledge of source location on the sky. These outcomes are found to be consistent with an analysis of the 10 highest-redshift GRB detections reported for the Fermi satellite. Confusion with photon cascade and scattering phenomena is also possible; prospects for a definitive multiwavelength measurement are considered.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Amy R. Taylor
2007-01-01
At the nanoscale, a completely different set of forces and interactions are experienced by molecules and atoms than we experience at the human scale. How do properties change with scale? Why is gravity so important to our daily lives but relatively unimportant to a molecule or a virus in our body? This exercise introduces the concept of scale-dependent properties to students as they explore how the sizes of materials change their behavior.
Radiative electroweak symmetry breaking model perturbative all the way to the Planck scale.
Chway, Dongjin; Dermíšek, Radovan; Jung, Tae Hyun; Kim, Hyung Do
2014-08-01
We discuss an extension of the standard model by fields not charged under standard model gauge symmetry in which the electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by the Higgs quartic coupling itself without the need for a negative mass term in the potential. This is achieved by a scalar field S with a large coupling to the Higgs field at the electroweak scale which is driven to very small values at high energies by the gauge coupling of a hidden symmetry under which S is charged. This model can remain perturbative all the way to the Planck scale. The Higgs boson is fully standard-model-like in its couplings to fermions and gauge bosons. However, the effective cubic and quartic self-couplings of the Higgs boson are significantly enhanced. PMID:25126909
No-Scale F-SU(5) in the Light of LHC, Planck and XENON
Tianjun Li; James A. Maxin; Dimitri V. Nanopoulos; Joel W. Walker
2013-09-17
We take stock of the No-Scale F-SU(5) model's experimental status and prospects in the light of results from LHC, Planck, and XENON100. Given that no conclusive evidence for light Supersymmetry (SUSY) has emerged from the 7, 8 TeV collider searches, the present work is focused on exploring and clarifying the precise nature of the high-mass cutoff enforced on this model at the point where the stau and neutralino mass degeneracy becomes so tight that cold dark matter relic density observations cannot be satisfied. This hard upper boundary on the model's mass scale constitutes a top-down theoretical mandate for a comparatively light (and testable) SUSY spectrum which does not excessively stress natural resolution of the gauge hierarchy problem. The overlap between the resulting model boundaries and the expected sensitivities of the future 14 TeV LHC and XENON 1-Ton direct detection SUSY / dark matter experiments is described.
Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25?. We use thetemperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting ?CDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z = 1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. When combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth to reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ~ 2.
SCALING METHODS IN SOIL PHYSICS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soil physical properties are needed to understand and manage natural systems spanning an extremely wide range of scales. Much of soil data are obtained from small soil samples and cores, monoliths, or small field plots, yet the goal is to reconstruct soil physical properties across fields, watershed...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James
2013-06-01
Presented in this volume are the Invited Lectures and the Contributed Papers of the Sixth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2012, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 17-21 September 2012. These proceedings may document to the interested public and to the wider scientific community the stimulating exchange of ideas at the meeting. The number of participants has been steadily growing over the years, reflecting an increasing attraction, if not need, of such conference. Our very intention has always been to bring together leading researchers, advanced students, and renowned scholars from various areas, in order to stimulate new ideas and their exchange across the borders of specialization. In this way, the series of meetings successfully continued from the beginning with DICE 20021, followed by DICE 20042, DICE 20063, DICE 20084, and DICE 20105, Most recently, DICE 2012 brought together more than 120 participants representing more than 30 countries worldwide. It has been a great honour and inspiration to have Professor Yakir Aharonov (Tel Aviv) with us, who presented the opening Keynote Lecture 'The two-vector quantum formalism'. With the overarching theme 'Spacetime - Matter - Quantum Mechanics - from the Planck scale to emergent phenomena', the conference took place in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello Pasquini - in beautiful surroundings, overlooking a piece of Tuscany's coast. The 5-day program covered these major topics: Quantum Mechanics, Foundations and Quantum-Classical Border Quantum-Classical Hybrids and Many-Body Systems Spectral Geometry, Path Integrals and Experiments Quantum -/- Gravity -/- Spacetime Quantum Mechanics on all Scales? A Roundtable Discussion under the theme 'Nuovi orizzonti nella ricerca scientifica. Ci troviamo di fronte ad una rivoluzione scientifica?' formed an integral part of the program. With participation of E Del Giudice (INFN & Università di Milano), F Guerra (Università 'La Sapienza', Roma) and G Vitiello (Università di Salerno), this event traditionally dedicated to the public drew a large audience involved in lively discussions until late. The workshop was organized by L Diósi (Budapest), H-T Elze (Pisa, chair), L Fronzoni (Pisa), J J Halliwell (London), E Prati (Milano) and G Vitiello (Salerno), with most essential help from our conference secretaries L Fratino, N Lampo, I Pozzana, and A Sonnellini, all students from Pisa, and from our former secretaries M Pesce-Rollins and L Baldini. Several institutions and sponsors supported the workshop and their representatives and, in particular, the citizens of Rosignano/Castiglioncello are deeply thanked for the generous help and kind hospitality: Comune di Rosignano - A Franchi (Sindaco di Rosignano), S Scarpellini (Segreteria sindaco), L Benini (Assessore ai lavori pubblici), M Pia (Assessore all' urbanistica) REA Rosignano Energia Ambiente s.p.a. - F Ghelardini (Presidente della REA), E Salvadori and C Peccianti (Segreteria) Associazione Armunia - A Nanni (Direttore), G Mannari (Programmazione), C Perna, F Bellini, M Nannerini, P Bruni and L Meucci (Tecnici). Special thanks go to G Mannari and her collaborators for advice and great help in all the practical matters that had to be dealt with, in order to run the meeting at Castello Pasquini smoothly Funds made available by Università di Pisa, Domus Galilaeana (Pisa), Centro Interdisciplinare per lo Studio dei Sistemi Complessi - CISSC (Pisa), Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale (Università di Salerno), Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici - IISF (Napoli), Solvay Italia SA (Rosignano), Institute of Physics Publishing - IOP (Bristol), Springer Verlag (Heidelberg), and Hungarian Scientific Research Fund OTKA are gratefully acknowledged. Last, but not least, special thanks are due to Laura Pesce (Vitrium Galleria, San Vincenzo) for the exposition of her artwork 'arte e scienza' at Castello Pasquini during the conference. The papers submitted in the wake of the conference have been edited by
On the significance of power asymmetries in Planck CMB data at all scales
Quartin, Miguel
2014-01-01
We perform an analysis of the CMB temperature data taken by the Planck satellite investigating if there is any significant deviation from cosmological isotropy. We look for differences between two opposite hemispheres with respect to particular directions, comparing with simulations. We apply a mask symmetrized in antipodal directions to avoid possible biases and smoothed on a 10' scale to avoid spurious extra power on small scales induced by sharp edges. We properly take into account of Doppler and aberration effects due to our peculiar velocity and of the anisotropy of the noise, since these effects induce a significant "hemispherical asymmetry". We are thus able to probe scales all the way to $\\ell = 2000$. After such treatment we find no evidence for significant hemispherical anomalies along any of the analyzed directions (i.e., deviations are less than 2$\\sigma$ in the full range of $\\ell$). Then we find results on a "dipolar modulation" of the the power spectrum of amplitude $A_{mod}$. Along the most as...
Gabrielli, Andrea
Generalized dielectric breakdown model R. Cafiero Max-Planck Institute for Physics of Complex propose a generalized version of the dielectric breakdown model DBM for generic breakdown pro- cesses years. Different models--the diffusion limited aggregation,1 dielectric breakdown model DBM ,2 and inva
Planck intermediate results. X. Physics of the hot gas in the Coma cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Brown, S. D.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rudnick, L.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Stivoli, F.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.
2013-06-01
We present an analysis of Planck satellite data on the Coma cluster observed via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. Thanks to its great sensitivity, Planck is able, for the first time, to detect SZ emission up to r ? 3 × R500. We test previously proposed spherically symmetric models for the pressure distribution in clusters against the azimuthally averaged data. In particular, we find that the Arnaud et al. (2010, A&A, 517, A92) "universal" pressure profile does not fit Coma, and that their pressure profile for merging systems provides a reasonable fit to the data only at r < R500; by r = 2 × R500 it underestimates the observed y profile by a factor of ?2. This may indicate that at these larger radii either: i) the cluster SZ emission is contaminated by unresolved SZ sources along the line of sight; or ii) the pressure profile of Coma is higher at r > R500 than the mean pressure profile predicted by the simulations used to constrain the models. The Planck image shows significant local steepening of the y profile in two regions about half a degree to the west and to the south-east of the cluster centre. These features are consistent with the presence of shock fronts at these radii, and indeed the western feature was previously noticed in the ROSAT PSPC mosaic as well as in the radio. Using Plancky profiles extracted from corresponding sectors we find pressure jumps of 4.9-0.2+0.4 and 5.0-0.1+1.3 in the west and south-east, respectively. Assuming Rankine-Hugoniot pressure jump conditions, we deduce that the shock waves should propagate with Mach number Mw = 2.03-0.04+0.09 and Mse = 2.05-0.02+0.25 in the west and south-east, respectively. Finally, we find that the y and radio-synchrotron signals are quasi-linearly correlated on Mpc scales, with small intrinsic scatter. This implies either that the energy density of cosmic-ray electrons is relatively constant throughout the cluster, or that the magnetic fields fall off much more slowly with radius than previously thought.
Characterization and Physical Explanation of Energetic Particles on Planck HFI Instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catalano, A.; Ade, P.; Atik, Y.; Benoit, A.; Bréele, E.; Bock, J. J.; Camus, P.; Charra, M.; Crill, B. P.; Coron, N.; Coulais, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Fauvet, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guillaudin, O.; Holmes, W.; Jones, W. C.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Macías-Pérez, J.; Martinez, M.; Miniussi, A.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelissier, A.; Piat, M.; Puget, J.-L.; Renault, C.; Rosset, C.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Spencer, L.; Sudiwala, R.
2014-09-01
The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been surveying the sky continuously from the second Lagrangian point (L2) between August 2009 and January 2012. It operates with 52 high impedance bolometers cooled at 100 mK in a range of frequency between 100 GHz and 1 THz with unprecedented sensitivity, but strong coupling with cosmic radiation. At L2, the particle flux is about 5 and is dominated by protons incident on the spacecraft. Protons with an energy above 40 MeV can penetrate the focal plane unit box causing two different effects: glitches in the raw data from direct interaction of cosmic rays with detectors (producing a data loss of about 15 % at the end of the mission) and thermal drifts in the bolometer plate at 100 mK adding non-Gaussian noise at frequencies below 0.1 Hz. The HFI consortium has made strong efforts in order to correct for this effect on the time ordered data and final Planck maps. This work intends to give a view of the physical explanation of the glitches observed in the HFI instrument in-flight. To reach this goal, we performed several ground-based experiments using protons and particles to test the impact of particles on the HFI spare bolometers with a better control of the environmental conditions with respect to the in-flight data. We have shown that the dominant part of glitches observed in the data comes from the impact of cosmic rays in the silicon die frame supporting the micro-machined bolometric detectors propagating energy mainly by ballistic phonons and by thermal diffusion. The implications of these results for future satellite missions will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlett, James G.; Planck Collaboration
2015-01-01
As a cosmological probe, galaxy clusters are a powerful complement to the primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. They provide a direct measurement of the density perturbation amplitude at the present epoch that, when combined with primary CMB constraints, tests the validity of the cosmological model. The 2013 Planck analysis uncovered an intriguing tension between the cluster abundance and the primary CMB constraints, a tension that could indicate the need for new physics, such as non-minimal neutrino mass, or an important revision of the cluster mass scale. Unraveling this mystery has been a central focus of cluster cosmology research over the past year. We present our 2014 cluster cosmology analysis based on the full Planck data set. This analysis includes a new cluster catalog and analysis techniques, and incorporates recent results on cluster masses, where significant progress has been made in the past year.
The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.
1997-01-01
Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)
Using CMB data to constrain non-isotropic Planck-scale modifications to Electrodynamics
Gubitosi, Giulia [Berkeley Lab and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Migliaccio, Marina [Università di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, Roma (Italy); Pagano, Luca [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California (United States); Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza, P. le A. Moro 2, Roma (Italy); Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Ferrara, via G. Saragat 1, Ferrara (Italy); Polenta, Gianluca, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@berkeley.edu, E-mail: Marina.Migliaccio@roma2.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: paolo.natoli@roma2.infn.it, E-mail: gianluca.polenta@asdc.asi.it [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center, c/o ESRIN, via Galileo Galilei, Frascati (Italy)
2011-11-01
We develop a method to constrain non-isotropic features of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization, of a type expected to arise in some models describing quantum gravity effects on light propagation. We describe the expected signatures of this kind of anomalous light propagation on CMB photons, showing that it will produce a non-isotropic birefringence effect, i.e. a rotation of the CMB polarization direction whose observed amount depends in a peculiar way on the observation direction. We also show that the sensitivity levels expected for CMB polarization studies by the Planck satellite are sufficient for testing these effects if, as assumed in the quantum-gravity literature, their magnitude is set by the minute Planck length.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
All-sky data from the Planck survey and the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC) are combined to investigate the relationship between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and X-ray luminosity. The sample comprises ~1600 X-ray clusters with redshifts up to ~1 and spans a wide range in X-ray luminosity. The SZ signal is extracted for each object individually, and the statistical significance of the measurement is maximised by averaging the SZ signal in bins of X-ray luminosity, total mass, or redshift. The SZ signal is detected at very high significance over more than two decades in X-ray luminosity (1043erg s-1 ? L500E(z)-7/3 ? 2 × 1045erg s-1). The relation between intrinsic SZ signal and X-ray luminosity is investigated and the measured SZ signal is compared to values predicted from X-ray data. Planck measurements and X-ray based predictions are found to be in excellent agreement over the whole explored luminosity range. No significant deviation from standard evolution of the scaling relations is detected. For the first time the intrinsic scatter in the scaling relation between SZ signal and X-ray luminosity is measured and found to be consistent with the one in the luminosity - mass relation from X-ray studies. There is no evidence of any deficit in SZ signal strength in Planck data relative to expectations from the X-ray properties of clusters, underlining the robustness and consistency of our overall view of intra-cluster medium properties. Corresponding author: R. Piffaretti, e-mail: rocco.piffaretti@cea.fr
Explaining Phenomenologically Observed Space-time Flatness Requires New Fundamental Scale Physics
D. Bennett; H. B. Nielsen
2013-06-12
The phenomenologically observed flatness - or near flatness - of spacetime cannot be understood as emerging from continuum Planck (or sub-Planck) scales using known physics. Using dimensional arguments it is demonstrated that any immaginable action will lead to Christoffel symbols that are chaotic. We put forward new physics in the form of fundamental fields that spontaneously break translational invariance. Using these new fields as coordinates we define the metric in such a way that the Riemann tensor vanishes identically as a Bianchi identity. Hence the new fundamental fields define a flat space. General relativity with curvature is recovered as an effective theory at larger scales at which crystal defects in the form of disclinations come into play as the sources of curvature.
Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales
Nikolai Dotzek
2009-01-01
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of
Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education. A Rating Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stork, Steve; Sanders, Steve
1996-01-01
The purpose of elementary physical education is poorly defined, and the public has low expectations and support for the field. The Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education Practices for Children rating scale emphasizes teaching practices that are appropriate to each student's age and ability. The paper describes use of the scale. (SM)
E. N. Da C. Andrade
1948-01-01
IN a broadcast talk on Max Planck, in which whole-hearted tribute was paid to his great work, I used the words, ``If I hesitate to put Planck on a level with Newton and Einstein it must be partly on the ground that he did not seem to know quite what he had done when he did it ... Planck seems
Carl H. Gibson
2003-04-24
A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies that match those for high Reynolds number turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Souradeep, Tarun
2015-02-01
Estimation of the angular power spectrum is one of the important steps in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data analysis. Here, we present a nonparametric estimate of the temperature angular power spectrum for the Planck 2013 CMB data. The method implemented in this work is model-independent, and allows the data, rather than the model, to dictate the fit. Since one of the main targets of our analysis is to test the consistency of the ?CDM model with Planck 2013 data, we use the nuisance parameters associated with the best-fit ?CDM angular power spectrum to remove foreground contributions from the data at multipoles l >=50. We thus obtain a combined angular power spectrum data set together with the full covariance matrix, appropriately weighted over frequency channels. Our subsequent nonparametric analysis resolves six peaks (and five dips) up to l ~1850 in the temperature angular power spectrum. We present uncertainties in the peak/dip locations and heights at the 95% confidence level. We further show how these reflect the harmonicity of acoustic peaks, and can be used for acoustic scale estimation. Based on this nonparametric formalism, we found the best-fit ?CDM model to be at 36% confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set—this is considerably larger than the confidence distance (9%) derived earlier from a similar analysis of the WMAP 7-year data. Another interesting result of our analysis is that at low multipoles, the Planck data do not suggest any upturn, contrary to the expectation based on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution in the best-fit ?CDM cosmology.
Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dotzek, Nikolai
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.
Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Rudolf Muradyan
2011-06-07
Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.
E. Grüneisen; F. Möglich; A. Meiner
1947-01-01
Am 4. Oktober 1947 ist Max Planck im Alter von 89 Jahren entschlafen.Seit 52 Jahren hat sich Planck mit seinem klugen Rat und seiner reichen Erfahrung in den Dienst der Annalen-Redaktion gestellt und viel verantwortliche Tätigkeit übernommen, die in vollem Maße nur den Herausgebern und dem Verlage bekannt geworden ist. So manchen Ballast hat er von der Zeitschrift ferngehalten, viele
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.
2010-01-01
We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…
New physics scales and anomalous magnetic moment
Helder Chavez; Luis Masperi
2002-01-01
Violation of chiral symmetry together with change of mass sign allows a linear correction in inverse power of new physics scale to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon. In this light we analyse alternative models showing in particular that grand unification, supersymmetry and muon substructure may explain the discrepancy between the experimental value of the muon anomaly and the standard
On Physical Scales of Dark Matter Halos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemp, Marcel
2014-09-01
It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions "virial." In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.
Planck-scale soccer-ball problem: a case of mistaken identity
Giovanni Amelino-Camelia
2014-07-29
Over the last decade it has been found that nonlinear laws of composition of momenta are predicted by some alternative approaches to "real" 4D quantum gravity, and by all formulations of dimensionally-reduced (3D) quantum gravity coupled to matter. The possible relevance for rather different quantum-gravity models has motivated several studies, but this interest is being tempered by concerns that a nonlinear law of addition of momenta might inevitably produce a pathological description of the total momentum of a macroscopic body. I here show that such concerns are unjustified, finding that they are rooted in failure to appreciate the differences between two roles for laws composition of momentum in physics. Previous results relied exclusively on the role of a law of momentum composition in the description of spacetime locality. However, the notion of total momentum of a multi-particle system is not a manifestation of locality, but rather reflects translational invariance. By working within an illustrative example of quantum spacetime I show explicitly that spacetime locality is indeed reflected in a nonlinear law of composition of momenta, but translational invariance still results in an undeformed linear law of addition of momenta building up the total momentum of a multi-particle system.
Overview of Icing Physics Relevant to Scaling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching
2005-01-01
An understanding of icing physics is required for the development of both scaling methods and ice-accretion prediction codes. This paper gives an overview of our present understanding of the important physical processes and the associated similarity parameters that determine the shape of Appendix C ice accretions. For many years it has been recognized that ice accretion processes depend on flow effects over the model, on droplet trajectories, on the rate of water collection and time of exposure, and, for glaze ice, on a heat balance. For scaling applications, equations describing these events have been based on analyses at the stagnation line of the model and have resulted in the identification of several non-dimensional similarity parameters. The parameters include the modified inertia parameter of the water drop, the accumulation parameter and the freezing fraction. Other parameters dealing with the leading edge heat balance have also been used for convenience. By equating scale expressions for these parameters to the values to be simulated a set of equations is produced which can be solved for the scale test conditions. Studies in the past few years have shown that at least one parameter in addition to those mentioned above is needed to describe surface-water effects, and some of the traditional parameters may not be as significant as once thought. Insight into the importance of each parameter, and the physical processes it represents, can be made by viewing whether ice shapes change, and the extent of the change, when each parameter is varied. Experimental evidence is presented to establish the importance of each of the traditionally used parameters and to identify the possible form of a new similarity parameter to be used for scaling.
David Spergel; Raphael Flauger; Renee Hlozek
2015-01-28
The tension between the best fit parameters derived by the Planck team and a number of other astronomical measurements suggests either systematics in the astronomical measurements, systematics in the Planck data, the need for new physics, or a combination thereof. We re-analyze the Planck data and find that the $217\\,\\text{GHz}\\times 217\\,\\text{GHz}$ detector set spectrum used in the Planck analysis is responsible for some of this tension. We use a map-based foreground cleaning procedure, relying on a combination of 353 GHz and 545 GHz maps to reduce residual foregrounds in the intermediate frequency maps used for cosmological inference. For our baseline data analysis, which uses 47% of the sky and makes use of both 353 and 545 GHz data for foreground cleaning, we find the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological parameters $\\Omega_c h^2 = 0.1170 \\pm 0.0025$, $n_s = 0.9686 \\pm 0.0069$, $H_0 = 68.0 \\pm 1.1\\,\\mathrm{km} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$, $\\Omega_b h^2 = 0.02197 \\pm 0.00026$, $\\ln 10^{10}A_s = 3.082 \\pm 0.025$, and $\\tau = 0.090 \\pm 0.013 $. While in broad agreement with the results reported by the Planck team, these revised parameters imply a universe with a lower matter density of $\\Omega_m=0.302\\pm0.015$, and parameter values generally more consistent with pre-Planck CMB analyses and astronomical observations. We compare our cleaning procedure with the foreground modeling used by the Planck team and find good agreement. The difference in parameters between our analysis and that of the Planck team is mostly due to our use of cross-spectra from the publicly available survey maps instead of their use of the detector set cross-spectra which include pixels only observed in one of the surveys. We show evidence suggesting residual systematics in the detector set spectra used in the Planck likelihood code, which is substantially reduced for our spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spergel, David N.; Flauger, Raphael; Hložek, Renée
2015-01-01
The tension between the best fit parameters derived by the Planck team and a number of other astronomical measurements suggests either systematics in the astronomical measurements, systematics in the Planck data, the need for new physics, or a combination thereof. We reanalyze the Planck data and find that the 217 GHz ×217 GHz detector set spectrum used in the Planck analysis is responsible for some of this tension. We use a map-based foreground cleaning procedure, relying on a combination of 353 GHz and 545 GHz maps to reduce residual foregrounds in the intermediate frequency maps used for cosmological inference. For our baseline data analysis, which uses 47% of the sky and makes use of both 353 and 545 GHz data for foreground cleaning, we find the ? CDM cosmological parameters ?ch2=0.1170 ±0.0025 , ns=0.9686 ±0.0069 , H0=68.0 ±1.1 km s-1 Mpc-1 , ?bh2=0.02197 ±0.00026 , ln 1010As=3.082 ±0.025 , and ? =0.090 ±0.013 . While in broad agreement with the results reported by the Planck team, these revised parameters imply a universe with a lower matter density of ?m=0.302 ±0.015 , and parameter values generally more consistent with pre-Planck CMB analyses and astronomical observations. We compare our cleaning procedure with the foreground modeling used by the Planck team and find good agreement. The difference in parameters between our analysis and that of the Planck team is mostly due to our use of cross-spectra from the publicly available survey maps instead of their use of the detector set cross-spectra which include pixels only observed in one of the surveys. We show evidence suggesting residual systematics in the detector set spectra used in the Planck likelihood code, which is substantially reduced for our spectra. Using our cleaned survey cross-spectra, we recompute the limit on neutrino species and find Neff=3.34 ±0.35 . We also recompute limits on the ns-r plane, and neutrino mass constraints.
Sub-Planck spots of Schroedinger cats and quantum decoherence
Wojciech Hubert Zurek
2002-01-25
Heisenberg's principle$^1$ states that the product of uncertainties of position and momentum should be no less than Planck's constant $\\hbar$. This is usually taken to imply that phase space structures associated with sub-Planck ($\\ll \\hbar$) scales do not exist, or, at the very least, that they do not matter. I show that this deeply ingrained prejudice is false: Non-local "Schr\\"odinger cat" states of quantum systems confined to phase space volume characterized by `the classical action' $A \\gg \\hbar$ develop spotty structure on scales corresponding to sub-Planck $a = \\hbar^2 / A \\ll \\hbar$. Such structures arise especially quickly in quantum versions of classically chaotic systems (such as gases, modelled by chaotic scattering of molecules), that are driven into nonlocal Schr\\"odinger cat -- like superpositions by the quantum manifestations of the exponential sensitivity to perturbations$^2$. Most importantly, these sub-Planck scales are physically significant: $a$ determines sensitivity of a quantum system (or of a quantum environment) to perturbations. Therefore sub-Planck $a$ controls the effectiveness of decoherence and einselection caused by the environment$^{3-8}$. It may also be relevant in setting limits on sensitivity of Schr\\"odinger cats used as detectors.
A physical version of the QCD confinement scale(s)
Fried, H M
2015-01-01
We suggest a physical definition of the confinement mass scale in QCD in the framework of non-perturbative, gauge invariant QCD, where all possible gluons exchanged between any pair of quark lines are included; and we insist that a stable, quark bound state should not and must not have transverse quark fluctuations larger than the Compton wavelength of the bound state particle itself. This is possible in our QCD formulation because there are two parameters which describe confinement, a mass scale $\\mu$, and a "deformation parameter" $\\xi$, which shrinks the transverse-quark-coordinate separation distribution $\\varphi(b)$ away from Gaussian. With the mass scale $\\mu$ defined as equal to the mass of each quark bound state, we show that $\\xi$ decreases with increasing bound state mass, $m_{BS}$, using order-of-magnitude estimates which agree with obvious intuition. Our $\\xi$-values, including a calculation for the recently detected 4-quark system, display the predicted behavior: $\\xi$ decreases with increasing $...
Perspective on TeV-scale physics
Chanowitz, M.S.
1989-02-01
These lectures review theoretical motivations and experimental prospects for the study of TeV-scale physics. Three clues to the importance of TeV physics are discussed: implications of quantum corrections for the masses of a fourth generation quark-lepton family, the gauge hierarchy problem and known solutions, and implications of symmetry and unitarity for the symmetry-breaking sector of the electroweak gauge theory. The experimental prospects are reviewed with emphasis on the multi-TeV pp colliders that may be built in the 1990's. The topics include new phenomena that might occur - e.g., a fourth generation, heavy gauge bosons, composite structure, and supersymmetry - as well as the signals of the unknown SU(2)/sub L/ /times/ U(1)/sub Y/ breaking mechanism that must occur within the TeV domain. 96 refs., 21 figs.
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
Borrill, Julian
2009-01-01
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
2009-05-14
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
None
2010-01-08
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center
Cosmological results from Planck 2014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Martin
2015-01-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and surveyed the sky 9 times over its lifetime. In late 2014, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released to the public a complete set of data products from the full mission, including maps of CMB polarization. I will review some of the highlights of this release and the implications for cosmology and early Universe physics.
Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .
Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport
Absolute Planck Values: Moving Beyond the Arbitrary Assignment of Unity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laubenstein, John
2008-03-01
Planck Values provide a valuable tool in efforts to understand basic universal relationships; however, they fall short of having any truly intrinsic value. Planck Values come with the assumption that unity can be assigned to up to five of the fundamental universal constants. While constraining these values to unity may be convenient, it by no means ensures that intelligent life anywhere in the universe would make the same assumptions. Further, the peculiar value of the inverse fine structure constant of 137 suggests that it is naive to assume that any of the physical constants are equal to unity or any other simplistic value. Through an analysis of gravitation and electrostatic force, the IWPD Research Center has derived a logical argument for a revised set of Planck Values that represent absolute values with true universal significance. Of greatest importance, is a recalculated Planck Mass that serves as a truly fundamental unit of mass at the quantum scale. This finding contrasts with the significantly large value associated with the current Planck Mass and provides new information that may be critical in the search to unify General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics.
Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires*
Quake, Stephen R.
Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires* Departments of Physics volumes nanoliters of fluids is presented, as parametrized by a series of dimensionless numbers expressing fluids by exploiting boundary effects; among these are electrokinetic effects, acoustic streaming
Initiation and Detonation Physics on Millimeter Scales
Philllips, D F; Benterou, J J; May, C A
2012-03-20
The LLNL Detonation Science Project has a major interest in understanding the physics of detonation on a millimeter scale. This report summarizes the rate stick experiment results of two high explosives. The GO/NO-GO threshold between varying diameters of ultra-fine TATB (ufTATB) and LX-16 were recorded on an electronic streak camera and analyzed. This report summarizes the failure diameters of rate sticks for ufTATB and LX-16. Failure diameter for the ufTATB explosive, with densities at 1.80 g/cc, begin at 2.34 mm (not maintaining detonation velocity over the entire length of the rate stick). ufTATB rate sticks at the larger 3.18 mm diameter maintain a constant detonation velocity over the complete length. The PETN based and LLNL developed explosive, LX-16, with densities at 1.7 g/cc, shows detonation failure between 0.318 mm and 0.365 mm. Additional tests would be required to narrow this failure diameter further. Many of the tested rate sticks were machined using a femtosecond laser focused into a firing tank - in case of accidental detonation.
Physics in space-time with scale-dependent metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balankin, Alexander S.
2013-10-01
We construct three-dimensional space R?3 with the scale-dependent metric and the corresponding Minkowski space-time M?,?4 with the scale-dependent fractal (DH) and spectral (DS) dimensions. The local derivatives based on scale-dependent metrics are defined and differential vector calculus in R?3 is developed. We state that M?,?4 provides a unified phenomenological framework for dimensional flow observed in quite different models of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the main attention is focused on the special case of flat space-time M1/3,14 with the scale-dependent Cantor-dust-like distribution of admissible states, such that DH increases from DH=2 on the scale ??0 to DH=4 in the infrared limit ??0, where ?0 is the characteristic length (e.g. the Planck length, or characteristic size of multi-fractal features in heterogeneous medium), whereas DS?4 in all scales. Possible applications of approach based on the scale-dependent metric to systems of different nature are briefly discussed.
Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rosa, João G., E-mail: s.bartrum@sms.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: joao.rosa@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and I3N, Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)
2013-06-01
The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. Warm inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.
Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data
Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70?GHz (amplifier) and 100?GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143?GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143?GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...
Zodiacal Light Emission in the PLANCK mission
M. Maris; C. Burigana; S. Fogliani
2006-04-07
The PLANCK satellite, scheduled for launch in 2007, will produce a set of all sky maps in nine frequency bands spanning from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, with an unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Planets, minor bodies and diffuse interplanetary dust will contribute to the (sub)mm sky emission observed by PLANCK, representing a source of foreground contamination to be removed before extracting the cosmological information. The aim of this paper is to assess the expected level of contamination in the survey of the forthcoming PLANCK mission. Starting from existing far-infrared (far-IR) models of the Zodiacal Light Emission (ZLE), we present a new method to simulate the time-dependent level of contamination from ZLE at PLANCK frequencies. We studied the possibility of PLANCK to detect and separate the ZLE contribution from the other astrophysical signals. We discuss the conditions in which PLANCK will be able to increase the existing information on the ZLE and IDP physical properties.
Planck constraints on monodromy inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael
2014-02-01
We use data from the nominal Planck mission to constrain modulations in the primordial power spectrum associated with monodromy inflation. The largest improvement in fit relative to the unmodulated model has ??2 ? 10 and we find no evidence for a primordial signal, in contrast to a previous analysis of the WMAP9 dataset, for which ??2 ? 20. The Planck and WMAP9 results are broadly consistent on angular scales where they are expected to agree as far as best-fit values are concerned. However, even on these scales the significance of the signal is reduced in Planck relative to WMAP, and is consistent with a fit to the ``noise'' associated with cosmic variance. Our results motivate both a detailed comparison between the two experiments and a more careful study of the theoretical predictions of monodromy inflation.
Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…
P. Murdin
2000-01-01
Born in Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, Nobel prizewinner for physics (1918). Calculated the radiation of a black-body by means of the introduction of the quantum theory of light. The Planck satellite launched to study the black-body spectrum of the cosmic microwave background was named for him....
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ?, covering 2 ? ? ? 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ? ? 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ?s. For ? < 50, our likelihood exploits all Planck frequency channels from 30 to 353 GHz, separating the cosmological CMB signal from diffuse Galactic foregrounds through a physically motivated Bayesian component separation technique. At ? ? 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on a fine-grained set of angular cross-spectra derived from multiple detector combinations between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency channels, marginalising over power spectrum foreground templates. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-? cross-spectra with residuals below a few ?K2 at ? ? 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ?CDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ?CDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ? ? 1500. One specific example is the spectral index of scalar perturbations, for which we report a 5.4? deviation from scale invariance, ns = 1. Increasing the multipole range beyond ? ? 1500 does not increase our accuracy for the ?CDM parameters, but instead allows us to study extensions beyond the standard model. We find no indication of significant departures from the ?CDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the Planck best-fit ?CDM model and the low-? spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at ? ? 40, with a statistical significance of 2.5-3?. Without a theoretically motivated model for this power deficit, we do not elaborate further on its cosmological implications, but note that this is our most puzzling finding in an otherwise remarkably consistent data set.
The physical activity scale for individuals with physical disabilities: Development and evaluation
Richard A. Washburn; Weimo Zhu; Edward McAuley; Michael Frogley; Stephen F. Figoni
2002-01-01
Washburn RA, Zhu W, McAuley E, Frogley M, Figoni SF. The Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities: development and evaluation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:193-200. Objective: To evaluate the construct validity of a new 13-item physical activity survey designed to assess physical activity in individuals with physical disabilities. Design: Mail survey requesting information on physical activity, basic demographic
WMAP, Planck, cosmic rays and unconventional cosmologies
Luis Gonzalez-Mestres
2011-10-27
The claim by Gurzadyan et al. that the cosmological sky is a weakly random one where "the random perturbation is a minor component of mostly regular signal" has given rise to a series of useful exchanges. The possibility that the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) data present trends in this direction would have strong implications for unconventional cosmologies. Similarly, data on ultra-high energy cosmic rays may contain signatures from new Physics generated beyond the Planck scale. It therefore seems legitimate, from a phenomenological point of view, to consider pre-Big Bang cosmologies as well as patterns where standard particles would not be the ultimate constituents of matter and the presently admitted principles of Physics would not necessarily be the fundamental ones. We discuss here prospects for some noncyclic, nonstandard cosmologies.
Constraint on noncommutative spacetime from PLANCK data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
P. K., Joby; Chingangbam, Pravabati; Das, Subinoy
2015-04-01
We constrain the energy scale of noncommutativity of spacetime using cosmic microwave background data from PLANCK. We find that PLANCK data put the lower bound on the noncommutativity energy scale to about 20 TeV, which is about a factor of 2 larger than a previous constraint that was obtained using data from WMAP, ACBAR and CBI. We further show that inclusion of data of E mode of cosmic microwave background polarization will not significantly change the constraint.
Planck early results. I. The Planck mission
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; M. Baker; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; K. Bennett; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; T. Bradshaw; M. Bremer; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; P. Cabella; C. M. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; J.-F. Cardoso; R. Carr; M. Casale; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; J. Charra; R.-R. Chary; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; G. Crone; M. Crook; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; O. D'Arcangelo; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; J. de Bruin; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; J. Dick; C. Dickinson; K. Dolag; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; S. Foley; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; M. Freschi; T. C. Gaier; S. Galeotta; J. Gallegos; B. Gandolfo; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; G. Gienger; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; G. Guyot; J. Haissinski; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; A. Hornstrup; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; T. Jagemann; W. C. Jones; J. J. Juillet; M. Juvela; P. Kangaslahti; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; M. Krassenburg; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; A. Lähteenmäki; J.-M. Lamarre; A. E. Lange; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; J. P. Leahy; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; S. Lowe; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; T. Maciaszek; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; M. Massardi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. McDonald; P. R. Meinhold; A. Melchiorri; J.-B. Melin; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; C. Mevi; R. Miniscalco; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; N. Morisset; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; I. Ortiz; S. Osborne; P. Osuna; C. A. Oxborrow; F. Pajot; R. Paladini; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; T. Passvogel; G. Patanchon; D. Pearson; T. J. Pearson; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; S. Plaszczynski; P. Platania; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; L. Popa; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; J.-M. Reix; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; E. Salerno; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; A. Simonetto; G. F. Smoot; C. Sozzi; J.-L. Starck; J. Sternberg; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; L. Stringhetti; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; D. Tapiador; J. A. Tauber; D. Tavagnacco; D. Taylor; L. Terenzi; D. Texier; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; M. Tuttlebee; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; J. Valiviita; J. Varis; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; C. Watson; S. D. M. White; M. White; A. Wilkinson; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and has been surveying the sky stably and continuously since 13 August 2009. Its performance is well in line with expectations, and it will continue to gather scientific data until the end of its cryogenic lifetime. We give an overview of the history of Planck in its first
Planck early results. I. The Planck mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Baker, M.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Bennett, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bradshaw, T.; Bremer, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Crone, G.; Crook, M.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Bruin, J.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gienger, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González, J.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juillet, J. J.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Krassenburg, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mevi, C.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Ortiz, I.; Osborne, S.; Osuna, P.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Passvogel, T.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Reix, J.-M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Simonetto, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Sozzi, C.; Starck, J.-L.; Sternberg, J.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Stringhetti, L.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tapiador, D.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, C.; White, S. D. M.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and has been surveying the sky stably and continuously since 13 August 2009. Its performance is well in line with expectations, and it will continue to gather scientific data until the end of its cryogenic lifetime. We give an overview of the history of Planck in its first year of operations, and describe some of the key performance aspects of the satellite. This paper is part of a package submitted in conjunction with Planck's Early Release Compact Source Catalogue, the first data product based on Planck to be released publicly. The package describes the scientific performance of the Planck payload, and presents results on a variety of astrophysical topics related to the sources included in the Catalogue, as well as selected topics on diffuse emission. Corresponding author: J. A. Tauber, e-mail: jtauber@rssd.esa.int
Extending Higgs Inflation with TeV Scale New Physics
Hong-Jian He; Zhong-Zhi Xianyu
2014-10-09
Higgs inflation is among the most economical and predictive inflation models, although the original Higgs inflation requires tuning the Higgs or top mass away from its current experimental value by more than $2\\sigma$ deviations, and generally gives a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \\sim 10^{-3}$ (if away from the vicinity of critical point). In this work, we construct a minimal extension of Higgs inflation, by adding only two new weak-singlet particles at TeV scale, a vector-quark $T$ and a real scalar $S$. The presence of singlets $(T, S)$ significantly impact the renormalization group running of the Higgs boson self-coupling. With this, our model provides a wider range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r = O(0.1 - 10^{-3})$, consistent with the favored $r$ values by either BICEP2 or Planck data, while keeping the successful prediction of the spectral index $ n_s \\simeq 0.96 $. It further allows the Higgs and top masses to fully fit the collider measurements. We also discuss implications for searching the predicted TeV-scale vector-quark $T$ and scalar $S$ at the LHC and future high energy pp colliders.
Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation
Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Arroja, F; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit, A; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Contreras, D; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Gauthier, C; Giard, M; Giraud-Heraud, Y; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hamann, J; Handley, W; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huang, Z; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kim, J; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macias-Perez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munchmeyer, M; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Pandolfi, S; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peiris, H V; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prezeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubino-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Shiraishi, M; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...
SETI at Planck Energy: When Particle Physicists Become Cosmic Engineers
Lacki, Brian C
2015-01-01
What is the meaning of the Fermi Paradox -- are we alone or is starfaring rare? Can general relativity be united with quantum mechanics? The searches for answers to these questions could intersect. It is known that an accelerator capable of energizing particles to the Planck scale requires cosmic proportions. The energy required to run a Planck accelerator is also cosmic, of order 100 M_sun c^2 for a hadron collider, because the natural cross section for Planck physics is so tiny. If aliens are interested in fundamental physics, they could resort to cosmic engineering for their experiments. These colliders are detectable through the vast amount of "pollution" they produce, motivating a YeV SETI program. I investigate what kinds of radiation they would emit in a fireball scenario, and the feasibility of detecting YeV radiation at Earth, particularly YeV neutrinos. Although current limits on YeV neutrinos are weak, Kardashev 3 YeV neutrino sources appear to be at least 30--100 Mpc apart on average, if they are ...
Physical controls of soil moisture variability at multiple scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jana, R. B.; Mohanty, B.
2013-12-01
Understanding what factors drive soil hydrological processes at different scales and their variability is very critical to further our ability to model the various components of the hydrologic cycle more accurately. Soil moisture, and, by association, soil hydraulic parameters have been known to be a function of location, and the support scale at which they are measured. Recent increase in remote sensing platforms necessitates increased calibration/validation efforts of their soil moisture products with ground-based measurements. Such cal/val operations require some form of up- or down-scaling process. Understanding the factors that drive soil hydrological processes at different scales, and their variability, is very critical to minimize errors due to this step in the cal/val procedure. Existing literature provides a description of the different sources of soil moisture variability across a range of resolutions from point to continental scales, classified under four categories: soil texture and structure, topography, vegetation, and meteorological forcings. While it is accepted that a dynamic relationship exists between these physical controls and the soil hydraulic properties across spatial scales, the nature of the relationship is not very well understood. In order to formulate better scaling algorithms, it is first necessary to determine the form and amount of influence exerted by the controlling factors on the variability of the soil moisture or hydraulic parameters at each scale of interest. One method to understand the effect of the physical controls is to analyze the covariance or coherence of the physical controls with the soil hydraulic properties across multiple scales and different hydro-climates. Such a study, using wavelet analysis, is presented here. A variety of datasets from multiple platforms across the globe were employed in this study. The AMSR-E soil moisture product was used as the remotely sensed, coarse resolution dataset. Fine resolution, ground-based soil moisture data at the study sites were obtained from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) database. Elevation and slope were derived from SRTM Digital Elevation Data. Soil physical properties such as sand, silt, and clay contents, and precipitation information were obtained from the respective ancillary data from the ISMN database. Vegetation information was derived from the LAI product of the MODIS platform. Similarities in behavior of soil moisture dynamics across hydroclimates at corresponding scales were observed. It was also observed that the influence of the physical controls depended not only on the spatial scale of observation but also on the degree of saturation of the soil. We present these and other inferences drawn from the study.
Unveiling the most massive clusters at z>0.5 with Planck and XMM-Newton.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnaud, Monique
2011-10-01
We propose to gather spatially resolved spectroscopy of a sample of 33 massive (M_{500}>5e+14 solar masses) clusters detected blindly by Planck and confirmed to-day to be in the redshift range 0.5
2D VARIABLY SATURATED FLOWS: PHYSICAL SCALING AND BAYESIAN ESTIMATION
A novel dimensionless formulation for water flow in two-dimensional variably saturated media is presented. It shows that scaling physical systems requires conservation of the ratio between capillary forces and gravity forces. A direct result of this finding is that for two phys...
FUSION RESEARCH CENTER Physics Scaling of Reactor Plasmas
The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas 78712 April 1989 THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS Austin, Texas #12 at Austin Austin, Texas 78712 Reactor Plasma The plasma parameters of a reactor plasma for a steady state D;Physics Scaling of Reactor Plasmas R. J. BICKERTON Fusion Research Center The University of Texas
Physical models of supernovae and the distance scale
J. Craig Wheeler; Robert P. Harkness
1986-01-01
The use of physical models of supernovae (SNe) to constrain the cosmic distance scale is considered. Classical type Ia SNe are discussed, addressing the degree to which a carbon deflagration explosion is consistent with the observed spectrum. This picture implies a relatively bright event and hence a moderately low value of H(0). The question of uniqueness is then addressed by
The Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Katartzi, Ermioni S.; Kontou, Maria G.
2011-01-01
The present study reported on the modification of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (Vlachopoulos & Michailidou, 2006) to assess students' psychological need fulfillment in elementary school, middle school, and high school compulsory physical education classes. Data were collected from 817 5th and 6th grade students, 862 middle…
Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE
DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL
2011-01-01
The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.
Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE
Mark D. DeHart; Stephen M. Bowman
2011-05-01
The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.
Rede des Prsidenten, Prof. Peter Gruss zur Festveranstaltung zum 150. Geburtstag von Max Planck
Rede des Präsidenten, Prof. Peter Gruss zur Festveranstaltung zum 150. Geburtstag von Max Planck-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Rede des Präsidenten #12;Präsidenten der European Physical Society, Herrn Kolwas. Auch mehrere
A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, W.K.; Anderson, D.; Atlas, R.; Chern, J.; Houser, P.; Hou, A.; Lang, S.; Lau, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Kakar, R.; Kumar, S.; Lapenta, W.; Li, X.; Matsui, T.; Rienecker, M.; Shen, B.W.; Shi, J.J.; Simpson, J.; Zeng, X.
2008-01-01
Numerical cloud resolving models (CRMs), which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that CRMs agree with observations in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and regional scale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a szrper-parameterization or multi-scale modeling -framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign can provide initial conditions as well as validation through utilizing the Earth Satellite simulators. At Goddard, we have developed a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics. The modeling system consists a coupled GCM-CRM (or MMF); a state-of-the-art weather research forecast model (WRF) and a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model). In these models, the same microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 3ICE), radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models are applied. In addition, a comprehensive unified Earth Satellite simulator has been developed at GSFC, which is designed to fully utilize the multi-scale modeling system. A brief review of the multi-scale modeling system with unified physics/simulator and examples is presented in this article.
Cosmic Neutrinos and New Physics beyond the Electroweak Scale
Craig Tyler; Angela V. Olinto; Guenter Sigl
2001-01-19
New physics beyond the electroweak scale may increase weak interaction cross sections beyond the Standard Model predictions. Such cross sections can be expected within theories that solve the hierarchy problem of known interactions with a unification scale in the TeV range. We derive constraints on these cross sections from the flux of neutrinos expected from cosmic ray interactions with the microwave background and the non-observation of horizontal air showers. We also discuss how this limit can be improved by upcoming cosmic ray and neutrino experiments, and how the energy dependence of the new interactions can be probed by these experiments.
PREDICTION OF SOLUTE BREAKTHROUGH FROM SCALED SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
H. C. VAN OMMEN; J. W. HOPMANS; M. VAN DER ZEE
Van Ommen, H.C., Hopmans, J.W. and Van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M., 1989. Prediction of solute breaK- through from scaled soil physical properties. J. Hydrol., 105: 263-273. Solute transport in unsaturated soil may be described with a transfer function model in which the travel time distribution for a nonreactive solute depends on the distribution of the flow velocity (V). When the spatial
Aspects of New Physics at the TeV Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jiayin
The Standard Model, despite its great success, is generally considered as an incomplete theory and various reasons suggest that new physics may appear around the TeV scale. The LHC discovered a Standard Model like Higgs boson at around 126 GeV, but has not observed any evidence of new physics yet. As the tension is increasing between the expectation of the TeV scale new physics and the lack of experimental discovery, it is helpful to consider new model building directions and new search strategies. In this thesis, we present a few studies on different aspects of new physics at the TeV scale. First, we present a composite Higgs model based on the top seesaw mechanism. We show that with an approximate U(3)L chiral symmetry, associated with a vector-like quark and the (t, b)L doublet, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. Second, we present two studies of search strategies of the stop particle, with the first one focusing on the semi-leptonic channel and the second one focusing on the di-leptonic channel with compressed signal spectra. In both cases, we introduce new kinematic variables which can substantially improve the signal significance. We also present a mass measurement method at hadron colliders for a decay chain of two steps, which ends with a missing particle. We show that it is possible to extract all three invisible particle masses with reasonable accuracies, which was previously thought to be impossible. With the upgrade of the LHC and the possibilities of new larger colliders in the future, the search for new physics will continue on, and our studies can help.
Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2012-01-01
Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.
Physical scales in the Wigner-Boltzmann equation
Nedjalkov, M., E-mail: mixi@iue.tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Selberherr, S. [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)] [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ferry, D.K.; Vasileska, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Dollfus, P.; Querlioz, D. [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, CNRS, University of Paris-sud, Orsay (France)] [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, CNRS, University of Paris-sud, Orsay (France); Dimov, I. [Institute for IC Technology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [Institute for IC Technology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Schwaha, P. [Shenteq s.r.o., Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Shenteq s.r.o., Bratislava (Slovakia)
2013-01-15
The Wigner-Boltzmann equation provides the Wigner single particle theory with interactions with bosonic degrees of freedom associated with harmonic oscillators, such as phonons in solids. Quantum evolution is an interplay of two transport modes, corresponding to the common coherent particle-potential processes, or to the decoherence causing scattering due to the oscillators. Which evolution mode will dominate depends on the scales of the involved physical quantities. A dimensionless formulation of the Wigner-Boltzmann equation is obtained, where these scales appear as dimensionless strength parameters. A notion called scaling theorem is derived, linking the strength parameters to the coupling with the oscillators. It is shown that an increase of this coupling is equivalent to a reduction of both the strength of the electric potential, and the coherence length. Secondly, the existence of classes of physically different, but mathematically equivalent setups of the Wigner-Boltzmann evolution is demonstrated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimensionless parameters determine the ratio of quantum or classical WB evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The scaling theorem evaluates the decoherence effect due to scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution processes are grouped into classes of equivalence.
The Planck Surveyor mission: astrophysical prospects
De Zotti, Gianfranco; Toffolatti, Luigi [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)] Toffolatti, Luigi [Dep. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, c.le Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)] Argueso, Francisco [Dep. de Matematicas, Universidad de Oviedo, c.le Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)] Davies, Rodney D. [Nuffield Radio Astron. Lab., University of Manchester, Jodrell Bank, Macclesfield Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom)] Smoot, George F. [LBNL, SSL, Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vittorio, Nicola [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy)] Partridge, R. Bruce [Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041-1392 (United States)
1999-05-01
Although the Planck Surveyor mission is optimized to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, it will also provide extremely valuable information on astrophysical phenomena. We review our present understanding of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds relevant to the mission and discuss on one side, Planck{close_quote}s impact on the study of their properties and, on the other side, to what extent foreground contamination may affect Planck{close_quote}s ability to accurately determine cosmological parameters. Planck{close_quote}s multifrequency surveys will be unique in their coverage of large areas of the sky (actually, of the full sky); this will extend by two or more orders of magnitude the flux density interval over which mm/sub-mm counts of extragalactic sources can be determined by instruments already available (like SCUBA) or planned for the next decade (like the LSA-MMA or the space mission FIRST), which go much deeper but over very limited areas. Planck will thus provide essential complementary information on the epoch-dependent luminosity functions. Bright radio sources will be studied over a poorly explored frequency range where spectral signatures, essential to understand the physical processes that are going on, show up. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, with its extremely rich information content, will be observed in the direction of a large number of rich clusters of Galaxies. Thanks again to its all sky coverage, Planck will provide unique information on the structure and on the emission properties of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy. At the same time, the foregrounds are unlikely to substantially limit Planck{close_quote}s ability to measure the cosmological signals. Even measurements of polarization of the primordial Cosmic Microwave background fluctuations appear to be feasible. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Integrated physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shao-Liang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Lu-Bing; Long, Liang; Wu, Ya-Ming
2014-07-01
The physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) has been successfully realized by integrating vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), neutral density (ND) filter, ?/4 wave plate, 87Rb vapor cell, photodiode (PD), and magnetic coil into a cuboid metal package with a volume of about 2.8 cm3. In this physics package, the critical component, 87Rb vapor cell, is batch-fabricated based on MEMS technology and in-situ chemical reaction method. Pt heater and thermistors are integrated in the physics package. A PTFE pillar is used to support the optical elements in the physics package, in order to reduce the power dissipation. The optical absorption spectrum of 87Rb D1 line and the microwave frequency correction signal are successfully observed while connecting the package with the servo circuit system. Using the above mentioned packaging solution, a CSAC with short-term frequency stability of about 7 × 10-10 ?-1/2 has been successfully achieved, which demonstrates that this physics package would become one promising solution for the CSAC.
Justin B. Moore; Zenong Yin; John Hanes; Joan Duda; Bernard Gutin; Paule Barbeau
2009-01-01
This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ±.54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagano, Luca
2014-09-01
The European Space Agency (hereafter ESA) Planck satellite was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and the submillimeter sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations. In this contribution we present the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are well described by the standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (?CDM) cosmological model based on six parameters. We find a low value of the Hubble parameter, H 0 = 67.3 ± 1.2 km/s/Mpc, and, consequently, an high value of the matter parameter density ? m = 0.315±0.017 (±1 ? errors), in agreement with the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. We also present results from several possible extensions of the standard cosmological model, by using astrophysical datasets in addition to the Planck data. None of these models are favored significantly over the standard ?CDM. Using BAO and CMB data, we find N eff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.25 eV for the summed neutrino mass.
Standard and derived Planck quantities: selected analysis and derivations
Jason R. Buzcyna; C. S. Unnikrishnan; George T. Gillies
2010-06-16
We provide an overview of the fundamental units of physical quantities determined naturally by the values of fundamental constants of nature. We discuss a comparison between the 'Planck units', now widely used in theoretical physics and the pre-quantum 'Stoney units' in which, instead of the Planck constant, the charge of the electron is used with very similar quantitative results. We discuss some of the physical motivation for these special units, attributed much after they were introduced, and also put forth a summary of the arguments supporting various cases for making specific physical interpretations of the meanings of some of these units. The new aspects we discuss are a possible physical basis for the Stoney units, their link to the Planck units, and also the importance of Planck units for thermodynamical quantities in the context of quantum gravity.
Precision measurements of Higgs couplings: implications for new physics scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englert, C.; Freitas, A.; Mühlleitner, M. M.; Plehn, T.; Rauch, M.; Spira, M.; Walz, K.
2014-11-01
The measured properties of the recently discovered Higgs boson are in good agreement with predictions from the Standard Model. However, small deviations in the Higgs couplings may manifest themselves once the currently large uncertainties will be improved as part of the LHC program and at a future Higgs factory. We review typical new physics scenarios that lead to observable modifications of the Higgs interactions. They can be divided into two broad categories: mixing effects as in portal models or extended Higgs sectors, and vertex loop effects from new matter or gauge fields. In each model we relate coupling deviations to their effective new physics scale. It turns out that with percent level precision the Higgs couplings will be sensitive to the multi-TeV regime.
A Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2008-01-01
Numerical cloud models, which are based the non-hydrostatic equations of motion, have been extensively applied to cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. Because cloud-scale dynamics are treated explicitly, uncertainties stemming from convection that have to be parameterized in (hydrostatic) large-scale models are obviated, or at least mitigated, in cloud models. Global models will use the non-hydrostatic framework when their horizontal resolution becomes about 10 km, the theoretical limit for the hydrostatic approximation. This juncture will be reached one to two decades from now. In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended cloud-resolving-mode1 integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique.
The Planck Surveyor mission: astrophysical prospects
G. De Zotti; L. Toffolatti; F. Argüeso; R. D. Davies; P. Mazzotta; R. B. Partridge; G. F. Smoot; N. Vittorio
1999-03-27
Although the Planck Surveyor mission is optimized to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, it will also provide extremely valuable information on astrophysical phenomena. We review our present understanding of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds relevant to the mission and discuss on one side, Planck's impact on the study of their properties and, on the other side, to what extent foreground contamination may affect Planck's ability to accurately determine cosmological parameters. Planck's multifrequency surveys will be unique in their coverage of large areas of the sky (actually, of the full sky); this will extend by two or more orders of magnitude the flux density interval over which mm/sub-mm counts of extragalactic sources can be determined by instruments already available (like SCUBA) or planned for the next decade (like the LSA-MMA or the space mission FIRST), which go much deeper but over very limited areas. Planck will thus provide essential complementary information on the epoch-dependent luminosity functions. Bright radio sources will be studied over a poorly explored frequency range where spectral signatures, essential to understand the physical processes that are going on, show up. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, with its extremely rich information content, will be observed in the direction of a large number of rich clusters of Galaxies. Thanks again to its all sky coverage, Planck will provide unique information on the structure and on the emission properties of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy. At the same time, the foregrounds are unlikely to substantially limit Planck's ability to measure the cosmological signals. Even measurements of polarization of the primordial Cosmic Microwave background fluctuations appear to be feasible.
Lattice physics capabilities of the SCALE code system using TRITON
DeHart, M. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, MS 6170, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States)
2006-07-01
This paper describes ongoing calculations used to validate the TRITON depletion module in SCALE for light water reactor (LWR) fuel lattices. TRITON has been developed to provide improved resolution for lattice physics mixed-oxide fuel assemblies as programs to burn such fuel in the United States begin to come online. Results are provided for coupled TRITON/PARCS analyses of an LWR core in which TRITON was employed for generation of appropriately weighted few-group nodal cross-sectional sets for use in core-level calculations using PARCS. Additional results are provided for code-to-code comparisons for TRITON and a suite of other depletion packages in the modeling of a conceptual next-generation boiling water reactor fuel assembly design. Results indicate that the set of SCALE functional modules used within TRITON provide an accurate means for lattice physics calculations. Because the transport solution within TRITON provides a generalized-geometry capability, this capability is extensible to a wide variety of non-traditional and advanced fuel assembly designs. (authors)
Stable mass hierarchies and dark matter from hidden sectors in the scale-invariant standard model
Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2010-08-01
Scale invariance may be a classical symmetry which is broken radiatively. This provides a simple way to stabilize the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking against radiative corrections. But for such a theory to be fully realistic, it must actually incorporate a hierarchy of scales, including the Planck and the neutrino mass scales in addition to the electroweak scale. The dark matter sector and the physics responsible for baryogenesis may or may not require new scales, depending on the scenario. We develop a generic way of using hidden sectors to construct a technically-natural hierarchy of scales in the framework of classically scale-invariant theories. We then apply the method to generate the Planck mass and to solve the neutrino mass and dark matter problems through what may be termed the ''scale-invariant standard model.'' The model is perturbatively renormalizable for energy scales up to the Planck mass.
Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit
2014-06-01
We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small.
SETI at Planck Energy: When Particle Physicists Become Cosmic Engineers
Brian C. Lacki
2015-03-05
What is the meaning of the Fermi Paradox -- are we alone or is starfaring rare? Can general relativity be united with quantum mechanics? The searches for answers to these questions could intersect. It is known that an accelerator capable of energizing particles to the Planck scale requires cosmic proportions. The energy required to run a Planck accelerator is also cosmic, of order 100 M_sun c^2 for a hadron collider, because the natural cross section for Planck physics is so tiny. If aliens are interested in fundamental physics, they could resort to cosmic engineering for their experiments. These colliders are detectable through the vast amount of "pollution" they produce, motivating a YeV SETI program. I investigate what kinds of radiation they would emit in a fireball scenario, and the feasibility of detecting YeV radiation at Earth, particularly YeV neutrinos. Although current limits on YeV neutrinos are weak, Kardashev 3 YeV neutrino sources appear to be at least 30--100 Mpc apart on average, if they are long-lived and emit isotropically. I consider the feasibility of much larger YeV neutrino detectors, including an acoustic detection experiment that spans all of Earth's oceans, and instrumenting the entire Kuiper Belt. Any detection of YeV neutrinos implies an extraordinary phenomenon at work, whether artificial and natural. Searches for YeV neutrinos from any source are naturally commensal, so a YeV neutrino SETI program has value beyond SETI itself, particularly in limiting topological defects. I note that the Universe is very faint in all kinds of nonthermal radiation, indicating that cosmic engineering is extremely rare.
A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2008-01-01
A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. The following is presented in this report: (1) a brief review of the GCE model and its applications on the impact of aerosols on deep precipitation processes, (2) the Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) a discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications).
L. Nottale
1996-01-01
The theory of scale relativity is a new approach to the problem of the origin of fundamental scales and of scaling laws in physics, that consists of generalizing Einstein's principle of relativity (up to now applied to motion laws) to scale transformations. Namely, we redefine space-time resolutions as characterizing the state of scale of the reference system and require that
The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) Questionnaire; Does It Predict Physical Health?
Logan, Samantha L.; Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Maitland, Scott B.; Meegan, Dan; Spriet, Lawrence L.
2013-01-01
A lack of physical activity is common in older adults. With the increasing Canadian senior population, identifying the minimum amount of physical activity required to maintain the health of older adults is essential. This study determined whether relationships existed between the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire scores and health-related measurements in community-dwelling older adults who were meal delivery volunteers. Based on observed relationships between PASE scores and health parameters, the study attempted to predict an optimal PASE score that would ensure health parameters fell in desired ranges for older adults. 297 community-dwelling older adults (61.3% female) 60–88 years (72.1 ± 6.5) completed the PASE and were measured for body composition, cardiovascular and blood parameters, flexibility, and handgrip strength. Significant regression models using PASE were produced for the health-related measures, but the relationships were not meaningful due to low predictive capacity. However, correlational data suggested that a minimum PASE score of ~140 for males and ~120 for females predicted a favorable waist circumference. In conclusion, findings demonstrated that PASE scores cannot be used to predict healthy physical measures, although the relationships between PASE and WC could be used to encourage older adults to become more physically active. PMID:23999546
Planck, LHC, and $?$-attractors
Renata Kallosh; Andrei Linde
2015-03-12
We describe a simple class of cosmological models called $\\alpha$ attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. These theories are most naturally formulated in the context of supergravity with logarithmic Kahler potentials. We develop generalized versions of these models which can describe not only inflation but also dark energy and supersymmetry breaking.
A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2010-01-01
A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems. In addition, high - resolution (spatial. 2km, and temporal, I minute) visualization showing the model results will be presented.
Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8° to 15' are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement (measured by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ? ? ? 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ? range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematicerrors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described. Subsequent analysis of the beams quantifies the importance of asymmetry in the near sidelobes, which was not fully accounted for initially, affecting the 70/100 ratio. Correcting for this, the 70, 100, and 143 GHz power spectra agree to 0.4% over the first two acoustic peaks. The likelihood analysis that produced the 2013 cosmological parameters incorporated uncertainties larger than this. We show explicitly that correction of the missing near sidelobe power in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3? except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1?. We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and find a roughly 2% difference between the Planck and WMAP power spectra in the region of the first acoustic peak.
Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.
O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson
2005-10-01
Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3
Gaussian analyses on PLANCK CMB maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernui, A.
2014-10-01
Extremely precise cosmic background radiation (CMB) data from Planck satellite confirmed the cosmological model ?CDM and established tight constraints for several features of the primary and secondary CMB temperature fluctuations. Possible non-Gaussian (NG) contributions to the CMB field could be originated during (or soon after) primordial cosmic inflation, where the types, scale dependences, and intensities expected depend on the inflationary models. For this, the robust detection -or not- of primordial NG in the CMB signify a unique probe to the early universe, allowing to distinguish between competing models. Recent analyses from Planck CMB data strongly limit the level of NG and show consistency with the Gaussian hypothesis although they do not exclude the presence of weak Gaussian deviations. A problem inherent with the confidence of a positive detection is the possibility that any non-primordial contamination could be mixed with primary contributions leading to qualitative and/or quantitative imprecise detections. A variety of methods are being used to search for different NG signals in CMB data because one does not expect that a single statistical tool can be able to identify all possible forms of Gaussian deviations. Using two directional large-angle NG indicators based on skewness and kurtosis statistical momenta of patches of the CMB sphere, we analyze the three nearly full sky foreground-cleaned Planck maps: smica, nilc, and sevem. Our results show that these foreground-cleaned Planck maps exhibit different levels of NG at large angles, depending on the cut-sky mask used (all of them released by the Planck collaboration). The separation component minimum mask, termed M82, and the U73 mask appear to be equally efficient to Gaussianize all these CMB Planck maps.
Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yalin
Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the interesting physical process is buried between the two contact interfaces, thus makes a direct measurement more difficult. Atomistic simulation is able to simulate the process with the dynamic information of each single atom, and therefore provides valuable interpretations for experiments. In this, we will systematically to apply Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to optimally model the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurement of atomic friction. Furthermore, we also employed molecular dynamics simulation to correlate the atomic dynamics with the friction behavior observed in experiments. For instance, ParRep dynamics (an accelerated molecular dynamic technique) is introduced to investigate velocity dependence of atomic friction; we also employ MD simulation to "see" how the reconstruction of gold surface modulates the friction, and the friction enhancement mechanism at a graphite step edge. Atomic stick-slip friction can be treated as a rate process. Instead of running a direction simulation of the process, we can apply transition state theory to predict its property. We will have a rigorous derivation of velocity and temperature dependence of friction based on the Prandtl-Tomlinson model as well as transition theory. A more accurate relation to prediction velocity and temperature dependence is obtained. Furthermore, we have included instrumental noise inherent in AFM measurement to interpret two discoveries in experiments, suppression of friction at low temperature and the attempt frequency discrepancy between AFM measurement and theoretical prediction. We also discuss the possibility to treat wear as a rate process.
Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tréguer-Goudineau, J.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to be ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5?.Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r< 0.11 (95% CL). The Planck data thus shrink the space of allowed standard inflationary models, preferring potentials with V''< 0. Exponential potential models, the simplest hybrid inflationary models, and monomial potential models of degree n ? 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining dns/ dlnk = - 0.0134 ± 0.0090. We verify these conclusions through a numerical analysis, which makes no slow-roll approximation, and carry out a Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection analysis for a number of inflationary models including monomial, natural, and hilltop potentials. For each model, we present the Planck constraints on the parameters of the potential and explore several possibilities for the post-inflationary entropy generation epoch, thus obtaining nontrivial data-driven constraints. We also present a direct reconstruction of the observable range of the inflaton potential. Unless a quartic term is allowed in the potential, we find results consistent with second-order slow-roll predictions. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit by ??2eff ? 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining power spectrum data with Planck bounds on fNL. Planck constrains with unprecedented accuracy the amplitude and possible correlation (with the adiabatic mode) of non-decaying isocurvature fluctuations. The fractional primordial contributions of cold dark matter (CDM) isocurvature modes of the types expected in the curvaton and axion scenarios have upper bounds of 0.25% and 3.9% (95% CL), respectively. In models with arbitrarily correlated CDM or neutrino isocurvature modes, an anticorrelated isocurvature component can improve the ?2eff by approximately 4 as a result of slightly lowering the theoretical prediction for the ? ? 40 multipoles relative to the higher multipoles. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with adiabatic initial conditions.
Unveiling the most massive Planck clusters at z>0.5 (XMM LP re-observations).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnaud, Monique
2012-10-01
We have been awarded a Large Program in AO11 to gather spatially resolved X ray spectroscopy on a sample of 32 massive (M_500 > 5e+14Msun) clusters detected blindly by Planck in the redshift range 0.5
Planck 2013 results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNLlocal = 2.7 ± 5.8, fNLequil = -42 ± 75, and fNLorth = -25 ± 39 (68% CL statistical). Non-Gaussianity is detected in the data; using skew-C? statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the integrated-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ?CDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C?, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and thus derive constraints on early-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Davies vacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, cs ? 0.02 (95% CL), in an effective field theory parametrization, and the curvaton decay fraction rD ? 0.15 (95% CL). The Planck data significantly limit the viable parameter space of the ekpyrotic/cyclic scenarios. The amplitude of the four-point function in the local model ?NL< 2800 (95% CL). Taken together, these constraints represent the highest precision tests to date of physical mechanisms for the origin of cosmic structure.
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Räth, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates of the CMB that are compared to simulations using a fiducial ?CDM model and incorporating essential aspects of the Planck measurement process. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice, and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3?). However, we find little evidence of non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance in the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist on scales corresponding to about ? = 600 and can be described in the low-? regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial power asymmetry is strongly scale-dependent and does not extend toarbitrarily small angular scales. Finally, it is plausible that some of these features may be reflected in the angular power spectrum of the data, which shows a deficit of power on similar scales. Indeed, when the power spectra of two hemispheres defined by a preferred direction are considered separately, one shows evidence of a deficit in power, while its opposite contains oscillations between odd and even modes that may be related to the parity violation and phase correlations also detected in the data. Although these analyses represent a step forward in building an understanding of the anomalies, a satisfactory explanation based on physically motivated models is still lacking.
A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2010-01-01
A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the ph ysical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems.
Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.; Paykari, P.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.
2014-08-01
Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html.
Quantifying the BICEP2-Planck tension over gravitational waves.
Smith, Kendrick M; Dvorkin, Cora; Boyle, Latham; Turok, Neil; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary; Gold, Ben
2014-07-18
The recent BICEP2 measurement of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (r = 0.2(-0.05)(+0.07)), a possible indication of primordial gravity waves, appears to be in tension with the upper limit from WMAP (r < 0.13 at 95% C.L.) and Planck (r < 0.11 at 95% C.L.). We carefully quantify the level of tension and show that it is very significant (around 0.1% unlikely) when the observed deficit of large-scale temperature power is taken into account. We show that measurements of TE and EE power spectra in the near future will discriminate between the hypotheses that this tension is either a statistical fluke or a sign of new physics. We also discuss extensions of the standard cosmological model that relieve the tension and some novel ways to constrain them. PMID:25083631
Quantifying the BICEP2-Planck Tension over Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kendrick M.; Dvorkin, Cora; Boyle, Latham; Turok, Neil; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary; Gold, Ben
2014-07-01
The recent BICEP2 measurement of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (r =0.2-0.05+0.07), a possible indication of primordial gravity waves, appears to be in tension with the upper limit from WMAP (r<0.13 at 95% C.L.) and Planck (r <0.11 at 95% C.L.). We carefully quantify the level of tension and show that it is very significant (around 0.1% unlikely) when the observed deficit of large-scale temperature power is taken into account. We show that measurements of TE and EE power spectra in the near future will discriminate between the hypotheses that this tension is either a statistical fluke or a sign of new physics. We also discuss extensions of the standard cosmological model that relieve the tension and some novel ways to constrain them.
Planck Oscillators in the Background Dark Energy
Burra G. Sidharth
2009-12-08
We consider a model for an underpinning of the universe: there are oscillators at the Planck scale in the background dark energy. Starting from a coherent array of such oscillators it is possible to get a description from elementary particles to Black Holes including the usual Hawking-Beckenstein theory. There is also a description of Gravitation in the above model which points to a unified description with electromagnetism.
Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quincey, Paul
2013-01-01
The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…
Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research
Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.
2012-03-02
IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.
Quantum Gravity corrections and entropy at the Planck time
Basilakos, Spyros; Vagenas, Elias C. [Research Center for Astronomy and Applied Mathematics, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efessiou 4, GR-11527, Athens (Greece); Das, Saurya, E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.ca, E-mail: evagenas@academyofathens.gr [Theoretical Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta - T1K 3M4 (Canada)
2010-09-01
We investigate the effects of Quantum Gravity on the Planck era of the universe. In particular, using different versions of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle and under specific conditions we find that the main Planck quantities such as the Planck time, length, mass and energy become larger by a factor of order 10?10{sup 4} compared to those quantities which result from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. However, we prove that the dimensionless entropy enclosed in the cosmological horizon at the Planck time remains unchanged. These results, though preliminary, indicate that we should anticipate modifications in the set-up of cosmology since changes in the Planck era will be inherited even to the late universe through the framework of Quantum Gravity (or Quantum Field Theory) which utilizes the Planck scale as a fundamental one. More importantly, these corrections will not affect the entropic content of the universe at the Planck time which is a crucial element for one of the basic principles of Quantum Gravity named Holographic Principle.
Algorithms for the scaling toward nanometer VLSI physical synthesis
Sze, Chin Ngai
2007-04-25
Along the history of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), we have successfully scaled down the size of transistors, scaled up the speed of integrated circuits (IC) and the number of transistors in a chip - these are just a few examples of our...
Neutrinos help reconcile Planck measurements with the local universe.
Wyman, Mark; Rudd, Douglas H; Vanderveld, R Ali; Hu, Wayne
2014-02-01
Current measurements of the low and high redshift Universe are in tension if we restrict ourselves to the standard six-parameter model of flat ?CDM. This tension has two parts. First, the Planck satellite data suggest a higher normalization of matter perturbations than local measurements of galaxy clusters. Second, the expansion rate of the Universe today, H0, derived from local distance-redshift measurements is significantly higher than that inferred using the acoustic scale in galaxy surveys and the Planck data as a standard ruler. The addition of a sterile neutrino species changes the acoustic scale and brings the two into agreement; meanwhile, adding mass to the active neutrinos or to a sterile neutrino can suppress the growth of structure, bringing the cluster data into better concordance as well. For our fiducial data set combination, with statistical errors for clusters, a model with a massive sterile neutrino shows 3.5? evidence for a nonzero mass and an even stronger rejection of the minimal model. A model with massive active neutrinos and a massless sterile neutrino is similarly preferred. An eV-scale sterile neutrino mass--of interest for short baseline and reactor anomalies--is well within the allowed range. We caution that (i) unknown astrophysical systematic errors in any of the data sets could weaken this conclusion, but they would need to be several times the known errors to eliminate the tensions entirely; (ii) the results we find are at some variance with analyses that do not include cluster measurements; and (iii) some tension remains among the data sets even when new neutrino physics is included. PMID:24580585
Physical modeling and analysis of rain and clouds by anisotropic scaling multiplicative processes
Daniel Schertzer; Shaun Lovejoy
1987-01-01
We argue that the basic properties of rain and cloud fields (particularly their scaling and intermittency) are best understood in terms of coupled (anisotropic and scaling) cascade processes. We show how such cascades provide a framework not only for theoretically and empirically investigating these fields, but also for constructing physically based stochastic models. This physical basis is provided by cascade
Planck pre-launch status: The Planck mission
J. A. Tauber; N. Mandolesi; J.-L. Puget; T. Banos; M. Bersanelli; F. R. Bouchet; R. C. Butler; J. Charra; G. Crone; J. Dodsworth; G. Efstathiou; R. Gispert; G. Guyot; A. Gregorio; J. J. Juillet; J.-M. Lamarre; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; T. Passvogel; J. M. Reix; D. Texier; L. Vibert; A. Zacchei; P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; B. Aja; E. Alippi; L. Aloy; P. Armand; M. Arnaud; A. Arondel; A. Arreola-Villanueva; E. Artal; E. Artina; A. Arts; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; M. Azzaro; A. Bacchetta; C. Baccigalupi; M. Baker; M. Balasini; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; G. Barbier; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; P. Battaglia; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; J.-L. Beney; R. Beneyton; K. Bennett; A. Benoit; J.-P. Bernard; P. Bhandari; R. Bhatia; M. Biggi; R. Biggins; G. Billig; Y. Blanc; H. Blavot; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; R. Bond; J. Bonis; J. Borders; J. Borrill; L. Boschini; F. Boulanger; J. Bouvier; M. Bouzit; R. Bowman; E. Bréelle; T. Bradshaw; M. Braghin; M. Bremer; D. Brienza; D. Broszkiewicz; C. Burigana; M. Burkhalter; P. Cabella; T. Cafferty; M. Cairola; S. Caminade; P. Camus; C. M. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; J.-F. Cardoso; R. Carr; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; M. Cesa; M. Chaigneau; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; J. P. Chambelland; M. Charra; L.-Y. Chiang; G. Chlewicki; P. R. Christensen; S. Church; E. Ciancietta; M. Cibrario; R. Cizeron; D. Clements; B. Collaudin; J.-M. Colley; S. Colombi; A. Colombo; F. Colombo; O. Corre; F. Couchot; B. Cougrand; A. Coulais; P. Couzin; B. Crane; B. Crill; M. Crook; D. Crumb; F. Cuttaia; U. Dörl; P. da Silva; R. Daddato; C. Damasio; L. Danese; G. D'Aquino; O. D'Arcangelo; K. Dassas; R. D. Davies; W. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; D. de Chambure; G. de Gasperis; M. L. de La Fuente; P. de Paco; A. de Rosa; G. de Troia; G. de Zotti; M. Dehamme; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; G. di Girolamo; C. Dickinson; E. Doelling; K. Dolag; I. Domken; M. Douspis; D. Doyle; S. Du; D. Dubruel; C. Dufour; C. Dumesnil; X. Dupac; P. Duret; C. Eder; A. Elfving; T. A. Enßlin; K. English; H. K. Eriksen; P. Estaria; M. C. Falvella; F. Ferrari; F. Finelli; A. Fishman; S. Fogliani; S. Foley; A. Fonseca; G. Forma; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; J.-J. Fourmond; M. Frailis; C. Franceschet; E. Franceschi; S. François; M. Frerking; M. F. Gómez-Reñasco; K. M. Górski; T. C. Gaier; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; J. García Lázaro; A. Garnica; M. Gaspard; E. Gavila; M. Giard; G. Giardino; G. Gienger; Y. Giraud-Heraud; J.-M. Glorian; M. Griffin; A. Gruppuso; L. Guglielmi; D. Guichon; B. Guillaume; P. Guillouet; J. Haissinski; F. K. Hansen; J. Hardy; D. Harrison; A. Hazell; M. Hechler; V. Heckenauer; D. Heinzer; R. Hell; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; J. M. Herreros; V. Hervier; A. Heske; A. Heurtel; S. R. Hildebrandt; R. Hills; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; D. Hollert; W. Holmes; A. Hornstrup; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; G. Huey; K. M. Huffenberger; N. Hughes; U. Israelsson; B. Jackson; A. Jaffe; T. R. Jaffe; T. Jagemann; N. C. Jessen; J. Jewell; W. Jones; M. Juvela; J. Kaplan; P. Karlman; F. Keck; E. Keihänen; M. King; T. S. Kisner; P. Kletzkine; R. Kneissl; J. Knoche; L. Knox; T. Koch; M. Krassenburg; H. Kurki-Suonio; A. Lähteenmäki; G. Lagache; E. Lagorio; P. Lami; J. Lande; A. Lange; F. Langlet; R. Lapini; M. Lapolla; A. Lasenby; M. Le Jeune; J. P. Leahy; M. Lefebvre; F. Legrand; G. Le Meur; R. Leonardi; B. Leriche; C. Leroy; P. Leutenegger; S. M. Levin; P. B. Lilje; C. Lindensmith; M. Linden-Vørnle; A. Loc; Y. Longval; P. M. Lubin; T. Luchik; I. Luthold; J. F. Macias-Perez; T. Maciaszek; C. MacTavish; S. Madden; B. Maffei; C. Magneville; D. Maino; A. Mambretti; B. Mansoux; D. Marchioro; M. Maris; F. Marliani; J.-C. Marrucho; J. Martí-Canales; E. Martínez-González; A. Martín-Polegre; P. Martin; C. Marty; W. Marty; S. Masi; M. Massardi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. McDonald; P. McGrath; A. Mediavilla; P. R. Meinhold; J.-B. Mélin; F. Melot; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; C. Mervier; L. Meslier; M. Miccolis; M.-A. Miville-Deschenes; A. Moneti; D. Montet; L. Montier; J. Mora; G. Morgante; G. Morigi; G. Morinaud; N. Morisset; D. Mortlock; S. Mottet; J. Mulder; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Murphy; P. Musi; J. Narbonne; P. Naselsky; A. Nash; F. Nati; P. Natoli; B. Netterfield; J. Newell; M. Nexon; C. Nicolas; P. H. Nielsen; N. Ninane; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; P. Oldeman; P. Olivier; L. Ouchet; C. A. Oxborrow; L. Pérez-Cuevas; L. Pagan; C. Paine; F. Pajot; R. Paladini; F. Pancher; J. Panh; G. Parks; P. Parnaudeau; B. Partridge; B. Parvin; J. P. Pascual; F. Pasian; D. P. Pearson; T. Pearson; M. Pecora; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; O. Piersanti; E. Plaige; S. Plaszczynski; P. Platania; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; L. Popa; G. Poulleau; T. Poutanen
2010-01-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, launched on 14 May 2009, is the third-generation space experiment in the field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity ({{Delta T}over T} 2 × 10-6) and angular resolution ( 5 arcmin). Planck will provide a major source of information
Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.
