Selected topics in Planck-scale physics
Y. Jack Ng
2003-05-15
We review a few topics in Planck-scale physics, with emphasis on possible manifestations in relatively low energy. The selected topics include quantum fluctuations of spacetime, their cumulative effects, uncertainties in energy-momentum measurements, and low energy quantum-gravity phenomenology. The focus is on quantum-gravity-induced uncertainties in some observable quantities. We consider four possible ways to probe Planck-scale physics experimentally: 1. looking for energy-dependent spreads in the arrival time of photons of the same energy from GRBs; 2. examining spacetime fluctuation-induced phase incoherence of light from extragalactic sources; 3. detecting spacetime foam with laser-based interferometry techniques; 4. understanding the threshold anomalies in high energy cosmic ray and gamma ray events. Some other experiments are briefly discussed. We show how some physics behind black holes, simple clocks, simple computers, and the holographic principle is related to Planck-scale physics. We also discuss a formulation of the Dirac equation as a difference equation on a discrete Planck-scale spacetime lattice, and a possible interplay between Planck-scale and Hubble-scale physics encoded in the cosmological constant (dark energy).
Probing the Planck Scale in Low-Energy Atomic Physics
Robert Bluhm
2001-11-25
Experiments in atomic physics have exceptional sensitivity to small shifts in energy in an atom, ion, or bound particle. They are particularly well suited to search for unique low-energy signatures of new physics, including effects that could originate from the Planck scale. A number of recent experiments have used CPT and Lorentz violation as a candidate signal of new physics originating from the Planck scale. A discussion of these experiments and their theoretical implications is presented.
Observable proton decay from Planck scale physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, S. M.; Calmet, Xavier
2012-12-01
In the Standard Model, no dim-5 ?B?0 operators exist, so that Planck-scale-induced proton decay amplitudes are suppressed by at least 1/MP?2. If the Standard Model is augmented by a light, color-nonsinglet boson, then O(1/MP?) proton-decay amplitudes are possible. These always conserve B+L, so that the dominant decay modes are p??+? and p??+?+?-, where ?+=?+ or K+.
Probing Planck-scale Physics with Extragalactic Sources?
Y. Jack Ng; W. A. Christiansen; H. van Dam
2003-05-26
At Planck-scale, spacetime is "foamy" due to quantum fluctuations predicted by quantum gravity. Here we consider the possibility of using spacetime foam-induced phase incoherence of light from distant galaxies and gamma-ray bursters to probe Planck-scale physics. In particular, we examine the cumulative effects of spacetime fluctuations over a huge distance. Our analysis shows that they are far below what is required in this approach to shed light on the foaminess of spacetime.
Cosmological texture is incompatible with Planck-scale physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holman, Richard; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Watkins, Richard; Widrow, Lawrence M.
1992-01-01
Nambu-Goldstone modes are sensitive to the effects of physics at energies comparable to the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show that as a consequence of this the global texture proposal for structure formation requires rather severe assumptions about the nature of physics at the Planck scale.
Probing the Planck Scale in Low-Energy Atomic Physics
Robert Bluhm
2001-01-01
Experiments in atomic physics have exceptional sensitivity to small shifts in\\u000aenergy in an atom, ion, or bound particle. They are particularly well suited to\\u000asearch for unique low-energy signatures of new physics, including effects that\\u000acould originate from the Planck scale. A number of recent experiments have used\\u000aCPT and Lorentz violation as a candidate signal of new physics
Probing Planck scale physics with IceCube
Luis A. Anchordoqui; Haim Goldberg; M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia; Francis Halzen; Dan Hooper; Subir Sarkar; Thomas J. Weiler
2005-06-17
Neutrino oscillations can be affected by decoherence induced e.g. by Planck scale suppressed interactions with the space-time foam predicted in some approaches to quantum gravity. We study the prospects for observing such effects at IceCube, using the likely flux of TeV antineutrinos from the Cygnus spiral arm. We formulate the statistical analysis for evaluating the sensitivity to quantum decoherence in the presence of the background from atmospheric neutrinos, as well as from plausible cosmic neutrino sources. We demonstrate that IceCube will improve the sensitivity to decoherence effects of ${\\cal O}(E^2/M_{\\rm Pl})$ by 17 orders of magnitude over present limits and, moreover, that it can probe decoherence effects of ${\\cal O}(E^3/M_{\\rm Pl}^2)$ which are well beyond the reach of other experiments.
Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos
Floyd W. Stecker; Sean T. Scully; Stefano Liberati; David Mattingly
2015-02-09
High energy cosmic neutrino observations provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation, which may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz invariance violating operators that arise in an effective field theory description of Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector inspired by Planck-scale physics and quantum gravity models. We assume a conservative generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to describe superluminal neutrino propagation, treating kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission and neutrino splitting. We consider EFTs with both non-renormalizable CPT-odd and non-renormalizable CPT-even operator dominance. We then compare the spectra derived using our Monte Carlo calculations in both cases with the spectrum observed by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~2 PeV is caused by Planck scale physics, rather than by a limiting energy in the source emission, a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, such a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.
p-Adic physics below and above Planck scales
Mikhail V. Altaisky; B. G. Sidharth
1998-02-16
We present a rewiew and also new possible applications of $p$-adic numbers to pre-spacetime physics. It is shown that instead of the extension $R^n\\to Q_p^n$, which is usually implied in $p$-adic quantum field theory, it is possible to build a model based on the $R^n\\to Q_p$, where p=n+2 extension and get rid of loop divergences. It is also shown that the concept of mass naturally arises in $p$-adic models as inverse transition probability with a dimensional constant of proportionality.
On physics at the Planck scale: Space as a network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokhorov, L. V.
2007-05-01
It is shown that the one-dimensional quantum field theory can be modeled as a chain of classical oscillators in a thermal bath provided that the Gibbs measure is identified with the phase-space volume measure, the chain being in a nonequilibrium state. Quantized strings and p-branes are also modeled by ordered systems of oscillators. The model of a one-dimensional superspace is constructed. It is shown that the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring is modeled by a helix formed of a bosonic-string in a multidimensional space. The physical 3D space is represented by a superstring structure (3D “network”), which is described by some Lagrangian. Thus, the unified description of all interactions including gravity is achieved because the superstring excitations involve all fields. In view of the discrete character of the initial structure, the theory is free of ultraviolet divergences. The essential element of the model is the occurrence of the cosmological constant in the gravity equations. A black hole model giving reasonable values for its temperature and entropy is proposed.
[Probing Planck-scale Physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman Maser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
The Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser is a recently developed device which employs co-located ensembles of Ne-21 and He-3 atoms to provide sensitive differential measurements of the noble gas nuclear Zeeman splittings as a function of time, thereby greatly attenuating common-mode systematic effects such as uniform magnetic field variations. The Ne-21 maser will serve as a precision magnetometer to stabilize the system's static magnetic field, while the He-3 maser is used as a sensitive probe for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry by searching for small variations in the 3He maser frequency as the spatial orientation of the apparatus changes due to the rotation of the Earth (or placement on a rotating table). In the context of a general extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Ne-21/He-3 maser will provide the most sensitive search to date for CPT and Lorentz violation of the neutron: better than 10(exp -32) GeV, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude over past experiments. This exceptional precision will offer a rare opportunity to probe physics at the Planck scale. A future space-based Ne-21/He-3 maser or related device could provide even greater sensitivity to violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, and hence to Planck-scale physics, because of isolation from dominant systematic effects associated with ground-based operation, and because of access to different positions in space-time.
Loss, Daniel
Brukner2,4 One of the main challenges in physics today is to merge quantum theory and the theory for a quantum theory of gravity is therefore one of the main challenges in modern physics. A major difficultyARTICLES PUBLISHED ONLINE: 18 MARCH 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2262 Probing Planck-scale physics
The lifetime of the electroweak vacuum and sensitivity to Planck scale physics
Vincenzo Branchina; Emanuele Messina; Marc Sher
2014-08-22
If the Standard Model (SM) is valid up to extremely high energy scales, then the Higgs potential becomes unstable at approximately $10^{11}$ GeV. However, calculations of the lifetime of the SM vacuum have shown that it vastly exceeds the age of the Universe. It was pointed out by two of us (VB,EM) that these calculations are extremely sensitive to effects from Planck scale higher-dimensional operators and, without knowledge of these operators, firm conclusions about the lifetime of the SM vacuum cannot be drawn. The previous paper used analytical approximations to the potential and, except for Higgs contributions, ignored loop corrections to the bounce action. In this work, we do not rely on any analytical approximations and consider all contributions to the bounce action, confirming the earlier result. It is surprising that the Planck scale operators can have such a large effect when the instability is at $10^{11}$ GeV. There are two reasons for the size of this effect. In typical tunneling calculations, the value of the field at the center of the critical bubble is much larger than the point of the instability; in the SM case, this turns out to be numerically within an order of magnitude of the Planck scale. In addition, tunneling is an inherently non-perturbative phenomenon, and may not be as strongly suppressed by inverse powers of the Planck scale. We include effective $\\Phi^6$ and $\\Phi^8$ Planck-scale operators and show that they can have an enormous effect on the tunneling rate.
Lifetime of the electroweak vacuum and sensitivity to Planck scale physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele; Sher, Marc
2015-01-01
If the Standard Model (SM) is valid up to extremely high energy scales, then the Higgs potential becomes unstable at approximately 1 011 GeV . However, calculations of the lifetime of the SM vacuum have shown that it vastly exceeds the age of the Universe. It was pointed out by two of us (V. B., E. M.) that these calculations are extremely sensitive to effects from Planck scale higher-dimensional operators and, without knowledge of these operators, firm conclusions about the lifetime of the SM vacuum cannot be drawn. The previous paper used analytical approximations to the potential and, except for Higgs contributions, ignored loop corrections to the bounce action. In this work, we do not rely on any analytical approximations and consider all contributions to the bounce action, confirming the earlier result. It is surprising that the Planck scale operators can have such a large effect when the instability is at 1 011 GeV . There are two reasons for the size of this effect. In typical tunneling calculations, the value of the field at the center of the critical bubble is much larger than the point of the instability; in the SM case, this turns out to be numerically within an order of magnitude of the Planck scale. In addition, tunneling is an inherently nonperturbative phenomenon and may not be as strongly suppressed by inverse powers of the Planck scale. We include effective ?6 and ?8 Planck-scale operators and show that they can have an enormous effect on the tunneling rate.
Searching for Traces of Planck-Scale Physics with High Energy Neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stecker, Floyd; Scully, Sean; Liberati, Stefano; Mattingly, David
2015-04-01
High energy cosmic neutrinos provide a sensitive test of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) as may be a consequence of quantum gravity theories. We consider the effects of LIV on the propagation of high energy neutrinos over cosmological distances using a class of non-renormalizable, Lorentz violating operators in an effective field theory description of LIV. We assume a generic scenario for the redshift distribution of extragalactic neutrino sources and employ Monte Carlo techniques to follow superluminal neutrino propagation. We include kinematically allowed energy losses of superluminal neutrinos caused by both vacuum pair emission (VPE) and neutrino splitting. We compare the spectra that we derive with that obtained by IceCube in order to determine the implications of our results regarding Planck-scale physics. We find that if the drop off in the neutrino flux above ~ 2 PeV is caused by LIV a potentially significant pileup effect would be produced just below the drop-off energy in the case of CPT-even operator dominance. However, a clear drop off effect would not be observed if the CPT-odd, CPT-violating term dominates.
Phenomenology of a Realistic Accelerating Universe Using Only Planck-Scale Physics
Albrecht, Andreas; Skordis, Constantinos
2000-03-06
Modern data are showing increasing evidence that the Universe is accelerating. So far, all attempts to account for the acceleration have required some fundamental dimensionless quantities to be extremely small. We show how a class of scalar field models (which may emerge naturally from superstring theory) can account for acceleration which starts in the present epoch with all the potential parameters O(1) in Planck units. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Acceleration radiation and the Planck scale
I. Agullo; J. Navarro-Salas; G. J. Olmo; L. Parker
2008-02-27
A uniformly accelerating observer perceives the Minkowski vacuum state as a thermal bath of radiation. We point out that this field-theory effect can be derived, for any dimension higher than two, without actually invoking very high energy physics. This supports the view that this phenomenon is robust against Planck-scale physics and, therefore, should be compatible with any underlying microscopic theory.
Acceleration radiation and the Planck scale
Agullo, Ivan; Navarro-Salas, Jose; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Parker, Leonard [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States) and Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada) and Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P. O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P. O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2008-05-15
A uniformly accelerating observer perceives the Minkowski vacuum state as a thermal bath of radiation. We point out that this field-theory effect can be derived, for any dimension higher than two, without actually invoking very high energy physics. This supports the view that this phenomenon is robust against Planck-scale physics and, therefore, should be compatible with any underlying microscopic theory.
Physics at the Planck scale: Tests of CPT invariance at the Fermilab main injector
Gollin, G.D.; Meyers, P.D.; Tschirhart, R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics)
1989-01-01
It is possible that CPT-violating amplitudes with sizes of order m{sub K}/ m{sub Planck} contribute to processes involving K mesons. We describe several tests of CPT invariance that could be carried out at the Fermilab Main Injector. To our surprise we find that one experiment, a precision measurement of the CP-violating charge asymmetry in semileptonic K decays, can be performed with sufficient statistical accuracy to detect the presence of CPT-violating amplitudes of size m{sub K} / m{sub Planck} which generate a mass difference between K{sup 0} and {bar K}{sup 0}. 10 refs.
Satoshi Iso
2013-04-01
The discovery of the Higgs particle at around 126 GeV has given us a big hint towards the origin of the Higgs potential. The running quartic self-coupling decreases and crosses zero somewhere in the very high energy scale. It is usually considered as a signal of the instability of the standard model (SM) vacuum, but it can also indicate a link between the physics in the electroweak scale and the Planck scale. Furthermore, the LHC experiments as well as the flavor physics experiments give strong constraints on the physics beyond the SM. It urges us to reconsider the widely taken approach to the physics beyond the SM (BSM), namely the approach based on the gauge unification below the Planck scale and the resulting hierarchy problem. Motivated by the recent experiments, we first revisit the hierarchy problem and consider an alternative appoach based on a classical conformality of the SM without the Higgs mass term. In this talk, I review our recent proposal of a B-L extension of the SM with a flat Higgs potential at the Planck scale. This model can be an alternative solution to the hierarchy problem as well as being phenomenologically viable to explain the neutrino oscillations and the baryon asymmetry of the universe. With an assumption that the Higgs has a flat potential at the Planck scale, we show that the B-L symmetry is radiatively broken at the TeV scale via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, and it triggers the electroweak symmetry breaking through a radiatively generated scalar mixing. The ratio of these two breaking scales is dynamically determined by the B-L gauge coupling.
Larisa Laperashvili; C. R. Das
2006-11-29
In the present letter we suggest a new model of preons-dyons making composite quark-leptons and bosons, described by the supersymmetric string-inspired flipped E_6\\times \\tilde E_6 gauge group of symmetry. This investigation predicts the possible extension of the Standard Model to the Family replicated gauge group model of type G^{N_{fam}}, where N_{fam} is the number of families. Here E_6 and \\tilde E_6 are non-dual and dual sectors of theory with hyper-electric g and hyper-magnetic \\tilde g charges, respectively. Our model is based on the recent theory of composite non-Abelian flux tubes in SQCD. Considering the breakdown of E_6 (and \\tilde E_6) at the Planck scale into the SU(6)\\times U(1) gauge group, we have shown that the six types of composite N = 1 supersymmetric non-Abelian flux tubes are created by the condensation of spreons-dyons near the Planck scale and have fluxes quantized according to the Z_6 center group of SU(6): \\Phi_n = n\\Phi_0 (n = \\pm 1,\\pm 2,\\pm 3). These fluxes give three types of k-strings with tensions T_k = kT_0, where k = 1,2,3, and produce three generations of composite quark-leptons and bosons. Thus, the present model predicts N_{gen} = N_{fam} = 3. The condensation of spreons near the Planck scale gives the phase transition at scales M_{crit} and \\tilde M_{crit}, and we have calculated the critical values of gauge coupling constants.
Planck scale from top condensation
Bai Yang [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Carena, Marcela [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Ponton, Eduardo [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W. 120th St, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2010-03-15
We propose a scenario in which the Planck scale is dynamically linked to the electroweak scale induced by top condensation. The standard model field content, without the Higgs, is promoted to a 5D warped background. There is also an additional 5D fermion with the quantum numbers of the right-handed top. Localization of the zero-modes leads, at low-energies, to a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model that also stabilizes the radion field dynamically thus explaining the hierarchy between the Planck scale and v{sub EW}=174 GeV. The top mass arises dynamically from the electroweak breaking condensate. The other standard model fermion masses arise naturally from higher-dimension operators, and the fermion mass hierarchies and flavor structure can be explained from the localization of the zero-modes in the extra dimension. If other contributions to the radion potential except those directly related to electroweak symmetry breaking are engineered to be suppressed, the KK scale is predicted to be about 2 orders of magnitude above the electroweak scale, rendering the model easily consistent with electroweak precision data. The model predicts a heavy (composite) Higgs with a mass of about 500 GeV and standard-model-like properties, and a vectorlike quark with non-negligible mixing with the top quark and mass in the 1.6-2.9 TeV range. Both can be within the reach of the LHC. It also predicts a radion with a mass of a few GeV that is very weakly coupled to standard model matter.
Probing Planck-Scale physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsworth, Ronald L.; Phillips, David
2004-01-01
We completed a search for a sidereal annual variation in the frequency difference between co-located Xe-129 and He-3 Zeeman masers. This search sets a stringent limit of approximately 10(exp -27) GeV on boost-dependent Lorentz and CPT violation involving the neutron. A paper reporting this result has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. We also completed detailed modeling and design of the next-generation dual-noble-gas Zeeman maser for an improved test of Lorentz and CPT violation, and begin construction of this device.
Planck scale unification and dynamical symmetry breaking
Lykken, Joseph D.; Willenbrock, Scott
1993-09-01
We explore the possibility of unification of gauge couplings near the Planck scale in models of extended technicolor. We observe that models of the form G X SU(3)_c X SU(2)_L X U(1)_Y cannot be realized, due to the presence of massless neutral Goldstone bosons (axions) and light charged pseudo-Goldstone bosons; thus, unification of the known forces near the Planck scale cannot be achieved. The next simplest possibility, G X SU(4)_{PS} X SU(2)_L X U(1)_{T_{3R}}, cannot lead to unification of the Pati-Salam and weak gauge groups near the Planck scale. However, superstring theory provides relations between couplings at the Planck scale without the need for an underlying grand-unified gauge group, which allows unification of the SU(4)_{PS} and SU(2)_{L} couplings.
Quantum aether and an invariant Planck scale
Saurya Das; Elias C. Vagenas
2011-10-17
We argue that a quantum aether is consistent with the principle of relativity and can provide an economical way of having an invariant quantum gravity or Planck scale. We also show that it may change the effective scale at which quantum gravity effects may be observable.
Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems The Max Planck Institute for the Physics research activities. Strong experimental groups are nearby, both in the neighbouring Max Planck Institute by email (visitors@pks.mpg.de), or by regular mail " Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex
Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems
Prentiss, Mara
Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems The Max Planck Institute for the Physics, both in the neighbouring Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids as well-PKS; Noethnitzer Str. 38; 01187 Dresden; Germany). The Max Planck Institute aims to increase the number of women
Planck Scale Cosmology in Resummed Quantum Gravity
B. F. L. Ward
2008-08-23
We show that, by using resummation techniques based on the extension of the methods of Yennie, Frautschi and Suura to Feynman's formulation of Einstein's theory, we get quantum field theoretic predictions for the UV fixed-point values of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants. Connections to the phenomenological asymptotic safety analysis of Planck scale cosmology by Bonanno and Reuter are discussed.
Planck Scale Cosmology and Resummed Quantum Gravity
B. F. L. Ward
2009-10-13
We show that, by using amplitude-based resummation techniques for Feynman's formulation of Einstein's theory, we get quantum field theoretic 'first principles' predictions for the UV fixed-point values of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants. Connections to the phenomenological asymptotic safety analysis of Planck scale cosmology by Bonanno and Reuter are discussed.
Burra G. Sidharth
2009-01-27
A fundamental spacetime scale in the universe leads to noncommutative spacetime and thence to a modified energy - momentum dispersion relation or equivalently to a modification of Lorentz symmetry as shown by the author and others. This latter consideration has also been used by some scholars though based on purely phenomenological models that have been suggested by the observation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. On the other hand a parallel development has been the proposal of a small but non zero photon mass by some scholars including the author, such a mass being within experimentally allowable limits. This too leads to a small violation of Lorentz symmetry observable in principle in very high energy gamma rays, as in fact is claimed. We show in this paper that the latter mechanism in fact follows from the former, thus unifying two apparently different approaches.
Vacuum Birefringence as a Probe of Planck Scale Noncommutativity
Steven A. Abel; Joerg Jaeckel; Valentin V. Khoze; Andreas Ringwald
2006-07-17
Because of ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) mixing, the low energy physics of noncommutative gauge theories in the Moyal-Weyl approach seems to depend crucially on the details of the ultraviolet completion. However, motivated by recent string theory analyses, we argue that their phenomenology with a very general class of UV completions can be accurately modelled by a cutoff close to the Planck scale. In the infrared the theory tends continuously to the commutative gauge theory. If the photon contains contributions from a trace-U(1), we would observe vacuum birefringence, i.e. a polarisation dependent propagation speed, as a residual effect of the noncommutativity. Constraints on this effect require the noncommutativity scale to be close to the Planck scale.
Bare Higgs mass at Planck scale
Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kin-ya Oda
2015-01-19
We compute one- and two-loop quadratic divergent contributions to the bare Higgs mass in terms of the bare couplings in the Standard Model. We approximate the bare couplings, defined at the ultraviolet cutoff scale, by the MS-bar ones at the same scale, which are evaluated by the two-loop renormalization group equations for the Higgs mass around 126GeV in the Standard Model. We obtain the cutoff scale dependence of the bare Higgs mass, and examine where it becomes zero. We find that when we take the current central value for the top quark pole mass, 173GeV, the bare Higgs mass vanishes if the cutoff is about 10^{23}GeV. With a 1.3 sigma smaller mass, 170GeV, the scale can be of the order of the Planck scale.
Dynamically Induced Planck Scale and Inflation
Kannike, Kristjan; Pizza, Liberato; Racioppi, Antonio; Raidal, Martti; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single-field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions $n_s \\approx 0.96$ for the spectral index and $r \\approx 0.13$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, close to those of a quadratic potential. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multi-field inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory that predicts $n_s\\approx 0.96$ and $0.003inflation. These theories relate the smallness of the weak scale to the smallness of inflationary perturbations: both arise naturally because of small couplings, implying a reheating temperature of $10^{7-9}$ GeV. A measurement of $r$ by Keck/Bicep3 would give us information on quantum gravity in the dimensionless scenario.
Craig Hogan
2010-01-08
Classical spacetime and quantum mass-energy form the basis of all of physics. They become inconsistent at the Planck scale, 5.4 times 10^{-44} seconds, which may signify a need for reconciliation in a unified theory. Although proposals for unified theories exist, a direct experimental probe of this scale, 16 orders of magnitude above Tevatron energy, has seemed hopelessly out of reach. However in a particular interpretation of holographic unified theories, derived from black hole evaporation physics, a world assembled out of Planck-scale waves displays effects of unification with a new kind of uncertainty in position at the Planck diffraction scale, the geometric mean of the Planck length and the apparatus size. In this case a new phenomenon may measurable, an indeterminacy of spacetime position that appears as noise in interferometers. The colloquium will discuss the theory of the effect, and our plans to build a holographic interferometer at Fermilab to measure it.
Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This expansive Web site features the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics' research dealing primarily with geometric analysis and gravitation, astrophysical relativity, quantum gravity and unified theories, and laser interferometry and gravitational wave astronomy. After learning about the Institute's origins in 1995, researchers can find out about the institute's intense efforts and hardships in developing a consistent theory of quantum gravity as well as its investigation in gravitational radiation and causal structures. The site provides visitors with downloads to many published articles as well as links to two free access electronic review journals: _Living Reviews in Relativity_ and _Living Reviews in Solar Physics_. While some content is not in English, all visitors can find valuable information about research in gravitational physics.
Two-point functions with an invariant Planck scale and thermal effects
Agullo, Ivan; Navarro-Salas, Jose; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Parker, Leonard [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2008-06-15
Nonlinear deformations of relativistic symmetries at the Planck scale are usually addressed in terms of modified dispersion relations. We explore here an alternative route by directly deforming the two-point functions of an underlying field theory. The proposed deformations depend on a length parameter (Planck length) and preserve the basic symmetries of the corresponding theory. We also study the physical consequences implied by these modifications at the Planck scale by analyzing the response function of an accelerated detector in Minkowski space, an inertial one in de Sitter space, and also in a black hole spacetime.
Dynamically Induced Planck Scale and Inflation
Kristjan Kannike; Gert Hütsi; Liberato Pizza; Antonio Racioppi; Martti Raidal; Alberto Salvio; Alessandro Strumia
2015-05-20
Theories where the Planck scale is dynamically generated from dimensionless interactions provide predictive inflationary potentials and super-Planckian field variations. We first study the minimal single-field realisation in the low-energy effective field theory limit, finding the predictions $n_s \\approx 0.96$ for the spectral index and $r \\approx 0.13$ for the tensor-to-scalar ratio, which can be reduced down to $\\approx 0.04$ in presence of large couplings. Next we consider agravity as a dimensionless quantum gravity theory finding a multi-field inflation that converges towards an attractor trajectory that predicts $n_s\\approx 0.96$ and $0.003inflation. These theories relate the smallness of the weak scale to the smallness of inflationary perturbations: both arise naturally because of small couplings, implying a reheating temperature of $10^{7-9}$ GeV. A measurement of $r$ by Keck/Bicep3 would give us information on quantum gravity in the dimensionless scenario.
Cosmological constant in SUGRA models with Planck scale SUSY breaking and degenerate vacua
C. D. Froggatt; R. Nevzorov; H. B. Nielsen; A. W. Thomas
2014-10-08
The empirical mass of the Higgs boson suggests small to vanishing values of the quartic Higgs self--coupling and the corresponding beta function at the Planck scale, leading to degenerate vacua. This leads us to suggest that the measured value of the cosmological constant can originate from supergravity (SUGRA) models with degenerate vacua. This scenario is realised if there are at least three exactly degenerate vacua. In the first vacuum, associated with the physical one, local supersymmetry (SUSY) is broken near the Planck scale while the breakdown of the SU(2)_W\\times U(1)_Y symmetry takes place at the electroweak (EW) scale. In the second vacuum local SUSY breaking is induced by gaugino condensation at a scale which is just slightly lower than \\Lambda_{QCD} in the physical vacuum. Finally, in the third vacuum local SUSY and EW symmetry are broken near the Planck scale.
Longitudinal and transverse relativity of spacetime locality in Planck-scale-deformed phase spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loret, Niccoló; Barcaroli, Leonardo; Rosati, Giacomo
2012-05-01
We summarize some of the results we obtained in arXiv:1006.2126 (Physical Review Letters 106, 071301), arXiv:1102.4637 (Physics Letters B 700, 150-156) and in arXiv:1107.3334, giving complementary characterizations of the relativity of spacetime locality that affects certain Planck-scale-deformed phase-space constructions.