2013-12-01
Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim of our experiments is to reproduce the instability trigger that occurs in saturated or partially unsaturated conditions depending on the specific characteristics of the soil and its initial conditions; the retention curve of fine sand and the initial porosity are taken into account to highlight the hydrological condition of the surface layer during the trigger occurrence. Through our experimental setup we can investigate the succession of phases and their magnitude that cause the landslide trigger, in order to understand the instability mechanism that heavy rainfall can induce in fine sandy hillslopes. Particular attention is given on the role of water pressure head, not only with respect to the violation of Coulomb failure within a sloping soil, but also with respect to the subsequent deformation that involves the upper hillslope layers. In particular, we report here on the characterization of the sandy terrain used in the experiments and the preliminary results, together with a first discussion of the observed data.
Physical scale modeling to verify energy storage inductor parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zowarka, R. C.
1984-03-01
In the pulse charging and discharging of energy storage inductors, the influence of I2R heating, magnetic diffusion skin depth, and eddy current losses must be evaluated. These effects are not easily treated analytically. To address these problems, the system can be constructed according to goverining scaling laws. The performance of the model can then be evaluated and scaled up to predict actual system performance. The scaling laws as applied to a 10-MJ homopolar generator charging a 2-MJ cryogenic aluminum Brooks coil are presented in this paper. System parameters subsequently measured on the scale model are compared to parameters subsequently measured on the full-size equipment.
Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics
Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey
2010-11-24
The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes a section that describes efforts already underway or planned at NERSC that address requirements collected at the workshop. NERSC has many initiatives in progress that address key workshop findings and are aligned with NERSC's strategic plans.
Evolving desiderata for validating engineered-physics systems without full-scale testing
Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Theory and principles of engineered-physics designs do not change over time, but the actual engineered product does evolve. Engineered components are prescient to the physics and change with time. Parts are never produced exactly as designed, assembled as designed, or remain unperturbed over time. For this reason, validation of performance may be regarded as evolving over time. Desired use of products evolves with time. These pragmatic realities require flexibility, understanding, and robustness-to-ignorance. Validation without full-scale testing involves engineering, small-scale experiments, physics theory and full-scale computer-simulation validation. We have previously published an approach to validation without full-scale testing using information integration, small-scale tests, theory and full-scale simulations [Langenbrunner et al. 2008]. This approach adds value, but also adds complexity and uncertainty due to inference. We illustrate a validation example that manages evolving desiderata without full-scale testing.
On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palle, D.
2014-04-01
The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit the large and small scale TT power spectrum, the scalar power index smaller than unity, and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion can account for small-scale-large-scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negative, and it can therefore provide partial cancellation of the large-scale power of the TT CMB spectrum. The observed violation of the isotropy appears as a natural ingredient of the Einstein-Cartan model caused by the spin densities of light Majorana neutrinos in the early stage of the evolution of the Universe and bound to the lepton CP violation and matter-antimatter asymmetry.
On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data
Davor Palle
2014-05-14
The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit large and small scale TT power spectrum, scalar power index smaller than one and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB, urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion, can account for small scale - large scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negative, thus it can provide partial cancellation of the large scale power of the TT CMB spectrum. The observed violation of the isotropy appears as a natural ingredient of the Einstein-Cartan model caused by the spin densities of light Majorana neutrinos in the early stage of the evolution of the Universe and bound to the lepton CP violation and matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Global scale, physical models of the F region ionospere
J. J. Sojka
1989-01-01
During the last decade, ionospheric F region modeling has reached an accurate climatological level. We now have global computer models of the F region which simulate the interactions between physical processes in the ionosphere. Because of their complexity, these climatological models are confined to modern day supercomputers. This review focuses on the development and verification of these physical ionospheric models.
Physical meaning of one-machine and multimachine tokamak scalings
Dnestrovskij, Yu. N., E-mail: dnyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation); Ongena, J. [Euratom-Belgium State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium)] [Euratom-Belgium State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium)
2013-04-15
Specific features of energy confinement scalings constructed using different experimental databases for tokamak plasmas are considered. In the multimachine database, some pairs of engineering variables are collinear; e.g., the current I and the input power P both increase with increasing minor radius a. As a result, scalings derived from this database are reliable only for discharges in which such ratios as I/a{sup 2} or P/a{sup 2} are close to their values averaged over the database. The collinearity of variables allows one to exclude the normalized Debye radius d* from the scaling expressed in a nondimensional form. In one-machine databases, the dimensionless variables are functionally dependent, which allow one to cast a scaling without d*. In a database combined from two devices, the collinearity may be absent, so the Debye radius cannot generally be excluded from the scaling. It is shown that the experiments performed in support of the absence of d* in the two-machine scaling are unconvincing. Transformation expressions are given that allow one to compare experiments for the determination of scaling in any set of independent variables.
Goldstein, R.M.; Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Short, T.M.
2007-01-01
The environmental setting (e.g., climate, topography, geology) and land use affect stream physical characteristics singly and cumulatively. At broad geographic scales, we determined the importance of environmental setting and land use in explaining variation in stream physical characteristics. We hypothesized that as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, land use would explain more of the variation in stream physical characteristics because environmental settings become more homogeneous. At a national scale, stepwise linear regression indicated that environmental setting was more important in explaining variability in stream physical characteristics. Although statistically discernible, the amount of variation explained by land use was not remarkable due to low partial correlations. At level II ecoregion spatial scales (southeastern USA plains, central USA plains, and a combination of the western Cordillera and the western interior basins and ranges), environmental setting variables were again more important predictors of stream physical characteristics, however, as the spatial scale decreased from national to regional, the portion of variability in stream physical characteristics explained by basin land use increased. Development of stream habitat indicators of land use will depend upon an understanding of relations between stream physical characteristics and environmental factors at multiple spatial scales. Smaller spatial scales will be necessary to reduce the confounding effects of variable environmental settings before the effects of land use can be reliably assessed. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006.
Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ili?, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.
2014-11-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25?. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (?8) derived from CMB data and that derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich data. The Planck and WMAP power spectra are offset from each other by an average level of about 2% around the first acoustic peak. Analysis of Planck polarization data is not yet mature, therefore polarization results are not released, although the robust detection of E-mode polarization around CMB hot and cold spots is shown graphically.
Channel Meander Migration in Large-Scale Physical Model Study
Yeh, Po Hung
2010-10-12
A set of large-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study channel meander migration. Factors affecting the migration of banklines, including the ratio of curvature to channel width, bend angle, and the Froude number were tested...
Underpinning the universe: its scales, holography and fractality
Antonio Alfonso-Faus; Marius Josep Fullana i Alfonso
2012-01-23
We expand on the general concept of a universe. We identify physics as a unit applied to a universe. Then we generalize the concept of a quantum black hole, and apply it to the unit of a universe. We find that only one parameter, the Pin, is needed to define all its physical properties. Here we present three significant quantum black holes, three scales: Planck's, sub- Planck and our own universe as a whole. Then we revise the holographic and fractal properties, and propose a sequential growing process to explain the evolution and the basic structure of our universe.
Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck
Dhiraj Kumar Hazra; Arman Shafieloo; George F. Smoot
2014-01-03
With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectrum. Using the publicly available code BINGO, we numerically calculate the local $f_{\\rm NL}$ for this model in equilateral and arbitrary triangular configurations of wavevectors and show that the obtained non-Gaussianity for this model is consistent with Planck results. In this paper we have also considered different spectral tilts at different bins to identify the cosmological scale that the spectral index needs to have a red tilt and it is interesting to report that spectral index cannot be well constrained up to $k \\sim 0.01~ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$.
Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.
2013-12-01
With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectrum. Using the publicly available code BINGO, we numerically calculate the local fNL for this model in equilateral and arbitrary triangular configurations of wavevectors and show that the obtained non-Gaussianity for this model is consistent with Planck results. In this paper we have also considered different spectral tilts at different bins to identify the cosmological scale that the spectral index needs to have a red tilt and it is interesting to report that spectral index cannot be well constrained up to k ? 0.01Mpc-1.
Radial Fokker-Planck model for plasmas confined by magnetic mirror fields
Futch, A.H.
1986-05-01
A time-dependent computer model has been developed for the spatially dependent distribution function f(r,v,t). An orbit averaged Fokker-Planck equation treats Coulomb collisions and various atomic physics processes. The motivation for the present code is to provide an accurate treatment of gyro-radius effects and realistic beam geometries which have been neglected in previous Fokker-Planck codes. Finite width beams may be offset from the plasma center to determine beam injection for build-up studies. The inclusion of a finite gyro-radius is essential for studying radial transport due to both quasilinear fluctuations and charge exchange collisions. Charge exchange with energetic beam atoms and plasma erosion due to charge-exchange collisions with thermal gas are both included. Quasilinear diffusion terms include the effects of turbulent diffusion in the model. The model has been used to study particle and energy confinement times in the 2XIIB experiment and in the mirror plug of the TMX experiment. Calculated values of T/sub e/ decrease from classical Fokker-Planck values (1000 eV for 2XIIB) to the 50 eV to 200 eV range observed in 2XIIB and TMX experiments. Radial density profiles and n tau scaling with plasma radius and magnetic field agree with experimental data.
PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanusse, F.; Paykari, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.; Rassat, A.
2014-11-01
Aims: The primordial power spectrum describes the initial perturbations that seeded the large-scale structure we observe today. It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this Letter, we recover the primordial power spectrum from the Planck PR1 dataset, using our recently published algorithm PRISM. Methods: PRISM is a sparsity-based inversion method that aims at recovering features in the primordial power spectrum from the empirical power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This ill-posed inverse problem is regularised using a sparsity prior on features in the primordial power spectrum in a wavelet dictionary. Although this non-parametric method does not assume a strong prior on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, it is able to recover both its general shape and localised features. As a results, this approach presents a reliable way of detecting deviations from the currently favoured scale-invariant spectrum. Results: We applied PRISM to 100 simulated Planck data to investigate its performance on Planck-like data. We then applied PRISM to the Planck PR1 power spectrum to recover the primordial power spectrum. We also tested the algorithm's ability to recover a small localised feature at k ~ 0.125 Mpc-1, which caused a large dip at ? ~ 1800 in the angular power spectrum. Conclusions: We find no significant departures from the fiducial Planck PR1 near scale-invariant primordial power spectrum with As = 2.215 × 10-9 and ns = 0.9624.
A simulation pipeline for the Planck mission
Martin Reinecke; Klaus Dolag; Reinhard Hell; Matthias Bartelmann; Torsten Ensslin
2005-08-24
We describe an assembly of numerical tools to model the output data of the Planck satellite. These start with the generation of a CMB sky in a chosen cosmology, add in various foreground sources, convolve the sky signal with arbitrary, even non-symmetric and polarised beam patterns, derive the time ordered data streams measured by the detectors depending on the chosen satellite-scanning strategy, and include noise signals for the individual detectors and electronic systems. The simulation products are needed to develop, verify, optimise, and characterise the accuracy and performance of all data processing and scientific analysis steps of the Planck mission, including data handling, data integrity checking, calibration, map making, physical component separation, and power spectrum estimation. In addition, the simulations allow detailed studies of the impact of many stochastic and systematic effects on the scientific results. The efficient implementation of the simulation allows the build-up of extended statistics of signal variances and co-variances. Although being developed specifically for the Planck mission, it is expected that the employed framework as well as most of the simulation tools will be of use for other experiments and CMB-related science in general.
The physical basis of glacier volume-area scaling
David B. Bahr; Mark F. Meier; Scott D. Peckham
1997-01-01
Ice volumes are known for only a few of the roughly 160,000 glaciers worldwide but are important components of many climate and sea level studies which require water flux estimates. A scaling analysis of the mass and momentum conservation equations shows that glacier volumes can be related by a power law to more easily observed glacier surface areas. The relationship
Innovative dimensional metrology of meso-scale physics targets.
Sebring, R. J. (Robert J.); Reinovsky, R. E. (Robert E.); Edwards, J. M. (John M.); Nobile, A. (Arthur), Jr.; Anderson, W. E. (Wallace E.); Olson, R. E. (Richard E.)
2002-01-01
For Indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF): (1) Shock timing measurement and predictive capabilities must be accurate to - 100 ps. (2) Ablator burn through measurement and predictive capabilities must be accurate to -5%. How accurate are our present capabilities? As a first step, we are using planar ablator samples in 'square pulse' Omega halfraum experiments to validate our measurement and predictive capabilities and our understanding of indirect-drive ablator physics issues.
Planck 2015 results. XXII. A map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect
Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lacasa, F; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We have constructed all-sky y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 30 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck satellite survey. These reconstructed y-maps are delivered as part of the Planck 2015 release. The y-maps are characterised in terms of noise properties and residual foreground contamination, mainly thermal dust emission at large angular scales and CIB and extragalactic point sources at small angular scales. Specific masks are defined to minimize foreground residuals and systematics. Using these masks we compute the y-map angular power spectrum and higher order statistics. From these we conclude that the y-map is dominated by tSZ signal in the multipole range, 20-600. We compare the measured tSZ power spectrum and higher order statistics to various physically motivated models and discuss the implications of our results in terms of cluster physics and cosmology.
New porous medium Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for strongly oscillating electric potentials
Markus Schmuck
2012-09-28
We consider the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system which is well-accepted for describing dilute electrolytes as well as transport of charged species in homogeneous environments. Here, we study these equations in porous media whose electric permittivities show a contrast compared to the electric permittivity of the electrolyte phase. Our main result is the derivation of convenient low-dimensional equations, that is, of effective macroscopic porous media Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, which reliably describe ionic transport. The contrast in the electric permittivities between liquid and solid phase and the heterogeneity of the porous medium induce strongly oscillating electric potentials (fields). In order to account for this special physical scenario, we introduce a modified asymptotic multiple-scale expansion which takes advantage of the nonlinearly coupled structure of the ionic transport equations. This allows for a systematic upscaling resulting in a new effective porous medium formulation which shows a new transport term on the macroscale. Solvability of all arising equations is rigorously verified. This emergence of a new transport term indicates promising physical insights into the influence of the microscale material properties on the macroscale. Hence, systematic upscaling strategies provide a source and a prospective tool to capitalize intrinsic scale effects for scientific, engineering, and industrial applications.
Crocodile Head Scales Are Not Developmental Units But Emerge from Physical Cracking
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michel C. Milinkovitch (University of Geneva, Sciences III, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland; Laboratory of Artificial and Natural Evolution (LANE), Department of Genetics and Evolution)
2012-11-29
In most amniotes, keratinized structures like scales, hair, and feathers are formed from primordia, developmental nodes distributed in a predictable pattern. In their Report, Milinkovitch and colleagues show that the scales on the face and jaws of crocodiles do not develop in a predictable pattern but instead are the result of a physical cracking process.
Vacuum Polarization in High Energy Physics: (MZ) and at ILC scale 1. Introduction
Röder, Beate
Vacuum Polarization in High Energy Physics: (MZ) and at ILC scale 1. Introduction 2. (MZ. The running electric charge at high energies 179-1 #12;Physics of vacuum polarization ... 1. Introduction Non" (E) (charge screening by vacuum polarization) Of particular interest: (MZ) and aµ (g - 2)µ/2 (mµ
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong
2014-01-01
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs satisfaction in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education, PNSSPE). Junior secondary school (grades 7 to 9) students (N?=?1,258) were invited to…
An ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock
Mark J. Mescher; R. Lutwak; Mathew Varghese
2005-01-01
We report the design and measured thermal and mechanical performance of an ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC). This physics package enables communications and navigation systems that require a compact, low-power atomic frequency standard. The physics package includes a unique combination of thermal isolation, mechanical stability and robustness, and small package volume. We have demonstrated temperature control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojha, Richa; Govindaraju, Rao S.
2015-07-01
Scaling relationships are needed as measurements and desired predictions are often not available at concurrent spatial support volumes or temporal discretizations. Surface soil moisture values of interest to hydrologic studies are estimated using ground based measurement techniques or utilizing remote sensing platforms. Remote sensing based techniques estimate field-scale surface soil moisture values, but are unable to provide the local-scale soil moisture information that is obtained from local measurements. Further, obtaining field-scale surface moisture values using ground-based measurements is exhaustive and time consuming. To bridge this scale mismatch, we develop analytical expressions for surface soil moisture based on sharp-front approximation of the Richards equation and assumed log-normal distribution of the spatial surface saturated hydraulic conductivity field. Analytical expressions for field-scale evolution of surface soil moisture to rainfall events are utilized to obtain aggregated and disaggregated response of surface soil moisture evolution with knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. The utility of the analytical model is demonstrated through numerical experiments involving 3-D simulations of soil moisture and Monte-Carlo simulations for 1-D renderings—with soil moisture dynamics being represented by the Richards equation in each instance. Results show that the analytical expressions developed here show promise for a principled way of scaling surface soil moisture.
Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.
Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Laboratoire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I. (Icarus Research, Bethesda, MD); Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Vigil, Marcelino Patricio
2008-09-01
A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we compare this to cylindrical array results in the context of a K-shell yield scaling model. We have also performed an initial study of compact 3 mm diameter cylindrical wire arrays, which are alternate candidates for a multi-pinch vacuum hohlraum concept. These massive 3.4 and 6 mg/cm loads may have been impacted by opacity, producing a maximum x-ray power of 7 TW at 4.5 MA, 45 ns. Future research directions in compact x-ray sources are discussed.
On brane-world black holes and short scale physics
Roberto Casadio
2003-04-10
There is evidence that trans-Planckian physics does not affect the Hawking radiation in four dimensions and, consequently, deviations from the linear dispersion relation (for massless particles) at very high energies cannot be revealed using four-dimensional black holes. We study this issue in the context of models with extra spatial dimensions and show that small black holes that could be produced in accelerators might also provide a chance of testing the high energy regime where non-linear dispersion relations are generally expected.
Countability of Planck Boxes in Quantum Branching Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, Alexander A.
2002-04-01
Two popular paradigms of cosmological quantum branching are Many World (MW) model of parallel universes (Everett, Deutsch) and inflationary quantum foam (IQF) model (Guth, Linde). Taking Planck L,T units as physically smallest, our Big Bang miniverse with size 10E28 cm and duration 10E18 sec has some 10E244 (N) elementary 4D Planck Boxes (PB) in its entire spacetime history. Using combinatorics, N! (about 10E10E247) is upper estimate for number of all possible 4D states, i.e. scale of "eternal return" (ER; Nietzsche, Eliade) for such miniverses. To count all states in full Megaverse (all up and down branches of infinite tree of all MW and/or IQF miniverses) we recall that all countable infinities have same (aleph-naught) cardinality (Cantor). Using Godel-type numbering, count PB in our miniverse by primes. This uses first N primes. Both MW and IQF models presume splitting of miniverses as springing (potentially) from each PB, making each PB infinitely rich, inexhaustible and unique. Next branching level is counted by integers p1Ep2, third level by p1Ep2Ep3 integers, etc, ad infinitum. To count in up and down directions from "our" miniverse, different branching subsets of powers of primes can be used at all levels of tower exponentiation. Thus, all PB in all infinitude of MW and/or IQF branches can be uniquely counted by never repeating integers (tower exponents of primes), offering escape from grim ER scenarios.
Effects of pore-scale physics on uranium geochemistry in Hanford sediments
Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.
2013-11-25
Overall, this work examines a key scientific issue, mass transfer limitations at the pore-scale, using both new instruments with high spatial resolution, and new conceptual and modeling paradigms. The complementary laboratory and numerical approaches connect pore-scale physics to macroscopic measurements, providing a previously elusive scale integration. This Exploratory research project produced five peer-reviewed journal publications and eleven scientific presentations. This work provides new scientific understanding, allowing the DOE to better incorporate coupled physical and chemical processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship.
Michael Frewer; George Khujadze; Holger Foysi
2014-12-06
A detailed theoretical investigation is given which demonstrates that a recently proposed statistical scaling symmetry is physically void. Although this scaling is mathematically admitted as a unique symmetry transformation by the underlying statistical equations for incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence on the level of the functional Hopf equation, by closer inspection, however, it leads to physical inconsistencies and erroneous conclusions in the theory of turbulence. The new statistical symmetry is thus misleading in so far as it forms within an unmodelled theory an analytical result which at the same time lacks physical consistency. Our investigation will expose this inconsistency on different levels of statistical description, where on each level we will gain new insights for its non-physical transformation behavior. With a view to generate invariant turbulent scaling laws, the consequences will be finally discussed when trying to analytically exploit such a symmetry. In fact, a mismatch between theory and numerical experiment is conclusively quantified. We ultimately propose a general strategy on how to not only track unphysical statistical symmetries, but also on how to avoid generating such misleading invariance results from the outset. All the more so as this specific study on a physically inconsistent scaling symmetry only serves as a representative example within the broader context of statistical invariance analysis. In this sense our investigation is applicable to all areas of statistical physics in which symmetries get determined in order to either characterize complex dynamical systems, or in order to extract physically useful and meaningful information from the underlying dynamical process itself.
A measurement of the Planck constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petley, B. W.; Kibble, B. P.; Hartland, A.
1987-06-01
The advent of the Josephson effects and the more recently discovered quantized Hall resistance1 has led to rapid progress in the measurement of certain combinations of the fundamental constants, so much so that the realization of the electrical units has increasingly limited our knowledge of the value of many of the fundamental physical constants (E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor2). We deduce a value for the Planck constant of 6.626 0688(37)×10-34 Js from the results of the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) quantum Hall and Josephson effect measurements, and the NPL moving coil realization of the electric watt. This value is comparable with the 1986 set of values recommended by CODATA, and so confirms our understanding of the physics of condensed matter and atomic spectroscopy. Its accuracy is capable of further improvement.
Planck early results. XXII. The submillimetre properties of a sample of Galactic cold clumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Doi, Y.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ikeda, N.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Malinen, J.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Meny, C.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pagani, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Toth, V.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
We perform a detailed investigation of sources from the Cold Cores Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO). Our goal is to probe the reliability of the detections, validate the separation between warm and cold dust emission components, provide the first glimpse at the nature, internal morphology and physical characterictics of the Planck-detected sources. We focus on a sub-sample of ten sources from the C3PO list, selected to sample different environments, from high latitude cirrus to nearby (150pc) and remote (2kpc) molecular complexes. We present Planck surface brightness maps and derive the dust temperature, emissivity spectral index, and column densities of the fields. With the help of higher resolution Herschel and AKARI continuum observations and molecular line data, we investigate the morphology of the sources and the properties of the substructures at scales below the Planck beam size. The cold clumps detected by Planck are found to be located on large-scale filamentary (or cometary) structures that extend up to 20pc in the remote sources. The thickness of these filaments ranges between 0.3 and 3pc, for column densities NH2 ~ 0.1 to 1.6 × 1022 cm-2, and with linear mass density covering a broad range, between 15 and 400 M? pc-1. The dust temperatures are low (between 10 and 15K) and the Planck cold clumps correspond to local minima of the line-of-sight averaged dust temperature in these fields. These low temperatures are confirmed when AKARI and Herschel data are added to the spectral energy distributions. Herschel data reveal a wealth of substructure within the Planck cold clumps. In all cases (except two sources harbouring young stellar objects), the substructures are found to be colder, with temperatures as low as 7K. Molecular line observations provide gas column densities which are consistent with those inferred from the dust. The linewidths are all supra-thermal, providing large virial linear mass densities in the range 10 to 300 M? pc-1, comparable within factors of a few, to the gas linear mass densities. The analysis of this small set of cold clumps already probes a broad variety of structures in the C3PO sample, probably associated with different evolutionary stages, from cold and starless clumps, to young protostellar objects still embedded in their cold surrounding cloud. Because of the all-sky coverage and its sensitivity, Planck is able to detect and locate the coldest spots in massive elongated structures that may be the long-searched for progenitors of stellar clusters. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgCorresponding author: I. Ristorcelli, e-mail: isabelle.ristorcelli@irap.omp.eu
Probing TeV scale physics in precision UCN decays
Rajan Gupta; Tanmoy Bhattacharya; Anosh Joseph; Saul D. Cohen; Huey-Wen Lin
2014-03-11
We present the calculation of matrix elements of iso-vector scalar, axial and tensor charges between a neutron and a proton state on dynamical $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration using valence clover fermions. These matrix elements are needed to probe novel scalar and tensor interactions in neutron beta-decay that can arise in extensions to the Standard Model at the TeV scale. Results are presented at one value of the lattice spacing, $a=0.12$ fm, and two values of light quarks corresponding to $M_\\pi=310$ and $220$ MeV. We discuss two sources of systematic errors, contribution of excited states to these matrix elements and the renormalization constants, and the efficacy of methods used to control them.
Seismic-Scale Rock Physics of Methane Hydrate
Amos Nur
2009-01-08
We quantify natural methane hydrate reservoirs by generating synthetic seismic traces and comparing them to real seismic data: if the synthetic matches the observed data, then the reservoir properties and conditions used in synthetic modeling might be the same as the actual, in-situ reservoir conditions. This approach is model-based: it uses rock physics equations that link the porosity and mineralogy of the host sediment, pressure, and hydrate saturation, and the resulting elastic-wave velocity and density. One result of such seismic forward modeling is a catalogue of seismic reflections of methane hydrate which can serve as a field guide to hydrate identification from real seismic data. We verify this approach using field data from known hydrate deposits.
In, Through and Beyond the Planck Scale
Leonardo Modesto; Isabeau Prémont-Schwarz
2009-10-31
In this paper we have recalled the semiclassical metric obtained from a classical analysis of the loop quantum black hole (LQBH). We show that the regular Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-like metric is self-dual in the sense of T-duality: the form of the metric is invariant under the exchange r -> a0/r where a0 is proportional to the minimum area in LQG. Of particular interest, the symmetry imposes that if an observer at infinity sees a black hole of mass m an observer in the other asymptotic infinity beyond the horizon (near r=0) sees a dual mass proportional to m_P^2/m. We then show that small LQBHs are stable and could be a component of dark matter. Ultra-light LQBHs created shortly after the Big Bang would now have a mass of approximately 10^(-5) m_P and emit radiation with a typical energy of about 10^(13) - 10^(14) eV but they would also emit cosmic rays of much higher energies, albeit few of them. If these small LQBHs form a majority of the dark matter of the Milky Way's Halo, the production rate of ultra-high-energy-cosmic-rays (UHECR) by these ultra light black holes would be compatible with the observed rate of the Auger detector.
Universal Landau Pole at the Planck scale
Andrianov, Alexander A. [V.A.Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia and Departament ECM and Insitut de Ciencies del Cosmos(ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Espriu, Domenec [Departament ECM and Insitut de Ciencies del Cosmos(ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Kurkov, Maxim A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli, Italia and Departament ECM and Insitut de Ciencies del Cosmos(ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Italy)
2014-07-23
The concept of quantum gravity entails that the usual geometry loses its meaning at very small distances and therefore the grand unification of all gauge interactions with the property of asymptotic freedom happens to be questionable. We propose an unification of all gauge interactions in the form of an “Universal Landau Pole” (ULP), at which all gauge couplings diverge (or, better to say, become very strong). We show that the Higgs quartic coupling also substantially increases whereas the Yukawa couplings tend to zero. Such a singular (or strong coupling) unification is obtained after adding to the Standard Model matter more fermions with vector gauge couplings and hypercharges identical to the SM fermions. The influence of new particles also may prevent the Higgs quartic coupling from crossing zero, thus avoiding the instability (or metastability) of the SM vacuum. As well this fermion pattern opens a way to partially solve the hierarchy problem between masses of quarks and leptons.
Planck scale inflationary spectra from quantum gravity
Alberghi, Gian Luigi [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Department of Astronomy, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Casadio, Roberto; Tronconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)
2006-11-15
We derive the semiclassical evolution of massless minimally coupled scalar matter in the de Sitter space-time from the Born-Oppenheimer reduction of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We show that the dynamics of trans-Planckian modes can be cast in the form of an effective modified dispersion relation and that high energy corrections in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation produced during inflation remain very small if the initial state is the Bunch-Davies vacuum.
Some Aspects of Planck Scale Quantum Optics
Kourosh Nozari
2005-08-11
This paper considers the effects of gravitational induced uncertainty on some well-known quantum optics issues. First we will show that gravitational effects at quantum level destroy the notion of harmonic oscillations. Then it will be shown that, although it is possible(at least in principle) to have complete coherency and vanishing broadening in usual quantum optics, gravitational induced uncertainty destroys complete coherency and it is impossible to have a monochromatic ray. We will show that there is an additional wave packet broadening due to quantum gravitational effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hong-yi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, L. Ruby; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu
2014-11-01
Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible co-dependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations must account for both the physics of flow in heterogeneous landscapes, and the co-dependence of soil and topographic properties with climate, including possibly the mediating role of vegetation.
Ali, Melkamu; Ye, Sheng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Maoyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Fiori, Aldo; Sivapalan, Murugesu
2014-07-19
Subsurface stormflow is an important component of the rainfall-runoff response, especially in steep forested regions. However; its contribution is poorly represented in current generation of land surface hydrological models (LSMs) and catchment-scale rainfall-runoff models. The lack of physical basis of common parameterizations precludes a priori estimation (i.e. without calibration), which is a major drawback for prediction in ungauged basins, or for use in global models. This paper is aimed at deriving physically based parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship relating to subsurface flow. These parameterizations are derived through a two-step up-scaling procedure: firstly, through simulations with a physically based (Darcian) subsurface flow model for idealized three dimensional rectangular hillslopes, accounting for within-hillslope random heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties, and secondly, through subsequent up-scaling to the catchment scale by accounting for between-hillslope and within-catchment heterogeneity of topographic features (e.g., slope). These theoretical simulation results produced parameterizations of the storage-discharge relationship in terms of soil hydraulic properties, topographic slope and their heterogeneities, which were consistent with results of previous studies. Yet, regionalization of the resulting storage-discharge relations across 50 actual catchments in eastern United States, and a comparison of the regionalized results with equivalent empirical results obtained on the basis of analysis of observed streamflow recession curves, revealed a systematic inconsistency. It was found that the difference between the theoretical and empirically derived results could be explained, to first order, by climate in the form of climatic aridity index. This suggests a possible codependence of climate, soils, vegetation and topographic properties, and suggests that subsurface flow parameterization needed for ungauged locations must account for both the physics of flow in heterogeneous landscapes, and the co-dependence of soil and topographic properties with climate, including possibly the mediating role of vegetation.
Physical Analysis and Scaling of a Jet and Vortex Actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lachowicz, Jason T.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Joslin, Ronald D.
2004-01-01
Our previous studies have shown that the Jet and Vortex Actuator generates free-jet, wall-jet, and near- wall vortex flow fields. That is, the actuator can be operated in different modes by simply varying the driving frequency and/or amplitude. For this study, variations are made in the actuator plate and wide-slot widths and sine/asymmetrical actuator plate input forcing (drivers) to further study the actuator induced flow fields. Laser sheet flow visualization, particle- image velocimetry, and laser velocimetry are used to measure and characterize the actuator induced flow fields. Laser velocimetry measurements indicate that the vortex strength increases with the driver repetition rate for a fixed actuator geometry (wide slot and plate width). For a given driver repetition rate, the vortex strength increases as the plate width decreases provided the wide-slot to plate-width ratio is fixed. Using an asymmetric plate driver, a stronger vortex is generated for the same actuator geometry and a given driver repetition rate. The nondimensional scaling provides the approximate ranges for operating the actuator in the free jet, wall jet, or vortex flow regimes. Finally, phase-locked velocity measurements from particle image velocimetry indicate that the vortex structure is stationary, confirming previous computations. Both the computations and the particle image velocimetry measurements (expectantly) show unsteadiness near the wide-slot opening, which is indicative of mass ejection from the actuator.
Rotating space elevators: Physics of celestial scale spinning strings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Steven; Golubovi?, Leonardo
2014-11-01
We explore classical and statistical mechanics of a novel dynamical system, the Rotating Space Elevator (RSE) (L. Golubovi?, S. Knudsen, EPL 86, 34001 (2009)). The RSE is a double rotating floppy string reaching extraterrestrial locations. Objects sliding along the RSE string (climbers) do not require internal engines or propulsion to be transported far away from the Earth's surface. The RSE thus solves a major problem in space elevator science, which is how to supply energy to the climbers moving along space elevator strings. The RSE can be made in various shapes that are stabilized by an approximate equilibrium between the gravitational and inertial forces acting in a double rotating frame associated with the RSE. This dynamical equilibrium is achieved by a special ("magical") form of the RSE mass line density derived in this paper. The RSE exhibits a variety of interesting dynamical phenomena explored here by numerical simulations. Thanks to its special design, the RSE exhibits everlasting double rotating motion. Under some conditions, however, we find that the RSE may undergo a morphological transition to a chaotic state reminiscent of fluctuating directed polymers in the realm of the statistical physics of strings and membranes.
Spectator field models in light of spectral index after Planck
Kobayashi, Takeshi [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide, E-mail: takeshi@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp, E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2013-10-01
We revisit spectator field models including curvaton and modulated reheating scenarios, specifically focusing on their viability in the new Planck era, based on the derived expression for the spectral index in general spectator field models. Importantly, the recent Planck observations give strong preference to a red-tilted power spectrum, while the spectator field models tend to predict a scale-invariant one. This implies that, during inflation, either (i) the Hubble parameter varies significantly as in chaotic inflation, or (ii) a scalar potential for the spectator field has a relatively large negative curvature. Combined with the tight constraint on the non-Gaussianity, the Planck data provides us with rich implications for various spectator field models.
An introduction to inflation after Planck: from theory to observations
Clesse, Sebastien
2015-01-01
These lecture notes have been written for a short introductory course on the status of inflation after Planck and BICEP2, given at the Xth Modave School of Mathematical Physics. The first objective is to give an overview of the theory of inflation: motivations, homogeneous scalar field dynamics, slow-roll approximation, linear theory of cosmological perturbations, classification of single field potentials and their observable predictions. This includes a pedagogical derivation of the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra for any effective single field potential. The second goal is to present the most recent results of Planck and BICEP2 and to discuss their implications for inflation. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced as a tool for model analysis and comparison. Based on the recent work of J. Martin et al., the best inflationary models after Planck and BICEP2 are presented. Finally a series of open questions and issues related to inflation are mentioned and briefly discussed.
An introduction to inflation after Planck: from theory to observations
Sebastien Clesse
2015-01-02
These lecture notes have been written for a short introductory course on the status of inflation after Planck and BICEP2, given at the Xth Modave School of Mathematical Physics. The first objective is to give an overview of the theory of inflation: motivations, homogeneous scalar field dynamics, slow-roll approximation, linear theory of cosmological perturbations, classification of single field potentials and their observable predictions. This includes a pedagogical derivation of the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra for any effective single field potential. The second goal is to present the most recent results of Planck and BICEP2 and to discuss their implications for inflation. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced as a tool for model analysis and comparison. Based on the recent work of J. Martin et al., the best inflationary models after Planck and BICEP2 are presented. Finally a series of open questions and issues related to inflation are mentioned and briefly discussed.