The effective Planck mass and the scale of inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Patil, Subodh P.
2015-05-01
Observable quantities in cosmology are dimensionless, and therefore independent of the units in which they are measured. This is true of all physical quantities associated with the primordial perturbations that source cosmic microwave background anisotropies such as their amplitude and spectral properties. However, if one were to try and infer an absolute energy scale for inflation—a priori, one of the more immediate corollaries of detecting primordial tensor modes—one necessarily makes reference to a particular choice of units, the natural choice for which is Planck units. In this note, we discuss various aspects of how inferring the energy scale of inflation is complicated by the fact that the effective strength of gravity as seen by inflationary quanta necessarily differs from that seen by gravitational experiments at presently accessible scales. The uncertainty in the former relative to the latter has to do with the unknown spectrum of universally coupled particles between laboratory scales and the putative scale of inflation. These intermediate particles could be in hidden as well as visible sectors or could also be associated with Kaluza-Klein resonances associated with a compactification scale below the scale of inflation. We discuss various implications for cosmological observables.
Deviation from Bimaximality due to Planck scale effects
Bipin Singh Koranga; Mohan Narayan; S. Uma Sankar
2006-11-16
We consider the effect of Planck scale operators on neutrino mixing. We assume that GUT scale operators give rise to degenerate neutrino masses with bimaximal mixing. Quantum gravity (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)L*U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields. This gives rise to additional terms in the neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry breaking. These additional terms can be considered as a perturbation to the GUT scale bi-maximal neutrino mass matrix. We assume that the gravitational interaction is flavour blind and compute the deviations of the three neutrino mixing angles due to the Planck scale effects. We find that the changes in theta13, and theta23 are very small but the change in solar mixing angle theta12 can be as large as 3.5 degrees.
Deviation from Bimaximality due to Planck scale effects
Koranga, B S; Sankar, S U; Koranga, Bipin Singh; Narayan, Mohana
2006-01-01
We consider the effect of Planck scale operators on neutrino mixing. We assume that GUT scale operators give rise to degenerate neutrino masses with bimaximal mixing. Quantum gravity (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)L*U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields. This gives rise to additional terms in the neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry breaking. These additional terms can be considered as a perturbation to the GUT scale bi-maximal neutrino mass matrix. We assume that the gravitational interaction is flavour blind and compute the deviations of the three neutrino mixing angles due to the Planck scale effects. We find that the changes in theta13, and theta23 are very small but the change in solar mixing angle theta12 can be as large as 3.5 degrees.
Signature of HDM clustering at Planck angular scales
L. A. Popa; C. Burigana; N. Mandolesi
2003-12-04
We present the CMB anisotropy induced by the non-linear perturbations in the massive neutrino density associated to the non-linear gravitational clustering. We show that the non-linear time varying potential induced by the gravitational clustering process generates metric perturbations that affect the time evolution of the density fluctuations in all the components of the expanding Universe, leaving imprints on the CMB anisotropy power spectrum at subdegree angular scales. For a neutrino fraction in agreement with that indicated by the astroparticle and nuclear physics experiments and a cosmological accreting mass comparable with the mass of known clusters, we find that CMB anisotropy measurements with {\\sc Planck} angular resolution and sensitivity possibly combined to other precise cosmological observations will allow the detection of the dynamical, linear and non-linear effects of the neutrino gravitational clustering.
Planck Scale Cosmology and Asymptotic Safety in Resummed Quantum Gravity
B. F. L. Ward
2010-12-13
In Weinberg's asymptotic safety approach, a finite dimensional critical surface for a UV stable fixed point generates a theory of quantum gravity with a finite number of physical parameters. We argue that, in an extension of Feynman's original formulation of the theory, we recover this fixed-point UV behavior from an exact re-arrangement of the respective perturbative series. Our results are consistent with the exact field space Wilsonian renormalization group results of Reuter {\\it et al.} and with recent Hopf- algebraic Dyson-Schwinger renormalization theory results of Kreimer. We obtain the first "first principles" predictions of the dimensionless gravitational and cosmological constants and our results support the Planck scale cosmology of Bonanno and Reuter. We conclude with an estimate for the currently observed value of the cosmological constant.
The Planck Mission: Recent Results, Cosmological and Fundamental Physics Perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Burigana, Carlo; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Natoli, Paolo
2015-01-01
We provide a description of the latest status and performance of the Planck satellite, focusing on the final predicted sensitivity of Planck. The optimization of the observational strategy for the additional surveys following the nominal fifteen months of integration (about two surveys) originally allocated and the limitation represented by astrophysical foreground emissions are presented. An outline of early and intermediate astrophysical results from the Planck Collaboration is provided. A concise view of some fundamental cosmological results that will be achieved by exploiting Planck's full set of temperature and polarization data is presented. Finally, the perspectives opened by Planck in answering some key questions in fundamental physics, with particular attention to Parity symmetry analyses, are described.
Statistical Measures of Planck Scale Signal Correlations in Interferometers
Craig J. Hogan; Ohkyung Kwon
2015-06-26
A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. Simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.
Statistical Measures of Planck Scale Signal Correlations in Interferometers
Craig J. Hogan; Ohkyung Kwon
2015-06-22
A model-independent statistical framework is presented to interpret data from systems where the mean time derivative of positional cross correlation between world lines, a measure of spreading in a quantum geometrical wave function, is measured with a precision smaller than the Planck time. The framework provides a general way to constrain possible departures from perfect independence of classical world lines, associated with Planck scale bounds on positional information. A parametrized candidate set of possible correlation functions is shown to be consistent with the known causal structure of the classical geometry measured by an apparatus, and the holographic scaling of information suggested by gravity. Frequency-domain power spectra are derived that can be compared with interferometer data. Simple projections of sensitivity for specific experimental set-ups suggests that measurements will directly yield constraints on a universal time derivative of the correlation function, and thereby confirm or rule out a class of Planck scale departures from classical geometry.
Corrections to tribimaximal neutrino mixing: Renormalization and Planck scale effects
Dighe, Amol [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Goswami, Srubabati [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Rodejohann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)
2007-04-01
We study corrections to tribimaximal (TBM) neutrino mixing from renormalization group (RG) running and from Planck scale effects. We show that while the RG effects are negligible in the standard model (SM), for quasidegenerate neutrinos and large tan{beta} in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) all three mixing angles may change significantly. In both these cases, the direction of the modification of {theta}{sub 12} is fixed, while that of {theta}{sub 23} is determined by the neutrino mass ordering. The Planck scale effects can also change {theta}{sub 12} up to a few degrees in either direction for quasidegenerate neutrinos. These effects may dominate over the RG effects in the SM, and in the MSSM with small tan{beta}. The usual constraints on neutrino masses, Majorana phases or tan{beta} stemming from RG running arguments can then be relaxed. We quantify the extent of Planck scale effects on the mixing angles in terms of 'mismatch phases' which break the symmetries leading to TBM. In particular, we show that when the mismatch phases vanish, the mixing angles are not affected in spite of the Planck scale contribution. Similar statements may be made for {mu}-{tau} symmetric mass matrices.
Max Planck and the ``black year'' of German physics
Joseph F. Mulligan
1994-01-01
1994 is the hundredth anniversary of what Max Planck described in 1935 as the ``black year'' of German physics. In the eight months between January 1st and September 8th 1894, Heinrich Hertz, August Kundt, and Hermann von Helmholtz died. This article reviews the lives of these three important physicists, their research contributions, and their unique positions in the German physics
Large-scale alignments from WMAP and Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2015-06-01
We revisit the alignments of the largest structures observed in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the seven and nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and first-year Planck data releases. The observed alignments - the quadrupole with the octopole and their joint alignment with the direction of our motion with respect to the CMB (the dipole direction) and the geometry of the Solar system (defined by the Ecliptic plane) - are generally in good agreement with results from the previous WMAP data releases. However, a closer look at full-sky data on the largest scales reveals discrepancies between the earlier WMAP data releases (three to seven-year) and the final, nine-year release. There are also discrepancies between all the WMAP data releases and the first-year Planck release. Nevertheless, both the WMAP and Planck data confirm the alignments of the largest observable CMB modes in the Universe. In particular, the p-values for the mutual alignment between the quadrupole and octopole, and the alignment of the plane defined by the two with the dipole direction, are both at the greater than 3-sigma level for all three Planck maps studied. We also calculate conditional statistics on the various alignments and find that it is currently difficult to unambiguously identify a leading anomaly that causes the others or even to distinguish correlation from causation.
Planck Scale Effects on the Majoron
E. Kh. Akhmedov; Z. G. Berezhiani; R. N. Mohapatra; G. Senjanovic
1992-09-28
The hypothesis that non-perturbative gravitational effects lead to explicit breaking of global symmetries is considered in the context of Majoron models. We find that the nonvanishing Majoron mass generated by these effects can overclose the universe unless the massive Majoron is unstable. The cosmological mass density constraints can then be satisfied only if $V_{BL} < 10$ TeV, where $V_{BL}$ is the scale of $B-L$ symmetry breaking.
Strings at the Intermediate Scale, or is the Fermi Scale Dual to the Planck Scale?
C. P. Burgess; L. E. Ibanez; F. Quevedo
1998-10-29
We show that if the string scale is identifed with the intermediate scale, $M_s=\\sqrt{M_W M_{Planck}} \\sim 10^{11}$ GeV, then the notorious hierarchy, $M_W/M_{Planck} \\sim 10^{-16}$, can be explained using only $M_c/M_s \\sim 0.01 \\sim \\alpha_{GUT} $ as small input parameters, where $M_c$ is the compactification scale. This is possible for weakly-coupled Type-I open-string vacua if the observed world is assumed to live in an N=1 supersymmetric 3-brane sector coupled to a separate, hidden, 3-brane world which breaks supersymmetry, because for such a model $M_W/M_{Planck} = 1/2 \\alpha_{GUT}^2 (M_c/M_s)^6$. We discuss some of the phenomenological issues presented by such an intermediate-scale string, showing that its benefits include: (i) the possibility of logarithmic gauge-coupling unification of the SM couplings at $M_s$; (ii) a natural axionic solution to the strong-CP problem with a phenomenologically-acceptable Peccei-Quinn scale; (iii) experimentally-interesting neutrino masses, and more.
Modelling Planck-scale Lorentz violation via analogue models
Silke Weinfurtner; Stefano Liberati; Matt Visser
2005-12-22
Astrophysical tests of Planck-suppressed Lorentz violations had been extensively studied in recent years and very stringent constraints have been obtained within the framework of effective field theory. There are however still some unresolved theoretical issues, in particular regarding the so called "naturalness problem" - which arises when postulating that Planck-suppressed Lorentz violations arise only from operators with mass dimension greater than four in the Lagrangian. In the work presented here we shall try to address this problem by looking at a condensed-matter analogue of the Lorentz violations considered in quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we investigate the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the two components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. We shall show that such a model can be considered to be an explicit example high-energy Lorentz violations where the ``naturalness problem'' does not arise.
The International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) on Elementary Particle Physics in Munich initiative of the Max Planck Institute of Physics (Werner Heisenberg Institute) and the particle. Jochen Schieck Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Physik E-Mail imprs@mppmu.mpg.de Phone +49-(0)-089-32354-352 Fax
Inflation with a Planck-scale frequency cutoff
J. C. Niemeyer
2000-11-22
The implementation of a Planck-scale high frequency and short wavelength cutoff in quantum theories on expanding backgrounds may have potentially nontrivial implications, such as the breaking of local Lorentz invariance and the existence of a yet unknown mechanism for the creation of vacuum modes. In scenarios where inflation begins close to the cutoff scale, these effects could have observable consequences as trans-Planckian modes are redshifted to cosmological scales. In close analogy with similar studies of Hawking radiation, a simple theory of a minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is studied, with a high frequency cutoff imposed by a nonlinear dispersion relation. Under certain conditions the model predicts deviations from the standard inflationary scenario. We also comment on the difficulties in generalizing fluid models of Hawking radiation to cosmological space-times.
Inflation with a Planck-scale frequency cutoff
Niemeyer, Jens C.
2001-06-15
The implementation of a Planck-scale high frequency and short wavelength cutoff in quantum theories on expanding backgrounds may have potentially nontrivial implications, such as the breaking of local Lorentz invariance and the existence of a yet unknown mechanism for the creation of vacuum modes. In scenarios where inflation begins close to the cutoff scale, these effects could have observable consequences as trans-Planckian modes are redshifted to cosmological scales. In close analogy with similar studies of Hawking radiation, a simple theory of a minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space is studied, with a high frequency cutoff imposed by a nonlinear dispersion relation. Under certain conditions the model predicts deviations from the standard inflationary scenario. We also comment on the difficulties in generalizing fluid models of Hawking radiation to cosmological space-times.
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics: X-Ray Astronomy
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This website features the latest space science news, research activities, projects, and laboratories of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' X-Ray Astronomy group. Visitors can view images and read clear summaries of its research in the areas of galactic and extragalactic astronomy. Researchers can learn about the group's instrumental techniques using soft and hard X-rays such as imaging with Wolter telescopes and multi-wire proportional counters. In the Data Center, visitors can explore the group's data analysis software and user data archives. The site provides links to its innumerable collaborators.
Quantum Geometry and Quantum Dynamics at the Planck Scale
Bojowald, Martin [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2009-12-15
Canonical quantum gravity provides insights into the quantum dynamics as well as quantum geometry of space-time by its implications for constraints. Loop quantum gravity in particular requires specific corrections due to its quantization procedure, which also results in a discrete picture of space. The corresponding changes compared to the classical behavior can most easily be analyzed in isotropic models, but perturbations around them are more involved. For one type of corrections, consistent equations have been found which shed light on the underlying space-time structure at the Planck scale: not just quantum dynamics but also the concept of space-time manifolds changes in quantum gravity. Effective line elements provide indications for possible relationships to other frameworks, such as non-commutative geometry.
Ultra-high energy physics and standard basic principles. Do Planck units really make sense?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2014-04-01
It has not yet been elucidated whether the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above ? 4 x 1019 eV is a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or a consequence of other phenomena. In both cases, violations of the standard fundamental principles of Physics can be present and play a significant role. They can in particular modify cosmic-ray interactions, propagation or acceleration at very high energy. Thus, in a long-term program, UHECR data can hopefully be used to test relativity, quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum properties... as well as the elementariness of standard particles. Data on cosmic rays at energies ? 1020 eV may also be sensitive to new physics generated well beyond Planck scale. A typical example is provided by the search for possible signatures of a Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) associated to a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). If a VRF exists, the internal structure of standard particles at ultra-high energy can undergo substantial modifications. Similarly, the conventional particle symmetries may cease to be valid at such energies instead of heading to a grand unification and the structure of vacuum may no longer be governed by standard quantum field theory. Then, the question whether the notion of Planck scale still makes sense clearly becomes relevant and the very grounds of Cosmology can undergo essential modifications. UHECR studies naturally interact with the interpretation of WMAP and Planck observations. Recent Planck data analyses tend to confirm the possible existence of a privileged space direction. If the observed phenomenon turns out to be a signature of the spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97, then conventional Particle Physics may correspond to the local properties of standard matter at low enough energy and large enough distances. This would clearly strengthen the cosmological relevance of UHECR phenomenology and weaken the status of the Planck scale hypothesis. Another crucial observation is that, already before incorporating standard matter and relativity, the SST geometry naturally yields a H t = 1 law where t is the age of the Universe and H the ratio between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale. As standard cosmology is not required to get such a fundamental result, the need for a conventional Planck scale is far from obvious and the study of UHECR can potentially yield evidence for an alternative approach including new physics and new ultimate constituents of matter. UHECR may in particular allow to explore the possible indications of the existence of a transition scale at very high energy where the standard laws would start becoming less and less dominant and new physics would replace the conventional fundamental principles. We discuss prospects of searches for potential signatures of such a phenomenon.
The New Planck Scale: Quantized Spin and Charge Coupled to Gravity
F. I. Cooperstock; V. Faraoni
2003-05-23
In the standard approach to defining a Planck scale where gravity is brought into the quantum domain, the Schwarzschild gravitational radius is set equal to the Compton wavelength. However, ignored thereby are the charge and spin, the fundamental quantized aspects of matter. The gravitational and null-surface radii of the Kerr-Newman metric are used to introduce spin and charge into a new extended Planck scale. The fine structure constant appears in the extended Planck mass and the recent discovery of the $\\alpha$ variation with the evolution of the universe adds further significance. An extended Planck charge and Planck spin are derived. There is an intriguing suggestion of a connection with the $\\alpha$ value governing high-energy radiation in Z-boson production and decay.
Does the planck mass run on the cosmological-horizon scale?
Robbers, Georg; Afshordi, Niayesh; Doran, Michael
2008-03-21
Einstein's theory of general relativity contains a universal value of the Planck mass. However, one may envisage that in alternative theories of gravity the effective value of the Planck mass (or Newton's constant), which quantifies the coupling of matter to metric perturbations, can run on the cosmological-horizon scale. In this Letter, we study the consequences of a glitch in the Planck mass from subhorizon to superhorizon scales. We show that current cosmological observations severely constrain this glitch to less than 1.2%. PMID:18517773
A Planck-scale limit on spacetime fuzziness and stochastic Lorentz invariance violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasileiou, Vlasios; Granot, Jonathan; Piran, Tsvi; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2015-04-01
Wheeler’s `spacetime-foam’ picture of quantum gravity (QG) suggests spacetime fuzziness (fluctuations leading to non-deterministic effects) at distances comparable to the Planck length, LPl ~ 1.62 × 10-33 cm, the inverse (in natural units) of the Planck energy, EPl ~ 1.22 × 1019 GeV. The resulting non-deterministic motion of photons on the Planck scale is expected to produce energy-dependent stochastic fluctuations in their speed. Such a stochastic deviation from the well-measured speed of light at low photon energies, c, should be contrasted with the possibility of an energy-dependent systematic, deterministic deviation. Such a systematic deviation, on which observations by the Fermi satellite set Planck-scale limits for linear energy dependence, is more easily searched for than stochastic deviations. Here, for the first time, we place Planck-scale limits on the more generic spacetime-foam prediction of energy-dependent fuzziness in the speed of photons. Using high-energy observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) of gamma-ray burst GRB090510, we test a model in which photon speeds are distributed normally around c with a standard deviation proportional to the photon energy. We constrain the model’s characteristic energy scale beyond the Planck scale at >2.8EPl(>1.6EPl), at 95% (99%) confidence. Our results set a benchmark constraint to be reckoned with by any QG model that features spacetime quantization.
Sub-Planck-scale structures in a vibrating molecule in the presence of decoherence
Ghosh, Suranjana; Roy, Utpal; Vitali, David [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Genes, Claudiu [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2009-05-15
We study the effect of decoherence on the sub-Planck scale structures of the vibrational wave packet of a molecule. The time evolution of these wave packets is investigated under the influence of a photonic or phononic environment. We determine the master equation describing the reduced dynamics of the wave packet and analyze the sensitivity of the sub-Planck structures against decoherence in the case of a hydrogen iodide (HI) molecule.
Fractional variant Planck's over 2pi scaling for quantum kicked rotors without Cantori.
Wang, J; Monteiro, T S; Fishman, S; Keating, J P; Schubert, R
2007-12-01
Previous studies of quantum delta-kicked rotors have found momentum probability distributions with a typical width (localization length L) characterized by fractional variant Planck's over 2pi scaling; i.e., L approximately variant Planck's over 2pi;{2/3} in regimes and phase-space regions close to "golden-ratio" cantori. In contrast, in typical chaotic regimes, the scaling is integer, L approximately variant Planck's over 2pi;{-1}. Here we consider a generic variant of the kicked rotor, the random-pair-kicked particle, obtained by randomizing the phases every second kick; it has no Kol'mogorov-Arnol'd-Moser mixed-phase-space structures, such as golden-ratio cantori, at all. Our unexpected finding is that, over comparable phase-space regions, it also has fractional scaling, but L approximately variant Planck's over 2pi;{-2/3}. A semiclassical analysis indicates that the variant Planck's over 2pi;{2/3} scaling here is of quantum origin and is not a signature of classical cantori. PMID:18233366
Planck Scale Induced Speed of Sound in a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate
E. Castellanos; J. I. Rivas; V. Domínguez-Rocha
2014-07-11
In the present work, we analyze the corrections caused by an anomalous dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon the speed of sound in a weakly interacting Bose--Einstein Condensate, trapped in a potential of the form $V(r)\\sim r^{2}$. We show that the corresponding ground state energy and consequently, the associated speed of sound, present corrections respect to the usual case, which may be used to explore the sensitivity to Planck--scale effects on these relevant properties associated with the condensate. Indeed, we stress that this type of macroscopic bodies may be more sensitive, under certain conditions, to Planck--scale manifestations than its constituents. In addition, we prove that the inclusion of a trapping potential, together with many--body contributions, improves the sensitivity to Planck--scale signals, compared to the homogeneous system.
Mesoscopic superposition and sub-Planck-scale structure in molecular wave packets
Ghosh, Suranjana; Banerji, J.; Panigrahi, P. K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380 009 (India); Chiruvelli, Aravind [University of Massachusetts at Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02125-3393 (United States)
2006-01-15
We demonstrate the possibility of realizing sub-Planck-scale structures in the mesoscopic superposition of molecular wave packets involving vibrational levels. The time evolution of the wave packet, taken here as the SU(2) coherent state of the Morse potential describing hydrogen iodide molecules, produces macroscopic-quantum-superposition-like states, responsible for the above phenomenon. We investigate the phase-space dynamics of the coherent state through the Wigner function approach and identify the interference phenomena behind the sub-Planck-scale structures. The optimal parameter ranges are specified for observing these features.
Could Planck level physics be driving classical macroscopic physics through a random walk?
C. L. Herzenberg
2011-11-28
We examine a very simple conceptual model of stochastic behavior based on a random walk process in velocity space. For objects engaged in classical non-relativistic velocities, this leads under asymmetric conditions to acceleration processes that resemble the behavior of objects subject to Newton's second law, and in three dimensional space, acceleration dependent on an inverse square law emerges. Thus, a non-relativistic random walk would appear to be capable of describing certain prominent features of classical physics; however, this classical behavior appears to be able to take place only for objects with mass exceeding a threshold value which we identify with the Planck mass. Under these circumstances, stochastic space-time displacements would be smaller than the Planck length and the Planck time so that such classically behaved objects would be effectively localized. Lower mass objects exhibit more rapid diffusion and less localization, and a relativistic random walk would seem to be required of objects having masses comparable to and smaller than the threshold mass value. Results suggest the possibility of an intrinsic quantum-classical transition in the microgram mass range.
A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department, University of Rome ''La Sapienza'' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cooray, Asantha, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: acooray@uci.edu [Center for Cosmology, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
2009-08-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ?, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ? ? ?0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ? achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-? confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup ?4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup ?3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup ?5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup ?6}.
None
2011-10-06
Planck 2010 From the Planck Scale to the ElectroWeak Scale The conference will be the twelfth one in a series of meetings on physics beyond the Standard Model, organized jointly by several European groups: Bonn, CERN, Ecole Polytechnique, ICTP, Madrid, Oxford, Padua, Pisa, SISSA and Warsaw as part of activities in the framework of the European network UNILHC.Topics to be discussed: Supersymmetry Supergravity & string phenomenology Extra dimensions Electroweak symmetry breaking LHC and Tevatron Physics Collider physics Flavor & neutrinos physics Astroparticle & cosmology Gravity & holography Strongly coupled physics & CFT Registration: registration will be open until May 1st. Registration fees amount to 150 CHF and cover the cost of the coffee breaks and the social dinner. Payment has to be made online. The deadline for registration has been postponed to May 7th. However, after May 3th, we shall not accept any talk request any more. The meeting will be partly supported by ° the Marie Curie Initial Training Network "UNILHC" PITN-GA-2009-23792, ° the ERC Advanced Grant "MassTeV" 226371, ° and the CERN-TH unit.
Multiple scales analysis of the Fokker–Planck equation for simple shear flow
G. Subramanian; J. F. Brady
2004-01-01
We extend the multiple time scales formalism originally introduced for the Fokker–Planck equation by Wycoff and Balazs (Physica A 146 (1987) 175) to the case of simple shear flow. The analysis is carried out for small values of the Stokes number, St, a dimensionless measure of the inertia of a Brownian particle. The probability density is expanded in terms of
SUSY Parameter Analysis at TeV and Planck Scales
B. C. Allanach; G. A. Blair; A. Freitas; S. Kraml; H. -U. Martyn; G. Polesello; W. Porod; P. M. Zerwas
2004-07-06
Coherent analyses at future LHC and LC experiments can be used to explore the breaking mechanism of supersymmetry and to reconstruct the fundamental theory at high energies, in particular at the grand unification scale. This will be exemplified for minimal supergravity.
Planck-Scale Traces from the Interference Pattern of two Bose-Einstein Condensates
E. Castellanos; J. I. Rivas
2014-11-24
We analyze the possible effects arising from Planck scale regime upon the interference pattern of two non-interacting Bose-Einstein condensates. We start with the analysis of the free expansion of a condensate, taken into account the effects produced by a deformed dispersion relation, suggested in several quantum-gravity models. The analysis of the condensate free expansion, in particular, the modified free velocity expansion, suggests in a natural way, a modified uncertainty principle that could leads to new phenomenological implications related to the quantum structure of space time. Finally, we analyze the corresponding separation between the interference fringes after the two condensates overlap, in order to explore the sensitivity of the system to possible signals caused by the Planck scale regime.
Constraining the Energy-Momentum Dispersion Relation with Planck-Scale Sensitivity Using Cold Atoms
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Mercati, Flavio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, Piazzale Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Laemmerzahl, Claus [ZARM, Universitaet Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Tino, Guglielmo M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and LENS, Universita di Firenze, Sezione INFN di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2009-10-23
We use the results of ultraprecise cold-atom-recoil experiments to constrain the form of the energy-momentum dispersion relation, a structure that is expected to be modified in several quantum-gravity approaches. Our strategy of analysis applies to the nonrelativistic (small speeds) limit of the dispersion relation, and is therefore complementary to an analogous ongoing effort of investigation of the dispersion relation in the ultrarelativistic regime using observations in astrophysics. For the leading correction in the nonrelativistic limit the exceptional sensitivity of cold-atom-recoil experiments remarkably allows us to set a limit within a single order of magnitude of the desired Planck-scale level, thereby providing the first example of Planck-scale sensitivity in the study of the dispersion relation in controlled laboratory experiments.