Higgs vacuum stability and inflationary dynamics after BICEP2 and PLANCK dust polarisation data
Kaushik Bhattacharya; Joydeep Chakrabortty; Suratna Das; Tanmoy Mondal
2014-11-17
If the recent detection of $B-$mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background by BICEP2 observations, withstand the test of time after the release of recent PLANCK dust polarisation data, then it would surprisingly put the inflationary scale near Grand Unification scale if one considers single-field inflationary models. On the other hand, Large Hadron Collider has observed the elusive Higgs particle whose presently observed mass can lead to electroweak vacuum instability at high scale $(\\sim{\\mathcal O}(10^{10})$ GeV). In this article, we seek for a simple particle physics model which can simultaneously keep the vacuum of the theory stable and yield high-scale inflation successfully. To serve our purpose, we extend the Standard Model of particle physics with a $U(1)_{B-L}$ gauged symmetry which spontaneously breaks down just above the inflationary scale. Such a scenario provides a constrained parameter space where both the issues of vacuum stability and high-scale inflation can be successfully accommodated. The threshold effect on the Higgs quartic coupling due to the presence of the heavy inflaton field plays an important role in keeping the electroweak vacuum stable. Furthermore, this scenario is also capable of reheating the universe at the end of inflation. Though the issues of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, which dominate the late-time evolution of our universe, cannot be addressed within this framework, this model successfully describes the early universe dynamics according to the Big Bang model.
Higgs vacuum stability and inflationary dynamics after BICEP2 and PLANCK dust polarisation data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Das, Suratna; Mondal, Tanmoy
2014-12-01
If the recent detection of B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background by BICEP2 observations, withstand the test of time after the release of recent PLANCK dust polarisation data, then it would surprisingly put the inflationary scale near Grand Unification scale if one considers single-field inflationary models. On the other hand, Large Hadron Collider has observed the elusive Higgs particle whose presently observed mass can lead to electroweak vacuum instability at high scale (~ Script O(1010) GeV). In this article, we seek for a simple particle physics model which can simultaneously keep the vacuum of the theory stable and yield high-scale inflation successfully. To serve our purpose, we extend the Standard Model of particle physics with a U(1)B-L gauged symmetry which spontaneously breaks down just above the inflationary scale. Such a scenario provides a constrained parameter space where both the issues of vacuum stability and high-scale inflation can be successfully accommodated. The threshold effect on the Higgs quartic coupling due to the presence of the heavy inflaton field plays an important role in keeping the electroweak vacuum stable. Furthermore, this scenario is also capable of reheating the universe at the end of inflation. Though the issues of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, which dominate the late-time evolution of our universe, cannot be addressed within this framework, this model successfully describes the early universe dynamics according to the Big Bang model.
The dark energy scale in superconductors: Innovative theoretical and experimental concepts
Christian Beck; Clovis Jacinto de Matos
2008-04-24
We revisit the cosmological constant problem using the viewpoint that the observed value of dark energy density in the universe actually represents a rather natural value arising as the geometric mean of two vacuum energy densities, one being extremely large and the other one being extremely small. The corresponding mean energy scale is the Planck-Einstein scale l_PE = (l_P l_E)^1/2 = (hbar G/ c^3 Lambda)^1/4 ~ 0.037 mm, a natural scale both for dark energy and the physics of superconductors. We deal with the statistics of quantum fluctuations underlying dark energy in superconductors and consider a scale transformation from the Planck scale to the Planck-Einstein scale which leaves the quantum physics invariant. Our approach unifies various experimentally confirmed or conjectured effects in superconductors into a common framework: Cutoff of vacuum fluctuation spectra, formation of Tao balls, anomalous gravitomagnetic fields, non-classical inertia, and time uncertainties in radioactive superconductors. We propose several new experiments which may further elucidate the role of the Planck-Einstein scale in superconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nottale, L.
1996-06-01
The theory of scale relativity is a new approach to the problem of the origin of fundamental scales and of scaling laws in physics, that consists of generalizing Einstein's principle of relativity to scale transformations. The author recalls in the present review paper how the development of the theory is intrinsically linked to the concept of fractal space-time, and how it allows one to recover quantum mechanics as mechanics on such a non-differentiable space-time, in which the Schrödinger equation is demonstrated as a geodesics equation. He recalls that the standard quantum behavior is obtained, however, as a manifestation of a "Galilean" version of the theory, while the application of the principle of relativity to linear scale laws leads to the construction of a theory of special scale relativity, in which there appears impassable, minimal and maximal scales, invariant under dilations. The theory is then applied to its preferential domains of applications, namely very small and very large length- and time-scales, i.e. high energy physics, cosmology and chaotic systems.
Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ? = 2000. The parameter constraints on ?CDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about ? = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (?< -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of ?> -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.
Visible sector inflation and the right thermal history in light of Planck data
Wang, Lingfei; Pukartas, Ernestas; Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2013-07-01
Inflation creates perturbations for the large scale structures in the universe, but it also dilutes everything. Therefore it is pertinent that the end of inflation must explain how to excite the Standard Model dof along with the dark matter. In this paper we will briefly discuss the role of visible sector inflaton candidates which are embedded within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and discuss their merit on how well they match the current data from the Planck. Since the inflaton carries the Standard Model charges their decay naturally produces all the relevant dof with no dark/hidden sector radiation and no isocurvature fluctuations. We will first discuss a single supersymmetric flat direction model of inflation and demonstrate what parameter space is allowed by the Planck and the LHC. We will also consider where the perturbations are created by another light field which decays after inflation, known as a curvaton. The late decay of the curvaton can create observable non-Gaussianity. In the end we will discuss the role of a spectator field whose origin may not lie within the visible sector physics, but its sheer presence during inflation can still create all the perturbations responsible for the large scale structures including possible non-Gaussianity, while the inflaton is embedded within the visible sector which creates all the relevant matter including dark matter, but no dark radiation.
Physical aspects of a length scale for the Gulf Stream Front
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Timothy W.
1983-07-01
A discussion is presented of the physical interpretation of the length scale, ?, introduced in a recent paper by Kao and Cheney (1982) to scale the sea surface height anomaly across the Gulf Stream front. Additional results of sea-surface height anomaly profiles computed from the hydrographic data from Fuglister's GULF STREAM 60 are also included. In all cases the width of the anomaly is spanned rather precisely by 2?. The relationship between ? and the internal Rossby radius of deformation ?s is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (? < 60), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (? > 500) the clustered cosmic infrared background and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We thus measure the tSZ power spectrum over angular scales 0.17° ? ? ? 3.0° that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with clear evidence of additional signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on ?8.
Kazuya Koyama; Guido Walter Pettinari; Shuntaro Mizuno; Christian Fidler
2014-10-20
In this note, we study cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity in DBI galileon models in which an induced gravity term is added to the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action. In this model, the non-Gaussianity of orthogonal shape can be generated. We provide a relation between theoretical parameters and orthogonal/equilateral non-linear parameters using the Fisher matrix approach for the CMB bispectrum. In doing so, we include the effect of the CMB transfer functions and experimental noise properties by employing the recently developed \\textsf{SONG} code. The relation is also shown in the language of effective theory so that it can be applied to general single-field models. Using the bispectrum Fisher matrix and the central values for equilateral and orthogonal non-Gaussianities found by the Planck temperature survey, we provide forecasts on the theoretical parameters of the DBI galileon model. We consider the upcoming Planck polarisation data and the proposed post-Planck experiments COrE and PRISM. We find that Planck polarisation measurements may provide a hint for a non-canonical sound speed at the 68% confidence level. COrE and PRISM will not only confirm a non-canonical sound speed but also exclude the conventional DBI inflation model at more than the 95% and 99% confidence level respectively, assuming that the central values will not change. This indicates that improving constraints on non-Gaussianity further by future CMB experiments is invaluable to constrain the physics of the early universe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koyama, Kazuya; Pettinari, Guido Walter; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Fidler, Christian
2014-06-01
In this paper, we study cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity in Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) galileon models in which an induced gravity term is added to the DBI action. In this model, the non-Gaussianity of orthogonal shape can be generated. We provide a relation between theoretical parameters and orthogonal/equilateral nonlinear parameters using the Fisher matrix approach for the CMB bispectrum. In doing so, we include the effect of the CMB transfer functions and experimental noise properties by employing the recently developed second order non-Gaussianity code. The relation is also shown in the language of effective theory so that it can be applied to general single-field models. Using the bispectrum Fisher matrix and the central values for equilateral and orthogonal non-Gaussianities found by the Planck temperature survey, we provide forecasts on the theoretical parameters of the DBI galileon model. We consider the upcoming Planck polarization data and the proposed post-Planck experiments Cosmic Origins Explore (COrE) and Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (PRISM). We find that Planck polarization measurements may provide a hint for a non-canonical sound speed at the 68% confidence level. COrE and PRISM will not only confirm a non-canonical sound speed but also exclude the conventional DBI inflation model at more than the 95% and 99% confidence level respectively, assuming that the central values will not change. This indicates that improving constraints on non-Gaussianity further by future CMB experiments is invaluable to constrain the physics of the early universe.
Planck pre-launch status: The Planck-LFI programme
N. Mandolesi; M. Bersanelli; R. C. Butler; E. Artal; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; K. Bennett; P. Bhandari; A. Bonaldi; J. Borrill; M. Bremer; C. Burigana; R. C. Bowman; P. Cabella; C. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; T. Courvoisier; G. Crone; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; O. D'Arcangelo; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; L. de Angelis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Troia; G. de Zotti; J. Dick; C. Dickinson; J. M. Diego; S. Donzelli; U. Dörl; X. Dupac; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; M. C. Falvella; F. Finelli; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; T. Gaier; S. Galeotta; F. Gasparo; G. Giardino; F. Gomez; J. Gonzalez-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. Hansen; R. Hell; D. Herranz; J. M. Herreros; S. Hildebrandt; W. Hovest; R. Hoyland; K. Huffenberger; M. Janssen; T. Jaffe; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. Kisner; H. Kurki-Suonio; A. Lähteenmäki; C. R. Lawrence; S. M. Leach; J. P. Leahy; R. Leonardi; S. Levin; P. B. Lilje; M. López-Caniego; S. R. Lowe; P. M. Lubin; D. Maino; M. Malaspina; M. Maris; J. Marti-Canales; E. Martinez-Gonzalez; M. Massardi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Meinhold; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; G. Morigi; N. Morisset; A. Moss; A. Nash; P. Natoli; R. Nesti; C. Paine; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; T. Passvogel; D. Pearson; L. Pérez-Cuevas; F. Perrotta; G. Polenta; L. A. Popa; T. Poutanen; G. Prezeau; M. Prina; J. P. Rachen; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; G. Rocha; N. Roddis; R. Rohlfs; J. A. Rubiño-Martin; E. Salerno; M. Sandri; D. Scott; M. Seiffert; J. Silk; A. Simonetto; G. F. Smoot; C. Sozzi; J. Sternberg; F. Stivoli; L. Stringhetti; J. Tauber; L. Terenzi; M. Tomasi; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; L. Valenziano; J. Varis; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. Wade; M. White; S. White; A. Wilkinson; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2010-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) programme within the ESA Planck mission. The LFI instrument has been developed to produce high precision maps of the microwave sky at frequencies in the range 27-77 GHz, below the peak of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum. The scientific goals are described, ranging from fundamental cosmology to
Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; M. Baker; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; P. Bhandari; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borders; J. Borrill; B. Bowman; T. Bradshaw; E. Bréelle; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; P. Cabella; C. M. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; J. P. Chambelland; J. Charra; M. Charra; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; B. Collaudin; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; M. Crook; F. Cuttaia; C. Damasio; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; K. Dolag; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; C. Filliard; F. Finelli; S. Foley; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; J.-J. Fourmond; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; E. Gavila; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; G. Guyot; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; A. Hornstrup; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; U. Israelsson; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; P. Lami; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; A. Lavabre; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Lee; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; T. Maciaszek; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; P. McGehee; P. R. Meinhold; A. Melchiorri; F. Melot; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; J. Mora; G. Morgante; N. Morisset; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; A. Nash; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; D. Pearson; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; P. Platania; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; M. Prina; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; P. Stassi; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; L. Valenziano; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; A. Wilkinson; B. D. Wandelt; C. Watson; S. D. M. White; P. Wilson; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; B. Zhang; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20 K for LFI and 0.1 K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency coverage led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie
P. Murdin
2000-01-01
Founded by the Senate of the Max Planck Society in 1967, it is one of 68 Max-Planck-Institutes in Germany. The Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie has its headquarters in Heidelberg, where new buildings were erected between 1971 and 1975 on a 5.2 hectare site alongside the State Observatory....
Psychometric Properties of the “Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)” Adapted to Physical Education
Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J. Arturo
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (?2/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (?2/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (?2/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key Points Physical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported. Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish. Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772
Psychometric Properties of the "Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)" Adapted to Physical Education.
Granero-Gallegos, Antonio; Baena-Extremera, Antonio; Gómez-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Abraldes, J Arturo
2014-12-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale adapted to physical education. A second aim was to test which one of three hypothesized models (three, five and seven-factor) provided best model fit. 758 Spanish high school students completed the Sport Motivation Scale adapted for Physical Education and also completed the Learning and Performance Orientation in Physical Education Classes Questionnaire. We examined the factor structure of each model using confirmatory factor analysis and also assessed internal consistency and convergent validity. The results showed that all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model (?(2)/gl = 2.73; ECVI = 1.38) as it produces better values when adapted to physical education, that five-factor model (?(2)/gl = 2.82; ECVI = 1.44) and three-factor model (?(2)/gl = 3.02; ECVI = 1.53). Key PointsPhysical education research conducted in Spain has used the version of SMS designed to assess motivation in sport, but validity reliability and validity results in physical education have not been reported.Results of the present study lend support to the factorial validity and internal reliability of three alternative factor structures (3, 5, and 7 factors) of SMS adapted to Physical Education in Spanish.Although all three models in Spanish produce good indicators of fitness, but we suggest using the seven-factor model. PMID:25435772
N. Mandolesi; M. Bersanelli; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; G. De Zotti; F. Finelli; A. Gruppuso; S. Matarrese; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; P. Natoli; F. Pasian; M. Sandri; L. Terenzi; F. Villa; A. Zacchei; E. Artal; C. Baccigalupi; A. Banday; K. Bennett; P. Bhandari; A. Bonaldi; M. Bremer; B. Cappellini; T. Courvoisier; G. Crone; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; O. DArcangelo; R. Davies; R. Davis; L. De Angelis; G. C. De Gasperis; T. Ensslin; M. C. Falvella; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; T. Gaier; S. Galeotta; F. Gasparo; J. Gonzalez-Nuevo; K. Gorski; A. Gregorio; R. Hell; D. Herranz; J. M. Herreros; W. Hovest; R. Hoyland; M. Janssen; E. Keihanen; H. Kurki-Suonio; A. Lahteenmaki; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; P. Leahy; R. Leonardi; S. Levin; P. B. Lilje; S. Lowe; P. M. Lubin; D. Maino; M. Malaspina; M. Maris; J. Marti-Canales; E. Martinez-Gonzalez; F. T. Matthai; P. Meinhold; L. Mendes; G. Morigi; N. Morrisset; A. Nash; R. Nesti; C. Paine; B. Partridge; D. Pearson; L. Peres-Cuevas; F. Perrotta; L. A. Popa; T. Poutanen; M. Prina; J. Rachen; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; G. Rocha; N. Roddis; J. A. Rubino; D. Scott; M. Seiffert; J. Silk; A. Simonetto; G. F. Smoot; C. Sozzi; J. Sternberg; L. Stringhetti; J. Tauber; M. Tomasi; J. Tuovinen; M. Turler; D. Uwe; L. Valenziano; J. Varis; P. Vielva; N. Vittorio; L. Wade; S. White; A. Wilkinson; A. Zonca
Context. This paper provides an overview of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) programme within the ESA Planck mission. Aims. The LFI instrument has been developed to produce high precision maps of the microwave sky at frequencies in the 27÷77 GHz range, below the peak of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation spectrum. Methods. The scientific goals are described, ranging from
Richard Ibbitt; Ross Woods
2004-01-01
The assignment of hydrological model parameters from physically measurable catchment attributes remains an unsolved problem. Several authors have shown that for the hydrological model, TOPMODEL, there is a relationship between the scale of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the saturated hydraulic conductivity parameter used to calculate water table position and baseflow. For models that use DEM data from pixels
Form C: to be completed by the patient PHYSICAL SELF MAINTENANCE SCALE (PSMS)
Oliver, Douglas L.
Form C: to be completed by the patient PHYSICAL SELF MAINTENANCE SCALE (PSMS) Circle the number you? 1 3. Do you take care of your own appearance, things like combing your hair, shaving (for men) a. without help, 3 b. with some help, or 2 c. does someone do these things for your 1 4. Do you get around
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oncu, Erman
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Education Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers (PEAS-PCT). The study was conducted on 561 Turkish preservice classroom teachers at the end of the 2011-2012 Fall Semester. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain the…
Soil physical properties of agricultural systems in a large-scale study
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A large-scale field study was performed to determine the effects of agricultural management systems on soil physical properties, including their spatial and temporal variations. Replicates were established in 1998 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems, Goldsboro, North Carolina; replicates...
A statistical physics view of financial fluctuations: Evidence for scaling and universality
H. Eugene Stanley; Vasiliki Plerou; Xavier Gabaix
2008-01-01
The unique scaling behavior of financial time series have attracted the research interest of physicists. Variables such as stock returns, share volume, and number of trades have been found to display distributions that are consistent with a power-law tail. We present an overview of recent research joining practitioners of economic theory and statistical physics to try to understand better some
Physical Education Teacher Attitudes toward Fitness Tests Scale: Cross-Revalidation and Modification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keating, Xiaofen D.; Guan, Jianmin; Ferguson, Robert H.; Chen, Li; Bridges, Dwan M.
2008-01-01
This study aimed to provide further evidence of validity and reliability for the Physical Education Teacher Attitudes toward Fitness Tests Scale (PETAFTS), which consisted of affective and cognitive domains. There were two subdomains in the affective domain (i.e., enjoyment of implementing fitness tests and enjoyment of using test results) and one…
Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Ermioni S. Katartzi; Maria G. Kontou; Frederiki C. Moustaka; Marios Goudas
2011-01-01
ObjectivesGiven instances of less than optimal internal consistency levels of the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale when applied to school-based physical education (PE), the aim of the study was to examine the psychometrics of a revised PLOC instrument for use in PE.
Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education Activities Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Memis, Ugur Altay
2013-01-01
This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…
Primordial power spectrum from Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun
2014-11-01
Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2? C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.
Scaling Properties of Rainfall-Induced Landslides Predicted by a Physically Based Model
Alvioli, M; Rossi, M
2013-01-01
Natural landslides exhibit scaling properties, including the frequency of the size of the landslides, and the rainfall conditions responsible for landslides. Reasons for the scaling behavior of landslides are poorly known, and only a few attempts were made to describe the empirical evidences of the self-similar scaling behavior of landslides with physically based models. We investigate the possibility of using the TRIGRS code, a consolidated, physically motivated, numerical model to describe the stability conditions of natural slopes forced by rainfall, to determine the frequency of the area of the unstable slopes and the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) conditions that result in landslides in a region.We apply TRIGRS in a portion of the Upper Tiber River Basin, Central Italy. The spatially distributed model predicts the stability conditions of individual grid cells, given the terrain and rainfall conditions. We run TRIGRS using multiple rainfall histories, and we compare the results to empirical evidences o...
Planck intermediate results. IV. The XMM-Newton validation programme for new Planck galaxy clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borgani, S.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Brown, M. L.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; González-Riestra, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Liddle, A.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Stanford, A.; Stivoli, F.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2013-02-01
We present the final results from the XMM-Newton validation follow-up of new Planck galaxy cluster candidates. We observed 15 new candidates, detected with signal-to-noise ratios between 4.0 and 6.1 in the 15.5-month nominal Planck survey. The candidates were selected using ancillary data flags derived from the ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) and Digitized Sky Survey all-sky maps, with the aim of pushing into the low SZ flux, high-z regime and testing RASS flags as indicators of candidate reliability. Fourteen new clusters were detected by XMM-Newton, ten single clusters and two double systems. Redshifts from X-ray spectroscopy lie in the range 0.2 to 0.9, with six clusters at z > 0.5. Estimated masses (M500) range from 2.5 × 1014 to 8 × 1014 M?. We discuss our results in the context of the full XMM-Newton validation programme, in which 51 new clusters have been detected. This includes four double and two triple systems, some of which are chance projections on the sky of clusters at different redshifts. We find thatassociation with a source from the RASS-Bright Source Catalogue is a robust indicator of the reliability of a candidate, whereas association with a source from the RASS-Faint Source Catalogue does not guarantee that the SZ candidate is a bona fide cluster. Nevertheless, most Planck clusters appear in RASS maps, with a significance greater than 2? being a good indication that the candidate is a real cluster. Candidate validation from association with SDSS galaxy overdensity at z > 0.5 is also discussed. The full sample gives a Planck sensitivity threshold of Y500 ~ 4 × 10-4 arcmin2, with indication for Malmquist bias in the YX-Y500 relation below this threshold. The corresponding mass threshold depends on redshift. Systems with M500 > 5 × 1014 M? at z > 0.5 are easily detectable with Planck. The newly-detected clusters follow the YX-Y500 relation derived from X-ray selected samples. Compared to X-ray selected clusters, the new SZ clusters have a lower X-ray luminosity on average for their mass. There is no indication of departure from standard self-similar evolution in the X-ray versus SZ scaling properties. In particular, there is no significant evolution of the YX / Y500 ratio.
Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; R.-R. Chary; L.-Y. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; C. Dickinson; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; F. Finelli; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; A. Lähteenmäki; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; S. Madden; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; M. Peel; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; J. Varis; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
The all-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR\\/submm wavelengths over which they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these
Number theory as the ultimate physical theory
Igor V. Volovich
2010-01-01
At the Planck scale doubt is cast on the usual notion of space-time and one cannot think about elementary particles. Thus,\\u000a the fundamental entities of which we consider our Universe to be composed cannot be particles, fields or strings. In this\\u000a paper the numbers are considered as the fundamental entities. We discuss the construction of the corresponding physical theory.\\u000a A
Comparing Planck and WMAP: Maps, Spectra, and Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.
2015-03-01
We examine the consistency of the 9 yr WMAP data and the first-release Planck data. We specifically compare sky maps, power spectra, and the inferred ? cold dark matter (?CDM) cosmological parameters. Residual dipoles are seen in the WMAP and Planck sky map differences, but their amplitudes are consistent within the quoted uncertainties, and they are not large enough to explain the widely noted differences in angular power spectra at higher l. We remove the residual dipoles and use templates to remove residual Galactic foregrounds; after doing so, the residual difference maps exhibit a quadrupole and other large-scale systematic structure. We identify this structure as possibly originating from Planck’s beam sidelobe pick-up, but note that it appears to have insignificant cosmological impact. We develop an extension of the internal linear combination technique to find the minimum-variance difference between the WMAP and Planck sky maps; again we find features that plausibly originate in the Planck data. Lacking access to the Planck time-ordered data we cannot further assess these features. We examine ?CDM model fits to the angular power spectra and conclude that the ?2.5% difference in the spectra at multipoles greater than l? 100 is significant at the 3–5? level, depending on how beam uncertainties are handled in the data. We revisit the analysis of WMAP’s beam data to address the power spectrum differences and conclude that previously derived uncertainties are robust and cannot explain the power spectrum differences. In fact, any remaining WMAP errors are most likely to exacerbate the difference. Finally, we examine the consistency of the ?CDM parameters inferred from each data set taking into account the fact that both experiments observe the same sky, but cover different multipole ranges, apply different sky masks, and have different noise. We find that, while individual parameter values agree within the uncertainties, the six parameters taken together are discrepant at the ?6? level, with {? }2}=56 for 6 degrees of freedom (probability to exceed, PTE = 3× {{10}-10}). The nature of this discrepancy is explored: of the six parameters, {{? }2} is best improved by marginalizing over {{{?}c}{{h}2}, giving {? }2}=5.2 for 5 degrees of freedom. As an exercise, we find that perturbing the WMAP window function by its dominant beam error profile has little effect on {{{?}c}{{h}2}, while perturbing the Planck window function by its corresponding error profile has a much greater effect on {{?}c}{{h}2}.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heesch, K. C.; Masse, L. C.; Dunn, A. L.
2006-01-01
Studies suggest that enjoyment, perceived benefits and perceived barriers may be important mediators of physical activity. However, the psychometric properties of these scales have not been assessed using Rasch modeling. The purpose of this study was to use Rasch modeling to evaluate the properties of three scales commonly used in physical…
The stability of polysiloxanes incorporating nano-scale physical property modifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewicki, James P.; Patel, Mogon; Morrell, Paul; Liggat, John; Murphy, Julian; Pethrick, Richard
2008-04-01
Reported here is the synthesis and subsequent characterization of the physical and chemical properties of novel polysiloxane elastomers modified with a series of polyhedraloligomericsilsequioxane (POSS) molecular silicas. The physical properties of the formulated nanocomposite systems have been characterized with a combination of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and confocal Raman microscopy. The results of the physical property characterization demonstrate that the incorporation of low levels (1-4% by wt.) of POSS particles into the polysiloxane network leads to significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the elastomer and significantly alters the motional chain dynamics of the system as a whole. The results of studies performed to assess the long-term stability of these novel nanocomposite systems have demonstrated that POSS physical property modifiers can significantly alter the thermal stability of polysiloxane elastomers. Physically dispersed POSS has also been shown in some cases to be both mobile and disruptive within the polysiloxane networks, agglomerating into domains on a micron scale and migrating to the surface of the elastomers. This work demonstrates both the potential of POSS nanoparticles as physical property modifiers and describes the effects of POSS on the physical and chemical stability of polysiloxane systems.
Planck component separation with Commander
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kathrine Wehus, Ingunn
2013-04-01
I will give a brief overview of the Bayesian component separation technique used by Planck to derive astrophysical foreground components. Starting from an explicit parametric model of the data and corresponding priors, we use a statistical technique called Gibbs sampling to map out the full joint posterior distribution given full-sky multi-frequency observations. This process leads to a set of well-defined component maps with associated uncertainties and goodness-of-fit statistics. For Planck alone, we derive maps of the CMB, CO, thermal dust and a joint low-frequency component (synchrotron, free-free and spinning dust), while when including external data (WMAP, Haslam etc.) even more detailed models can be considered. I will comment on how these new products compare with previously published results.
Planck early results. XIV. ERCSC validation and extreme radio sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Angelakis, E.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Huynh, M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavonen, N.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mingaliev, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nestoras, I.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nieppola, E.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Riquelme, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Savolainen, P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Sievers, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Sotnikova, Y.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tammi, J.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Turunen, M.; Umana, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
Planck's all-sky surveys at 30-857 GHz provide an unprecedented opportunity to follow the radio spectra of a large sample of extragalactic sources to frequencies 2-20 times higher than allowed by past, large-area, ground-based surveys. We combine the results of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalog (ERCSC) with quasi-simultaneous ground-based observations as well as archival data at frequencies below or overlapping Planck frequency bands, to validate the astrometry and photometry of the ERCSC radio sources and study the spectral features shown in this new frequency window opened by Planck. The ERCSC source positions and flux density scales are found to be consistent with the ground-based observations. We present and discuss the spectral energy distributions of a sample of "extreme" radio sources, to illustrate the richness of the ERCSC for the study of extragalactic radio sources. Variability is found to play a role in the unusual spectral features of some of these sources. Corresponding author: B. Partridge, e-mail: bpartrid@haverford.edu
Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps
Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Castex, G; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...
Microphysics in the Multi-Scale Modeling Systems with Unified Physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Chern, J.; Lamg, S.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Zeng, X.; Shi, R.
2011-01-01
In recent years, exponentially increasing computer power has extended Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) integrations from hours to months, the number of computational grid points from less than a thousand to close to ten million. Three-dimensional models are now more prevalent. Much attention is devoted to precipitating cloud systems where the crucial 1-km scales are resolved in horizontal domains as large as 10,000 km in two-dimensions, and 1,000 x 1,000 km2 in three-dimensions. Cloud resolving models now provide statistical information useful for developing more realistic physically based parameterizations for climate models and numerical weather prediction models. It is also expected that NWP and mesoscale model can be run in grid size similar to cloud resolving model through nesting technique. Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (l) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, the microphysics developments of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the results from using multi-scale modeling system to study the heavy precipitation processes will be presented.
Planck early results. XXII. The submillimetre properties of a sample of Galactic cold clumps
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; F. Boulanger; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; C. M. Cantalupo; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; C. Dickinson; Y. Doi; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; E. Falgarone; F. Finelli; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; N. Ikeda; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; Y. Kitamura; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; J. Malinen; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; D. J. Marshall; P. Martin; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; P. McGehee; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; C. Meny; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; F. Nati; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; L. Pagani; F. Piacentini; R. Paladini; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; V.-M. Pelkonen; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; V. Toth; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; N. Ysard; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
We perform a detailed investigation of sources from the Cold Cores Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO). Our goal is to probe the reliability of the detections, validate the separation between warm and cold dust emission components, provide the first glimpse at the nature, internal morphology and physical characterictics of the Planck-detected sources. We focus on a sub-sample of ten sources
Scaling and correlation of human movements in cyberspace and physical space.
Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Liu, Huan; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2014-11-01
Understanding the dynamics of human movements is key to issues of significant current interest such as behavioral prediction, recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and analyze big data sets of human movements in both cyberspace (through browsing of websites) and physical space (through mobile towers) and find a superlinear scaling relation between the mean frequency of visit ?f? and its fluctuation ?:???f?^{?} with ??1.2. The probability distribution of the visiting frequency is found to be a stretched exponential function. We develop a model incorporating two essential ingredients, preferential return and exploration, and show that these are necessary for generating the scaling relation extracted from real data. A striking finding is that human movements in cyberspace and physical space are strongly correlated, indicating a distinctive behavioral identifying characteristic and implying that the behaviors in one space can be used to predict those in the other. PMID:25493727
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanco-Vogt, A.; Schanze, J.
2014-08-01
There are various approaches available for assessing the flood vulnerability and damage to buildings and critical infrastructure. They cover pre- and post-event methods for different scales. However, there can hardly be found any method that allows for a large-scale pre-event assessment of the built structures with a high resolution. To make advancements in this respect, the paper presents, first, a conceptual framework for understanding the physical flood susceptibility of buildings and, second, a methodological framework for its assessment. The latter ranges from semi-automatic extraction of buildings, mainly from remote sensing with a subsequent classification and systematic characterisation, to the assessment of the physical flood susceptibility on the basis of depth-impact functions. The work shows results of the methodology's implementation and testing in a settlement of the city of Magangué, along the Magdalena River in Colombia.
Hybrid MD-Nernst Planck model of ?-hemolysin conductance properties
Ioana Cozmuta; James T. OKeeffe; Deepak Bose; Viktor Stolc
2005-01-01
Motivated by experiments in which an applied electric field translocates polynucleotides through an ?-hemolysin protein channel causing ionic current transient blockade, a hybrid simulation model is proposed to predict the conductance properties of the open channel. Time scales corresponding to ion permeation processes are reached using the Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) electro-diffusion model in which both solvent and local ion concentrations are
Materials Science and Physics at Micro/Nano-Scales. FINAL REPORT
Wu, Judy Z
2009-09-07
The scope of this project is to study nanostructures of semiconductors and superconductors, which have been regarded as promising building blocks for nanoelectronic and nanoelectric devices. The emphasis of this project is on developing novel synthesis approaches for fabrication of nanostructures with desired physical properties. The ultimate goal is to achieve a full control of the nanostructure growth at microscopic scales. The major experimental achievements obtained are summarized
PREDICTING WILDLAND FIRE BEHAVIOR AND EMISSIONS USING A FINE-SCALE PHYSICAL MODEL
B. Porterie; J. L. Consalvi; A. Kaiss; J. C. Loraud
2005-01-01
A physical fine-scale two-phase model has been developed for the purpose of determining wildland fire behavior and emissions. The situation modeled corresponds to a spreading wildfire driven by wind through a fuel bed of combustible elements. The numerical model solves a set of time-dependent conservation Equations for both phases (the gas and the vegetation elements) coupled through exchange terms. It
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kammel, L.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Massa, D.; Bratovich, P.; Johnson, T.
2012-12-01
Currently accepted perception assumes Oncorhynchus mykiss prefer different ranges of similar physical habitat elements for spawning than Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), taking into account their difference in size. While there is increasing research interest regarding O. mykiss habitat use and migratory behavior, research conducted to date distinguishing the physical habitat conditions utilized for O. mykiss spawning has not provided quantified understanding of their spawning habitat preferences. The purpose of this study was to use electivity indices and other measures to assess the physical habitat characteristics preferred for O. mykiss spawning in terms of both 1-m scale microhabitat attributes, and landforms at different spatial scales from 0.1-100 times channel width. The testbed for this study was the 37.5-km regulated gravel-cobble Lower Yuba River (LYR). Using spatially distributed 2D hydrodynamic model results, substrate mapping, and a census of O. mykiss redds from two years of observation, micro- and meso-scale representations of physical habitat were tested for their ability to predict spawning habitat preference and avoidance. Overall there was strong stratification of O. mykiss redd occurrence for all representation types of physical habitat. A strong preference of hydraulic conditions was shown for mean water column velocities of 1.18-2.25 ft/s, and water depths of 1.25-2.76 ft. There was a marked preference for the two most upstream alluvial reaches of the LYR (out of 8 total reaches), accounting for 92% of all redds observed. The preferred morphological units (MUs) for O. mykiss spawning were more variable than for Chinook salmon and changed with increasing discharge, demonstrating that O. mykiss shift spawning to different MUs in order to utilize their preferred hydraulic conditions. The substrate range preferred for O. mykiss spawning was within 32-90 mm. Overall, O. mykiss spawning behavior was highly predictable and required a holistic blend of hydraulic and geomorphic representations to explain.
Qiaosheng Shu; Zuoxin Liu; Bingcheng Si
2008-01-01
Understanding the correlation between soil hydraulic parameters and soil physical properties is a prerequisite for the prediction of soil hydraulic properties from soil physical properties. Th e objective of this study was to examine the scale- and location-dependent correlation between two water retention parameters (? and n) in the van Genuchten (1980) function and soil physical properties (sand content, bulk
Monroe, Christopher
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 89, 022317 (2014) Large-scale modular quantum-computer architecture with atomic.-M. Duan,5 and J. Kim4 1 Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland Department of Physics and National Institute of Standards and Technology, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Department of Physics
High-Fidelity Lattice Physics Capabilities of the SCALE Code System Using TRITON
DeHart, Mark D [ORNL
2007-01-01
Increasing complexity in reactor designs suggests a need to reexamine of methods applied in spent-fuel characterization. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as space reactors and Generation IV power reactors also require calculational methods that provide accurate prediction of the isotopic inventory. New high-fidelity physics methods will be required to better understand the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light-water reactor designs. The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for reactor physics analysis. This paper provides a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations.
Impact of Physical Principles at Very High Energy Scales on the Superparticle Mass Spectrum
Baer, Howard W; Quintana, P; Tata, Xerxes; Baer, Howard; Diaz, Marco; Quintana, Pamela; Tata, Xerxes
2000-01-01
We survey a variety of proposals for new physics at high scales that serve torelate the multitude of soft supersymmetry breaking parameters of the MSSM. Wefocus on models where the new physics results in non-universal soft parameters,in sharp contrast with the usually assumed mSUGRA framework. These include (i)SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified (GUT) models, (ii) the MSSM plus a right-handedneutrino, (iii) models with effective supersymmetry, (iv) models withanomaly-mediated SUSY breaking and gaugino mediated SUSY breaking, (v) modelswith non-universal soft terms due to string dynamics, and (vi) models based on$M$-theory. We outline the physics behind these models, point out somedistinctive features of the weak scale sparticle spectrum, and allude toimplications for collider experiments. To facilitate future studies, for eachof these scenarios, we describe how collider events can be generated using theprogram ISAJET. Our hope is that detailed studies of a variety of alternativeswill help point to the physics unde...
Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
The all-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR/submm wavelengths over which they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these data. We match the ERCSC catalogue to IRAS-detected galaxies in the Imperial IRAS Faint Source Redshift Catalogue (IIFSCz), so that we can measure the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these objects from 60 to 850?m. This produces a list of 1717 galaxies with reliable associations between Planck and IRAS, from which we select a subset of 468 for SED studies, namely those with strong detections in the three highest frequency Planck bands and no evidence of cirrus contamination. The SEDs are fitted using parametric dust models to determine the range of dust temperatures and emissivities. We find evidence for colder dust than has previously been found in external galaxies, with T < 20K. Such cold temperatures are found using both the standard single temperature dust model with variable emissivity ?, or a two dust temperature model with ? fixed at 2. We also compare our results to studies of distant submm galaxies (SMGs) which have been claimed to contain cooler dust than their local counterparts. We find that including our sample of 468 galaxies significantly reduces the distinction between the two populations. Fits to SEDs of selected objects using more sophisticated templates derived from radiative transfer models confirm the presence of the colder dust found through parametric fitting. We thus conclude that cold (T < 20K) dust is a significant and largely unexplored component of many nearby galaxies. Corresponding author: D. L. Clements, e-mail: d.clements@imperial.ac.uk
Parametrized modified gravity constraints after Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Bin; Liguori, Michele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino
2013-12-01
We constrain f(R) and chameleon-type modified gravity in the framework of the Berstchinger-Zukin parametrization using the recently released Planck data, including both the cosmic mircowave background radiation (CMB) temperature power spectrum and the lensing potential power spectrum. Some other external data sets are included, such as baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements from the 6dFGS, SDSS DR7 and BOSS DR9 surveys; Hubble Space Telescope (HST) H0 measurements, and supernovae from the Union2.1 compilation. We also use WMAP9 data for a consistency check and comparison. For f(R) gravity, WMAP9 results can only give a quite loose constraint on the modified gravity parameter B0, which is related to the present value of the Compton wavelength of the extra scalar degree of freedom, B0<3.37 at 95% C.L. We demonstrate that this constraint mainly comes from the late integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. With only Planck CMB temperature power-spectrum data, we can improve the WMAP9 result by a factor 3.7 (B0<0.91 at 95% C.L.). If the Planck lensing potential power-spectrum data are also taken into account, the constraint can be further strengthened by a factor 5.1 (B0<0.18 at 95% C.L.). This major improvement mainly comes from the small-scale lensing signal. Furthermore, BAO, HST and supernovae data could slightly improve the B0 bound (B0<0.12 at 95% C.L.). For the chameleon-type model, we find that the data set that we used cannot constrain the Compton wavelength B0 or the potential index s of the chameleon field, but it can give a tight constraint on the parameter ?1=1.043-0.104+0.163 at 95% C.L. (?1=1 in general relativity), which accounts for the nonminimal coupling between the chameleon field and the matter component. In addition, we find that both modified gravity models we consider favor a relatively higher Hubble parameter than the concordance ?CDM model in general relativity.