Strong dynamics at the Planck scale as a solution to the cosmological moduli problem
Fuminobu Takahashi; Tsutomu T. Yanagida
2011-01-01
We argue that strong dynamics at the Planck scale can solve the cosmological moduli problem. We discuss its implications for\\u000a inflation models, and find that a certain type of multi-field inflation model is required for this mechanism to work, since\\u000a otherwise it would lead to the serious ?-problem. Combined with the inflaton-induced gravitino problem, we show that a chaotic inflation
Planck early results. XII. Cluster Sunyaev-Zeldovich optical scaling relations
N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. L. Brown; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; G. Chon; P. R. Christensen; E. Churazov; D. L. Clements; S. Colafrancesco; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; A. da Silva; H. Dahle; L. Danese; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; J. M. Diego; K. Dolag; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; F. Finelli; I. Flores-Cacho; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Fromenteau; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; R. T. Génova-Santos; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; D. Harrison; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; F. Marleau; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; S. Mei; A. Melchiorri; J.-B. Melin; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; R. Piffaretti; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. W. Pratt; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; G. Savini; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; L. Valenziano; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; B. D. Wandelt; S. D. M. White; M. White; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
We present the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal-to-richness scaling relation (Y500 - N200) for the MaxBCG cluster catalogue. Employing a multi-frequency matched filter on the Planck sky maps, we measure the SZ signal for each cluster by adapting the filter according to weak-lensing calibrated mass-richness relations (N200 - M500). We bin our individual measurements and detect the SZ signal down to the
Straube, Arthur V.
2011-01-01
THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 135, 084103 (2011) How accurate are the nonlinear chemical Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations? Ramon Grima,1,a) Philipp Thomas,1,2 and Arthur V. Straube2 1 School August 2011) The chemical Fokker-Planck equation and the corresponding chemical Langevin equation are com
Decay of the Loschmidt Echo for quantum states with sub-Planck scale structures
Ph. Jacquod; I. Adagideli; C. W. J. Beenakker
2002-08-23
Quantum states extended over a large volume in phase space have oscillations from quantum interferences in their Wigner distribution on scales smaller than $\\hbar$ [W.H. Zurek, Nature {\\bf 412}, 712 (2001)]. We investigate the influence of those sub-Planck scale structures on the sensitivity to an external perturbation of the state's time evolution. While we do find an accelerated decay of the Loschmidt Echo for an extended state in comparison to a localized wavepacket, the acceleration is described entirely by the classical Lyapunov exponent and hence cannot originate from quantum interference.
Insensitivity of Hawking radiation to an invariant Planck-scale cutoff
Agullo, Ivan [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O.Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Navarro-Salas, Jose [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Parker, Leonard [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O.Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)
2009-08-15
A disturbing aspect of Hawking's derivation of black hole radiance is the need to invoke extreme conditions for the quantum field that originates the emitted quanta. It is widely argued that the derivation requires the validity of the conventional relativistic field theory to arbitrarily high, trans-Planckian scales. We stress in this note that this is not necessarily the case if the question is presented in a covariant way. We point out that Hawking radiation is immediately robust against an invariant Planck-scale cutoff. This important feature of Hawking radiation is relevant for a quantum gravity theory that preserves, in some way, the Lorentz symmetry.
Low and high scale MSSM inflation, gravitational waves and constraints from Planck
Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Supratik [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Mazumdar, Anupam, E-mail: sayanphysicsisi@gmail.com, E-mail: a.mazumdar@lancaster.ac.uk, E-mail: supratik@isical.ac.in [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2013-07-01
In this paper we will analyze generic predictions of an inflection-point model of inflation with Hubble-induced corrections and study them in light of the Planck data. Typically inflection-point models of inflation can be embedded within Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) where inflation can occur below the Planck scale. The flexibility of the potential allows us to match the observed amplitude of the TT-power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation with low and high multipoles, spectral tilt, and virtually mild running of the spectral tilt, which can put a bound on an upper limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r ? 0.12. Since the inflaton within MSSM carries the Standard Model charges, therefore it is the minimal model of inflation beyond the Standard Model which can reheat the universe with the right thermal degrees of freedom without any dark-radiation.
The Division of Condensed Matter Theory of the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex experimental groups are nearby, e.g. in the neighbou- ring Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids by 18 January 2013. Prof. Roderich Moessner Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme Nöthnitzer
Dynamical effects of the neutrino gravitational clustering at Planck angular scales
L. A. Popa; C. Burigana; N. Mandolesi
2002-03-19
We study the CMB anisotropy induced by the non-linear perturbations in the massive neutrino density associated to the non-linear gravitational clustering proceses. Our results show that for the neutrino fraction in agreement with that indicated by the astroparticle and nuclear physics experiments and a cosmological accreting mass comparable with the mass of known clusters, the angular resolution and the sensitivity of the CMB anisotropy measurements from the Planck surveyor will allow the detection of the dynamical effects of the neutrino gravitational clustering.
THE Y {sub SZ}-Y{sub X} SCALING RELATION AS DETERMINED FROM PLANCK AND CHANDRA
Rozo, Eduardo; More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vikhlinin, Alexey [Space Research Institute (IKI), Profsoyuznaya 84/32, Moscow 117810 (Russian Federation)
2012-11-20
Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) clusters surveys, such as Planck, the South Pole Telescope, and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, will soon be publishing several hundred SZ-selected systems. The key ingredient required to transport the mass calibration from current X-ray-selected cluster samples to these SZ systems is the Y {sub SZ}-Y{sub X} scaling relation. We constrain the amplitude, slope, and scatter of the Y {sub SZ}-Y{sub X} scaling relation using SZ data from Planck and X-ray data from Chandra. We find a best-fit amplitude of ln (D {sup 2} {sub A} Y {sub SZ}/CY{sub X} ) = -0.202 {+-} 0.024 at the pivot point CY{sub X} = 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Mpc{sup 2}. This corresponds to a Y {sub SZ}/Y{sub X} ratio of 0.82 {+-} 0.024, in good agreement with X-ray expectations after including the effects of gas clumping. The slope of the relation is {alpha} = 0.916 {+-} 0.032, consistent with unity at Almost-Equal-To 2.3{sigma}. We are unable to detect intrinsic scatter, and find no evidence that the scaling relation depends on cluster dynamical state.
A Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code for high energy density physics
Tzoufras, M., E-mail: m.tzoufras1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Norreys, P.A. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Tsung, F.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2011-07-20
OSHUN is a parallel relativistic 2D3P Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, developed primarily to study electron transport and instabilities pertaining to laser-produced-including laser-fusion-plasmas. It incorporates a spherical harmonic expansion of the electron distribution function, where the number of terms is an input parameter that determines the angular resolution in momentum-space. The algorithm employs the full 3D electromagnetic fields and a rigorous linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. The numerical scheme conserves energy and number density. This enables simulations for plasmas with temperatures from MeV down to a few eV and densities from less than critical to more than solid. Kinetic phenomena as well as electron transport physics can be recovered accurately and efficiently.
Georg Raffelt, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, Germany Theoretical Physics Colloquium, 16-Planck-Institut für Physik, München, Germany Theoretical Physics Colloquium, 16 Feb 2010, TIFR, Mumbai, India Axion Theoretical Physics Colloquium, 16 Feb 2010, TIFR, Mumbai, India CP Violation in Particle Physics Discrete
SCALING METHODS IN SOIL PHYSICS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Soil physical properties are needed to understand and manage natural systems spanning an extremely wide range of scales. Much of soil data are obtained from small soil samples and cores, monoliths, or small field plots, yet the goal is to reconstruct soil physical properties across fields, watershed...
Astrophysical Production of Microscopic Black Holes in a Low Planck-scale World
A. Barrau; C. Feron; J. Grain
2005-05-20
In the framework of brane-world models lowering the Planck scale to the TeV range, it has recently been pointed out that small black holes could be formed at particle colliders or by neutrinos interactions in the atmosphere. This article aims at reviewing other places and epochs where microscopic black holes could be formed : the interstellar medium and the early Universe. The related decay channels and the propagation of the emitted particles are studied to conclude that, in spite of the large creation rate for such black holes, the amount of produced particles do not conflict with experimental data. This shows, from the astronomical viewpoint, that models with large extra dimensions making the gravity scale much lower are compatible with observations.
Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25?. We use thetemperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting ?CDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z = 1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing potential. When combined with the temperature power spectrum, our measurement provides degeneracy-breaking power for parameter constraints; it improves CMB-alone constraints on curvature by a factor of two and also partly breaks the degeneracy between the amplitude of the primordial perturbation power spectrum and the optical depth to reionization, allowing a measurement of the optical depth to reionization which is independent of large-scale polarization data. Discarding scale information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ~ 2.
Scale invariance in cosmology and physics
Hoang K. Nguyen
2013-02-27
The fundamental laws of physics are required to be invariant under local spatial scale change. In 3-dimensional space, this leads to a variation in Planck constant \\hbar and speed of light c. They vary as \\hbar ~ a^(1/2) and c ~ a^(-1/2), a is the local scale. A direct consequence is that the expanding universe progressively alters the values of c which in turn affects the evolution of the universe itself. Friedmann eqns violate scale invariance and neglect to account for the scale dependency of c. We build a cosmological model which is fully consistent with scale invariance and respects Lorentz invariance. This model leads to a universe different from the ones depicted in Friedmann model. We apply our model to resolve a series of observational and theoretical difficulties in modern cosmology: "runaway density parameter" problem, budgetary shortfall, horizon problem, eg. Our model does not resort to inflation hypothesis. We derive a modification to the Hubble law and Hubble constant, and a new brightness-redshift relationship for Type Ia supernovae: (a) Hubble constant has been inadvertently overestimated by a factor of 9/5; so has the critical density by (9/5)^2; (b) Our new photometric distance-redshift relationship d_L=2c/(3H0)*(1+z)^(5/6)\\ln(1+z) with one parameter H0=37 fits to the high-$z$ objects as equally well as the traditional relationship does with three parameters H0=70.5, OmegaM=0.27, OmegaL=0.73. We draw two conclusions: (i) With H0=37, the critical density is only 0.28 time the value previously thought; dark energy is absent. (ii) H0=37 restores the age estimate to 17.6 Gy (via t_0=2/(3H0)). They also raise the possibility that the universe expansion is not accelerating, but rather a result of c progressively adapting to new spatial scale as the universe expands. Finally, we discuss an array of implications of scale invariance in the larger context of physics.
Higher-Dimensional Algebra and Planck-Scale Physics
John C. Baez
1999-02-04
This is a nontechnical introduction to recent work on quantum gravity using ideas from higher-dimensional algebra. We argue that reconciling general relativity with the Standard Model requires a `background-free quantum theory with local degrees of freedom propagating causally'. We describe the insights provided by work on topological quantum field theories such as quantum gravity in 3-dimensional spacetime. These are background-free quantum theories lacking local degrees of freedom, so they only display some of the features we seek. However, they suggest a deep link between the concepts of `space' and `state', and similarly those of `spacetime' and `process', which we argue is to be expected in any background-free quantum theory. We sketch how higher-dimensional algebra provides the mathematical tools to make this link precise. Finally, we comment on attempts to formulate a theory of quantum gravity in 4-dimensional spacetime using `spin networks' and `spin foams'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gooch, C.; Garbini, L.; Abt, I.; Schulz, O.; Palermo, M.; Majorovits, B.; Liao, H.-Y.; Liu, X.; Seitz, H.
2015-05-01
The GeDetgroup at the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich, Germany, operates a number of test stands in order to conduct research on novel germanium detectors. The test stands are of a unique design and construction that provide the ability to probe the properties of new detector types. The GALATEA test stand was especially designed for surface scans, specifically a-induced surface events, a problem faced in low background experiments due to unavoidable surface contamination of detectors. A special 19-fold segmented coaxial prototype detector has already been investigated inside GALATEA with an a-source. A top surface scan provided insight into the physics underneath the passivation layer. Detector segmentation provides a direct path towards background identification and characterisation. With this in mind, a 4-fold segmentation scheme was implemented on a broad-energy point-contact detector and is being investigated inside the groups K1 test stand. A cryogenic test-stand where detectors can be submerged directly in liquid nitrogen or argon is also available. The goal is to establish segmentation as a viable option to reduce background in future large scale experiments.
Bound on four-dimensional Planck mass
Calmet, Xavier; Feliciangeli, Marco [Catholic University of Louvain, Center for Particle Physics Phenomenology, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)
2008-09-15
In this paper we derive a bound using data from cosmic rays physics on a model recently proposed to solve the hierarchy problem by lowering the Planck scale to the TeV region without the introduction of extra dimensions. We show that the nonobservation of small black holes by AGASA implies a model independent limit for the four-dimensional reduced Planck mass of roughly 488 GeV.
Transition physics and scaling overview
Carlstrom, T.N.
1995-12-01
This paper presents an overview of recent experimental progress towards understanding H-mode transition physics and scaling. Terminology and techniques for studying H-mode are reviewed and discussed. The model of shear E x B flow stabilization of edge fluctuations at the L-H transition is gaining wide acceptance and is further supported by observations of edge rotation on a number of new devices. Observations of poloidal asymmetries of edge fluctuations and dephasing of density and potential fluctuations after the transition pose interesting challenges for understanding H-mode physics. Dedicated scans to determine the scaling of the power threshold have now been performed on many machines. A dear B{sub t} dependence is universally observed but dependence on the line averaged density is complicated. Other dependencies are also reported. Studies of the effect of neutrals and error fields on the power threshold are under investigation. The ITER threshold database has matured and offers guidance to the power threshold scaling issues relevant to next-step devices.
Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics characterized by a spacelike symmetry-breaking vector
Gubitosi, Giulia; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Genovese, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)
2010-07-15
In the study of Planck-scale ('quantum-gravity-induced') violations of Lorentz symmetry, an important role was played by the deformed-electrodynamics model introduced by Myers and Pospelov. Its reliance on conventional effective quantum field theory, and its description of symmetry-violation effects simply in terms of a four-vector with a nonzero component only in the time direction, rendered it an ideal target for experimentalists and a natural concept-testing ground for many theorists. At this point however the experimental limits on the single Myers-Pospelov parameter, after improving steadily over these past few years, are 'super-Planckian'; i.e. they take the model out of actual interest from a conventional quantum-gravity perspective. In light of this we here argue that it may be appropriate to move on to the next level of complexity, still with vectorial symmetry violation but adopting a generic four-vector. We also offer a preliminary characterization of the phenomenology of this more general framework, sufficient to expose a rather significant increase in complexity with respect to the original Myers-Pospelov setup. Most of these novel features are linked to the presence of spatial anisotropy, which is particularly pronounced when the symmetry-breaking vector is spacelike, and they are such that they reduce the bound-setting power of certain types of observations in astrophysics.
The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.
1997-01-01
Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)
Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales
Nikolai Dotzek
2009-01-01
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of
Signatures in the Planck Regime
S. Hossenfelder; M. Bleicher; S. Hofmann; J. Ruppert; S. Scherer; H. Stöcker
2003-07-28
String theory suggests the existence of a minimum length scale. An exciting quantum mechanical implication of this feature is a modification of the uncertainty principle. In contrast to the conventional approach, this generalised uncertainty principle does not allow to resolve space time distances below the Planck length. In models with extra dimensions, which are also motivated by string theory, the Planck scale can be lowered to values accessible by ultra high energetic cosmic rays (UHECRs) and by future colliders, i.e. $M_f\\approx$ 1 TeV. It is demonstrated that in this novel scenario, short distance physics below $1/M_f$ is completely cloaked by the uncertainty principle. Therefore, Planckian effects could be the final physics discovery at future colliders and in UHECRs. As an application, we predict the modifications to the $e^+e^- \\to f^+f^-$ cross-sections.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Englert, G. W.
1971-01-01
A model of the random walk is formulated to allow a simple computing procedure to replace the difficult problem of solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The step sizes and probabilities of taking steps in the various directions are expressed in terms of Fokker-Planck coefficients. Application is made to many particle systems with Coulomb interactions. The relaxation of a highly peaked velocity distribution of particles to equilibrium conditions is illustrated.
Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education. A Rating Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stork, Steve; Sanders, Steve
1996-01-01
The purpose of elementary physical education is poorly defined, and the public has low expectations and support for the field. The Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education Practices for Children rating scale emphasizes teaching practices that are appropriate to each student's age and ability. The paper describes use of the scale. (SM)
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; H. Bourdin; M. L. Brown; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; G. Chon; P. R. Christensen; E. Churazov; D. L. Clements; S. Colafrancesco; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; A. da Silva; H. Dahle; L. Danese; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; J. M. Diego; K. Dolag; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; F. Finelli; I. Flores-Cacho; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Fromenteau; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; R. T. Génova-Santos; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; D. Harrison; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; J. Lanoux; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; A. Liddle; P. B. Lilje; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; F. Marleau; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; J.-B. Melin; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; R. Piffaretti; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. W. Pratt; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; L. Valenziano; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; S. D. M. White; M. White; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
We present precise Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect measurements in the direction of 62 nearby galaxy clusters (z < 0.5) detected at high signal-to-noise in the first Planck all-sky data set. The sample spans approximately a decade in total mass, 2 × 1014 M&sun; < M500 < 2 × 1015 M&sun;, where M500 is the mass corresponding to a total density contrast
Derivation of physically motivated wind speed scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dotzek, Nikolai
A class of new wind speed scales is proposed in which the relevant scaling factors are derived from physical quantities like mass flux density, energy density (pressure), or energy flux density. Hence, they are called Energy- or E-scales, and can be applied to wind speeds of any intensity. It is shown that the Mach scale is a special case of an E-scale. Aside from its foundation in physical quantities which allow for a calibration of the scales, the E-scale concept can help to overcome the present plethora of scales for winds in the range from gale to hurricane intensity. A procedure to convert existing data based on the Fujita-scale or other scales (Saffir-Simpson, TORRO, Beaufort) to their corresponding E-scales is outlined. Even for the large US tornado record, the workload of conversion in case of an adoption of the E-scale would in principle remain manageable (if the necessary metadata to do so were available), as primarily the F5 events would have to be re-rated. Compared to damage scales like the "Enhanced Fujita" or EF-scale concept recently implemented in the USA, the E-scales are based on first principles. They can consistently be applied all over the world for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. To account for international variations in building characteristics, one should not adapt wind speed scale thresholds to certain national building characteristics. Instead, one worldwide applicable wind speed scale based on physical principles should rather be complemented by nationally-adapted damage descriptions. The E-scale concept can provide the basis for such a standardised wind speed scale.
Brookhaven National Laboratory
EXCITATION OF PLASMA WAKEFIELDS WITH DESIGNER BUNCH TRAINS P. Muggli, Max Planck Institute to shape electron bunches in time can also be used to shape the charge or current along the bunch. INTRODUCTION Advanced accelerator concepts, plasma or dielectric based, usually use a single bunche to either
E. N. Da C. Andrade
1948-01-01
IN a broadcast talk on Max Planck, in which whole-hearted tribute was paid to his great work, I used the words, ``If I hesitate to put Planck on a level with Newton and Einstein it must be partly on the ground that he did not seem to know quite what he had done when he did it ... Planck seems
Small-scale physics of the ocean
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caldwell, D. R.
1983-01-01
Progress in research on the small-scale physics of the ocean is reviewed. The contribution of such research to the understanding of the large scales is addressed and compared for various depth ranges of the ocean. The traditional framework for discussing small-scale measurements and turbulence is outlined, and recent research in the area is reviewed, citing references. Evidence for the existence of salt fingering in oceanic mixing is discussed. Factors that might inhibit the growth of salt fingers are assessed, and the influence of differences between laboratory tank and ocean in studying the fingers is discussed. The role of salt fingers in creating intrusions is examined. Instruments and methods used to measure the smallest scales at which there is appreciable variation and the stability of the patch of ocean in which the small-scale motions take place are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sereno, Mauro; Ettori, Stefano; Moscardini, Lauro
2015-07-01
We discuss the scaling relation between mass and integrated Compton parameter of a sample of galaxy clusters from the all-sky Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich catalogue. Masses were measured with either weak lensing, caustics techniques, or assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The retrieved Y500-M500 relation does not strongly depend on the calibration sample. We found a slope of 1.4-1.9, in agreement with self-similar predictions, with an intrinsic scatter of 20 ± 10 per cent. The absolute calibration of the relation cannot be ascertained due to systematic differences of ˜20-40 per cent in mass estimates reported by distinct groups. Due to the scatter, the slope of the conditional scaling relation, to be used in cosmological studies of number counts, is shallower, ˜1.1-1.6. The regression methods employed account for intrinsic scatter in the mass measurements too. We found that Planck mass estimates suffer from a mass-dependent bias.
String Theory and its Applications - TASI 2010 From meV to the Planck Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael; Banks, Thomas; Sachdev, Subir
Overview. 1. Introduction to gauge/gravity duality / J. Polchinski. 2. TASI lectures on holographic space-time, SUSY, and gravitational effective field theory / T. Banks -- LHC physics. 3. Fundamentals of LHC experiments / J. Nielsen. 4. Theoretical particle physics at hadron colliders: an introduction / M. J. Strassler -- String model building, landscape and phenomenology. 5. TASI lectures: particle physics from perturbative and non-perturbative effects in D-Braneworlds / M. Cvetic and J. Halverson. 6. Supergravity and string vacua in various dimensions / W. Taylor. 7. TASI lectures on complex structures / F. Denef. 8. Supersymmetry from the top down / M. Dine -- AdS/CFT applications. 9. The landscape of the Hubbard model / S. Sachdev. 10. Holography for strongly coupled media / D. T. Son. 11. Collisions in anti-de Sitter space, conformal symmetry, and holographic superconductors / S. S. Gubser. 12. Emergence of supersymmetry, gauge theory and string theory in condensed matter systems / S.-S. Lee. 13. Lectures on holographic non-Fermi liquids and quantum phase transitions / N. Iqbal, H. Liu and M. Mezei. 14. The fluid/gravity correspondence / S. Minwalla, V. E. Hubeny and M. Rangamani.
E. Grüneisen; F. Möglich; A. Meiner
1947-01-01
Am 4. Oktober 1947 ist Max Planck im Alter von 89 Jahren entschlafen.Seit 52 Jahren hat sich Planck mit seinem klugen Rat und seiner reichen Erfahrung in den Dienst der Annalen-Redaktion gestellt und viel verantwortliche Tätigkeit übernommen, die in vollem Maße nur den Herausgebern und dem Verlage bekannt geworden ist. So manchen Ballast hat er von der Zeitschrift ferngehalten, viele
Overview of Icing Physics Relevant to Scaling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching
2005-01-01
An understanding of icing physics is required for the development of both scaling methods and ice-accretion prediction codes. This paper gives an overview of our present understanding of the important physical processes and the associated similarity parameters that determine the shape of Appendix C ice accretions. For many years it has been recognized that ice accretion processes depend on flow effects over the model, on droplet trajectories, on the rate of water collection and time of exposure, and, for glaze ice, on a heat balance. For scaling applications, equations describing these events have been based on analyses at the stagnation line of the model and have resulted in the identification of several non-dimensional similarity parameters. The parameters include the modified inertia parameter of the water drop, the accumulation parameter and the freezing fraction. Other parameters dealing with the leading edge heat balance have also been used for convenience. By equating scale expressions for these parameters to the values to be simulated a set of equations is produced which can be solved for the scale test conditions. Studies in the past few years have shown that at least one parameter in addition to those mentioned above is needed to describe surface-water effects, and some of the traditional parameters may not be as significant as once thought. Insight into the importance of each parameter, and the physical processes it represents, can be made by viewing whether ice shapes change, and the extent of the change, when each parameter is varied. Experimental evidence is presented to establish the importance of each of the traditionally used parameters and to identify the possible form of a new similarity parameter to be used for scaling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.
2010-01-01
We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…
Planck-scale soccer-ball problem: a case of mistaken identity
Giovanni Amelino-Camelia
2014-07-29
Over the last decade it has been found that nonlinear laws of composition of momenta are predicted by some alternative approaches to "real" 4D quantum gravity, and by all formulations of dimensionally-reduced (3D) quantum gravity coupled to matter. The possible relevance for rather different quantum-gravity models has motivated several studies, but this interest is being tempered by concerns that a nonlinear law of addition of momenta might inevitably produce a pathological description of the total momentum of a macroscopic body. I here show that such concerns are unjustified, finding that they are rooted in failure to appreciate the differences between two roles for laws composition of momentum in physics. Previous results relied exclusively on the role of a law of momentum composition in the description of spacetime locality. However, the notion of total momentum of a multi-particle system is not a manifestation of locality, but rather reflects translational invariance. By working within an illustrative example of quantum spacetime I show explicitly that spacetime locality is indeed reflected in a nonlinear law of composition of momenta, but translational invariance still results in an undeformed linear law of addition of momenta building up the total momentum of a multi-particle system.
Perspective on TeV-scale physics
Chanowitz, M.S.
1989-02-01
These lectures review theoretical motivations and experimental prospects for the study of TeV-scale physics. Three clues to the importance of TeV physics are discussed: implications of quantum corrections for the masses of a fourth generation quark-lepton family, the gauge hierarchy problem and known solutions, and implications of symmetry and unitarity for the symmetry-breaking sector of the electroweak gauge theory. The experimental prospects are reviewed with emphasis on the multi-TeV pp colliders that may be built in the 1990's. The topics include new phenomena that might occur - e.g., a fourth generation, heavy gauge bosons, composite structure, and supersymmetry - as well as the signals of the unknown SU(2)/sub L/ /times/ U(1)/sub Y/ breaking mechanism that must occur within the TeV domain. 96 refs., 21 figs.
A Planck-scale axion and SU(2) Yang–Mills dynamics: present acceleration and the fate of the photon
Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann
2007-01-01
From the time of CMB decoupling onwards we investigate cosmological evolution subject to a strongly interacting SU(2) gauge\\u000a theory of Yang–Mills scale, ? ? 10-4 eV (masquerading as the U(1)Y factor of the SM at present). The viability of this postulate is discussed in view of cosmological and (astro-) particle\\u000a physics bounds. The gauge theory is coupled to a spatially homogeneous
Max Planck Fellows Max Planck Fellows
Falge, Eva
53 Max Planck Fellows Max Planck Fellows NaTIONal | NaTIONal Das Max Planck Fellow-Programm fördert die Zusammenarbeit von herausragenden Hochschullehrerinnen und -lehrern mit Wis- senschaftlern der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Die Bestellung von Hochschullehrerinnen und -lehrern zu Max Planck Fellows ist auf fünf Jahre
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Physik Munich, Germany
MaxPlanckInstitut f¨ur Physik Munich, Germany Senior Staff Scientist The MaxPlanck with a cryogenic liquid. The MaxPlanckInstitute is one of the leading institutes in the project. The insti- tute background physics. The Max Planck Society wishes to increase the participation of women in its rese- arch
Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut)
Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) The Max Planck Institute for Physics with the possibility of an extension. The Max Planck Soci- ety is an equal opportunity employer. Further information@mppmu.mpg.de). Interested applicants should address their application to: Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Ms. F. Happel
Max-Planck-Institut fr Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut)
Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut) The Max Planck Institute for Physics). The contract is initially limited to 2 years, with the possibility of an extension. The Max Planck Society they are underrepresented. Women are especially encouraged to apply. The Max Planck Society is committed to employing more
David Spergel; Raphael Flauger; Renee Hlozek
2015-01-28
The tension between the best fit parameters derived by the Planck team and a number of other astronomical measurements suggests either systematics in the astronomical measurements, systematics in the Planck data, the need for new physics, or a combination thereof. We re-analyze the Planck data and find that the $217\\,\\text{GHz}\\times 217\\,\\text{GHz}$ detector set spectrum used in the Planck analysis is responsible for some of this tension. We use a map-based foreground cleaning procedure, relying on a combination of 353 GHz and 545 GHz maps to reduce residual foregrounds in the intermediate frequency maps used for cosmological inference. For our baseline data analysis, which uses 47% of the sky and makes use of both 353 and 545 GHz data for foreground cleaning, we find the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological parameters $\\Omega_c h^2 = 0.1170 \\pm 0.0025$, $n_s = 0.9686 \\pm 0.0069$, $H_0 = 68.0 \\pm 1.1\\,\\mathrm{km} \\mathrm{s}^{-1}\\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}$, $\\Omega_b h^2 = 0.02197 \\pm 0.00026$, $\\ln 10^{10}A_s = 3.082 \\pm 0.025$, and $\\tau = 0.090 \\pm 0.013 $. While in broad agreement with the results reported by the Planck team, these revised parameters imply a universe with a lower matter density of $\\Omega_m=0.302\\pm0.015$, and parameter values generally more consistent with pre-Planck CMB analyses and astronomical observations. We compare our cleaning procedure with the foreground modeling used by the Planck team and find good agreement. The difference in parameters between our analysis and that of the Planck team is mostly due to our use of cross-spectra from the publicly available survey maps instead of their use of the detector set cross-spectra which include pixels only observed in one of the surveys. We show evidence suggesting residual systematics in the detector set spectra used in the Planck likelihood code, which is substantially reduced for our spectra.