Planck intermediate results. XIII. Constraints on peculiar velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gonzáalez-Nuevo, J.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihánen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mak, D. S. Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pagano, L.; Paoletti, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Puisieux, S.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Roman, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the positions of the clusters, we obtain consistent constraints on the radial peculiar velocity average, root mean square (rms), and local bulk flow amplitude at different depths. For the whole cluster sample of average redshift 0.18, the measured average radial peculiar velocity with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to 72 ± 60 km s-1. This constitutes less than 1% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. While the linear ?CDM prediction for the typical cluster radial velocity rms at z = 0.15 is close to 230 km s-1, the upper limit imposed by Planck data on the cluster subsample corresponds to 800 km s-1 at 95% confidence level, i.e., about three times higher. Planck data also set strong constraints on the local bulk flow in volumes centred on the Local Group. There is no detection of bulk flow as measured in any comoving sphere extending to the maximum redshift covered by the cluster sample. A blind search for bulk flows in this sample has an upper limit of 254 km s-1 (95% confidence level) dominated by CMB confusion and instrumental noise, indicating that the Universe is largely homogeneous on Gpc scales. In this context, in conjunction with supernova observations, Planck is able to rule out a large class of inhomogeneous void models as alternatives to dark energy or modified gravity. The Planck constraints on peculiar velocities and bulk flows are thus consistent with the ?CDM scenario.
The Planck SZ Cluster Catalog: expected X-ray properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamballu, A.; Bartlett, J. G.; Melin, J.-B.
2012-08-01
Surveys based on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect provide a fresh view of the galaxy cluster population, one that is complementary to X-ray surveys. To better understand the relation between these two kinds of survey, we construct an empirical cluster model using scaling relations constrained by current X-ray and SZ data. We apply our model to predict the X-ray properties of the Planck SZ Cluster Catalog (PCC) and compare them to existing X-ray cluster catalogs. We find that Planck should significantly extend the depth of the previous all-sky cluster survey, performed in the early 1990s by the ROSAT satellite, and should be particularly effective at finding hot, massive clusters (T > 6 keV) out to redshift unity. These are rare objects, and our findings suggest that Planck could increase the observational sample at z > 0.6 by an order of magnitude. This would open the way for detailed studies of massive clusters out to these higher redshifts. Specifically, we find that the majority of newly-detected Planck clusters should have X-ray fluxes 10-13 erg/s/cm2 < fX [0.5-2 keV] < 10-12 erg/s/cm2, i.e., distributed over the decade in flux just below the ROSAT All Sky Survey limit. This is sufficiently bright for extensive X-ray follow-up campaigns. Once Planck finds these objects, XMM-Newton and Chandra could measure temperatures to 10% for a sample of ~100 clusters in the range 0.5 < z < 1, a valuable increase in the number of massive clusters studied over this range.
Marc Tiebout
2003-01-01
A physical scaling procedure of integrated inductors is presented. The process consists of a linear layout geometry scaling and a linear or quadratic scaling of the double ?-model parameters according to their physical meaning. The proposed coil scaling is verified in 0.25?m standard CMOS with measurements on fully integrated optimized inductors. The scaling allows a reuse of measured coils and
Millikan's measurement of Planck's constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, Allan
2013-12-01
Robert Millikan is famous for measuring the charge of the electron. His result was better than any previous measurement and his method established that there was a fundamental unit of charge, or charge quantization. He is less well-known for his measurement of Planck's constant, although, as discussed below, he is often mistakenly given credit for providing significant evidence in support of Einstein's photon theory of light.1 His Nobel Prize citation was "for his work on the elementary electric charge of electricity and the photoelectric effect," an indication of the significance of his work on the photoelectric effect.
Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale
Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo
2014-01-01
The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key Points This study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the MCPES consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. Additionally, the results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate. Autonomy, social relatedness, and task climate were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego climate factor had low or negligible correlations with the other three factors. PMID:24570617
Planck Constraints on Holographic Dark Energy
Miao Li; Xiao-Dong Li; Yin-Zhe Ma; Xin Zhang; Zhenhui Zhang
2013-10-01
We perform a detailed investigation on the cosmological constraints on the holographic dark energy (HDE) model by using the Planck data. HDE can provide a good fit to Planck high-l (l>40) temperature power spectrum, while the discrepancy at l=20-40 found in LCDM remains unsolved in HDE. The Planck data alone can lead to strong and reliable constraint on the HDE parameter c. At 68% CL, we get c=0.508+-0.207 with Planck+WP+lensing, favoring the present phantom HDE at > 2sigma CL. Comparably, by using WMAP9 alone we cannot get interesting constraint on c. By combining Planck+WP with the BAO measurements from 6dFGS+SDSS DR7(R)+BOSS DR9, the H0 measurement from HST, the SNLS3 and Union2.1 SNIa data sets, we get 68% CL constraints c=0.484+-0.070, 0.474+-0.049, 0.594+-0.051 and 0.642+-0.066. Constraints can be improved by 2%-15% if we further add the Planck lensing data. Compared with the WMAP9 results, the Planck results reduce the error by 30%-60%, and prefer a phantom-like HDE at higher CL. We find no evident tension between Planck and BAO/HST. Especially, the strong correlation between Omegam h^3 and dark energy parameters is helpful in relieving the tension between Planck and HST. The residual chi^2_{Planck+WP+HST}-chi^2_{Planck+WP} is 7.8 in LCDM, and is reduced to 1.0 or 0.3 if we switch dark energy to the w model or the holographic model. We find SNLS3 is in tension with all other data sets; for Planck+WP, WMAP9 and BAO+HST, the corresponding Delta chi^2 is 6.4, 3.5 and 4.1, respectively. Comparably, Union2.1 is consistent with these data sets, but the combination Union2.1+BAO+HST is in tension with Planck+WP+lensing, corresponding to a Delta chi^2 8.6 (1.4% probability). Thus, it is not reasonable to perform an all-combined (CMB+SNIa+BAO+HST) analysis for HDE when using the Planck data. Our tightest self-consistent constraint is c=0.495+-0.039 obtained from Planck+WP+BAO+HST+lensing.
The physics of energy transfer toward improved subgrid-scale models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cimarelli, Andrea; De Angelis, Elisabetta
2014-05-01
Starting from physical insight on the energy transfer phenomena in wall turbulent flows, it is shown how modeling of subgrid stresses in large-eddy simulations can be improved. Each model should aim at reproducing the double feature of energy sink and source of the small scales of wall flows which become relevant when large filter lengths are considered. Here we propose one possible choice where the main ingredient is the coupling of the classical linear formulation of eddy viscosity with the nonlinear anisotropic features of the velocity increments tensor. This approach, which actually presents most of the features of the mixed models, captures the near-wall dynamics for very large filter lengths reproducing the small scales source physics responsible for backward energy transfer. A posteriori tests show excellent agreement with direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flows even when very coarse grids are considered. The capability of the balance of the filtered second order structure function as a post-processing tool to evaluate the physics of any model is also shown.
Local variance asymmetries in Planck temperature anisotropy maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, Saroj
2015-02-01
Recently, it was shown that local variance maps of temperature anisotropy are simple and useful tools for the study of large-scale hemispherical power asymmetry. This was done by studying the distribution of dipoles of the local variance maps. In this work, we extend the study of the dipolar asymmetry in local variance maps using foreground cleaned Planck 143 GHz and 217 GHz data to smaller scales. In doing so, we include the effect of the CMB Doppler dipole. Further, we show that it is possible to use local variance maps to measure the Doppler dipole in these Planck channel maps, after removing large-scale features (up to l = 600), at a significance of about 3?. At these small scales, we do not find any power asymmetry in the direction of the anomalous large-scale power asymmetry beyond that expected from cosmic variance. At large scales, we verify previous results, i.e. the presence of hemispherical power asymmetry at a significance of at least 3.3?.
Constraints from Planck and Other Experiments on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millea, Marius
2013-04-01
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is our most powerful tool for probing cosmological parameters. By the time of the meeting, results from Planck will be released which will provide the tightest constraints obtained from temperature anisotropies to-date on the physics of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). We will present these constraints from Planck on BBN parameters like the baryon-to-photon ratio, the number of neutrino species, and the primordial helium fraction, and compare these to constraints from other sources, for example more direct measurements of primordial helium and deuterium. These comparisons provide a powerful tool to test the validity of the standard BBN model. Finally, we forecast the improvement in constraints expected from future measurements of CMB polarization.
(Lack of) Cosmological evidence for dark radiation after Planck
Verde, Licia [ICREA and ICC, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Mortlock, Daniel J., E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: stephen.feeney.09@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: mortlock@ic.ac.uk, E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2013-09-01
We use Bayesian model comparison to determine whether extensions to Standard-Model neutrino physics — primarily additional effective numbers of neutrinos and/or massive neutrinos — are merited by the latest cosmological data. Given the significant advances in cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations represented by the Planck data, we examine whether Planck temperature and CMB lensing data, in combination with lower redshift data, have strengthened (or weakened) the previous findings. We conclude that the state-of-the-art cosmological data do not show evidence for deviations from the standard (?CDM) cosmological model (which has three massless neutrino families). This does not mean that the model is necessarily correct — in fact we know it is incomplete as neutrinos are not massless — but it does imply that deviations from the standard model (e.g., non-zero neutrino mass) are too small compared to the current experimental uncertainties to be inferred from cosmological data alone.
Planck priors for dark energy surveys
Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Kunz, Martin [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai E. Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Wang Yun [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, Oklahoma (United States)
2008-10-15
Although cosmic microwave background anisotropy data alone cannot constrain simultaneously the spatial curvature and the equation of state of dark energy, CMB data provide a valuable addition to other experimental results. However computing a full CMB power spectrum with a Boltzmann code is quite slow; for instance if we want to work with many dark energy and/or modified gravity models, or would like to optimize experiments where many different configurations need to be tested, it is possible to adopt a quicker and more efficient approach. In this paper we consider the compression of the projected Planck cosmic microwave background data into four parameters, R (scaled distance to last scattering surface), l{sub a} (angular scale of sound horizon at last scattering), {omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} (baryon density fraction) and n{sub s} (powerlaw index of primordial matter power spectrum), all of which can be computed quickly. We show that, although this compression loses information compared to the full likelihood, such information loss becomes negligible when more data is added. We also demonstrate that the method can be used for canonical scalar-field dark energy independently of the parametrization of the equation of state, and discuss how this method should be used for other kinds of dark energy models.
PERSPECTIVES New Max Planck Center in London
Falge, Eva
- roscience Unit (Peter Dayan), the Max Planck Institute for Human Develop- ment (Ulman Lindenberger), the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences (Arno Villringer) and the Wellcome Trust Centre that are able to imitate the entire spectrum of human movement sequences. The new possibilities now available
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
introduced by Boys and Handy and further elaborated by Ten-no in his 3d numerical quadrature scheme, whichMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Bridging the gap between and F12-methods Sambasiva Rao Chinnamsetty, Hongjun Luo and Wolfgang Hackbusch Max-Planck-Institut f
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
this is the rst time that an self-adaptive method is proposed for RPIE in 3D (for the 2D case we referMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Adaptive Time Discretization, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 ZÃ¼rich, Switzerland, e- mail: stas@math.uzh.ch Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.8 3D caseMax-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Documentation for the HDD.Litvinenko litvinen@mis.mpg.de Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences Abstract The hierarchical domain
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
: -au = f. In the 3D or higher dimensional case we formulate the problem in a similar way. Consider - (aMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Low-rank Tensor Structure, Russia; sergey.v.dolgov@gmail.com Boris N. Khoromskij Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in Sciences
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Constructions 14 3.1 Conti's Construction: 2D and 3D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.2 ContiMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig The Cubic support and the Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig for its kind hospitality
Planck's view of the intestellar medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tauber, J. A.
2015-03-01
Planck is a cosmology experiment, but significant interstellar dust and gas emission exists in the band where the CMB peaks. Therefore, Planck's all-sky surveys provide new views of the ISM and magnetic fields in the Galaxy, as well as the dust and gas in galaxies.
Heat Hyperbolic Diffusion in Planck Gas
Miroslaw Kozlowski; Janina Marciak-Kozlowska
2006-07-06
In this paper we investigate the diffusion of the thermal pulse in Planck Gas. We show that the Fourier diffusion equation gives the speed of diffusion, v > c and breaks the causality of the thermal processes in Planck gas .For hyperbolic heat transport v
Adolfo, Poma Max Planck Institute for Polymer
Roma "La Sapienza", Università di
). Scholarships 2009-2011 DAAD Scholarship, Germany. 20082009 International Max Planck Research School School in Energy by International Max Planck Research School, Poster Session, Patras, Greece. Mar. 2008://www.mpip-mainz.mpg.de/poma T 6131-379-335 B poma at mpip-mainz.mpg.de Office 1.701 Ackermannweg 10 D - 55128, Mainz Education 2008
Electron EDM as a Sensitive Probe of PeV Scale Physics
Tarek Ibrahim; Ahmad Itani; Pran Nath
2014-08-12
We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron EDM within MSSM where the contributions to the electric dipole moment (EDM) arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range.The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a non-supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the non-supersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.
Electron electric dipole moment as a sensitive probe of PeV scale physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibrahim, Tarek; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran
2014-09-01
We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron electric dipole moment (EDM) within minimal supersymmetric standard model where the contributions to the EDM arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range. The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric (SUSY) contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a nonsupersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the nonsupersymmetric contribution leads to the remarkable phenomenon where the electron EDM as a function of the slepton mass first falls and become vanishingly small and then rises again as the slepton mass increases. This phenomenon arises as a consequence of cancellation between the SUSY and the non-SUSY contribution at low scales while at high scales the SUSY contribution dies out and the EDM is controlled by the non-SUSY contribution alone. The high mass scales that can be probed by the EDM are far in excess of what accelerators will be able to probe. The sensitivity of the EDM to CP phases both in the SUSY and the non-SUSY sectors are also discussed.
Study of Planck’s law with a small USB grating spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navrátil, Zden?k; Dosoudilová, Lenka; Jurmanová, Jana
2013-05-01
In this paper an experiment to study Planck’s radiation law is presented. The spectra of a heated furnace and of a halogen lamp under various conditions were measured with a small USB grating spectrometer and fitted using Planck’s law. The temperature determined from the fit was then compared with the results of comparative temperature measurement techniques (e.g. with the measurement of filament temperature from the temperature dependence of filament resistance). We have shown that even spectrometers with a limited wavelength range may be successfully used to study the Planck distribution. The temperature obtained from the fit of Planck’s law to the measured spectra was, within the uncertainty, close to the results of comparative techniques.
Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore) [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)] [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore) [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)
2013-12-23
We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes.
Inference of hidden structures in complex physical systems by multi-scale clustering
Nussinov, Z; Hu, Dandan; Chakrabarty, S; Sahu, M; Sun, Bo; Mauro, N A; Sahu, K K
2015-01-01
We survey the application of a relatively new branch of statistical physics--"community detection"-- to data mining. In particular, we focus on the diagnosis of materials and automated image segmentation. Community detection describes the quest of partitioning a complex system involving many elements into optimally decoupled subsets or communities of such elements. We review a multiresolution variant which is used to ascertain structures at different spatial and temporal scales. Significant patterns are obtained by examining the correlations between different independent solvers. Similar to other combinatorial optimization problems in the NP complexity class, community detection exhibits several phases. Typically, illuminating orders are revealed by choosing parameters that lead to extremal information theory correlations.
WMAP OBSERVATIONS OF PLANCK ESZ CLUSTERS
Ma Yinzhe; Hinshaw, Gary; Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2013-07-10
We examine the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect in the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by cross-correlating it with the Planck Early-release Sunyaev-Zeldovich catalog. Our analysis proceeds in two parts. We first perform a stacking analysis in which the filtered WMAP data are averaged at the locations of the 175 Planck clusters. We then perform a regression analysis to compare the mean amplitude of the SZ signal, Y{sub 500}, in the WMAP data to the corresponding amplitude in the Planck data. The aggregate Planck clusters are detected in the seven year WMAP data with a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.3. In the regression analysis, we find that the SZ amplitude measurements agree to better than 25%: a = 1.23 {+-} 0.18 for the fit Y{sup wmap}{sub 500}= aY{sup planck}{sub 500}.
Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Baker, M.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhandari, P.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borders, J.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bowman, B.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Camus, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chambelland, J. P.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Collaudin, B.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; Cuttaia, F.; Damasio, C.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gavila, E.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guyot, G.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Israelsson, U.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Lee, R.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melot, F.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mora, J.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nash, A.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prina, M.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, C.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Wilson, P.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zhang, B.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20 K for LFI and 0.1 K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency coverage led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could satisfy these needs; a helium cryostat, as used by previous cryogenic space missions (IRAS, COBE, ISO, Spitzer, AKARI), could not. Radiative cooling is provided by three V-groove radiators and a large telescope baffle. The active coolers are a hydrogen sorption cooler (<20 K), a 4He Joule-Thomson cooler (4.7 K), and a 3He-4He dilution cooler (1.4 K and 0.1 K). The flight system was at ambient temperature at launch and cooled in space to operating conditions. The HFI bolometer plate reached 93 mK on 3 July 2009, 50 days after launch. The solar panel always faces the Sun, shadowing the rest of Planck, andoperates at a mean temperature of 384 K. At the other end of the spacecraft, the telescope baffle operates at 42.3 K and the telescope primary mirror operates at 35.9 K. The temperatures of key parts of the instruments are stabilized by both active and passive methods. Temperature fluctuations are driven by changes in the distance from the Sun, sorption cooler cycling and fluctuations in gas-liquid flow, and fluctuations in cosmic ray flux on the dilution and bolometer plates. These fluctuations do not compromise the science data.
Multi-physics and multi-scale characterization of shale anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarout, J.; Nadri, D.; Delle Piane, C.; Esteban, L.; Dewhurst, D.; Clennell, M. B.
2012-12-01
Shales are the most abundant sedimentary rock type in the Earth's shallow crust. In the past decade or so, they have attracted increased attention from the petroleum industry as reservoirs, as well as more traditionally for their sealing capacity for hydrocarbon/CO2 traps or underground waste repositories. The effectiveness of both fundamental and applied shale research is currently limited by (i) the extreme variability of physical, mechanical and chemical properties observed for these rocks, and by (ii) the scarce data currently available. The variability in observed properties is poorly understood due to many factors that are often irrelevant for other sedimentary rocks. The relationships between these properties and the petrophysical measurements performed at the field and laboratory scales are not straightforward, translating to a scale dependency typical of shale behaviour. In addition, the complex and often anisotropic micro-/meso-structures of shales give rise to a directional dependency of some of the measured physical properties that are tensorial by nature such as permeability or elastic stiffness. Currently, fundamental understanding of the parameters controlling the directional and scale dependency of shale properties is far from complete. Selected results of a multi-physics laboratory investigation of the directional and scale dependency of some critical shale properties are reported. In particular, anisotropic features of shale micro-/meso-structures are related to the directional-dependency of elastic and fluid transport properties: - Micro-/meso-structure (?m to cm scale) characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray tomography; - Estimation of elastic anisotropy parameters on a single specimen using elastic wave propagation (cm scale); - Estimation of the permeability tensor using the steady-state method on orthogonal specimens (cm scale); - Estimation of the low-frequency diffusivity tensor using NMR method on orthogonal specimens (scale). For each of the above properties, leading-edge experimental techniques have been associated with novel interpretation tools. In this contribution, these experimental and interpretation methods are described. Relationships between the measured properties and the corresponding micro-/meso-structural features are discussed. For example, P-wave velocity was measured along 100 different propagation paths on a single cylindrical shale specimen using miniature ultrasonic transducers. Assuming that (i) the elastic tensor of this shale is transversely isotropic; and (i) the sample has been cored perfectly perpendicular to the bedding plane (symmetry plane is horizontal), Thomsen's anisotropy parameters inverted from the measured velocities are: - P-wave velocity along the symmetry axis (perpendicular to the bedding plane) ?o=3.45km/s; - P-wave anisotropy ?=0.12; - Parameter controlling the wave front geometry ?=0.058. A novel inversion algorithm allows for recovering these parameters without assuming a priori a horizontal bedding (symmetry) plane. The inversion of the same data set using this algorithm yields (i) ?o=3.23km/s, ?=0.25 and ?=0.18, and (ii) the elastic symmetry axis is inclined of ?=30° with respect to the specimen's axis. Such difference can have strong impact on field applications (AVO, ray tracing, tomography).
Kais, Sabre
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 036706 (2012) Finite-size scaling for quantum criticality using the finite-element, the finite-element method was shown to be a powerful numerical method for ab initio electronic parameters by combining the finite-element method (FEM) with finite size scaling (FSS) using different ab
The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Probe of PeV Scale Physics
Aboubrahim, Amin; Nath, Pran
2015-01-01
The experimental limit on the neutron electric dipole moment is used as a possible probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Within MSSM we use the current experimental limit on the neutron EDM and possible future improvement as a probe of high scale SUSY. Quantitative analyses show that scalar masses as large as a PeV and larger could be probed in improved experiment far above the scales accessible at future colliders. We also discuss the neutron EDM as a probe of new physics models beyond MSSM. Specifically we consider an MSSM extension with a particle content including a vectorlike multiplet. Such an extension brings in new sources of CP violation beyond those in MSSM. These CP phases contribute to the EDM of the quarks and to the neutron EDM. These contributions are analyzed in this work where we include the supersymmetric loop diagrams involving the neutralinos, charginos, the gluino, squark and mirror squark exchange diagrams at the one loop level. We also take into account the contributions from ...
Jeffery M. Saul; Duane L. Deardorff; David S. Abbott; Rhett J. Allain; Robert J. Beichner
2000-01-01
The Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE-UP) project at North Carolina State University (NCSU) is developing a curriculum to promote learning through in-class group activities in introductory physics classes up to 100 students. We are currently in Phase II of the project using a specially designed multimedia classroom for 54 students to teach the introductory physics course for
Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from Planck provide the highest-quality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This allows us to detect possible departures from the standard model of a globally homogeneous and isotropic cosmology on the largest scales. We search for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance ?rec), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius ?i of the largest sphere inscribed in topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio ?ln ? > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: in a flat Universe, ?i> 0.92?rec for the T3 cubic torus; ?i> 0.71?rec for the T2 chimney; ?i> 0.50?rec for the T1 slab; and in a positively curved Universe, ?i> 1.03?rec for the dodecahedral space; ?i> 1.0?rec for the truncated cube; and ?i> 0.89?rec for the octahedral space. The limit for a wider class of topologies, i.e., those predicting matching pairs of back-to-back circles, among them tori and the three spherical cases listed above, coming from the matched-circles search, is ?i> 0.94?rec at 99% confidence level. Similar limits apply to a wide, although not exhaustive, range of topologies. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 1.5 units of log-evidence. Indeed, the Bianchi pattern is quite efficient at accounting for some of the large-scale anomalies found in Planck data. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. In the physically motivated setting where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (?/H)0< 8.1 × 10-10 (95% confidence level).
Resolving the problem of galaxy clustering on small scales: any new physics needed?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, X.
2014-02-01
Galaxy clustering sets strong constraints on the physics governing galaxy formation and evolution. However, most current models fail to reproduce the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales (r < 1 Mpc h-1). In this paper, we study the galaxy clusterings predicted from a few semi-analytical models. We first compare two Munich versions, Guo et al. and De Lucia & Blaizot. The Guo11 model well reproduces the galaxy stellar mass function, but overpredicts the clustering of low-mass galaxies on small scales. The DLB07 model provides a better fit to the clustering on small scales, but overpredicts the stellar mass function. These seem to be puzzling. The clustering on small scales is dominated by galaxies in the same dark matter halo, and there is slightly more fraction of satellite galaxies residing in massive haloes in the Guo11 model, which is the dominant contribution to the clustering discrepancy between the two models. However, both models still overpredict the clustering at 0.1 < r < 10 Mpc h-1 for low-mass galaxies. This is because both models overpredict the number of satellites by 30 per cent in massive haloes than the data. We show that the Guo11 model could be slightly modified to simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and clusterings, but that cannot be easily achieved in the DLB07 model. The better agreement of DLB07 model with the data actually comes as a coincidence as it predicts too many low-mass central galaxies which are less clustered and thus brings down the total clustering. Finally, we show the predictions from the semi-analytical models of Kang et al. We find that this model can simultaneously fit the stellar mass function and galaxy clustering if the supernova feedback in satellite galaxies is stronger. We conclude that semi-analytical models are now able to solve the small-scales clustering problem, without invoking of any other new physics or changing the dark matter properties, such as the recent favoured warm dark matter.
Electron EDM as a Sensitive Probe of PeV Scale Physics
Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran
2014-01-01
We give a quantitative analysis of the electric dipole moments as a probe of high scale physics. We focus on the electric dipole moment of the electron since the limit on it is the most stringent. Further, theoretical computations of it are free of QCD uncertainties. The analysis presented here first explores the probe of high scales via electron EDM within MSSM where the contributions to the EDM arise from the chargino and the neutralino exchanges in loops. Here it is shown that the electron EDM can probe mass scales from tens of TeV into the PeV range.The analysis is then extended to include a vectorlike generation which can mix with the three ordinary generations. Here new CP phases arise and it is shown that the electron EDM now has not only a supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of charginos and neutralinos but also a non-supersymmetric contribution from the exchange of W and Z bosons. It is further shown that the interference of the supersymmetric and the non-supersymmetric contribution leads t...
Inflation physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Buder, I.; Burke, D. L.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crill, B. P.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Doré, O.; Dunkley, J.; Feng, J. L.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Giddings, S. B.; Green, D.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hanson, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Horowitz, G.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jackson, M.; Jones, W. C.; Kallosh, R.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Kinney, W.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C.-L.; Kusaka, A.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linde, A.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; Maldacena, J.; Martinec, E.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Mukhanov, V.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Senatore, L.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Vieregg, A. G.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.; Zaldarriaga, M.
2015-03-01
Fluctuations in the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe each contain clues about the nature of the earliest moments of time. The next generation of CMB and large-scale structure (LSS) experiments are poised to test the leading paradigm for these earliest moments-the theory of cosmic inflation-and to detect the imprints of the inflationary epoch, thereby dramatically increasing our understanding of fundamental physics and the early universe. A future CMB experiment with sufficient angular resolution and frequency coverage that surveys at least 1% of the sky to a depth of 1 uK-arcmin can deliver a constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio that will either result in a 5? measurement of the energy scale of inflation or rule out all large-field inflation models, even in the presence of foregrounds and the gravitational lensing B-mode signal. LSS experiments, particularly spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, will complement the CMB effort by improving current constraints on running of the spectral index by up to a factor of four, improving constraints on curvature by a factor of ten, and providing non-Gaussianity constraints that are competitive with the current CMB bounds.
Chang, Debbie I; Gertel-Rosenberg, Allison; Snyder, Kim
2014-12-01
During the past decade, progress has been made in addressing childhood obesity through policy and practice changes that encourage increased physical activity and access to healthy food. With the implementation of these strategies, an understanding of what works to prevent childhood obesity is beginning to emerge. The task now is to consider how best to spread, scale, and sustain promising childhood obesity prevention strategies. In this article we examine a project led by Nemours, a children's health system, to address childhood obesity. We describe Nemours's conceptual approach to spreading, scaling, and sustaining a childhood obesity prevention intervention. We review a component of a Nemours initiative in Delaware that focused on early care and education settings and its expansion to other states through the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaborative to prevent childhood obesity. We also discuss lessons learned. Focusing on the spreading, scaling, and sustaining of promising strategies has the potential to increase the reach and impact of efforts in obesity prevention and help ensure their impact on population health. PMID:25489040
Inflation Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure
Abazajian, K N; Austermann, J; Benson, B A; Bischoff, C; Bock, J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Buder, I; Burke, D L; Calabrese, E; Carlstrom, J E; Carvalho, C S; Chang, C L; Chiang, H C; Church, S; Cooray, A; Crawford, T M; Crill, B P; Dawson, K S; Das, S; Devlin, M J; Dobbs, M; Dodelson, S; Doré, O; Dunkley, J; Feng, J L; Fraisse, A; Gallicchio, J; Giddings, S B; Green, D; Halverson, N W; Hanany, S; Hanson, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hincks, A; Hlozek, R; Holder, G; Holzapfel, W L; Honscheid, K; Horowitz, G; Hu, W; Hubmayr, J; Irwin, K; Jackson, M; Jones, W C; Kallosh, R; Kamionkowski, M; Keating, B; Keisler, R; Kinney, W; Knox, L; Komatsu, E; Kovac, J; Kuo, C -L; Kusaka, A; Lawrence, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E; Linde, A; Linder, E; Lubin, P; Maldacena, J; Martinec, E; McMahon, J; Miller, A; Newburgh, L; Niemack, M D; Nguyen, H; Nguyen, H T; Page, L; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Ruhl, J E; Sehgal, N; Seljak, U; Senatore, L; Sievers, J; Silverstein, E; Slosar, A; Smith, K M; Spergel, D; Staggs, S T; Stark, A; Stompor, R; Vieregg, A G; Wang, G; Watson, S; Wollack, E J; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W; Zahn, O; Zaldarriaga, M
2013-01-01
Fluctuations in the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe each contain clues about the nature of the earliest moments of time. The next generation of CMB and large-scale structure (LSS) experiments are poised to test the leading paradigm for these earliest moments---the theory of cosmic inflation---and to detect the imprints of the inflationary epoch, thereby dramatically increasing our understanding of fundamental physics and the early universe. A future CMB experiment with sufficient angular resolution and frequency coverage that surveys at least 1% of the sky to a depth of 1 uK-arcmin can deliver a constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio that will either result in a 5-sigma measurement of the energy scale of inflation or rule out all large-field inflation models, even in the presence of foregrounds and the gravitational lensing B-mode signal. LSS experiments, particularly spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy ...
PROSPECTS FOR COLLIDERS AND COLLIDER PHYSICS TO THE 1 PEV ENERGY SCALE
KING,B.J.
2000-05-05
A review is given of the prospects for future colliders and collider physics at the energy frontier. A proof-of-plausibility scenario is presented for maximizing the authors progress in elementary particle physics by extending the energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders as quickly and economically as might be technically and financially feasible. The scenario comprises 5 colliders beyond the LHC--one each of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadron colliders and three {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders--and is able to hold to the historical rate of progress in the log-energy reach of hadron and lepton colliders, reaching the 1 PeV constituent mass scale by the early 2040's. The technical and fiscal requirements for the feasibility of the scenario are assessed and relevant long-term R and D projects are identified. Considerations of both cost and logistics seem to strongly favor housing most or all of the colliders in the scenario in a new world high energy physics laboratory.
Physical descriptions of the bacterial nucleoid at large scales, and their biological implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benza, Vincenzo G.; Bassetti, Bruno; Dorfman, Kevin D.; Scolari, Vittore F.; Bromek, Krystyna; Cicuta, Pietro; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco
2012-07-01
Recent experimental and theoretical approaches have attempted to quantify the physical organization (compaction and geometry) of the bacterial chromosome with its complement of proteins (the nucleoid). The genomic DNA exists in a complex and dynamic protein-rich state, which is highly organized at various length scales. This has implications for modulating (when not directly enabling) the core biological processes of replication, transcription and segregation. We overview the progress in this area, driven in the last few years by new scientific ideas and new interdisciplinary experimental techniques, ranging from high space- and time-resolution microscopy to high-throughput genomics employing sequencing to map different aspects of the nucleoid-related interactome. The aim of this review is to present the wide spectrum of experimental and theoretical findings coherently, from a physics viewpoint. In particular, we highlight the role that statistical and soft condensed matter physics play in describing this system of fundamental biological importance, specifically reviewing classic and more modern tools from the theory of polymers. We also discuss some attempts toward unifying interpretations of the current results, pointing to possible directions for future investigation.
Stability, Higgs boson mass, and new physics.
Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele
2013-12-13
Assuming that the particle with mass ?126??GeV discovered at LHC is the standard model Higgs boson, we find that the stability of the electroweak (EW) vacuum strongly depends on new physics interaction at the Planck scale MP, despite of the fact that they are higher-dimensional interactions, apparently suppressed by inverse powers of MP. In particular, for the present experimental values of the top and Higgs boson masses, if ? is the lifetime of the EW vacuum, new physics can turn ? from ??TU to ??TU, where TU is the age of the Universe, thus, weakening the conclusions of the so called metastability scenario. PMID:24483644
New physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background
Douglas Scott
1999-11-17
I review the present status of the Cosmic Microwave Background, with some emphasis on the current and future implications for particle physics. Conclusions are: gravitational instability in a dark matter dominated universe grew today's structure; the Universe remained neutral until z<~50; the CMB power spectrum peaks at 150<~l<~350; the large-scale structure of spacetime appears to be simple; something like inflation is something like proven; we will learn a great deal about cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics from MAP and Planck.
Study for Planck Cold Clumps with molecular lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuefang
2014-07-01
To probe dynamical processes and physical properties of Planck Cold Clumps, we have observed 674 of the most reliable 915 sources with J=1-0 of CO,13CO and C18O using PMO 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. J=1-0 lines of HCO+ and HCN at CO emission peaks were also observed, of which 24 were mapped with IRAM 30 m telescope. Results show excitation temperatures are from 4 to 17 K, and column densities range from 1020 to 4.5x1023 cm-2. Planck cold clumps have the smallest line width among samples of IRDCs, weak IRAS, EGOs, UC HII candidates and methanol maser chosen cores. However the lines are still wider than those of low-mass cores and have non-thermal supersonic dispersion. Filament is the majority in their morphologies and fragmented structures were found with dense molecular lines. More than 70% of CO cores are starless. Planck cold clumps seem to be ideal samples to search for candidates of massive prestellar cores and pre-clusters.
Constraining models of $f(R)$ gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data
Jason Dossett; Bin Hu; David Parkinson
2014-04-07
In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking "dark" physics, we consider $f(R)$ modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterising the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter $B_0$, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on $B_0$ by an order of magnitude, giving ${\\rm log}_{10}(B_0) < -4.07$ at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude $A_{\\rm Lens}$ and the sum of the neutrino mass $\\sum m_\
F. Pisano; N. O. Reis
2001-05-31
We describe one of the remarkable problems of theoretical physics persevering up to the beginning of the millennium. All gaugetheories with spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking from the standard model of particle physics with the electroweak symmetry breaking at the Fermi scale, 246 GeV, up to strings, supergravity, and the M(embrane)-theory superunification with symmetry breaking starting near the Planck scale, $10^{19}$ GeV, foresee that the spontaneous symmetry breakings induce a vacuum energy at least 50 orders of magnitude larger than the stringent experimental bound $G\\Lambda\\lesssim 10^{-122}$ on the value of the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. This fact seems to have a universal character since it occurs from the Fermi scale up to the Planck one. It is the vacuum catastrophe.
Quantum Physics: An Introduction
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.
Röder, Beate
Physics of vacuum polarization ... Lectures on the physics of vacuum polarization: from GeV to Te Frascati, Frascati, Italy November 9-13, 2009 #12;Physics of vacuum polarization ... Outline of Lecture: x Introduction, theory tools, non-perturbative and perturbative aspects y Vacuum Polarization in Low
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britcher, C. P.
1983-01-01
Wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) have so far failed to find application at the large physical scales necessary for the majority of aerodynamic testing. Three areas of technology relevant to such application are investigated. Two variants of the Spanwise Magnet roll torque generation scheme are studied. Spanwise Permanent Magnets are shown to be practical and are experimentally demonstrated. Extensive computations of the performance of the Spanwise Iron Magnet scheme indicate powerful capability, limited principally be electromagnet technology. Aerodynamic testing at extreme attitudes is shown to be practical in relatively conventional MSBSs. Preliminary operation of the MSBS over a wide range of angles of attack is demonstrated. The impact of a requirement for highly reliable operation on the overall architecture of Large MSBSs is studied and it is concluded that system cost and complexity need not be seriously increased.
Type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets and the scale of new physics
W. Grimus; L. Lavoura; B. Radovcic
2009-03-20
We elaborate on an earlier proposal by Ernest Ma of a type II seesaw mechanism for suppressing the vacuum expectation values of some Higgs doublets. We emphasize that, by nesting this form of seesaw mechanism into various other seesaw mechanisms, one may obtain light neutrino masses in such a way that the new-physics scale present in the seesaw mechanism - the masses of scalar gauge-SU(2) triplets, scalar SU(2) doublets, or right-handed neutrinos - does not need to be higher than a few 10 TeV. We also investigate other usages of the type II seesaw mechanism for Higgs doublets. For instance, the suppression of the vacuum expectation values of Higgs doublets may realize Froggatt-Nielsen suppression factors in some entries of the fermion mass matrices.
Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello
2012-08-01
This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.
Hydrogen Sorption Cryocoolers for the Planck Mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wade, L.; Bhandari, P.; Bowman, R.; Paine, C.; Morgante, G.; Lindensmith, C.; Crumb, D.; Prina, M.; Sugimura, R.; Rapp, D.
1999-01-01
Two continuous opertation 18K/20K sorption coolers are being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as a NASA contribution to the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck mission that is currently planned for a 2007 launch.
Fokker - Planck equation for incompressible fluid
Igor A. Tanski
2009-02-03
In this article we derive Fokker - Planck equation for incompressible fluid and investigate its properties. In version 2 symmetries of linearized equations and some examples of invariant solutions are added.