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
2009-05-14
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
None
2010-01-08
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center
Planck Surveyor On Its Way to Orbit
Borrill, Julian
2009-01-01
An Ariane 5 rocket carried the Planck Surveyor and a companion satellite into space May 14, 2009 from the European Space Agency (ESA) base on the northwest coast of South America. Once in orbit beyond the moon, Planck will produce the most accurate measurements ever made of the relic radiation from the big bang, plus the largest set of CMB data ever recorded. Berkeley Labs long and continuing involvement with Planck began when George Smoot of the Physics Division proposed Plancks progenitor to ESA and continues with preparations for ongoing data analysis for the U.S. Planck team at NERSC, led by Julian Borrill, co-leader of the Computational Cosmology Center.
N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. L. Brown; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; R.-R. Chary; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; G. Chon; P. R. Christensen; E. Churazov; D. L. Clements; S. Colafrancesco; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; A. da Silva; H. Dahle; L. Danese; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; J. M. Diego; K. Dolag; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; F. Finelli; I. Flores-Cacho; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Fromenteau; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; R. T. Génova-Santos; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; D. Harrison; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; F. Marleau; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; J.-B. Melin; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; R. Piffaretti; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. W. Pratt; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; L. Valenziano; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; B. D. Wandelt; S. D. M. White; M. White; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
All-sky data from the Planck survey and the Meta-Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC) are combined to investigate the relationship between the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) signal and X-ray luminosity. The sample comprises ~1600 X-ray clusters with redshifts up to ~1 and spans a wide range in X-ray luminosity. The SZ signal is extracted for each object individually, and
Initiation and Detonation Physics on Millimeter Scales
Philllips, D F; Benterou, J J; May, C A
2012-03-20
The LLNL Detonation Science Project has a major interest in understanding the physics of detonation on a millimeter scale. This report summarizes the rate stick experiment results of two high explosives. The GO/NO-GO threshold between varying diameters of ultra-fine TATB (ufTATB) and LX-16 were recorded on an electronic streak camera and analyzed. This report summarizes the failure diameters of rate sticks for ufTATB and LX-16. Failure diameter for the ufTATB explosive, with densities at 1.80 g/cc, begin at 2.34 mm (not maintaining detonation velocity over the entire length of the rate stick). ufTATB rate sticks at the larger 3.18 mm diameter maintain a constant detonation velocity over the complete length. The PETN based and LLNL developed explosive, LX-16, with densities at 1.7 g/cc, shows detonation failure between 0.318 mm and 0.365 mm. Additional tests would be required to narrow this failure diameter further. Many of the tested rate sticks were machined using a femtosecond laser focused into a firing tank - in case of accidental detonation.
Development and Validation of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sahin, Mehmet; Caliskan, Serap; Dilek, Ufuk
2015-01-01
This study reports the development and validation process for an instrument to measure university students' anxiety in physics courses. The development of the Physics Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) included the following steps: Generation of scale items, content validation, construct validation, and reliability calculation. The results of construct…
Planck Scale Physics and Bogoliubov Spaces in a Bose--Einstein Condensate
Castellanos, E
2013-01-01
We analyze the consequences caused by a deformed relation, suggested in several quantum gravity models, upon a bosonic gas. Concerning the ground state of the Bogoliubov space of this system, we deduce the corrections in the pressure, the speed of sound, and the corresponding healing length. Indeed, we prove that the corrections in the relevant thermodynamic properties associated to the ground state, defines a non trivial function of the density of particles and the deformation parameters, allowing us to constrain, in principle, the form of the energy--momentum dispersion relation. In addition, we calculate the condensation temperature associated to the non-interacting system, and show that this fact could be used also, to infer representative bounds for the deformation parameters, under typical laboratory conditions.
October 4-6, 2010 Max Planck Institute for
October 4-6, 2010 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences Leipzig, Germany Multi-scale dynamics and evolvability of biological networks Scientific Organizers JÃ¼rgen Jost Max Planck Institute
Scaling method in atomic and molecular physics
Boris M Smirnov
2001-01-01
The scaling method based on the parameters of pair atomic interaction potentials proved to be suitable for analyzing the various parameters of dense and condensed rare gases Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and accurate to within a few percent. In this paper, the interaction potential between radon atoms is evaluated based on the relevant scaling laws and using the macroscopic quantities
Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .
Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport
MAP and Planck versus the real universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, D.
1999-01-01
The MAP and Planck satellites promise to provide accurate maps of the sky at a range of frequencies and angular scales, from which it will be possible to extract estimates for cosmological parameters. But the real Universe is a nasty, messy place, full of non-linear astrophysics. It is certainly clear that MAP and Planck will fix the background cosmology at an unprecedented level. However, they will have to contend with everything that the Universe throws at them: multiple foregrounds; structure formation effects; and other complications we haven't even thought of yet. Some examples of such effects will be presented. Only an ideal, theorists universe can be described by a number of free parameters in the single digits, while in reality it is likely that a greater wealth of information waits to be discovered. These "higher-order" processes should be considered as potentially measurable signals, rather than contaminants. The capabilities of Planck seem ideally suited to fully understanding the physics encoded in the microwave sky.
High Scale Physics Connection to LHC Data
Pran Nath
2008-12-04
The existing data appears to provide hints of an underlying high scale theory. These arise from the gauge coupling unification, from the smallness of the neutrino masses, and via a non-vanishing muon anomaly. An overview of high scale models is given with a view to possible tests at the Large Hadron Collider. Specifically we discuss here some generic approaches to deciphering their signatures. We also consider an out of the box possibility of a four generation model where the fourth generation is a mirror generation rather than a sequential generation. Such a scenario can lead to some remarkably distinct signatures at the LHC.
Hnat, Bogdan; Chapman, Sandra C; Rowlands, George
2003-05-01
The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over extended temporal scales. Here, we apply a model independent method of differencing and rescaling to identify self-similarity in the probability density functions (PDF) of fluctuations in solar wind bulk plasma parameters as seen by the WIND spacecraft. Whereas the fluctuations of speed v and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude B are multifractal, we find that the fluctuations in the ion density rho, energy densities B2 and rhov(2) as well as MHD-approximated Poynting flux vB(2) are monoscaling on the time scales up to 26 hr. The single curve, which we find to describe the fluctuations PDF of all these quantities up to this time scale, is non-Gaussian. We model this PDF with two approaches--Fokker-Planck, for which we derive the transport coefficients and associated Langevin equation, and the Castaing distribution that arises from a model for the intermittent turbulent cascade. PMID:12786284
Zodiacal Light Emission in the PLANCK mission
M. Maris; C. Burigana; S. Fogliani
2006-04-07
The PLANCK satellite, scheduled for launch in 2007, will produce a set of all sky maps in nine frequency bands spanning from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, with an unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Planets, minor bodies and diffuse interplanetary dust will contribute to the (sub)mm sky emission observed by PLANCK, representing a source of foreground contamination to be removed before extracting the cosmological information. The aim of this paper is to assess the expected level of contamination in the survey of the forthcoming PLANCK mission. Starting from existing far-infrared (far-IR) models of the Zodiacal Light Emission (ZLE), we present a new method to simulate the time-dependent level of contamination from ZLE at PLANCK frequencies. We studied the possibility of PLANCK to detect and separate the ZLE contribution from the other astrophysical signals. We discuss the conditions in which PLANCK will be able to increase the existing information on the ZLE and IDP physical properties.
Bartrum, Sam; Berera, Arjun [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Rosa, João G., E-mail: s.bartrum@sms.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: ab@ph.ed.ac.uk, E-mail: joao.rosa@ua.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and I3N, Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)
2013-06-01
The recent Planck results and future releases on the horizon present a key opportunity to address a fundamental question in inflationary cosmology of whether primordial density perturbations have a quantum or thermal origin, i.e. whether particle production may have significant effects during inflation. Warm inflation provides a natural arena to address this issue, with interactions between the scalar inflaton and other degrees of freedom leading to dissipative entropy production and associated thermal fluctuations. In this context, we present relations between CMB observables that can be directly tested against observational data. In particular, we show that the presence of a thermal bath warmer than the Hubble scale during inflation decreases the tensor-to-scalar ratio with respect to the conventional prediction in supercooled inflation, yielding r < 8|n{sub t}|, where n{sub t} is the tensor spectral index. Focusing on supersymmetric models at low temperatures, we determine consistency relations between the observables characterizing the spectrum of adiabatic scalar and tensor modes, both for generic potentials and particular canonical examples, and which we compare with the WMAP and Planck results. Finally, we include the possibility of producing the observed baryon asymmetry during inflation through dissipative effects, thereby generating baryon isocurvature modes that can be easily accommodated by the Planck data.
Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik
- equilibrium ( = 5%) good MHD stability properties modular coils small transport minimized parallel, 17491 Greifswald Stellarator physics and reactor prospects Per Helander "In the history of controlled-Planck-Institut für PlasmaphysikModular coils Wendelstein 7-AS, Garching, Germany #12;Max-Planck-Institut für
Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires*
Quake, Stephen R.
Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires* Departments of Physics by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean
Extending Higgs Inflation with TeV Scale New Physics
Hong-Jian He; Zhong-Zhi Xianyu
2014-10-09
Higgs inflation is among the most economical and predictive inflation models, although the original Higgs inflation requires tuning the Higgs or top mass away from its current experimental value by more than $2\\sigma$ deviations, and generally gives a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio $r \\sim 10^{-3}$ (if away from the vicinity of critical point). In this work, we construct a minimal extension of Higgs inflation, by adding only two new weak-singlet particles at TeV scale, a vector-quark $T$ and a real scalar $S$. The presence of singlets $(T, S)$ significantly impact the renormalization group running of the Higgs boson self-coupling. With this, our model provides a wider range of the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r = O(0.1 - 10^{-3})$, consistent with the favored $r$ values by either BICEP2 or Planck data, while keeping the successful prediction of the spectral index $ n_s \\simeq 0.96 $. It further allows the Higgs and top masses to fully fit the collider measurements. We also discuss implications for searching the predicted TeV-scale vector-quark $T$ and scalar $S$ at the LHC and future high energy pp colliders.
The Physical Origin of Galaxy Scaling Relations
Simon D. M. White
1997-02-25
A standard paradigm is now available for the recent evolution (z < 10) of structure on galactic and larger scales. Most of the matter is assumed to be dark and dissipationless and to cluster hierarchically from gaussian initial conditions. Gas moves under the gravitational influence of this dark matter, settling dissipatively at the centres of dark halos to form galaxies. The evolution of the dark matter component has been studied extensively by N-body simulations. The abundances, density profiles, shape and angular momentum distributions and the formation histories of the dark halo population can all be predicted reliably for any hierarchical cosmogony. The systematic variation of these properties with halo mass can produce scaling relations in the galaxy population. Simple hypotheses for how galaxies condense within dark halos lead to characteristic luminosities, sizes, and spins which are close to those of real spiral and elliptical galaxies. Furthermore, correlations similar to the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson and luminosity-metallicity relations arise quite naturally. A quantitative explanation of the fundamental plane of elliptical galaxies appears within reach.
Confinement Scaling and Transport Physics in NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaye, S.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.; Horton, W.; Levinton, F.; Kim, J.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Leblanc, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Park, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Smith, D.; Wang, W.; Yuh, H.
2006-10-01
The confinement time trends in high power NSTX neutral beam heated discharges exhibit significant differences from those at conventional aspect ratio; the scaling with toroidal magnetic field is stronger while that with plasma current is weaker. The improvement of confinement with increasing field is due primarily to a reduction of the electron transport. The electron transport is the dominant anomalous loss mechanism in NSTX, with the ion transport can be close to neoclassical levels. Predictions from linear GS2 gyrokinetic calculations and from analytic theory indicate that ETG modes may play a role at low field. Details of the parametric trends of confinement and transport, along with the relation to changes in the high-k fluctuations and methods for improving the electron confinement, will be discussed.
P. Murdin
2000-01-01
Born in Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, Nobel prizewinner for physics (1918). Calculated the radiation of a black-body by means of the introduction of the quantum theory of light. The Planck satellite launched to study the black-body spectrum of the cosmic microwave background was named for him....