On the physics of radio haloes in galaxy clusters: scaling relations and luminosity functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zandanel, Fabio; Pfrommer, Christoph; Prada, Francisco
2014-02-01
The underlying physics of giant and mini radio haloes in galaxy clusters is still an open question. We find that mini haloes (such as in Perseus and Ophiuchus) can be explained by radio-emitting electrons that are generated in hadronic cosmic ray (CR) interactions with protons of the intracluster medium. By contrast, the hadronic model either fails to explain the extended emission of giant radio haloes (as in Coma at low frequencies) or would require a flat CR profile, which can be realized through outward streaming and diffusion of CRs (in Coma and A2163 at 1.4 GHz). We suggest that a second leptonic component could be responsible for the missing flux in the outer parts of giant haloes within a new hybrid scenario and we describe its possible observational consequences. To study the hadronic emission component of the radio-halo population statistically, we use a cosmological mock galaxy cluster catalogue built from the MultiDark simulation. Because of the properties of CR streaming and the different scalings of the X-ray luminosity (LX) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux (Y) with gas density, our model can simultaneously reproduce the observed bimodality of radio-loud and radio-quiet clusters at the same LX as well as the unimodal distribution of radio-halo luminosity versus Y; thereby suggesting a physical solution to this apparent contradiction. We predict radio-halo emission down to the mass scale of galaxy groups, which highlights the unique prospects for low-frequency radio surveys (such as the Low Frequency Array Tier 1 survey) to increase the number of detected radio haloes by at least an order of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, L.
2014-04-01
Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i) to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii) to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.
Resolving Lyman-alpha Emission On Physical Scales < 270 pc at z > 4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayliss, Matthew
2014-10-01
We propose ACS-WFC Ramp narrowband imaging of six strongly lensed Lyman-alpha Emitters (LAEs) at z > 4 that will spatially resolve the Lyman-alpha line emitting regions on scales < 270 pc. The best available observations (HST, Spitzer, 10m ground based telescopes) are unable to provide robust measurements of the structure of these galaxies from blank field studies, but strong gravitational lensing provides a unique opportunity to peer into the heart of young star forming galaxies at high redshift and address outstanding questions regarding their morphology and evolution. Strong lensing magnifies each of our target LAEs, increasing the effective spatial resolution of ACS-WFC such that the point spread function will correspond to physical scales < 270 parsecs within all six z > 4 galaxies. Additionally, the boost in flux due to gravitational lensing makes our proposed targets the brightest sources of their kind at these redshifts, in spite of the fact that they are intrinsically ~L* LAEs. The proposed observations will probe the morphological properties of Lyman-alpha and UV continuum emission in typical/representative high-redshift LAEs with signal-to-noise and spatial resolution comparable to studies of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies in the z ~ 0.1 universe. The resulting data will bridge the gap between deep ground-based studies of blank field LAEs at high redshift, and detailed studies of low-redshift LAEs.
Scaled-physical-model studies of the steam-drive process. Final report
Doscher, T.M.
1982-11-01
The main goal of this project was to gain an understanding of the influence of controllable, operating practices and of reservoir parameters on the steam drive. The steam drive, because the chief phenomena of fluid flow and heat flow obey the same laws of diffusion, can be physically scaled. The validity of the results of the scaled models is evidenced by the correspondence of the results with those reported in field operations. In order to conserve on resources, this report is limited to a summary statement of the findings and conclusions of the overall project with separate chapters devoted to an account of specific tasks which came to fruition during the latter part of the project. Summary of results are presented for the following projects: gravitational instability of a steam drive; roles of oil viscosity and steam temperature on the production of crude oil when the steam flow is stratified; extension of the steam drive to tars and bitumens; occurrence of the optimum steam injection rate; emulsification and oil productivity; role of reservoir thickness; cyclic injection of steam in a steam drive; high gravity crudes; partial substitution of inert gas for steam. Two projects completed and described in detail are: effect of oil viscosity on reservoir thickness on the steam drive; and anticipated effect of diurnal injection on steam efficiency.
Meacham, J Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G
2014-02-01
Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915
Physics-based scaling laws for confined and unconfined transverse jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forliti, D. J.; Salazar, D. V.; Bishop, A. J.
2015-02-01
An experimental study was conducted to explore the mixing properties of single and multiple confined transverse jets. A new physics-based scaling law variable was developed based on unconfined transverse jet trajectories. This variable accounts for both entrainment and drag momentum transport mechanisms that cause the jet deflection. The utility of this parameter under confined conditions was considered. It was observed that this new scaling parameter does correlate both qualitative and quantitative measures of the mean mixture properties, in particular prior to any jet-wall interactions. It was found that no local optimum mixing condition was present for two and three jets. For six jets, the behavior changed dramatically, with the emergence of a local optimum mixing state that is consistent with previous data collected for gas turbine geometries (Holdeman in Prog Energy Combust Sci 19:31-70, 1993). It is apparent that the local optimum observed for six jets involves jet penetration to a finite radial position while spreading in the cross plane, leading to the jets blending together resulting in a highly uniform mean mixture fraction distribution. When the number of jets is three or less, this blending process cannot occur due to the excessive distance between the jets. Jet impaction at the pipe center facilitates mixing for two and three jets, while degrading uniformity for six jets.
van Beugen, Sylvia; Ograczyk, Alicja; Ferwerda, Maaike; Smit, Jurgen V; Zeeuwen-Franssen, Manon E J; Kroft, Elisabeth B M; de Jong, Elke M G J; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Donders, A Rogier; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; van Middendorp, Henriët; Evers, Andrea W M
2015-04-15
A certain level of attention to bodily signals may be adaptive in the management of chronic skin conditions, as a lack of attention may lead to inadequate self-care behaviour and, consequently, may affect functioning and treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop a body awareness questionnaire and to investigate its psychometric properties and physical and psychological correlates in a cross-sectional study in patients with psoriasis (n?=?475). The 16-item Body Attention, Ignorance and Awareness Scale demonstrated a 3-factor structure that could be interpreted as body ignorance, body attention, and body awareness (Cronbach's ? of 0.73, 0.74, and 0.68, respectively). Higher body ignorance was significantly related to more physical symptoms and worse psychological functioning. Body attention and body awareness showed small significant correlations with coping and personality. Given the negative influence of impaired psychological functioning on treatment outcomes, it may be clinically important to screen for theses constructs of body awareness in chronic skin conditions. PMID:25270666
An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Cozannet, G.; Garcin, M.; Bulteau, T.; Mirgon, C.; Yates, M. L.; Méndez, M.; Baills, A.; Idier, D.; Oliveros, C.
2013-05-01
Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets), simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP) to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France) and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean), notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.
Pedisic, Zeljko; Matouschek, Stefanie; Stückler, Martina; Basaric, Amir; Titze, Sylvia
2014-01-01
The high prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important public health issue. Studying reasons for disliking PA might help researchers better understand its underlying mechanisms, yet this psychological construct has been understudied. This study established the psychometric properties of the German language version of the Girls' Disinclination for Physical Activity Scale (G-DAS-Ger). Data were collected on a sample of 257 adolescent girls in Austria (mean age: 13.0 ± 0.7 years) using the G-DAS-Ger and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. One week after the first assessment, the questionnaires were re-administered to 78 girls. Between two administrations, PA of 215 girls was monitored for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Confirmatory factor analysis of G-DAS-Ger showed good fit for a three-factor model (?(2)/df = 2.025; Bollen-Stine (B-S) p = 0.159; root mean square error of approximation = 0.063; standardised root mean square residual = 0.054; comparative fit index = 0.950). Cronbach's alphas for G-DAS-Ger factors/subscales ranged 0.64-0.76. The test-retest reliability assessed by Spearman's rank correlation ranged 0.62-0.75. Only one subscale correlated significantly with vigorous-intensity PA (Spearman's rho = -0.16) and none with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, which indicated poor predictive validity of the G-DAS-Ger. Correlations between G-DAS-Ger subscales and enjoyment of PA ranged from -0.29 to -0.41, indicating satisfactory convergent validity. The G-DAS-Ger may be used in its present form to assess disinclination for PA among adolescent girls in German-speaking countries. However, our results put into question the stability of the originally proposed factor structure of the questionnaire and its predictive validity among German-speaking adolescent girls. Methodological refinements to the G-DAS-Ger may be required to improve its psychometric properties in this population. PMID:24678713
Planck intermediate results. VIII. Filaments between interacting clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, J. G. Bartlett E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschènes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2013-02-01
Context. About half of the baryons of the Universe are expected to be in the form of filaments of hot and low-density intergalactic medium. Most of these baryons remain undetected even by the most advanced X-ray observatories, which are limited in sensitivity to the diffuse low-density medium. Aims: The Planck satellite has provided hundreds of detections of the hot gas in clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and is an ideal instrument for studying extended low-density media through the tSZ effect. In this paper we use the Planck data to search for signatures of a fraction of these missing baryons between pairs of galaxy clusters. Methods: Cluster pairs are good candidates for searching for the hotter and denser phase of the intergalactic medium (which is more easily observed through the SZ effect). Using an X-ray catalogue of clusters and the Planck data, we selected physical pairs of clusters as candidates. Using the Planck data, we constructed a local map of the tSZ effect centred on each pair of galaxy clusters. ROSAT data were used to construct X-ray maps of these pairs. After modelling and subtracting the tSZ effect and X-ray emission for each cluster in the pair, we studied the residuals on both the SZ and X-ray maps. Results: For the merging cluster pair A399-A401 we observe a significant tSZ effect signal in the intercluster region beyond the virial radii of the clusters. A joint X-ray SZ analysis allows us to constrain the temperature and density of this intercluster medium. We obtain a temperature of kT = 7.1 ± 0.9 keV (consistent with previous estimates) and a baryon density of (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10-4 cm-3. Conclusions: The Planck satellite mission has provided the first SZ detection of the hot and diffuse intercluster gas.
Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ili?, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4?, depending on which method is used. We investigated three separate approaches, which essentially cover all previous studies, and also break new ground. (i) We correlated the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection was made using the lensing-induced bispectrum between the low-? and high-? temperature anisotropies; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5?. (ii) We cross-correlated with tracers of large-scale structure, which yielded a significance of about 3?, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) We used aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yielded and confirms a 4? signal, over a broader spectral range, when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies in amplitude and scale when compared with expectations. More recent catalogues give more moderate results that range from negligible to 2.5? at most, but have a more consistent scale and amplitude, the latter being still slightly higher than what is expected from numerical simulations within ?CMD. Where they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes it preferable for ISW detection. As a final step we used tracers of large-scale structure to filter the CMB data, from which we present maps of the ISW temperature perturbation. These results provide complementary and independent evidence for the existence of a dark energy component that governs the currently accelerated expansion of the Universe.
C. M. Cianfrani; S. P. Sullivan; W. C. Hession; M. C. Watzin
2006-01-01
Twenty-five independent stream reaches in northwestern Vermont, USA spanning a range of geomorphic conditions were surveyed to determine the effects of land use and physical habitat on fish community diversity at multiple spatial scales including watershed, local riparian, and in-stream. Watershed-scale parameters were evaluated using a geographic information system (GIS) and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed modeling
Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
. Visualize the 2D (or 3D) indoor localization and navigation of the UAV using an iPad 2. Interaction is the working language) Â· Experience with programming (C/C++/JAVA/Matlab) Â· Experience with 3D visualizationMax-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
The physics of non-volcanic tremor: insights from laboratory-scale earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Toro, G.; Meredith, P.
2012-04-01
Due to his extensive early experience in field structural geology, Luigi Burlini's experimental research was always aimed at using laboratory techniques and simulations to improve our understanding of the physics of natural rock deformation. Here we present an example of collaborative work from the later part of his scientific career in which the main goal was unravelling the physics of non-volcanic tremor in subduction zones. This was achieved by deforming typical source rocks (serpentinites) under conditions (300 MPa and 600oC) that approach those expected in nature (up to 1 GPa and 500oC). The main technical challenge was to capture deformation-induced microseismicity (in the form of acoustic emissions) released under such extreme conditions by means of in-situ transducers designed to work at only modest temperatures (up to 200oC). The main scientific challenges were (1) to link the acoustic emission output to specific physical processes, such as cracking, fluid flow or fluid-crack interactions, by means of waveform and microstructural analysis; and (2) to extrapolate the laboratory acoustic emission signals (kHz to MHz frequency) associated with mm to cm-scale processes, to natural seismicity (0.1-1 Hz frequency) associated with km-scale rock volumes by means of frequency scaling (Aki and Richards, 1980). Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been correlated with rupture phenomena in subducting oceanic lithosphere at 30 to 45 km depth, where high Vp/Vs ratios, suggestive of high-fluid pressure, have also been observed. ETS, by accommodating slip in the down-dip portion of the subduction zone, may trigger megathrust earthquakes up-dip in the locked section. In our experiments we measured the output of acoustic emissions during heating of serpentinite samples to beyond their equilibrium dehydration temperature. Experiments were performed on cores samples 15 mm in diameter by 30 mm long under hydrostatic stresses of 200 or 300 MPa in a Paterson high-pressure/high-temperature, internally-heated gas apparatus. Acoustic emission (AE) output was recorded via two piezoelectric transducers embedded within the sample end caps and a third remote transducer located outside the pressure vessel. Drained and undrained experimental conditions were achieved by placing either permeable or impermeable ceramic discs at the samples ends. At 200 MPa, serpentinite dehydrates to talc + olivine + water around 5000C. Associated microseismicity, in the form of high-energy AE events, was confined to a narrow temperature interval just above the equilibrium dehydration temperature. This temperature overstep is expected, and is due to the heating rate in our experiments being much higher than for equilibrium studies. The high-energy AE events were characterised by very long durations, which is typical of a cascade of multiple, overlapping, shorter events that cannot be individually discriminated. Under drained conditions, the serpentinite samples showed a clear volume reduction following dehydration and subsequent compaction. By contrast, under undrained conditions, the samples maintained the same dimensions, but lost weight, implying that no compaction occurred during dehydration. Our results therefore demonstrate conclusively that seismicity can be generated by dehydration reactions even in the absence of a deviatoric stress. This observation is consistent with recent finding that tremor activity in nature has a strong tidal periodicity, indicating that tidal forces modulate slip velocity and suggesting near lithostatic fluid pressures at hypocentral depths. Furthermore, we suggest that the cascades of events that follow the onset of dehydration may well be related to the low-amplitude long-duration seismic events (seismic tremor) that characterize the seismic activity in subduction zones and that has been tentatively interpreted as being caused by dehydration of the subducting slab. Our laboratory observations support this hypothesis, since our low-amplitude, long-duration events were correlated with outflow of water from the samples through the p
Pore-scaling Modeling of Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keehm, Y.; Yoo, G.
2009-12-01
Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be an important factor in global warming and climate change. Many countries around the world are working on reducing and sequestrating CO2 to follow international regulations. One of promising area for CO2 sequestration is the storage in geological formation. To accurately determine the performance of geological injection and storage, quantification and monitoring of the physical property changes are essential. In this paper, we are presenting a new approach for the monitoring of CO2 sequestration in sandstone using pore-scale simulation techniques. The method consists of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We use three different sandstone samples: sand-pack, Berea sandstone, and B2 sandstone from offshore of Korea. The porosity of the sand-pack is 42% and that of two sandstone samples is around 17%. The digital pore structures were obtained by X-ray micro-tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 micron. The LB two-phase flow simulation is then conducted by injecting CO2 into fully water-saturated samples and gives a realistic movement of CO2 in the pore structure. At each CO2 saturation, electrical and elastic properties are determined by pore-scale FEM simulation techniques. The electrical conductivity decreases almost linearly as CO2 saturations increases; however, the P-wave velocity decrease more rapidly at the low CO2 saturation (up to 30%), than at higher saturation. S-wave velocity does not show any significant changes. The higher porosity rock shows more sensitivity to saturation changes. The modeling shows that we can have quantitative relations between physical properties and CO2 saturation, which can be used to determine injection performance and migration of CO2. However, the change in P-wave velocity is not very significant during CO2 injection, which indicates that the monitoring of CO2 sequestration by acoustic survey would be difficult. Our modeling technique can be a very effective tool for the characterizing of prospecting geological sequestration formation and determining an effective monitoring technique for specific sites. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by CO2 Storage in Marine Geological Structure Program of Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime Affairs of South Korea, Grant No. E10500109A060000121.
PRISM: Recovery of the primordial spectrum from Planck data
Lanusse, F; Starck, J -L; Sureau, F; Bobin, J
2014-01-01
The primordial power spectrum describes the initial perturbations that seeded the large-scale structure we observe today. It provides an indirect probe of inflation or other structure-formation mechanisms. In this letter, using our recently published PRISM algorithm, we recover the primordial power spectrum from Planck PR1 dataset. PRISM is a sparsity-based inversion method, which aims at recovering features in the primordial power spectrum from the empirical power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The ill-posed inverse problem involved is regularised using a sparsity prior on features in the primordial power spectrum in a wavelet dictionary. Although this non-parametric method does not assume a strong prior on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, it is able to recover both its global shape and localised features. As a results, this approach presents a robust way of detecting deviations from the currently favoured scale-invariant spectrum. We apply PRISM to 100 Planck simulated data to...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luna, Byron Quan; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn; Liu, Zhongqiang; Eidsvig, Unni; Nadim, Farrokh
2013-04-01
Landslide risk must be assessed at the appropriate scale in order to allow effective risk management. At the moment, few deterministic models exist that can do all the computations required for a complete landslide risk assessment at a regional scale. This arises from the difficulty to precisely define the location and volume of the released mass and from the inability of the models to compute the displacement with a large amount of individual initiation areas (computationally exhaustive). This paper presents a medium-scale, dynamic physical model for rapid mass movements in mountainous and volcanic areas. The deterministic nature of the approach makes it possible to apply it to other sites since it considers the frictional equilibrium conditions for the initiation process, the rheological resistance of the displaced flow for the run-out process and fragility curve that links intensity to economic loss for each building. The model takes into account the triggering effect of an earthquake, intense rainfall and a combination of both (spatial and temporal). The run-out module of the model considers the flow as a 2-D continuum medium solving the equations of mass balance and momentum conservation. The model is embedded in an open source environment geographical information system (GIS), it is computationally efficient and it is transparent (understandable and comprehensible) for the end-user. The model was applied to a virtual region, assessing landslide hazard, vulnerability and risk. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme was applied to quantify, propagate and communicate the effects of uncertainty in input parameters on the final results. In this technique, the input distributions are recreated through sampling and the failure criteria are calculated for each stochastic realisation of the site properties. The model is able to identify the released volumes of the critical slopes and the areas threatened by the run-out intensity. The obtained final outcome is the estimation of individual building damage and total economic risk. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement No 265138 New Multi-HAzard and MulTi-RIsK Assessment MethodS for Europe (MATRIX).
Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T.J.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We present the first results based on Planck measurements of the CMB temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter LCDM cosmology. In this model Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision. We find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0=67.3+/-1.2 km/s/Mpc and a high value of the matter density parameter, Omega_m=0.315+/-0.017 (+/-1 sigma errors) in excellent agreement with constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent-level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We present results from an analysis of extensions to the standard cosmology, using astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured significantly over standard LCDM. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity is insensitive to the additi...
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri
2003-09-01
We introduce a class of generalized Fokker-Planck equations that conserve energy and mass and increase a generalized entropy functional until a maximum entropy state is reached. Nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations associated with Tsallis entropies are a special case of these equations. Applications of these results to stellar dynamics and vortex dynamics are proposed. Our prime result is a relaxation equation that should offer an easily implementable parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence. Usual parametrizations (including a single turbulent viscosity) correspond to the infinite temperature limit of our model. They forget a fundamental systematic drift that acts against diffusion as in Brownian theory. Our generalized Fokker-Planck equations can have applications in other fields of physics such as chemotaxis for bacterial populations. We propose the idea of a classification of generalized entropies in "classes of equivalence" and provide an aesthetic connection between topics (vortices, stars, bacteria, em leader ) which were previously disconnected. PMID:14524833
David DiLillo; Michelle A. Fortier; Sarah A. Hayes; Emily Trask; Andrea R. Perry; Terri Messman-Moore; Angèle Fauchier
This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specifi c means of assessment. Participants included 1,195 undergraduate students recruited from three geographically diverse universities. Agreement was high across the two
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
2009-01-01
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
Coolen, ACC "Ton"
Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement No. 161, 2006 385 A Large Scale Dynamical System Immune that in immune systems there generally exist several kinds of immune cells which can recognize any particular with only a small number of randomly selected other components. One such system is the immune network
Cosmic ray knee and new physics at the TeV scale
Barceló, Roberto; Masip, Manuel [CAFPE and Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Mastromatteo, Iacopo, E-mail: rbarcelo@ugr.es, E-mail: masip@ugr.es, E-mail: mastroma@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy)
2009-06-01
We analyze the possibility that the cosmic ray knee appears at an energy threshold where the proton-dark matter cross section becomes large due to new TeV physics. It has been shown that such interactions could break the proton and produce a diffuse gamma ray flux consistent with MILAGRO observations. We argue that this hypothesis implies knees that scale with the atomic mass for the different nuclei, as KASKADE data seem to indicate. We find that to explain the change in the spectral index in the flux from E{sup ?2.7} to E{sup ?3.1} the cross section must grow like E{sup 0.4+?} above the knee, where ? = 0.3–0.6 parametrizes the energy dependence of the age (??E{sup ??}) of the cosmic rays reaching the Earth. The hypothesis also requires mbarn cross sections (that could be modelled with TeV gravity) and large densities of dark matter (that could be clumped around the sources of cosmic rays). We argue that neutrinos would also exhibit a threshold at E = (m{sub ?}/m{sub p}) E{sub knee} ? 10{sup 8} GeV where their interaction with a nucleon becomes strong. Therefore, the observation at ICECUBE or ANITA of standard neutrino events above this threshold would disprove the scenario.
Cosmic ray knee and new physics at the TeV scale
Roberto Barcelo; Manuel Masip; Iacopo Mastromatteo
2009-06-19
We analyze the possibility that the cosmic ray knee appears at an energy threshold where the proton-dark matter cross section becomes large due to new TeV physics. It has been shown that such interactions could break the proton and produce a diffuse gamma ray flux consistent with MILAGRO observations. We argue that this hypothesis implies knees that scale with the atomic mass for the different nuclei, as KASKADE data seem to indicate. We find that to explain the change in the spectral index in the flux from E^{-2.7} to E^{-3.1} the cross section must grow like E^{0.4+\\beta} above the knee, where \\beta=0.3-0.6 parametrizes the energy dependence of the age (\\tau \\propto E^{-\\beta}) of the cosmic rays reaching the Earth. The hypothesis also requires mbarn cross sections (that could be modelled with TeV gravity) and large densities of dark matter (that could be clumped around the sources of cosmic rays). We argue that neutrinos would also exhibit a threshold at E=(m_\\chi/m_p)E_{knee}\\approx 10^8 GeV where their interaction with a nucleon becomes strong. Therefore, the observation at ICECUBE or ANITA of standard neutrino events above this threshold would disprove the scenario.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Gehrels, N.
2011-01-01
Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.
Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.
2013-01-01
The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944
Gómez, Aina G; Bárcena, Javier F; Juanes, José A; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Sámano, María L
2014-04-01
Physical descriptors that characterize Heavily Modified Water Bodies (HMWB) based on the presence of ports should assess the degree of water exchange. The main goal of this study is to determine the optimal procedure for estimating Transport Time Scales (TTS) as physical descriptors in order to characterize and manage HMWB near ports in coastal zones. Flushing Time (FT) and Residence Time (RT), using different approaches-analytical and exponential function methods-and different hydrodynamic scenarios, were computed using numerical models. El Musel (Port of Gijon) was selected to test different transport time scales (FT and RT), methods (analytical and exponential function methods) and hydrodynamic conditions (wind and tidal forcings). FT, estimated by the exponential function method while taking into account a real tidal wave and a mean annual regime of wind as hydrodynamic forcing, was determined to be the optimal physical descriptor to characterize HMWB. PMID:24568939
Planck satellite to be presented to media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-01-01
Planck will make the most accurate maps yet of the microwave background radiation that fills space. It will be sensitive to temperature variations of a few millionths of a degree and will map the full sky in nine wavelengths. The immediate outcome of the Big Bang and the initial conditions for the evolution in the universe’s structure are the primary target of this important mission. From the results, a great deal more will be learnt not only about the nature and amount of dark matter, the ‘missing mass’ of the universe, but also about the nature of dark energy and the expansion of the universe itself. To address such challenging objectives, Planck will need to operate at very low, stable temperatures. Once in space, its detectors will have to be cooled to temperature levels close to absolute zero (-273.15ºC), ranging from -253ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. The Planck spacecraft thus has to be a marvel of cryotechnology. After integration, Planck will start a series of tests that will continue into early-2008. It will be launched by end-July 2008 in a dual-launch configuration with Herschel, ESA’s mission to study the formation of galaxies, stars and planetary systems in the infrared. Interested media are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note to editors The Planck spacecraft was built by AAS Cannes, the prime contractor, leading a consortium of industrial partners with the AAS industry branch in Turin, Italy, responsible for the satellite’s service module. ESA and the Danish National Space Centre (Copenhagen, Denmark) are responsible for the hardware provision of Planck’s telescope mirrors, manufactured by EADS Astrium (Friedrichshafen, Germany). AAS Cannes is also responsible for the payload module, the platform that hosts the telescope and the two onboard instruments, HFI and LFI. The instruments themselves are being supplied by a consortium of scientists and institutes led by the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale at Orsay (France) in the case of HFI, and by the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (IASF) in Bologna (Italy) in that of LFI. There are also numerous subcontractors spread throughout Europe, with several more in the USA. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Press event programme 1 February 2007, 10:00 am Alcatel Alenia Space 100 Boulevard du Midi, Cannes (France) 10:00 - 10:05 - Opening address, by Patrick Maute - Head of Optical Observation and Science Programmes - Alcatel Alenia Space, and by Jacques Louet - Head of Science Projects - ESA 10:05 - 10:15 - Herschel/Planck Mission overview, by Thomas Passvogel - Planck Project Manager - ESA 10:15 - 10:25 - Planck satellite, by Jean-Jacques Juillet - Programme Manager - Alcatel Alenia Space 10:25 - 10:35 - The scientific mission, by Jan Tauber - Planck Project Scientist - ESA 10:35 - 10:45 - The High-Frequency Instrument, by Jean-Loup Puget - HFI Principal Investigator 10:45 - 10:55 - The Low-Frequency Instrument, by Reno Mandolesi - LFI Principal Investigator 10:55 - 11:05 - Special guest - Nobel prize winner G.F. Smoot 11:05 - 11:25 - Questions and answers 11:25 - 12:35 - Visit of the integration room to see Planck spacecraft and face-to-face interviews 12:45 - 14:30 - Lunch hosted by Alcatel Alenia Space.
Management of the Herschel/Planck Programme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passvogel, Thomas; Crone, Gerald
2010-07-01
The development of the Herschel and Planck Programme, the largest scientific space programme of the European Space Agency (ESA), has culminated in May 2009 with the successful launch of the Herschel and Planck satellites onboard an Ariane 5 from the European Spaceport in Kourou. Both satellites are operating flawlessly since then and the scientific payload instruments provide world-class science. The Herschel/Planck Programme is a multi national cooperation with the managerial lead being taken by the European Space Agency with the major contributions from European industry for the spacecraft development and from scientific institutes, organized in five international consortia, for the payload instruments. The overall programme complexity called for various, adapted, management approaches to resolve technical and programmatic difficulties. Some of the management experiences of over a decade needed to realize such a satellite programme will be presented giving the lessons learnt for future programmes with the similar complexities.
Planck 2013 results. XXIX. The Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Groeneboom, N., E.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Spencer, L. D.; Stanford, S. A.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We describe the all-sky Planck catalogue of clusters and cluster candidates derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect detections using the first 15.5 months of Planck satellite observations. The catalogue contains 1227 entries, making it over six times the size of the Planck Early SZ (ESZ) sample and the largest SZ-selected catalogue to date. It contains 861 confirmed clusters, of which 178 have been confirmed as clusters, mostly through follow-up observations, and a further 683 are previously-known clusters. The remaining 366 have the status of cluster candidates, and we divide them into three classes according to the quality of evidence that they are likely to be true clusters. The Planck SZ catalogue is the deepest all-sky cluster catalogue, with redshifts up to about one, and spans the broadest cluster mass range from (0.1 to 1.6) × 1015 M?. Confirmation of cluster candidates through comparison with existing surveys or cluster catalogues is extensively described, as is the statistical characterization of the catalogue in terms of completeness and statistical reliability. The outputs of the validation process are provided as additional information. This gives, in particular, an ensemble of 813 cluster redshifts, and for all these Planck clusters we also include a mass estimated from a newly-proposed SZ-mass proxy. A refined measure of the SZ Compton parameter for the clusters with X-ray counter-parts is provided, as is an X-ray flux for all the Planck clusters not previously detected in X-ray surveys. The catalogue of SZ sources is available at Planck Legacy Archive and http://www.sciops.esa.int/index.php?page=Planck_Legacy_Archive&project=planck
Higgs boson mass and new physics
Fedor Bezrukov; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl; Mikhail Shaposhnikov
2012-09-27
We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling alpha_s to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure ("one-loop matching--two-loop running"). This results in reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in the Higgs boson mass bounds and predictions, associated with the Standard Model physics, to 1-2 GeV. We find that with the account of existing experimental uncertainties in the mass of the top quark and alpha_s (taken at 2sigma level) the bound reads M_H>=M_min (equality corresponds to the asymptotic safety prediction), where M_min=129+-6 GeV. We argue that the discovery of the SM Higgs boson in this range would be in agreement with the hypothesis of the absence of new energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales, whereas the coincidence of M_H with M_min would suggest that the electroweak scale is determined by Planck physics. In order to clarify the relation between the Fermi and Planck scale a construction of an electron-positron or muon collider with a center of mass energy ~200+200 GeV (Higgs and t-quark factory) would be needed.
Max Planck Institute of Economics Evolutionary Economics Group
Tesfatsion, Leigh
Max Planck Institute of Economics Evolutionary Economics Group Kahlaische Str. 10 07745 Jena Classification B41, B52, C63 *Corresponding author: Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena (Germany), email
Monitoring Physical and Biogeochemical Dynamics of Uranium Bioremediation at the Intermediate Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarrell, A. N.; Figueroa, L. A.; Rodriguez, D.; Haas, A.; Revil, A.
2011-12-01
Subsurface uranium above desired levels for aquifer use categories exists naturally and from historic mining and milling practices. In situ bioimmobilization offers a cost effective alternative to conventional pump and treat methods by stimulating growth of microorganisms that lead to the reduction and precipitation of uranium. Vital to the long-term success of in situ bioimmobilization is the ability to successfully predict and demonstrate treatment effectiveness to assure that regulatory goals are met. However, successfully monitoring the progress over time is difficult and requires long-term stewardship to ensure effective treatment due to complex physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity. In order to better understand these complexities and the resultant effect on uranium immobilization, innovative systematic monitoring approaches with multiple performance indicators must be investigated. A key issue for uranium bioremediation is the long term stability of solid-phase reduction products. It has been shown that a combination of data from electrode-based monitoring, self-potential monitoring, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and water level sensors provides insight for identifying and localizing bioremediation activity and can provide better predictions of deleterious biogeochemical change such as pore clogging. In order to test the proof-of-concept of these sensing techniques and to deconvolve redox activity from other electric potential changing events, an intermediate scale 3D tank experiment has been developed. Well-characterized materials will be packed into the tank and an artificial groundwater will flow across the tank through a constant-head boundary. The experiment will utilize these sensing methods to image the electrical current produced by bacteria as well as indications of when and where electrical activity is occurring, such as with the reduction of radionuclides. This work will expand upon current knowledge by exploring the behavior of uranium bioremediation at an intermediate scale, as well as examining the effects from introducing a flow field in a laboratory setting. Data collected from this experiment will help further characterize which factors are contributing to current increases. Additional information concerning the effect of geochemical changes in porosity may also be observed. The results of this work will allow the creation of a new data set collected from a more comprehensive laboratory monitoring network and will allow stakeholders to develop effective decision-making tools on the long-term remediation management at uranium contaminated sites. The data will also aid in the long-term prediction abilities of a reactive transport models. As in situ bioremediation offers a low cost alternative to ex situ treatment methods, the results of this work will help to both reduce cost at existing sites and enable treatment of sites that otherwise have no clear solution.
Guzina, Bojan
the range of frequencies considered. Keywords: Gradient elasticity, length scales, wave dispersion 1, a multitude of reduced models with a manageable number of length-scale parameters have been proposed
Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics
Ling Yi; Li Xiang [Center for Gravity and Relativity, Department of Physics, Nanchang University, 330047 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu Bo [Center for Gravity and Relativity, Department of Physics, Nanchang University, 330047 (China)
2006-04-15
A modified formulation of the energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such a modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular, this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaches the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result providing a plausible mechanism to treat the remnant of black holes as a candidate for dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shanina, Violetta; Gerke, Kirill; Bichkov, Andrey; Korost, Dmitry
2013-04-01
Alternative renewable energy sources research is getting more and more attention due to its importance for future exploitation and low ecological impacts. Geothermal energy is quite abundant and represents a cheap and easily extractable power source for electricity generation or central heating. For these purposes naturally heated geothermal fluids are extracted via drilled wells; after cooling water is usually pumped back to the reservoir to create a circle, or dumped into local streams. In addition to fundamental interest in understanding natural geothermal processes inside the reservoir, in both cases fluids can significantly alter rock properties around the well or stream bed, which is of great practical and ecological importance for the geothermal industry. Detailed knowledge of these transformations is necessary for power plant construction and well design, geophysical modeling and the prediction of geological properties. Under natural conditions such processes occur within geological time frames and are hard to capture. To accelerate geothermal alteration and model deep reservoir high temperature and pressure conditions we use autoclave laboratory experiments. To represent different geothermal conditions, rock samples are autoclaved using a wide range of parameters: temperature (100-450°C), pressure (16-1000 Bars), solution chemistry (from acidic to alkali artificial solutions and natural geothermal fluids sampled in Kamchatka), duration (from weeks to 1 year). Rock samples represent unaltered andesite-dacite tuffs, basalts and andesite collected at the Kamchatka peninsula. Numerous rock properties, e.g., density (bulk and specific), porosity (total and effective), hygroscopicity, P/S wave velocities, geomechanical characteristics (compressive and tensile strength, elastic modulus), etc., were thoroughly analyzed before and after alteration in laboratory autoclave or natural conditions (in situ). To reveal structural changes, some samples were scanned using X-ray microtomography prior to any alteration and after the experiments. 3D images were used to quantify structural changes and to determine permeability values using a pore-scale modeling approach, as laboratory measurements with through flow are known to have a potential to modify the pore structure. Chemical composition and local mineral formations were investigated using a «Spectroscan Max GV» spectrometer and scanning electron microscope imaging. Our study revealed significant relationships between structure modifications, physical properties and alteration conditions. Main results and conclusions include: 1) initial porosity and its connectivity have substantial effect on alteration dynamics, rocks with higher porosity values and connected pore space exhibit more pronounced alterations; 2) under similar experimental conditions (pressure, temperature, duration) pH plays an important role, acidic conditions result in significant new mineral formation; 3) almost all physical properties, including porosity, permeability, and elastic properties, were seriously modified in the modeled geothermal processes within short (from geological point of view) time frames; 4) X-ray microtomography was found useful for mineral phases distribution and the pore-scale modeling approach was found to be a promising technique to numerically obtain rock properties based on 3D scans; 5) we conclude that alteration and change of reservoir rocks should be taken into account for re-injecting well and geothermal power-plant design.
Evolution of large-scale plasma structures in comets: Kinematics and physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brandt, John C.
1993-01-01
Cometary and solar wind data from December 1985 through April 1986 are presented for the purpose of determining the solar wind conditions associated with comet plasma tail disconnection events (DE's). The cometary data are from The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena (Brandt, Niedner, and Rahe, 1992). In addition, we present the kinematic analysis of 4 DE's, those of Dec. 13.5 and 31.2, 1985, and Feb. 21.7 and 28.7, 1986. The circumstances of these DE's clearly illustrate the need to analyze DE's in groups. In situ solar wind measurements from IMP-8, ICE, and PVO were used to construct the variation of solar wind speed, density, and dynamic pressure during this interval. Data from these same spacecraft plus Vega-1 were used to determine the time of 48 current sheet crossings. These data were fitted to heliospheric current sheet curves extrapolated from the corona into the heliosphere in order to determine the best-fit source surface radius for each Carrington rotation. Comparison of the solar wind conditions and 16 DE's in Halley's comet (the four DE's discussed in this paper and 12 DE's in the literature) leaves little doubt that DE's are associated primarily with crossings of the heliospheric current sheet and apparently not with any other property of the solar wind. If we assume that there is a single or primary physical mechanism and that Halley's DE's are representative, efforts at simulation should concentrate on conditions at current sheet crossings. The mechanisms consistent with this result are sunward magnetic reconnection and tailward magnetic reconnection, if tailward reconnection can be triggered by the sector boundary crossing.
The stability of polysiloxanes incorporating nano-scale physical property modifiers
James P. Lewicki; Mogon Patel; Paul Morrell; John Liggat; Julian Murphy; Richard Pethrick
2008-01-01
Reported here is the synthesis and subsequent characterization of the physical and chemical properties of novel polysiloxane elastomers modified with a series of polyhedraloligomericsilsequioxane (POSS) molecular silicas. The physical properties of the formulated nanocomposite systems have been characterized with a combination of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and confocal Raman microscopy. The results of the physical property
Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP
Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan
2013-04-30
Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi- physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis. The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.
The Ellipsoidal Universe in the Planck Satellite Era
Paolo Cea
2014-05-14
Recent Planck data confirm that the cosmic microwave background displays the quadru-pole power suppression together with large scale anomalies. Progressing from previous results, that focused on the quadrupole anomaly, we strengthen the proposal that the slightly anisotropic ellipsoidal universe may account for these anomalies. We solved at large scales the Boltzmann equation for the photon distribution functions by taking into account both the effects of the inflation produced primordial scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the geometry in the ellipsoidal universe. We showed that the low quadrupole temperature correlations allowed us to fix the eccentricity at decoupling, $e_{\\rm dec} \\, = \\, (0.86 \\, \\pm \\, 0.14) \\, 10^{-2}$, and to constraint the direction of the symmetry axis. We found that the anisotropy of the geometry of the universe contributes only to the large scale temperature anisotropies without affecting the higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum. Moreover, we showed that the ellipsoidal geometry of the universe induces sizable polarization signal at large scales without invoking the reionization scenario. We explicitly evaluated the quadrupole TE and EE correlations. We found an average large scale polarization $\\Delta T_{pol} \\, = \\, (1.20 \\, \\pm \\, 0.38) \\; \\mu K $. We point out that great care is needed in the experimental determination of the large-scale polarization correlations since the average temperature polarization could be misinterpreted as foreground emission leading, thereby, to a considerable underestimate of the cosmic microwave background polarization signal.
PM Max-Planck-Institut fur biologische Kybernetik
- tives was investigated using a 3D-computer model in which observers made simulated transla- tionalPM Max-Planck-Institut fuÂ¨r biologische Kybernetik SpemannstraÃ?e 38 72076 TuÂ¨bingen Germany from the Max-Planck Gesellchaft. 1 Max-Planck-Institute fur biologisch Kybernetik, E mail: chris
Max Planck InstItute for Molecular GenetIcs
Spang, Rainer
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Â· Gene Expression and 3D-Reconstruction (Ralf SpÃ¶rleMax Planck InstItute for Molecular GenetIcs research report 2006 Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin #12;Imprint | Research Report 2006 Published by the Max Planck Institute for Molecular
Bridging Fusion and Space and Astrophysical Plasma Physics
Bridging Fusion and Space and Astrophysical Plasma Physics Amitava Bhattacharjee Theory Department Planck-Princeton Plasma Physics Cent · Some of these ideas can intersect and leverage the work of the recently established Max Planck-Princeton Plasma Physics Center. #12;Opportunities in PPPL · Space Plasma
MaxPlanckInstitut f ur Mathematik
in quantum information processing such as key distribution in the presence of several eavesÂ droppers. They o#cient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuitsMaxÂPlanckÂInstitut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Geometry of Quantum
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
in quantum information processing such as key distribution in the presence of several eaves- droppers quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuitsMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Geometry of Quantum
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
of Products Contain a Product of Mixtures? by Guido MontÂ´ufar and Jason Morton Preprint no.: 98 2014 #12;#12;When Does a Mixture of Products Contain a Product of Mixtures? Guido F. MontÂ´ufar1,2 and Jason Morton2 1 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. 2
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
inequality has been derived for detecting entanglement of two-qubit states [27]. In Ref. [28] based-copy measurement of concurrence for two-qubit pure states has been already realized experimentally [22Max-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Entanglement Detection
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
state, analytical formula of FEF for two-qubit states has been derived by using the method of LagrangeMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Complete Entanglement 2012 #12;#12;Complete Entanglement Witness for Quantum Teleportation Ming-Jing Zhao1 , Shao-Ming Fei1
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
relation of complementary local observables for two-qubit systems [7]. For a two- level systemMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Entanglement detection Preprint no.: 10 2012 #12;#12;Entanglement detection and lower bound of convex-roof extension of negativity
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig The EpsteinÂGlaser approach #12; #12; The EpsteinÂGlaser approach to pQFT: Graphs and Hopf algebras Alexander Lange alange at investigating perturbative quantum field theory (pQFT) in the approach of Epstein and Glaser (EG) and
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
asymptotic analysis of the thermomechanical and electromagnetic bulk properties of a flat domainMaxPlanckInstitut f¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig 3D2D asymptotic analysis; 3D2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF AN OPTIMAL DESIGN PROBLEM FOR THIN FILMS Irene Fonseca y & Gilles
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
to 220 Ã?220 Ã?220 points in 3D. Keywords: Toeplitz matrices, circulant matrices, convolutionMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Multilevel Toeplitz matrices of the Trimester Program on Analysis and Numerics for High Dimensional Problems of HIM (Bonn). Max
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in Molecular Theory of 3D Solvation Gennady N. Chuev1,2 1 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Molecular Theory of 3D Solvation by Gennady Chuev Preprint no.: 85 2011 #12;#12;Real-Space Mesh Techniques computation of the 3D solvation in molecular liquids, we develop a new computational approach based on real
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Fast and Accurate 3D Tensor and Biochemistry, Freie UniversitÂ¨at Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin, Germany (dirk.andrae@fu-berlin.de). Max Andrae, and Boris N. Khoromskij Preprint no.: 4 2012 #12;#12;Fast and Accurate 3D Tensor Calculation
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for computing 3D Solvation Gennady N. Chuev1,2 1 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences for computing 3D Solvation by Gennady Chuev Preprint no.: 86 2011 #12;#12;Chebyshev-Galerkin algorithm Academy of Science, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290, Russia (Dated: December 19, 2011) To solve 3D
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
; A NEW PROOF OF THE CHEEGERÂGROMOLL SOUL CONJECTURE AND THE TAKEUCHI THEOREM Jianguo Cao and MeiÂChi Shaw with nonnegative curvature. Such a new monotone principle leads to a new proof of the CheegerÂGromoll soulMax-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig A new proof of Cheeger
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
form. This suggests that there should be black hole solutions of the coupled EDM equations for large of the EDM equations. In order to understand if and how Dirac particles can form black holes, we studyMaxÂPlanckÂInstitut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig NonÂexistence of black hole
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on corresponding to the Laplacian in 3D, i.e. (V)(x) := 1 4 (y) |x- y| dy, x . (1) Samuel Ferraz-Leite MaxMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Stabilization Ferraz-Leite Abstract We consider the reduced model for thin-film devices in stationary micro- magnetics
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig A hierarchy of plate models@maths.warwick.ac.uk and Centre for Mathematical Sciences TU Munich Boltzmannstr. 3 D Â 85747 Garching, Germany gf behaviour of (exact or approximate) minÂ imizers of 3D nonlinear elasticity for plates of thickness h
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
bending plate, by means of -convergence, from 3d nonlinear elasticity. The pioneering papers in derivaMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig A note on the derivation of homogenized bending plate model by Igor VelciÂ´c Preprint no.: 34 2013 #12;#12;A NOTE ON THE DERIVATION
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. Introduction 1 1.1. Homogenization formula and homogenization effects 5 1.2. Relation to 3d nonlinearMax-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Homogenization the periodic homogenization of the nonlinear plate model intro- duced by Kirchhoff in 1850. In that model
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Savostyanov Preprint no.: 10 2013 #12;#12;Alternating minimal energy methods for linear systems in higherMax-Planck-Institut f¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Alternating minimal energy methods for linear systems in higher dimensions. Part I: SPD systems by Sergey Dolgov and Dmitry
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;#12;Alternating minimal energy methods for linear systems in higher dimensions. Part II: Faster algorithm positive definite linear systems in higher dimensions. In [9] this problem is approached by alternatingMax-Planck-Institut f¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Alternating minimal energy
Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck
Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, Alessandro [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Raffelt, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: archi@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)
2013-10-01
We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit m{sub a} < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H{sub 0} measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on m{sub a} has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H{sub 0} and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m{sub ?} < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.
Herschel and Planck contacts STFC contact
Herschel and Planck contacts STFC contact Richard Holdaway Director STFC Space Science Director of Space Science & Exploration Tel: (0)1793 44 2174 mobile: 07901 514969 david. Christine Brockley-Blatt MSSL SPIRE Project Manager University College London Mullard Space Science
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
for robot control by Frank Pasemann, Ulrich Steinmetz, Martin Hulse and Bruno Lara Preprint no.: 20 2001 #12;#12;Evolving Brain Structures for Robot Control Frank Pasemann1 2 , Ulrich Steinmetz1 , Martin Hulse2 , and Bruno Lara2 1 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, D-04103 Leipzig 2 Theorie
Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter, and Baryon Asymmetry via TeV-Scale Physics without Fine-Tuning
Aoki, Mayumi [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Seto, Osamu [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)
2009-02-06
We propose an extended version of the standard model, in which neutrino oscillation, dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe can be simultaneously explained by the TeV-scale physics without assuming a large hierarchy among the mass scales. Tiny neutrino masses are generated at the three-loop level due to the exact Z{sub 2} symmetry, by which the stability of the dark matter candidate is guaranteed. The extra Higgs doublet is required not only for the tiny neutrino masses but also for successful electroweak baryogenesis. The model provides discriminative predictions especially in Higgs phenomenology, so that it is testable at current and future collider experiments.
Neutrino mass, dark matter, and Baryon asymmetry via TeV-scale physics without fine-tuning.
Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Seto, Osamu
2009-02-01
We propose an extended version of the standard model, in which neutrino oscillation, dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the Universe can be simultaneously explained by the TeV-scale physics without assuming a large hierarchy among the mass scales. Tiny neutrino masses are generated at the three-loop level due to the exact Z2 symmetry, by which the stability of the dark matter candidate is guaranteed. The extra Higgs doublet is required not only for the tiny neutrino masses but also for successful electroweak baryogenesis. The model provides discriminative predictions especially in Higgs phenomenology, so that it is testable at current and future collider experiments. PMID:19257506
A Discussion on Possible Effects of the Barbero-Immirzi Parameter at the TeV-scale Particle Physics
Nelson Panza; Hilário Rodrigues; Denis Cocuroci; José Abdala Helayël-Neto
2014-11-21
In this paper, we analyse a curvature- and torsion-square quantum gravity action with an additional Holst term minimally coupled to a massive Dirac field in four dimensions. The main purpose here is to try to estimate and compare the value of the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter with its currently known results. To do that, we work out the physical mass of the fermion as a function of this parameter in a perturbative one-loop calculation, assuming the scenario of a physics at the TeV-scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaffhauser, Dian
2009-01-01
The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…
Quantum Signature of Cosmological Large Scale Structures
Salvatore Capozziello; Salvatore De Martino; Silvio De Siena; Fabrizio Illuminati
1998-09-17
We demonstrate that to all large scale cosmological structures where gravitation is the only overall relevant interaction assembling the system (e.g. galaxies), there is associated a characteristic unit of action per particle whose order of magnitude coincides with the Planck action constant $h$. This result extends the class of physical systems for which quantum coherence can act on macroscopic scales (as e.g. in superconductivity) and agrees with the absence of screening mechanisms for the gravitational forces, as predicted by some renormalizable quantum field theories of gravity. It also seems to support those lines of thought invoking that large scale structures in the Universe should be connected to quantum primordial perturbations as requested by inflation, that the Newton constant should vary with time and distance and, finally, that gravity should be considered as an effective interaction induced by quantization.
Falge, Eva
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Rede des Präsidenten zur Festversammlung 2011 1 62. Jahresversammlung der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Rede des Präsidenten, Prof. Peter Gruss zur Festversammlung der Max #12;Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Rede des Präsidenten zur Festversammlung 2011 2 Wissenschaftler
DBI Galileon inflation in the light of Planck 2015
Celia Escamilla-Rivera; K. Sravan Kumar; Juan C. Bueno Sanchez; Paulo Vargas Moniz; Joao Marto; .
2015-04-06
In this paper we consider a DBI Galileon (DBIG) inflationary model where interesting solutions arise when we constrain its parameter space using Planck 2015 and BICEP2/Keck array and Planck (BKP) joint analysis. In particular, we perform a potential independent analysis by only using the background equations. We focus our attention on inflationary solutions characterized by a warp factor and a constant and varying speed of sound. Phenomenologically, we impose bounds on stringy aspects of the model such as warp factor $f$ and induced gravity parameter $\\tilde{m}$ using the current CMB bounds on spectral index $n_{s}$ and tensor to scalar ratio $r$. In all the cases, we consider the speed of sound restricted to the interval $c_{\\mathcal{D}}\\lesssim1$ in order to avoid large non-Gaussianities. Also, we compute quantities as the energy scale of inflation, mass of the inflaton and how these can change with different warped geometries. In this scenario we find inflation happens at GUT scale with tensor to scalar ratio as low as $\\mathcal{O}\\left(10^{-3}\\right)$. In the case with constant speed of sound and warp factor we find that inflation is driven by a tachyon field, where as in the case with constantly varying warp factor inflaton is a non-canonical scalar field with mass scales $m_{\\varphi}\\sim10^{7}$Tev. In addition, we study the allowed range of tensor tilt which varies independently. Finally, we test the standard inflationary consistency relation $\\left(r\\simeq-8n_{t}\\right)$ against the latest bounds on tensor tilt from the combined results of BKP+Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Waves Observatory (LIGO), finding that DBIG inflation parameter space is consistent with latest bonds on $\\left(n_{s},r\\right)$ and do not predict a blue tilt for the tensor power spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Fer, I.; Renfrew, I. A.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernström, M.; Lüpkes, C.; Nygård, T.; Notz, D.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Cheng, B.; Birnbaum, G.; Gerland, S.; Chechin, D.; Gascard, J. C.
2014-09-01
The Arctic climate system includes numerous highly interactive small-scale physical processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. During and since the International Polar Year 2007-2009, significant advances have been made in understanding these processes. Here, these recent advances are reviewed, synthesized, and discussed. In atmospheric physics, the primary advances have been in cloud physics, radiative transfer, mesoscale cyclones, coastal, and fjordic processes as well as in boundary layer processes and surface fluxes. In sea ice and its snow cover, advances have been made in understanding of the surface albedo and its relationships with snow properties, the internal structure of sea ice, the heat and salt transfer in ice, the formation of superimposed ice and snow ice, and the small-scale dynamics of sea ice. For the ocean, significant advances have been related to exchange processes at the ice-ocean interface, diapycnal mixing, double-diffusive convection, tidal currents and diurnal resonance. Despite this recent progress, some of these small-scale physical processes are still not sufficiently understood: these include wave-turbulence interactions in the atmosphere and ocean, the exchange of heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface, and the mechanical weakening of sea ice. Many other processes are reasonably well understood as stand-alone processes but the challenge is to understand their interactions with and impacts and feedbacks on other processes. Uncertainty in the parameterization of small-scale processes continues to be among the greatest challenges facing climate modelling, particularly in high latitudes. Further improvements in parameterization require new year-round field campaigns on the Arctic sea ice, closely combined with satellite remote sensing studies and numerical model experiments.
Gresswell, Robert E.; Liss, W.J.; Larson, Gary L.; Bartlein, P.J.
1997-01-01
Individual spawning populations of Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri differ in life history characteristics associated with broad spatial and temporal environmental patterns, but relationships between specific life history characteristics of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and physical aspects of the environment are poorly understood. We examined basin-scale physical characteristics of tributary drainages and subbasins of Yellowstone Lake in relation to timing (peak and duration) of lacustrinea??adfluvial Yellowstone cutthroat trout spawning migrations and mean length of cutthroat trout spawners in 27 tributaries to the lake. Stream drainages varied along gradients that can be described by mean aspect, mean elevation, and drainage and stream size. Approximately two-thirds of the variation in the timing of the peak of the annual cutthroat trout spawning migrations and average length of spawners was explained by third-order polynomial regressions with mean aspect and basin area as predictor variables. Because most cutthroat trout ascend tributaries soon after peak runoff, it appears that the influence of basin-scale physical variables on the date of the migration peak is manifested by the pattern of stream discharge. Spawner length does not seem to be a direct function of stream size in the Yellowstone Lake watershed, and aspect of the tributary basin seems to have a greater influence on the body length of cutthroat trout spawners than does stream size. Mechanisms that explain how the interaction of basin-scale physical variables influence spawner length were not investigated directly; however, we found evidence of distinct aggregations of cutthroat trout that are related to physical and limnological characteristics of the lake subbasins, and there is some indication that lake residence may be related to tributary location.
Aoki, Mayumi [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kanemura, Shinya [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Seto, Osamu [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)
2009-08-01
We discuss some details of the model proposed [M. Aoki, S. Kanemura, and O. Seto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 051805 (2009)], in which neutrino oscillation, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry of the Universe would be simultaneously explained by the TeV-scale physics without introducing very high mass scales. An exact discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry is introduced, under which new particle contents (a real singlet scalar field, a pair of charged singlet scalar fields, and TeV-scale right-handed neutrinos) are assigned to have odd quantum number, whereas ordinary gauge fields, quarks and leptons, and two Higgs doublets are even. Tiny neutrino masses are generated at the three-loop level due to the exact Z{sub 2} symmetry, by which stability of the dark matter candidate is also guaranteed. The extra Higgs doublet is required not only for the tiny neutrino masses but also for successful electroweak baryogenesis. We discuss phenomenological properties of the model, and find that there are successful scenarios in which the above three problems are solved simultaneously under the constraint from current experimental data. We then discuss predictions in such scenarios at ongoing and future experiments. It turns out that the model provides discriminative predictions especially in Higgs physics and dark matter physics, so that it is testable in the near future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Seto, Osamu
2009-08-01
We discuss some details of the model proposed [M. Aoki, S. Kanemura, and O. Seto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 051805 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.051805], in which neutrino oscillation, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry of the Universe would be simultaneously explained by the TeV-scale physics without introducing very high mass scales. An exact discrete Z2 symmetry is introduced, under which new particle contents (a real singlet scalar field, a pair of charged singlet scalar fields, and TeV-scale right-handed neutrinos) are assigned to have odd quantum number, whereas ordinary gauge fields, quarks and leptons, and two Higgs doublets are even. Tiny neutrino masses are generated at the three-loop level due to the exact Z2 symmetry, by which stability of the dark matter candidate is also guaranteed. The extra Higgs doublet is required not only for the tiny neutrino masses but also for successful electroweak baryogenesis. We discuss phenomenological properties of the model, and find that there are successful scenarios in which the above three problems are solved simultaneously under the constraint from current experimental data. We then discuss predictions in such scenarios at ongoing and future experiments. It turns out that the model provides discriminative predictions especially in Higgs physics and dark matter physics, so that it is testable in the near future.
Radiation Hydrodynamics Scaling Laws in High Energy Density Physics and Laboratory Astrophysics
Emeric Falize; Serge Bouquet; Claire Michaut
2008-05-20
In this paper, radiating fluids scaling laws are studied. We focus on optically thin and optically thick regimes which are relevant for both astrophysics and laboratory experiments. By using homothetic Lie groups, we obtain the scaling laws, the similarity properties and the number of free parameters which allow to rescale experiments in the two astrophyscial situations.
Physics on the Smallest Scales: An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sprenger, Martin; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus
2012-01-01
Many modern theories which try to unify gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, such as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: the existence of additional space dimensions; the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide…
Adolescents' Self-Efficacy to Overcome Barriers to Physical Activity Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dwyer, John J. M.; Chulak, Tala; Maitland, Scott; Allison, Kenneth R.; Lysy, Daria C.; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Sheeshka, Judy
2012-01-01
This paper describes a revised measure of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity in a sample of 484 high school students in Toronto, Ontario. The students had a mean age of 15.3 years. Principal axis factoring with oblique rotation yielded five factors: self-efficacy to overcome internal, harassment, physical…
Murray Gibson
2010-01-08
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker–Planck equations
Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali
2009-01-01
The Mori–Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker–Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori–Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems. PMID:19549838
NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.
1973-01-01
NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.
The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly
Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008
2010-01-01
The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2014-10-01
Theoretical physics is the first step for the development of science and technology. For more than 100 years it has delivered new and sophisticated discoveries which have changed human views of their surroundings and universe. Theoretical physics has also revealed that the governing law in our universe is not deterministic, and it is undoubtedly the foundation of our modern civilization. Contrary to its importance, research in theoretical physics is not well advanced in some developing countries such as Indonesia. This workshop provides the formal meeting in Indonesia devoted to the field of theoretical physics and is organized to cover all subjects of theoretical physics as well as nonlinear phenomena in order to create a gathering place for the theorists in Indonesia and surrounding countries, to motivate young physicists to keep doing active researches in the field and to encourage constructive communication among the community members. Following the success of the tenth previous meetings in this conference series, the eleventh conference was held in Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Surakarta, Indonesia on 15 February 2014. In addition, the conference was proceeded by School of Advance Physics at Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta, on 16–17 February 2014. The conference is expected to provide distinguished experts and students from various research fields of theoretical physics and nonlinear phenomena in Indonesia as well as from other continents the opportunities to present their works and to enhance contacts among them. The introduction to the conference is continued in the pdf.
Physical understanding of hot carrier injection variability in deeply scaled nMOSFETs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Lijuan; Ji, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhaoxing; Liao, Yiming; Yan, Feng; Song, Yongliang; Guo, Qiang
2014-01-01
The saturation current variability ?(?Idsat) and lifetime variability in hot carrier injection (HCI) have been investigated for deeply scaled nMOSFETs. It is found that both of them are getting worse with scaling down. The statistical analysis of the large data sets from various CMOS sizes shows that ?(?Idsat) is dominated by the total number of Poisson-distributed defects generated by HCI stress and the length (L) and width (W) of these devices. We attempt to use a single parameter to accurately describe HCI variability in deeply scaled nMOSFETs.
Churchill, Nathan W; Cimprich, Bernadine; Askren, Mary K; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Jung, Mi Sook; Peltier, Scott; Berman, Marc G
2015-03-01
Stressful life events are related to negative outcomes, including physical and psychological manifestations of distress, and behavioral deficits. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer report impaired attention and working memory prior to adjuvant therapy, which may be induced by distress. In this article, we examine whether brain dynamics show systematic changes due to the distress associated with cancer diagnosis. We hypothesized that impaired working memory is associated with suppression of "long-memory" neuronal dynamics; we tested this by measuring scale-free ("fractal") brain dynamics, quantified by the Hurst exponent (H). Fractal scaling refers to signals that do not occur at a specific time-scale, possessing a spectral power curve P(f)?f-?; they are "long-memory" processes, with significant autocorrelations. In a BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we scanned three groups during a working memory task: women scheduled to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy and aged-matched controls. Surprisingly, patients' BOLD signal exhibited greater H with increasing intensity of anticipated treatment. However, an analysis of H and functional connectivity against self-reported measures of psychological distress (Worry, Anxiety, Depression) and physical distress (Fatigue, Sleep problems) revealed significant interactions. The modulation of (Worry, Anxiety) versus (Fatigue, Sleep Problems, Depression) showed the strongest effect, where higher worry and lower fatigue was related to reduced H in regions involved in visuospatial search, attention, and memory processing. This is also linked to decreased functional connectivity in these brain regions. Our results indicate that the distress associated with cancer diagnosis alters BOLD scaling, and H is a sensitive measure of the interaction between psychological versus physical distress. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1077-1092, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25388082
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tréguer, Paul; Goberville, Eric; Barrier, Nicolas; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Morin, Pascal; Bozec, Yann; Rimmelin-Maury, Peggy; Czamanski, Marie; Grossteffan, Emilie; Cariou, Thierry; Répécaud, Michel; Quéméner, Loic
2014-11-01
There is now a strong scientific consensus that coastal marine systems of Western Europe are highly sensitive to the combined effects of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change. However, it still remains challenging to assess the spatial and temporal scales at which climate influence operates. While large-scale hydro-climatic indices, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) or the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) and the weather regimes such as the Atlantic Ridge (AR), are known to be relevant predictors of physical processes, changes in coastal waters can also be related to local hydro-meteorological and geochemical forcing. Here, we study the temporal variability of physical and chemical characteristics of coastal waters located at about 48°N over the period 1998-2013 using (1) sea surface temperature, (2) sea surface salinity and (3) nutrient concentration observations for two coastal sites located at the outlet of the Bay of Brest and off Roscoff, (4) river discharges of the major tributaries close to these two sites and (5) regional and local precipitation data over the region of interest. Focusing on the winter months, we characterize the physical and chemical variability of these coastal waters and document changes in both precipitation and river runoffs. Our study reveals that variability in coastal waters is connected to the large-scale North Atlantic atmospheric circulation but is also partly explained by local river influences. Indeed, while the NAO is strongly related to changes in sea surface temperature at the Brest and Roscoff sites, the EAP and the AR have a major influence on precipitations, which in turn modulate river discharges that impact sea surface salinity at the scale of the two coastal stations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayalew, Tibebu B.; Krajewski, Witold F.; Mantilla, Ricardo
2014-09-01
We have conducted extensive hydrologic simulation experiments in order to investigate how the flood scaling parameters in the power-law relationship Q(A)=?A?, between peak-discharges resulting from a single rainfall-runoff event Q(A) and upstream area A, change as a function of rainfall, runoff coefficient (Cr) that we use as a proxy for catchment antecedent moisture state, hillslope overland flow velocity (vh), and channel flow velocity (vc), all of which are variable in space. We use a physically-based distributed numerical framework that is based on an accurate representation of the drainage network and apply it to the Cedar River basin (A=16,861 km), which is located in Eastern Iowa, USA. Our work is motivated by seminal empirical studies that show that the flood scaling parameters ? and ? change from event to event. Uncovering the underlying physical mechanism behind the event-to-event variability of ? and ? in terms of catchment physical processes and rainfall properties would significantly improve our ability to predict peak-discharge in ungauged basins (PUB). The simulation results demonstrate how both ? and ? are systematically controlled by the interplay among rainfall duration T, spatially averaged rainfall intensity E[I], as well as E[Cr], E[vh], and vc. Specifically, we found that the value of ? generally decreases with increasing values of E[I], E[Cr], and E[vh], whereas its value generally increases with increasing T. Moreover, while ? is primarily controlled by E[I], it increases with increasing E[Cr] and E[vh]. These results highlight the fact that the flood scaling parameters are able to be estimated from the aforementioned catchment rainfall and physical variables, which can be measured either directly or indirectly.
Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated by sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range ? < 20, most notably at 30 GHz, and is probably caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibration uncertainties.
Planck constraints on neutrino isocurvature density perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2014-10-01
The recent cosmic microwave background data from the Planck satellite experiment, when combined with Hubble Space Telescope determinations of the Hubble constant, are compatible with a larger, nonstandard number of relativistic degrees of freedom at recombination, parametrized by the neutrino effective number Neff . In the curvaton scenario, a larger value for Neff could arise from a nonzero neutrino chemical potential connected to residual neutrino isocurvature density (NID) perturbations after the decay of the curvaton field, the component of which is parametrized by the amplitude ?NID . Here we present new constraints on Neff and ?NID from an analysis of recent cosmological data. We find that the Planck+WMAP polarization data set does not show any indication of a NID component (severely constraining its amplitude), and that current indications for a nonstandard Neff are further relaxed.
Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing
Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dunkley, J; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 061801 (2012) Polymer-mediated entropic forces between scale-free objects
Kantor, Yacov
/h. The amplitude A is universal and can be related to exponents governing the anomalous scaling of polymer, with measurements carried out in nearly biological conditions [12,13]. The main thrust of current experimental
Effect of finite computational domain on turbulence scaling law in both physical and spectral spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye
1998-11-01
The well-known translation between the power law of the energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.
Effect of Finite Computational Domain on Turbulence Scaling Law in Both Physical and Spectral Spaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye
1998-01-01
The well-known translation between the power law of energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.
High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.
Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul
2014-08-01
An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250
High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems
Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul
2014-01-01
An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250
Large scale effects of localized physical heterogeneity on environmental processes (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomann, E.; Appuhamillage, T.; Bokil, V. A.; Waymire, E. C.; Wood, B. D.
2010-12-01
Fragmented or network like environments serve as examples of spatial domains in which sharp discontinuities in some of the physical/biological characteristics are naturally encountered. Modeling dispersion in such environments require a careful understanding of the relevant physical/biological processes to capture the appropriate interface conditions and can lead to surprising consequences in the structure of basic quantities of interest to environmental scientists. In this talk, a survey of examples will be presented. A feature common to these examples is that the mathematical modeling leads to partial differential equations with discontinuous coefficients. The conditions on the interface depend on the particular application affecting the behavior of physically relevant quantities. Examples from hydrology, ecology and physical oceanography will be presented to illustrate these concepts and present recent related results on effects of sharp heterogeneity. This talk is based on joint work with Thilanka Appuhamilage, Vrushali Bokil, Ed Waymire and Brian Wood.
Development of a Fast and Detailed Model of Urban-Scale Chemical and Physical Processing
Prinn, Ronald G.
A reduced form metamodel has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...
Steven H. Voldman
1999-01-01
This paper discusses state-of-the-art electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in advanced semiconductor technologies and emerging technologies. ESD physics, semiconductor process issues, device and circuit simulation, circuits, and devices are examined
Swanson, Molly E. C. (Molly Ellen Crosby)
2008-01-01
Particles have tremendous potential as astronomical messengers, and conversely, studying the universe as a whole also teaches us about particle physics. This thesis encompasses both of these research directions. Many models ...
Physical modeling of wind turbine generators in a small scale analog system
Wang, Xuntuo
2014-01-01
This project represents the physical modeling and experimental test of a Doubly-fed Induction Machine (DFIM), in order to substantially analyze the characteristic behaviors of wind turbines and its use in the micro-grid ...
Efficiency of Parallel Machine for Large-Scale Simulation in Computational Physics
Hiroshi Mizuseki; Keivan Esfarjani; Zhi-qiang Li; Kaoru Ohno; Yoko Akiyama; Kyoko Ichinoseki; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe
1997-01-01
In this paper, we report on the efficiency of parallelization for atomistic-level large-scale simulations. Tight-binding and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on a supercomputer HITAC S-3800\\/380 and on a parallel computer HITAC SR2201. We compare the efficiencies of the two different machines based on large scale simulations to investigate advantages and disadvantages of parallel architecture.
Matthew Davis; Selena M. Sagan; John P. Pezacki; David J. Evans; Peter Simmonds
2008-01-01
By the analysis of thermodynamic RNA secondary structure predictions, we previously obtained evidence for evolutionarily conserved large-scale ordering of RNA virus genomes (P. Simmonds, A. Tuplin, and D. J. Evans, RNA 10:1337-1351, 2004). Genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) was widely distributed in many animal and plant viruses, much greater in extent than RNA structures required for viral translation or replication,
North-South non-Gaussian asymmetry in Planck CMB maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernui, A.; Oliveira, A. F.; Pereira, T. S.
2014-10-01
We report the results of a statistical analysis performed with the four foreground-cleaned Planck maps by means of a suitably defined local-variance estimator. Our analysis shows a clear dipolar structure in Planck's variance map pointing in the direction (l,b) simeq (220°,-32°), thus consistent with the North-South asymmetry phenomenon. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous findings, removing the CMB quadrupole and octopole makes the asymmetry stronger. Our results show a maximal statistical significance, of 98.1% CL, in the scales ranging from l=4 to l=500. Additionally, through exhaustive analyses of the four foreground-cleaned and individual frequency Planck maps, we find unlikely that residual foregrounds could be causing this dipole variance asymmetry. Moreover, we find that the dipole gets lower amplitudes for larger masks, evidencing that most of the contribution to the variance dipole comes from a region near the galactic plane. Finally, our results are robust against different foreground cleaning procedures, different Planck masks, pixelization parameters, and the addition of inhomogeneous real noise.
Teleportation fidelity as a probe of sub-Planck phase-space structure
A. J. Scott; Carlton M. Caves
2008-01-08
We investigate the connection between sub-Planck structure in the Wigner function and the output fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation protocols. When the teleporting parties share a two-mode squeezed state as an entangled resource, high fidelity in the output state requires a squeezing large enough that the smallest sub-Planck structures in an input pure state are teleported faithfully. We formulate this relationship, which leads to an explicit relation between the fine-scale structure in the Wigner function and large-scale extent of the Wigner function, and we treat specific examples, including coherent, number, and random states and states produced by chaotic dynamics. We generalize the pure-state results to teleportation of mixed states.
Lee, Miyoung; Peterson, Jana J; Dixon, Alicia
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy/Social Support for Activity for persons with Intellectual Disability (SE/SS-AID) scales developed by Peterson, Peterson, Lowe, & Nothwehr (2009). A total of 146 participants with intellectual disabilities completed 6 self-efficacy (SE) items and 18 social support (SS) items. After applying the Rasch rating model, all SE items and 17 SS items fit the model and measured a single-construct. Thus, it was able to determine the item difficulty and person's level of SE and SS for physical activity by calculated logit scores. No items showed evidence for differential functioning by the level of intellectual disability. Model fit of SS subscales (e.g., staff, family, and peer) showed good-fit as well. In conclusion, SE and SS scales for physical activity can be measured more accurately for persons with intellectual disabilities by using the modified scales validated in this study. PMID:20363109
MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes
Yanling Zhang; Yong Zhang; Jun Adachi; Jesper V. Olsen; Rong Shi; Gustavo De Souza; Erica Pasini; Leonard J. Foster; Boris Macek; Alexandre Zougman; Chanchal Kumar; Jacek R. Wisniewski; Jan Wang; Matthias Mann
2007-01-01
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of
Millimeter observations of planetary nebulae. A contribution to the Planck pre-launch catalogue
G. Umana; P. Leto; C. Trigilio; C. S. Buemi; P. Manzitto; S. Toscano; S. Dolei; L. Cerrigone
2008-01-01
Aims: We present 43 GHz (7 mm) observations of a sample of radio-bright Planetary nebulae aimed to obtain, together with far-IR measurements (IRAS), reliable estimates of the fluxes emitted in the millimetre and sub-millimetre band, and, therefore, to test their detectability by the forthcoming ESA PLANCK mission. This spectral range, even though very important to constrain the physics of circumstellar
Quasilinear simulation of auroral kilometric radiation by a relativistic Fokker-Planck code
Matsuda, Y.
1991-01-01
An intense terrestrial radiation called the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be generated by cyclotron maser instability. We study a quasilinear evolution of this instability by means of a two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code which treats waves and distributions self-consistently, including radiation loss and electron source and sink. We compare the distributions and wave amplitude with spacecraft observations to elucidate physical processes involved. 3 refs., 1 fig.
Planck-scale modified dispersion relations and Finsler geometry
Girelli, F.; Liberati, S.; Sindoni, L. [SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)
2007-03-15
A common feature of all quantum gravity (QG) phenomenology approaches is to consider a modification of the mass-shell condition of the relativistic particle to take into account quantum gravitational effects. The framework for such approaches is therefore usually set up in the cotangent bundle (phase space). However it was recently proposed that this phenomenology could be associated with an energy dependent geometry that has been coined 'rainbow metric'. We show here that the latter actually corresponds to a Finsler geometry, the natural generalization of Riemannian geometry. We provide in this way a new and rigorous framework to study the geometrical structure possibly arising in the semiclassical regime of QG. We further investigate the symmetries in this new context and discuss their role in alternative scenarios like Lorentz violation in emergent spacetimes or deformed special relativity-like models.
Inquiring Minds Want to Know: Progress Report on SCALE-UP Physics at Penn State Erie
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Jonathan
2008-03-01
SCALE-UP (Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Programs) is a ``studio'' approach to learning developed by Bob Beichner at North Carolina State University. SCALE-UP was adapted for teaching and learning in the introductory calculus-based mechanics course at Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, starting in Spring 2007. We are presently doing quantitative and qualitative research on using inquiry-based learning with first year college students, in particular how it effects female students and students from groups that are traditionally under-represented in STEM fields. Using field notes of observations of the classes, focus groups, and the collection of quantitative data, the feedback generated by the research is also being used to improve the delivery of the course, and in the planning of adopting SCALE-UP to the second semester course on electromagnetism in the Fall 2008 semester.
Construction of large-scale simulation codes using ALPAL (A Livermore Physics Applications Language)
Cook, G.
1990-10-01
A Livermore Physics Applications Language (ALPAL) is a new computer tool that is designed to leverage the abilities and creativity of computational scientist. Some of the ways that ALPAL provides this leverage are: first, it eliminates many sources of errors; second, it permits building code modules with far greater speed than is otherwise possible; third, it provides a means of specifying almost any numerical algorithm; and fourth, it is a language that is close to a journal-style presentation of physics models and numerical methods for solving them. 13 refs., 9 figs.
Reconstruction of the primordial power spectra with Planck and BICEP2
Bin Hu; Jian-Wei Hu; Zong-Kuan Guo; Rong-Gen Cai
2014-04-22
By using the cubic spline interpolation method, we reconstruct the shape of the primordial scalar and tensor power spectra from the recently released {\\it Planck} temperature and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background data. We find that the vanishing scalar index running ($\\dd n_s/\\dd\\ln k$) model is strongly disfavored at more than $3\\sigma$ confidence level on the $k=0.0002$ Mpc$^{-1}$ scale. Furthermore, the power-law parameterization gives a blue-tilt tensor spectrum, no matter using only the first 5 bandpowers $n_t = 1.20^{+0.56}_{-0.64} (95% {\\rm CL})$ or the full 9 bandpowers $n_t = 1.24^{+0.51}_{-0.58} (95% {\\rm CL})$ of BICEP2 data sets. Unlike the large tensor-to-scalar ratio value ($r\\sim0.20$) under the scale-invariant tensor spectrum assumption, our interpolation approach gives $r_{0.002} < 0.060 (95% {\\rm CL})$ by using the first 5 bandpowers of BICEP2 data. After comparing the results with/without BICEP2 data, we find that {\\it Planck} temperature with small tensor amplitude signals and BICEP2 polarization data with large tensor amplitude signals dominate the tensor spectrum reconstruction on the large and small scales, respectively. Hence, the resulting blue tensor tilt actually reflects the tension between {\\it Planck} and BICEP2 data.
The Nature of Light: I. A Historical Survey Up to the Pre-Planck Era and Implications for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oon, Pey Tee; Subramaniam, R.
2009-01-01
The objective of this article is to contribute to the scant literature that exists on historical developments on the nature of light. It traces the nature of light from the times of the ancient Greeks to the classical theories prior to Planck. The development of thought that characterizes the evolution of a concept in physics over time affords…
THE CHIP-SCALE ATOMIC CLOCK - LOW-POWER PHYSICS PACKAGE
R. Lutwak; J. Deng; W. Riley; M. Varghese; J. Leblanc; G. Tepolt; M. Mescher
2004-01-01
We have undertaken a development effort to produce a prototype chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC). The design goals include short-term stability, 2 \\/ 1 10 y 10 6 ) ( ? ? × < ? ? ? , with a total power consumption of less than 30 mW and overall device volume < 1 cm3. The stringent power requirement dominates the
Using the RPE-Talk Scale to Individualize Physical Activity for Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nye, Susan B.; Todd, M. Kent
2013-01-01
For some students, self-selecting a pace during exercise may not provide enough of a physical challenge. Others push themselves so hard that they tire out before they can experience the benefits of exercise. In order to improve self-monitoring of exercise intensity, a variety of tools using the perception of effort and the ability to talk while…
Theobroma cacao: A genetically integrated physical map and genome-scale comparative synteny analysis
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A comprehensive integrated genomic framework is considered a centerpiece of genomic research. In collaboration with the USDA-ARS (SHRS) and Mars Inc., the Clemson University Genomics Institute (CUGI) has developed a genetically anchored physical map of the T. cacao genome. Three BAC libraries contai...
Five laboratory studies of benthic macroinvertebrate recolonization were conducted for 6-wk periods to evaluate the effects of physical factors (i.e., microcosm size, seawater flow rates and sediment depth) on benthic community structure. esign variables included4 open-faced acry...
Exploring spatiotemporal patterns and physical controls of soil moisture at various spatial scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Jianxiu; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Suxia; Lin, Zhonghui
2014-10-01
Soil moisture variability of various spatial scales is analyzed based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) method using soil moisture datasets with various spatial resolutions: 1 km eco-hydrological model simulation, 0.25° passive microwave (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System, AMSR-E) dataset, and 0.5° land surface model simulation from Climate Predictor Center (CPC). All three datasets generate EOFs that explain similar variances with those generated from in situ observations from agro-meteorological network. Using AMSR-E product and eco-hydrological model simulation, it is found that the primary spatial pattern of soil moisture obtained from watershed scale has a strong connection to topographic attributes, followed by soil texture and rainfall variability, as suggested by the correlation between the primary EOF mode (EOF1) of soil moisture and landscape attributes. However, the EOF analysis of both AMSR-E and CPC datasets at regional scale reaches the conclusion that soil texture indices, such as sand and clay content, is of higher importance to soil moisture EOF1 spatial pattern (explaining 61 % variance) than topography is. Furthermore, correlation between soil moisture EOF1 and soil property is higher in spring than in autumn, which indicates that soil water-holding and drainage capabilities are more important under dry conditions. At national scale, the combined effects of topographic feature and soil property are clearly exhibited in EOF1. The study results reveal that different emphases should be placed on accurate acquisition of landscape attributes for soil moisture estimation according to various spatial scales.
Fred Adams; J. R. Bond; Katherine Freese; Joshua Frieman; Angela Olinto
1992-07-17
A pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, with a potential of the form $V(\\phi) = \\Lambda^4[1 \\pm \\cos(\\phi/f)], naturally gives rise to inflation if $f \\sim M_{Pl}$ and $\\Lambda \\sim M_{GUT}$. We show how this can arise in technicolor-like and superstring models, and work out an explicit string example in the context of multiple gaugino condensation models. We study the cosmology of this model in detail, and find that sufficient reheating to ensure that baryogenesis can take place requires $f > 0.3 M_{Pl}$. The primordial density fluctuation spectrum generated is a non-scale-invariant power law, $P(k) \\propto k^{n_s}$, with $n_s \\simeq 1 - (M^2_{Pl}/8\\pi f^2)$, leading to more power on large length scales than the $n_s = 1$ Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum. The standard CDM model with $0 \\la n_s \\la 0.6-0.7$ could in principle explain the large-scale clustering observed in the APM and IRAS galaxy surveys as well as large-scale flows, but the COBE microwave anisotropy implies such low amplitudes (or high bias factors, $b>2$) for these CDM models that galaxy formation occurs too late to be viable; combining COBE with sufficiently early galaxy formation or the large-scale flows leads to $n_s >0.6$, or $f > 0.3 M_{Pl}$ as well. For extended and power law inflation models, this constraint is even tighter, $n_s > 0.7$; combined with other bounds on large bubbles in extended inflation, this leaves little room for most extended models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerszewski, Daniel James
Physical simulation has become an essential tool in computer animation. As the use of visual effects increases, the need for simulating real-world materials increases. In this dissertation, we consider three problems in physics-based animation: large-scale splashing liquids, elastoplastic material simulation, and dimensionality reduction techniques for fluid simulation. Fluid simulation has been one of the greatest successes of physics-based animation, generating hundreds of research papers and a great many special effects over the last fifteen years. However, the animation of large-scale, splashing liquids remains challenging. We show that a novel combination of unilateral incompressibility, mass-full FLIP, and blurred boundaries is extremely well-suited to the animation of large-scale, violent, splashing liquids. Materials that incorporate both plastic and elastic deformations, also referred to as elastioplastic materials, are frequently encountered in everyday life. Methods for animating such common real-world materials are useful for effects practitioners and have been successfully employed in films. We describe a point-based method for animating elastoplastic materials. Our primary contribution is a simple method for computing the deformation gradient for each particle in the simulation. Given the deformation gradient, we can apply arbitrary constitutive models and compute the resulting elastic forces. Our method has two primary advantages: we do not store or compare to an initial rest configuration and we work directly with the deformation gradient. The first advantage avoids poor numerical conditioning and the second naturally leads to a multiplicative model of deformation appropriate for finite deformations. One of the most significant drawbacks of physics-based animation is that ever-higher fidelity leads to an explosion in the number of degrees of freedom. This problem leads us to the consideration of dimensionality reduction techniques. We present several enhancements to model-reduced fluid simulation that allow improved simulation bases and two-way solid-fluid coupling. Specifically, we present a basis enrichment scheme that allows us to combine data-driven or artistically derived bases with more general analytic bases derived from Laplacian Eigenfunctions. Additionally, we handle two-way solid-fluid coupling in a time-splitting fashion---we alternately timestep the fluid and rigid body simulators, while taking into account the effects of the fluid on the rigid bodies and vice versa. We employ the vortex panel method to handle solid-fluid coupling and use dynamic pressure to compute the effect of the fluid on rigid bodies. Taken together, these contributions have advanced the state-of-the art in physics-based animation and are practical enough to be used in production pipelines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Cabella, P.; Capalbi, M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cutini, S.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dickinson, C.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; King, O.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavonen, N.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindfors, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Michelson, P. F.; Mingaliev, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Monte, C.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nestoras, I.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nieppola, E.; Nilsson, K.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perri, M.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rainò, S.; Reach, W. T.; Readhead, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reeves, R.; Reinecke, M.; Reinthal, R.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, J.; Riller, T.; Riquelme, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Saarinen, J.; Sandri, M.; Savolainen, P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Sievers, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Sotnikova, Y.; Starck, J.-L.; Stevenson, M.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Takalo, L.; Tammi, J.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Thompson, D. J.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Turunen, M.; Umana, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Valenziano, L.; Valtaoja, E.; Varis, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wu, J.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhou, X.; Zonca, A.
2011-12-01
Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law indexaround 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shocks. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission. Tables 1 and 4, Figs. 18-121 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Gilfanov, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Heinämäki, P.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jagemann, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Mei, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Piffaretti, R.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zaroubi, S.; Zonca, A.
2013-02-01
The survey of galaxy clusters performed by Planck through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect has already discovered many interesting objects, thanks to its full sky coverage. One of the SZ candidates detected inthe early months of the mission near to the signal-to-noise threshold, PLCKG214.6+37.0, was later revealed by XMM-Newton to be a triple system of galaxy clusters. We present the results from a deep XMM-Newton re-observation of PLCKG214.6+37.0, part of a multi-wavelength programme to investigate Planck discovered superclusters. The characterisation of the physical properties of the three components has allowed us to build a template model to extract the total SZ signal of this system with Planck data. We have partly reconciled the discrepancy between the expected SZ signal derived from X-rays and the observed one, which are now consistent within 1.2?. We measured the redshift of the three components with the iron lines in the X-ray spectrum, and confirm that the three clumps are likely part of the same supercluster structure. The analysis of the dynamical state of the three components, as well as the absence of detectable excess X-ray emission, suggests that we are witnessing the formation of a massive cluster at an early phase of interaction.
Thermal dark matter implies new physics not far above the weak scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong; Newstead, Jayden L.
2014-08-01
In this work we complete a model independent analysis of dark matter constraining its mass and interaction strengths with data from astro- and particle physics experiments. We use the effective field theory framework to describe interactions of thermal dark matter particles of the following types: real and complex scalars, Dirac and Majorana fermions, and vector bosons. Using Bayesian inference we calculate posterior probability distributions for the mass and interaction strengths for the various spin particles. The observationally favoured dark matter particle mass region is 10-100 GeV with effective interactions that have a cut-off at 0.1-1 TeV. This mostly comes from the requirement that the thermal abundance of dark matter not exceed the observed value. Thus thermal dark matter coupled with present data implies new physics most likely under 10 TeV.
Low-level jet development and the interaction of different scale physical processes
G. Sgouros; C. G. Helmis
2009-01-01
Two cases of low-level jet events and the interaction of the involved physical processes are investigated. The vertical distribution\\u000a of the dominant atmospheric motions is studied, using data from a SODAR-RASS system and in situ instrumentation, at a coastal\\u000a region of the Eastern Mediterranean (Messogia Plain in Attica—Greece). The first low-level jet (LLJ) case was observed during\\u000a the cold period, after
Paul E. Kaplan; Carl V. Granger; William S. Pease; James A. Arnett; Jeanne C. Huba
1997-01-01
Objective: To determine which factors related to departments of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) might contribute to the academic productivity of members of the teaching staff of those departments, and to develop an instrument that measures them.Design: Prospective, inception cohort.Setting: University medical center, academic PM&R departments:Participants: PM&R academic departments.Intervention: Over a 6-year period, seven PM&R departments volunteered to use this
Chu, Shih-I
Volume 167, number 1,2 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS I6 March 1990 THE COMPLEX-SCALING FOURIERKansas, Lawrence, KS 66045. USA Received 7 December I989 We present a new complex scaling method for the study that the resonance states char- acterized by complex energies correspond to poles of the resolvent operator (E- fi
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellegrini, Eric W.
2009-09-01
Regions of recent or ongoing star formation often contain massive stars capable of ionizing the surfaces of nearby molecular clouds. These layers of ionized gas, called H II regions, produce emission lines that serve as beacons of star formation as we look out into distant parts of our Galaxy and the universe. The complex physical processes of star formation are responsible for the chemical and structural evolution of galaxies throughout the history of the universe on many size scales. Light and winds from massive stars heat and compress nearby clouds, acting to simultaneously inhibit and enhance further star formation. To disentangle the importance of competing processes such as photoionization, supernovae, stellar winds, magnetic fields, radiation pressure, I have studied the dominant physical processes in nearby H II regions to determine the relative contribution of each feedback mechanism as a function of star formation intensity. The Orion Nebula is an H II region that is visible to the naked eye. Due to its proximity to the Sun and brightness, it has been studied extensively in all wavelengths. It is dominated by a single O star and offers the least complex environment to compare with models of H II regions. The most complex site of star formation in the local universe is 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Hundreds of O stars dominated a region thousands of times larger than the Orion Nebula. Together these two examples provide the constraints necessary to quantify stellar feedback on different scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; AMI Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bikmaev, I.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bourdin, H.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Clements, D. L.; Colafrancesco, S.; Colombi, S.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Démoclès, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fromenteau, S.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jagemann, T.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Khamitov, I.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Liddle, A.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, C.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Savini, G.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Shimwell, T. W.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Valenziano, L.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2013-02-01
A comparison is presented of Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements for 11 galaxy clusters as obtained by Planck and by the ground-based interferometer, the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager. Assuming a universal spherically-symmetric Generalised Navarro, Frenk and White (GNFW) model for the cluster gas pressure profile, we jointly constrain the integrated Compton-Y parameter (Y500) and the scale radius (?500) of each cluster. Our resulting constraints in the Y500 - ?500 2D parameter space derived from the two instruments overlap significantly for eight of the clusters, although, overall, there is a tendency for AMI to find the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal to be smaller in angular size and fainter than Planck. Significant discrepancies exist for the three remaining clusters in the sample, namely A1413, A1914, and the newly-discovered Planck cluster PLCKESZ G139.59+24.18. The robustness of the analysis of both the Planck and AMI data is demonstrated through the use of detailed simulations, which also discount confusion from residual point (radio) sources and from diffuse astrophysical foregrounds as possible explanations for the discrepancies found. For a subset of our cluster sample, we have investigated the dependence of our results on the assumed pressure profile by repeating the analysis adopting the best-fitting GNFW profile shape which best matches X-ray observations. Adopting the best-fitting profile shape from the X-ray data does not, in general, resolve the discrepancies found in this subset of five clusters. Though based on a small sample, our results suggest that the adopted GNFW model may not be sufficiently flexible to describe clusters universally.
MaxPlanckInstitut fur biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
December 2003 1 Max-Planck-Institut for Biological Cybernetics, T¨ubingen, Germany. {navin|jason , Thilo Hinterberger3 , Jason Weston1 , Martin Bogdan2 , Niels Birbaumer3 , and Bernhard Sch¨olkopf1.weston|bs}@tuebingen.mpg.de 2 Eberhard Karls University T¨ubingen, Department of Computer Engineering, T¨ubingen, Germany
Fokker-Planck equation in mirror research
Post, R.F.
1983-08-11
Open confinement systems based on the magnetic mirror principle depend on the maintenance of particle distributions that may deviate substantially from Maxwellian distributions. Mirror research has therefore from the beginning relied on theoretical predictions of non-equilibrium rate processes obtained from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation. The F-P equation plays three roles: Design of experiments, creation of classical standards against which to compare experiment, and predictions concerning mirror based fusion power systems. Analytical and computational approaches to solving the F-P equation for mirror systems will be reviewed, together with results and examples that apply to specific mirror systems, such as the tandem mirror.
Fokker-Planck model of hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, S. K.; Ansumali, Santosh
2015-03-01
We present a phenomenological description of the hydrodynamics in terms of the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for one-particle distribution function. Similar to the Boltzmann equation or the Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (BGK) model, this approach is thermodynamically consistent and has the H theorem. In this model, transport coefficients as well as the equation of state can be provided independently. This approach can be used as an alternate to BGK-based methods as well as the direct simulation Monte Carlo method for the gaseous flows.
Iva Obrusnikova; Suzanna Rocco Dillon; Martin E. Block; Timothy D. Davis
This study assessed structural validity and internal consistency of the Children’s Beliefs and Intentions to Play with Peers\\u000a with Disabilities in Middle School Physical Education (CBIPPD-MPE); a scale measuring beliefs and intentions of middle school\\u000a children without disabilities to play with a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in general physical education, and\\u000a determined relationships among the CBIPPD-MPE subscales. A
MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Technical Report No. 8 12 September 2013
Jegelka, Stefanie
MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Technical Report No. 8 12 September 2013 ANIMATING Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems}, year = 2 13, type = {Technical Report}, number = 8, address SAMPLES FROM GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS -- TECHNICAL NOTE -- Philipp Hennig Max Planck Institute
A PIC based procedure for the integration of multiple time scale problems in gas discharge physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soria-Hoyo, C.; Pontiga, F.; Castellanos, A.
2009-03-01
A efficient PIC technique has been implemented to study the development of electrical discharges during long periods of time. Special motivation is provided by electrical pulsations that develop in very short times but whose repetition period is much longer. The method exploits the existence of different time scales in the electrical discharge to implement a long time-step particle pushing technique both at particle and at mesh levels. The development of a train of hundreds of Trichel pulses, which is a prohibitively long computation with a conventional PIC, has been used to test the validity of the method.
News about TeV-scale Black Holes
S. Hossenfelder
2005-10-18
Collider produced black holes are the most exciting prediction from models with large extra dimensions. These black holes exist in an extreme region, in which gravity meets quantum field theory, particle physics, and thermodynamics. An investigation of the formation and decay processes can therefore provide us with important insights about the underlying theory and open a window to the understanding of Physics at the Planck scale. The production and the evaporation of TeV-scale black holes yields distinct signatures that have been examined closely during the last years, with analytical approaches as well as by use of numerical simulations. I present new results for the LHC, which take into account that, instead of a final decay, a black hole remnant can be left. This is a summary of the talk given at the Quark Matter 2005, Budapest, Hungary, Aug. 2005.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadavid, Ana Cristina; Lawrence, John; Rivera, Yeimy
2015-04-01
Previously we have used EUV observations from AIA/SDO to examine properties of energy deposition into coronal-loops in non-flaring active region (AR) cores. The evolution of the loop apex intensity, temperature, and electron density indicate that the loops are impulsively heated in a mode compatible with high intensity nanoflare storms characterized by a progressive cooling pattern in the EUV lines with the hot channels leading the emission. Spectra of the hot 131 Å intensity (basically Fe XXI) and of the energy dissipation in a 2D model of loop magneto-turbulence compatible with nanoflare statistics, both exhibit three scaling regimes with low frequencies corresponding to 1/f noise, the intermediate range indicating a persistent process, and high frequencies corresponding to white noise. The varying power law behavior in these spectra indicates that both the observational and the simulated time series are not stationary. Therefore to extend the analysis beyond the AR loops we apply the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) that was developed to study the long-range correlations in non-stationary signals. DFA provides a scaling exponent that characterizes the correlation properties of the signal and which can be related both to the spectral exponents and to the Hurst exponent. In areas of diffuse emission and for all the spectral channels the time series of intensity fluctuations are characterized by scaling exponents that indicate a weak positive correlation across all time scales. In regions with intermittent intensity brightenings a cross-over occurs at timescales near 10 - 20 min with different exponents describing the degree of positive correlation of the intensity fluctuations at short and long time scales. Qualitative differences exist between the exponents of the hotter and the cooler channels. We have further compared the scaling properties of the time series associated with different physical environments distinguished by the possibility of underlying nanoflare storms, or by the strength of the magnetic field in contemporaneous HMI images. Another comparison is made to the scaling properties of simulations of energy dissipation in magnetoturbulence.
Yeom, Hye-A; Fleury, Julie
2011-01-01
The Korean version of the index of self-regulation (KISR) is a nine-item scale designed to measure individuals' level of self-regulation for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the KISR, including reliability and validity, in a group of older Korean Americans. The KISR was administered to a sample of older Korean Americans at a baseline interview (Time 1) and 12 week followup (Time 2). The internal consistency of the KISR was high at both time points, with Cronbach's alphas of .94 and .95, respectively. The test-retest reliability was moderate-to-high at .68. There was evidence of construct validity of the KISR based on its moderate to high significant correlations with theoretically relevant variables, including motivational appraisal and self-efficacy for physical activity. A principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation resulted in two factors, explaining 89% of the variance. The KISR is a reliable and valid measure to assess the level of self-regulation for physical activity behavior in older Korean Americans. PMID:21994821
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerber, S.; Brookshire, J.
2013-12-01
Nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems is often accompanied with maintaining a nearly closed vegetation-soil nutrient cycle. The ability to retain nutrients in an ecosystem requires the capacity of the plant-soil system to draw down nutrient levels in soils effectually such that export concentrations in soil solutions remain low. Here we address the physical constraints of plant nutrient uptake which may be limited by the diffusive movement of nutrients in soils, the uptake at the root/mycorrhizal surface, and from interactions with soil water flow. We derive an analytical framework of soil nutrient transport and uptake and predict levels of plant available nutrient concentration and residence time. Our results, which we evaluate for nitrogen, show that the physical environment permits plants to lower soil solute concentration substantially. Our analysis confirms that plant uptake capacities in soils are considerable such that water movement in soils is generally too small to significantly erode dissolved plant available nitrogen. Inorganic nitrogen concentrations in headwater streams are congruent with the prediction of our theoretical framework. Our framework offers a physical-based parameterization of nutrient uptake in ecosystem models and has the potential to serve as an important tool towards scaling biogeochemical cycles from individual roots to landscapes.
Yeom, Hye-A; Fleury, Julie
2011-01-01
The Korean version of the index of self-regulation (KISR) is a nine-item scale designed to measure individuals' level of self-regulation for physical activity. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the KISR, including reliability and validity, in a group of older Korean Americans. The KISR was administered to a sample of older Korean Americans at a baseline interview (Time 1) and 12 week followup (Time 2). The internal consistency of the KISR was high at both time points, with Cronbach's alphas of .94 and .95, respectively. The test-retest reliability was moderate-to-high at .68. There was evidence of construct validity of the KISR based on its moderate to high significant correlations with theoretically relevant variables, including motivational appraisal and self-efficacy for physical activity. A principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation resulted in two factors, explaining 89% of the variance. The KISR is a reliable and valid measure to assess the level of self-regulation for physical activity behavior in older Korean Americans. PMID:21994821
1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation
Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.
1993-01-01
Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.
Web-Based Assessments of Physical Activity in Youth: Considerations for Design and Scale Calibration
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries. PMID:25448192
Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries. PMID:25448192
Staton, Robert J.; Jones, A. Kyle; Lee, Choonik; Hintenlang, David E.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Bolch, Wesley E. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0374 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States)
2006-09-15
Following the recent completion of a tomographic physical newborn dosimetry phantom with incorporated metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system, it was necessary to derive scaling factors in order to calculate organ doses in the physical phantom given point dose measurements via the MOSFET dosimeters (preceding article in this issue). In this study, we present the initial development of scaling factors using projection radiograph data. These point-to-organ dose scaling factors (SF{sub POD}) were calculated using a computational phantom created from the same data set as the physical phantom, but which also includes numerous segmented internal organs and tissues. The creation of these scaling factors is discussed, as well as the errors associated when using only point dose measurements to calculate mean organ doses and effective doses in physical phantoms. Scaling factors for various organs ranged from as low as 0.70 to as high as 1.71. Also, the ability to incorporate improvements in the computational phantom into the physical phantom using scaling factors is discussed. An comprehensive set of SF{sub POD} values is presented in this article for application in pediatric radiography of newborn patients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bromley, D. A.
1980-07-01
Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.
Dispersion Relations for the Linearized Fokker-Planck Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degond, P.; Lemou, M.
We analyze the spectral properties and dispersion relations for the linearized Fokker-Planck operator in the case of hard potentials, as in Ellis & Pinsky's work [7] on the Boltzmann equation. Results similar to those in [7] are obtained for the Fokker-Planck operator although the presence of a diffusion operator instead of a multiplication operator introduces many additional technical difficulties.
PM Max-Planck-Institut fur biologische Kybernetik
experiments were performed in a simulated 3D field of blobs providing a convincing feeling of selfPM Max-Planck-Institut fuÂ¨r biologische Kybernetik SpemannstraÃ?e 38 72076 TuÂ¨bingen Germany in TÃ¼bingen, Hendrik-Jan van Veen was funded by the Max-Planck Society and by the Deutsche
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT Enumerating the k closest pairs
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUTÂ·Â· FUR INFORMATIK Enumerating the k closest pairs optimally Hans-Peter Lenhof Stadtwald 66123 SaarbrÃ¼cken Germany #12;Enumerating the k dosest pairs optimally Hans-Peter Lenhof Michiel* Hans-Peter Lenhof Michiel Smid MQ.Z-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Informatik W-6600 SaarbrÃ¼cken, Germany May 12
THE PLANCK MISSION The most accurate measurement of the
THE PLANCK MISSION The most accurate measurement of the oldest electromagnetic radiation anisotropies · Catalogue of SZ sources; reconstruction of ionisation history; estimation of ISW effect. Leonardi PSO/ESA | INPE March 2010 | Pag. 7 PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVES #12;The Planck Mission | R
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Kontogiannis, I.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.; Suematsu, Y.
2012-09-01
Over the last two decades the uninterrupted, high resolution observations of the Sun, from the excellent range of telescopes aboard many spacecraft complemented with observations from sophisticated ground-based telescopes have opened up a new world producing significantly more complete information on the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere than before. The interface between the lower solar atmosphere where energy is generated by subsurface convection and the corona comprises the chromosphere, which is dominated by jet-like, dynamic structures, called mottles when found in quiet regions, fibrils when found in active regions and spicules when observed at the solar limb. Recently, space observations with Hinode have led to the suggestion that there should exist two different types of spicules called Type I and Type II which have different properties. Ground-based observations in the Ca ii H and K filtergrams reveal the existence of long, thin emission features called straws in observations close to the limb, and a class of short-lived events called rapid blue-shifted excursions characterized by large Doppler shifts that appear only in the blue wing of the Ca ii infrared line. It has been suggested that the key to understanding how the solar plasma is accelerated and heated may well be found in the studies of these jet-like, dynamic events. However, while these structures are observed and studied for more than 130 years in the visible, but also in the UV and EUV emission lines and continua, there are still many questions to be answered. Thus, despite their importance and a multitude of observations performed and theoretical models proposed, questions regarding their origin, how they are formed, their physical parameters, their association with the underlying photospheric magnetic field, how they appear in the different spectral lines, and the interrelationship between structures observed in quiet and active regions on the disk and at the limb, as well as their role in global processes has not yet received definitive answers. In addition, how they affect the coronal heating and solar wind need to be further explored. In this review we present observations and physical properties of small-scale jet-like chromospheric events observed in active and quiet regions, on the disk and at the limb and discuss their interrelationship.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
K-12 Outreach,
Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.
Detection of hidden structures for arbitrary scales in complex physical systems
Ronhovde, P.; Chakrabarty, S.; Hu, D.; Sahu, M.; Sahu, K. K.; Kelton, K. F.; Mauro, N. A.; Nussinov, Z.
2012-01-01
Recent decades have experienced the discovery of numerous complex materials. At the root of the complexity underlying many of these materials lies a large number of contending atomic- and largerscale configurations. In order to obtain a more detailed understanding of such systems, we need tools that enable the detection of pertinent structures on all spatial and temporal scales. Towards this end, we suggest a new method that applies to both static and dynamic systems which invokes ideas from network analysis and information theory. Our approach efficiently identifies basic unit cells, topological defects, and candidate natural structures. The method is particularly useful where a clear definition of order is lacking, and the identified features may constitute a natural point of departure for further analysis. PMID:22461970
Scale-free flow of life: on the biology, economics, and physics of the cell
Kurakin, Alexei
2009-01-01
The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies. PMID:19416527
Multi-Scale Physics in the Magnetosphere: The Role of Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael; Zenitiani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Birn, Joachim
2010-01-01
The question of whether the microscale controls the macroscale or vice-versa remains one of the most challenging problems in plasmas. A particular topic of interest within this context is collision less magnetic reconnection, where both pOints of views are espoused by different groups of researchers. This presentation will focus on this topic. We will begin by analyzing the properties of electron diffusion region dynamics both for guide field and anti-parallel reconnection, and how they can be scaled to different inflow conditions. As a next step, we will study typical temporal variations of the microscopic dynamics with the objective of understanding the potential for secular changes to the macroscopic system. The research will be based on a combination of analytical theory and numerical modeling.
Black hole physics. Black hole lightning due to particle acceleration at subhorizon scales.
Aleksi?, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; Becerra González, J; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Delgado Mendez, C; Dominis Prester, D; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido Terrats, D; Gaug, M; Godinovi?, N; González Muñoz, A; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Prada Moroni, P G; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rodriguez Garcia, J; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzi?, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Zanin, R; Kadler, M; Schulz, R; Ros, E; Bach, U; Krauß, F; Wilms, J
2014-11-28
Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet. PMID:25378461
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (Planck, 2011)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration: Ade P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Baker, M.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Bennett, K.; Benoit, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bradshaw, T.; Bremer, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Casale, M.; Catalano, A.; Cayon, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Crone, G.; Crook, M.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Bruin, J.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Desert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Doerl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Fo ley S., Forni O., Fosalba P., Frailis M., Franceschi E., Freschi M., Gaier T.C., Galeotta S., Gallegos J., Gandolfo B., Ganga K., Giard M., Giardino G., Gienger G., Giraud-Heraud Y., Gonzalez J., Gonzalez-Nuevo J., Gorski K.M., Gratton S., Gregorio A., Gruppuso A., Guyot G., Haissinski J., Hansen F.K., Harrison D., Helou G., Henrot-Versille S., Hernandez-Monteagudo C., Herranz D., Hildebrandt S.R., Hivon E., Hobson M., Holmes W.A., Hornstrup A., Hovest W., Hoyland R.J., Huffenberger K.M., Jaffe A.H., Jagemann T., Jones W.C., Juillet J.J., Juvela M., Kangaslahti P., Keihaenen E., Keskitalo R., Kisner T.S., Kneissl R., Knox L., Krassenburg M., Kurki-Suonio H., Lagache G., Laehteenmaeki A., Lamarre J.-M., Lange A.E., Lasenby A., Laureijs R.J., Lawrence C.R., Leach S., Leahy J.P., Leonardi R., Leroy C., Lilje P.B., Linden-Vornle M., Lopez-Caniego M., Lowe S., Lubin P.M., Macias-Perez J.F., Maciaszek T., MacTavish C.J., Maffei B., Maino D., Mandolesi N., Mann R., Maris M., Mar tinez-Gonzalez E., Masi S., Massardi M., Matarrese S., Matthai F., Mazzotta P., McDonald A., McGehee P., Meinhold P.R., Melchiorri A., Melin J.-B., Mendes L., Mennella A., Mevi C., Miniscalco R., Mitra S., Miville-Deschenes M.-A., Moneti A., Montier L., Morgante G., Morisset N., Mortlock D., Munshi D., Murphy A., Naselsky P., Natoli P., Netterfield C.B., Norgaard-Nielsen H.U., Noviello F., Novikov D., Novikov I., O'Dwyer I.J., Ortiz I., Osborne S., Osuna P., Oxborrow C.A., Pajot F., Paladini R., Partridge B., Pasian F., Passvogel T., Patanchon G., Pearson D., Pearson T.J., Perdereau O., Perotto L., Perrotta F., Piacentini F., Piat M., Pierpaoli E., Plaszczynski S., Platania P., Pointecouteau E., Polenta G., Ponthieu N., Popa L., Poutanen T., Prezeau G., Prunet S., Puget J.-L., Rachen J.P., Reach W.T., Rebolo R., Reinecke M., Reix J.-M., Renault C., Ricciardi S., Riller T., Ristorcelli I., Rocha G., Rosset C., Rowan-Robinson M., Rubino-Martin J.A., Rusholme B., Salerno E. , Sandri M., Santos D., Savini G., Schaefer B.M., Scott D., Seiffert M.D., Shellard P., Simonetto A., Smoot G.F., Sozzi C., Starck J.-L., Sternberg J., Stivoli F., Stolyarov V., Stompor R., Stringhetti L., Sudiwala R., Sunyaev R., Sygnet J.-F., Tapiador D., Tauber J.A., Tavagnacco D., Taylor D., Terenzi L., Texier D., Toffolatti L., Tomasi M., Torre J.-P., Tristram M., Tuovinen J., Tuerler M., Tuttlebee M., Umana G., Valenziano L., Valiviita J., Varis J., Vibert L., Vielva P., Villa F., Vittorio N., Wade L.A., Wandelt B.D., Watson C., White S.D.M., White M., Wilkinson A., Yvon D., Zacchei A., Zonca A.
2011-01-01
Planck is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with significant contributions from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). It is the third generation of space-based cosmic microwave background experiments, after the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Planck was launched on 14 May 2009 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. Following a cruise to the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, cooling and in orbit checkout, Planck initiated the First Light Survey on 13 August 2009. Since then, Planck has been continuously measuring the intensity of the sky over a range of frequencies from 30 to 857GHz (wavelengths of 1cm to 350?m) with spatial resolutions ranging from about 33' to 5' respectively. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on Planck provides temperature and polarization information using radiometers which operate between 30 and 70GHz. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI) uses pairs of polarization-sensitive bolometers at each of four frequencies between 100 and 353GHz but does not measure polarization information in the two upper HFI bands at 545 and 857GHz. The lowest frequencies overlap with WMAP, and the highest frequencies extend far into the submillimeter in order to improve separation between Galactic foregrounds and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). By extending to wavelengths longer than those at which the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) operated, Planck is providing an unprecedented window into dust emission at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) is a list of all high reliability sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, derived from the first sky coverage. The data that went into this early release comprise all observations undertaken between 13 August 2009 and 6 June 2010, corresponding to Planck operational days 91-389. Since the Planck scan strategy results in the entire sky being observed every 6 months, the data considered in this release correspond to more than the first sky coverage. The source lists have reliability goals of >90% across the entire sky and >95% at high Galactic latitude. The goals on photometric accuracy are 30% while the positional accuracy goal translates to a positional root mean square (RMS) uncertainty that is less than 1/5 of the beam full width at half maximum (FWHM). Detailed explanations about the mission and the catalogs included here can be found in the "Explanatory supplement" (file "ercsc4_3.pdf"). Skymaps of the sources can be found in the "skymaps" subdirectory; postage stamps of the sources in the ECC (Early Cold Cores) catalog and in the different filters are located in the "stamps" subdirectory. The "Byte-by-byte Description" below contain column names standardized according to the conventions used at CDS; the original column names, as defined in the FITS files, are listed, enclosed within parentheses, at the end of the explanations. (16 data files).
Physics of active flow control around a pillar at the micro scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Junkyu
2011-12-01
The use of microchannels for heat transfer enhancement has been studied for the last few decades. To take full advantage of a microchannel, various approaches such as two-phase flow, enhanced heat transfer surface, and flow boiling across pin fins entrenched inside a microchannel have been studied. Among them, micro pin fins heat exchangers, similar to their conventional counterparts have been seriously considered due to their superior heat removal performance throughout the extended surface area. In addition, an early transition to turbulent flow via micro pin fins is believed to improve heat transfer at the micro scale. Therefore, the aim of this study is to extend fundamental knowledge of flow around a micro pin fin with and without active flow. The flow field around a micro pillar was measured using micro particle image velocimetry (muPIV), and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE ) of the flow was measured to quantify flow mixing around the micro pillar. It was found that an early transition to an unsteady flow was not achieved through the micro pillar due to the inherently small height-to-diameter ratio of the pillar, and the corresponding TKE around the micro pillar was not significant in a quasi-steady flow regime. Active flow control via a steady jet was employed through the slit on the micro pillar surface, where the circumferential location of the slit was varied. The velocity field as well as the TKE of the controlled flow was measured to determine the effect of active flow control at the micro scale. Parametric studies were performed and comparison of the various momentum coefficient, flow regime, and the azimuthal location of the control jet were conducted. Suction was introduced as alternative control scheme, and compared to a steady jet. It was found that mixing was significantly enhanced through the steady jet whereas suction was not successful with same momentum coefficients.
History and progress on accurate measurements of the Planck constant.
Steiner, Richard
2013-01-01
The measurement of the Planck constant, h, is entering a new phase. The CODATA 2010 recommended value is 6.626?069 57 × 10(-34) J s, but it has been a long road, and the trip is not over yet. Since its discovery as a fundamental physical constant to explain various effects in quantum theory, h has become especially important in defining standards for electrical measurements and soon, for mass determination. Measuring h in the International System of Units (SI) started as experimental attempts merely to prove its existence. Many decades passed while newer experiments measured physical effects that were the influence of h combined with other physical constants: elementary charge, e, and the Avogadro constant, N(A). As experimental techniques improved, the precision of the value of h expanded. When the Josephson and quantum Hall theories led to new electronic devices, and a hundred year old experiment, the absolute ampere, was altered into a watt balance, h not only became vital in definitions for the volt and ohm units, but suddenly it could be measured directly and even more accurately. Finally, as measurement uncertainties now approach a few parts in 10(8) from the watt balance experiments and Avogadro determinations, its importance has been linked to a proposed redefinition of a kilogram unit of mass. The path to higher accuracy in measuring the value of h was not always an example of continuous progress. Since new measurements periodically led to changes in its accepted value and the corresponding SI units, it is helpful to see why there were bumps in the road and where the different branch lines of research joined in the effort. Recalling the bumps along this road will hopefully avoid their repetition in the upcoming SI redefinition debates. This paper begins with a brief history of the methods to measure a combination of fundamental constants, thus indirectly obtaining the Planck constant. The historical path is followed in the section describing how the improved techniques and discoveries in quantum mechanics steadily reduced the uncertainty of h. The central part of this review describes the technical details of the watt balance technique, which is a combination of the mechanical and electronic measurements that now determine h as a direct result, i.e. not requiring measured values of additional fundamental constants. The first technical section describes the basics and some of the common details of many watt balance designs. Next is a review of the ongoing advances at the (currently) seven national metrology institutions where these experiments are pursued. A final summary of the recent h determinations of the last two decades shows how history keeps repeating itself; there is again a question of whether there is a shift in the newest results, albeit at uncertainties that are many orders of magnitude less than the original experiments. The conclusion is that there is room for further development to resolve these differences and find new ideas for a watt balance system with a more universal application. Since the next generation of watt balance experiments are expected to become kilogram realization standards, the historical record suggests that there is yet a need for proof that Planck constant results are finally reproducible at an acceptable uncertainty. PMID:23249618
Perturbed Physics Ensemble Simulations of Cirrus on the Cloud System-resolving Scale
Muhlbauer, Andreas; Berry, Elizabeth; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.
2014-04-16
In this study, the effect of uncertainties in the parameterization of ice microphysical processes and initial conditions on the variability of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties are investigated in a series of cloud system-resolving perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) and initial condition ensemble (ICE) simulations. Three cirrus cases representative of mid-latitude, subtropical and tropical cirrus are examined. It is found that the variability in cirrus properties induced by perturbing uncertain parameters in ice microphysics parameterizations outweighs the variability induced by perturbing the initial conditions in midlatitude and subtropical cirrus. However, in tropical anvil cirrus the variability in the PPE and ICE simulations is about the same order of magnitude. The cirrus properties showing the largest sensitivity are ice water content (IWC) and cloud thickness whereas the averaged high cloud cover is only marginally affected. Changes in cirrus ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation are controlled primarily by changes in IWC and cloud thickness but not by changes is the averaged high cloud cover. The change in the vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud thickness is caused by changes in cirrus cloud base whereas cloud top is not sensitive to either perturbed physics or perturbed initial conditions. In all cirrus cases, the top three parameters controlling the microphysical variability and radiative impact of cirrus clouds are ice fall speeds, ice autoconversion size thresholds and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Changes in the ice deposition coefficient do not affect the ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation. Similarly, changes in the number concentration of aerosols available for homogeneous freezing have virtually no effect on the microphysical and radiative properties of midlatitude and subtropical cirrus but only little impact on tropical anvil cirrus. Overall, the sensitivity of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties to uncertainties in ice microphysics is largest for midlatitude cirrus and smallest for tropical anvil cirrus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.
2015-01-01
We apply the Finkbeiner et al. two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck High Frequency Instrument maps. This parameterization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies (MBBs) serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single-MBB dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.'1 resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 ?m data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.'1 FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration et al. single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz, and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales.
SZ cluster science with the Planck HFI experiment
Steen H. Hansen
2004-09-30
In the near future the Planck satellite will gather impressive information about the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and about the galaxy clusters which perturb that signal. We will here review the ability of Planck to extract information about these galaxy clusters through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich imprint. We will conclude that Planck will provide a catalogue of galaxy clusters, which will be very useful for future targeted observations. We will explain why Planck will not be very good in extracting detailed information about individual clusters, except for the dominating Compton parameter, $y$, which will be measured to a few percent for individual clusters. In this last point I am being rather conservative,