Scales and scaling in turbulent ocean sciences; physics-biology coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitt, Francois
2015-04-01
Geophysical fields possess huge fluctuations over many spatial and temporal scales. In the ocean, such property at smaller scales is closely linked to marine turbulence. The velocity field is varying from large scales to the Kolmogorov scale (mm) and scalar fields from large scales to the Batchelor scale, which is often much smaller. As a consequence, it is not always simple to determine at which scale a process should be considered. The scale question is hence fundamental in marine sciences, especially when dealing with physics-biology coupling. For example, marine dynamical models have typically a grid size of hundred meters or more, which is more than 105 times larger than the smallest turbulence scales (Kolmogorov scale). Such scale is fine for the dynamics of a whale (around 100 m) but for a fish larvae (1 cm) or a copepod (1 mm) a description at smaller scales is needed, due to the nonlinear nature of turbulence. The same is verified also for biogeochemical fields such as passive and actives tracers (oxygen, fluorescence, nutrients, pH, turbidity, temperature, salinity...) In this framework, we will discuss the scale problem in turbulence modeling in the ocean, and the relation of Kolmogorov's and Batchelor's scales of turbulence in the ocean, with the size of marine animals. We will also consider scaling laws for organism-particle Reynolds numbers (from whales to bacteria), and possible scaling laws for organism's accelerations.
Cosmological Non-Constant Problem: Cosmological bounds on TeV-scale physics and beyond
Niayesh Afshordi; Elliot Nelson
2015-07-04
We study the influence of the fluctuations of a Lorentz invariant and conserved vacuum on cosmological metric perturbations, and show that they generically blow up in the IR. We compute this effect using the K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann spectral representation of stress correlators in generic quantum field theories, as well as the holographic bound on their entanglement entropy, both leading to an IR cut-off that scales as the fifth power of the highest UV scale (in Planck units). One may view this as analogous to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which is imposed on the phase space of gravitational theories by the Einstein constraint equations. The leading effect on cosmological observables come from anisotropic vacuum stresses which imply: i) any extension of the standard model of particle physics can only have masses (or resonances) $\\lesssim$ 35 TeV, and ii) perturbative quantum field theory or quantum gravity becomes strongly coupled beyond a cut-off scale of $\\Lambda\\lesssim1$ PeV. Such a low cut-off is independently motivated by the Higgs hierarchy problem. This result, which we dub the cosmological non-constant problem, can be viewed as an extension of the cosmological constant (CC) problem, demonstrating the non-trivial UV-IR coupling and (yet another) limitation of effective field theory in gravity. However, it is more severe than the old CC problem, as vacuum fluctuations cannot be tuned to cancel due to the positivity of spectral densities or entropy. We thus predict that future advances in cosmological observations and collider technology will sandwich from above and below, and eventually discover, new (non-perturbative) physics beyond the Standard Model within the TeV-PeV energy range.
The Physical Education Predisposition Scale: Preliminary development and validation
Toni A. Hilland; Gareth Stratton; Don Vinson; Stuart Fairclough
2009-01-01
The main aim of this study was to develop and test psychometrically the Physical Education Predisposition Scale, to assess secondary school students' cost–benefit assessment of physical education (PE) participation (PE attitude affective and attitude cognitive) and self-perceptions (PE perceived competence and self-efficacy). Secondary aims were to explore how the two variables were related, and to investigate age and gender differences.
Mensur Omerbashich
2006-08-20
I demonstrate two fundamental contributions. First, the Earth tectonics is generally a consequence of the springtide-induced magnification of mechanical resonance in the Earth mantle. The same mechanism that causes bridges to collapse under the soldiers step-marching makes also the Earth lithosphere fail under the springtide-induced magnification of the mantle resonance resulting in strong earthquakes. Secondly, by generalizing the above finding onto any body anywhere in all the Universes and at all times, I find that there is no distinction between physics at intergalactic, Newtonian, quantum, and smaller scales. Thus, the so-called constant of proportionality of physics, G, is not a constant but a parameter of a most general form: G = s e^2, nonlinearly varying amongst different scales s. Any scale-related variations of physics, erroneously recognized as such by Einstein and Planck, are only apparent and arise as a consequence of the Earth mantle springtide-induced extreme resonance, which is also critically impeding any terrestrial experiments aimed at estimating the final proportionality G. Gravitation is explained if simply regarded mechanical and repulsive.
Planck early results. I. The Planck mission
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; M. Baker; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; K. Bennett; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; T. Bradshaw; M. Bremer; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; P. Cabella; C. M. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; J.-F. Cardoso; R. Carr; M. Casale; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; J. Charra; R.-R. Chary; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; G. Crone; M. Crook; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; O. D'Arcangelo; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; J. de Bruin; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; J. Dick; C. Dickinson; K. Dolag; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; F. Finelli; S. Foley; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; M. Freschi; T. C. Gaier; S. Galeotta; J. Gallegos; B. Gandolfo; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; G. Gienger; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; G. Guyot; J. Haissinski; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; A. Hornstrup; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; T. Jagemann; W. C. Jones; J. J. Juillet; M. Juvela; P. Kangaslahti; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; M. Krassenburg; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; A. Lähteenmäki; J.-M. Lamarre; A. E. Lange; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; J. P. Leahy; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; S. Lowe; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; T. Maciaszek; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; M. Massardi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. McDonald; P. R. Meinhold; A. Melchiorri; J.-B. Melin; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; C. Mevi; R. Miniscalco; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; N. Morisset; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; I. Ortiz; S. Osborne; P. Osuna; C. A. Oxborrow; F. Pajot; R. Paladini; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; T. Passvogel; G. Patanchon; D. Pearson; T. J. Pearson; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; S. Plaszczynski; P. Platania; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; L. Popa; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; J.-M. Reix; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; E. Salerno; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; A. Simonetto; G. F. Smoot; C. Sozzi; J.-L. Starck; J. Sternberg; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; L. Stringhetti; R. Sudiwala; R. Sunyaev; J.-F. Sygnet; D. Tapiador; J. A. Tauber; D. Tavagnacco; D. Taylor; L. Terenzi; D. Texier; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; M. Tuttlebee; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; J. Valiviita; J. Varis; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; C. Watson; S. D. M. White; M. White; A. Wilkinson; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite was launched on 14 May 2009, and has been surveying the sky stably and continuously since 13 August 2009. Its performance is well in line with expectations, and it will continue to gather scientific data until the end of its cryogenic lifetime. We give an overview of the history of Planck in its first
2D VARIABLY SATURATED FLOWS: PHYSICAL SCALING AND BAYESIAN ESTIMATION
A novel dimensionless formulation for water flow in two-dimensional variably saturated media is presented. It shows that scaling physical systems requires conservation of the ratio between capillary forces and gravity forces. A direct result of this finding is that for two phys...
Reactor Physics Methods and Analysis Capabilities in SCALE
DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL
2011-01-01
The TRITON sequence of the SCALE code system provides a powerful, robust, and rigorous approach for performing reactor physics analysis. This paper presents a detailed description of TRITON in terms of its key components used in reactor calculations. The ability to accurately predict the nuclide composition of depleted reactor fuel is important in a wide variety of applications. These applications include, but are not limited to, the design, licensing, and operation of commercial/research reactors and spent-fuel transport/storage systems. New complex design projects such as next-generation power reactors and space reactors require new high-fidelity physics methods, such as those available in SCALE/TRITON, that accurately represent the physics associated with both evolutionary and revolutionary reactor concepts as they depart from traditional and well-understood light water reactor designs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Sunil
2013-12-01
The main aim of the present work is to propose a new and simple algorithm to obtain a quick and accurate analytical solution of the time fractional Fokker-Plank equation which arises in various fields in natural science, including solid-state physics, quantum optics, chemical physics, theoretical biology, and circuit theory. This new and simple algorithm is an innovative adjustment in Laplace transform algorithm which makes the calculations much simpler and applicable to several practical problems in science and engineering. The proposed scheme finds the solutions without any discretization or restrictive assumptions and is free from round-off errors and therefore reduces the numerical computations to a great extent. Furthermore, several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy and the stability of the method.
SETI at Planck Energy: When Particle Physicists Become Cosmic Engineers
Lacki, Brian C
2015-01-01
What is the meaning of the Fermi Paradox -- are we alone or is starfaring rare? Can general relativity be united with quantum mechanics? The searches for answers to these questions could intersect. It is known that an accelerator capable of energizing particles to the Planck scale requires cosmic proportions. The energy required to run a Planck accelerator is also cosmic, of order 100 M_sun c^2 for a hadron collider, because the natural cross section for Planck physics is so tiny. If aliens are interested in fundamental physics, they could resort to cosmic engineering for their experiments. These colliders are detectable through the vast amount of "pollution" they produce, motivating a YeV SETI program. I investigate what kinds of radiation they would emit in a fireball scenario, and the feasibility of detecting YeV radiation at Earth, particularly YeV neutrinos. Although current limits on YeV neutrinos are weak, Kardashev 3 YeV neutrino sources appear to be at least 30--100 Mpc apart on average, if they are ...
Robert W. Bass; Dean Zes
In a Newtonian model of e.g. the Bohr atom, it is physically incorrect to omit the aggregate forces from all electrostatic charges (monopole potential (with or without retarded potentials)) in the visible universe. Though the standard hypotheses of cosmic homogeneity\\/isotropy imply such forces have a zero-mean, they also have a non-zero variance! It is known since Fényes (1952) & Nelson
Large-scale complex physical modeling and precision analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Man-Sheng; Di, Bang-Rang; Wei, Jian-Xin; Liang, Xiang-Hao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Yi-Mou; Kong, Zhao-Ju
2014-06-01
Large-scale 3D physical models of complex structures can be used to simulate hydrocarbon exploration areas. The high-fidelity simulation of actual structures poses challenges to model building and quality control. Such models can be used to collect wideazimuth, multi-azimuth, and full-azimuth seismic data that can be used to verify various 3D processing and interpretation methods. Faced with nonideal imaging problems owing to the extensive complex surface conditions and subsurface structures in the oil-rich foreland basins of western China, we designed and built the KS physical model based on the complex subsurface structure. This is the largest and most complex 3D physical model built to date. The physical modeling technology advancements mainly involve 1) the model design method, 2) the model casting flow, and 3) data acquisition. A 3D velocity model of the physical model was obtained for the first time, and the model building precision was quantitatively analyzed. The absolute error was less than 3 mm, which satisfies the experimental requirements. The 3D velocity model obtained from 3D measurements of the model layers is the basis for testing various imaging methods. Furthermore, the model is considered a standard in seismic physical modeling technology.
The Higgs Mass and the Scale of New Physics
Astrid Eichhorn; Holger Gies; Joerg Jaeckel; Tilman Plehn; Michael M. Scherer; René Sondenheimer
2015-01-12
In view of the measured Higgs mass of 125 GeV, the perturbative renormalization group evolution of the Standard Model suggests that our Higgs vacuum might not be stable. We connect the usual perturbative approach and the functional renormalization group which allows for a straightforward inclusion of higher-dimensional operators in the presence of an ultraviolet cutoff. In the latter framework we study vacuum stability in the presence of higher-dimensional operators. We find that their presence can have a sizable influence on the maximum ultraviolet scale of the Standard Model and the existence of instabilities. Finally, we discuss how such operators can be generated in specific models and study the relation between the instability scale of the potential and the scale of new physics required to avoid instabilities.
Effective cosmological constant from TeV-scale physics
Klinkhamer, F. R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2010-10-15
It has been suggested previously that the observed cosmological constant {Lambda} corresponds to the remnant vacuum energy density of dynamical processes taking place at a cosmic age set by the mass scale M{approx}E{sub ew} of ultramassive particles with electroweak interactions. Here, a simple modification of the nondissipative dynamic equations of q-theory is presented, which produces a remnant vacuum energy density (effective cosmological constant) of the correct order of magnitude. Combined with the observed value of {Lambda}, a first estimate of the required value of the energy scale E{sub ew} ranges from 3 to 9 TeV, depending on the number of species of ultramassive particles and assuming a dissipative coupling constant of order unity. If correct, this estimate implies the existence of new TeV-scale physics beyond the standard model.
Physical scales in the Wigner-Boltzmann equation
Nedjalkov, M., E-mail: mixi@iue.tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Selberherr, S. [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)] [Institute for Microelectronics, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Ferry, D.K.; Vasileska, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Dollfus, P.; Querlioz, D. [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, CNRS, University of Paris-sud, Orsay (France)] [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, CNRS, University of Paris-sud, Orsay (France); Dimov, I. [Institute for IC Technology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [Institute for IC Technology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Schwaha, P. [Shenteq s.r.o., Bratislava (Slovakia)] [Shenteq s.r.o., Bratislava (Slovakia)
2013-01-15
The Wigner-Boltzmann equation provides the Wigner single particle theory with interactions with bosonic degrees of freedom associated with harmonic oscillators, such as phonons in solids. Quantum evolution is an interplay of two transport modes, corresponding to the common coherent particle-potential processes, or to the decoherence causing scattering due to the oscillators. Which evolution mode will dominate depends on the scales of the involved physical quantities. A dimensionless formulation of the Wigner-Boltzmann equation is obtained, where these scales appear as dimensionless strength parameters. A notion called scaling theorem is derived, linking the strength parameters to the coupling with the oscillators. It is shown that an increase of this coupling is equivalent to a reduction of both the strength of the electric potential, and the coherence length. Secondly, the existence of classes of physically different, but mathematically equivalent setups of the Wigner-Boltzmann evolution is demonstrated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimensionless parameters determine the ratio of quantum or classical WB evolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The scaling theorem evaluates the decoherence effect due to scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution processes are grouped into classes of equivalence.
INTERNATIONAL MAX PLANCK RESEARCH SCHOOL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF NANOSTRUCTURES
INTERNATIONAL MAX PLANCK RESEARCH SCHOOL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF NANOSTRUCTURES Further Information and Contact Spokesman: Prof. Eberhard Gross, Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle Coordinator: Dr. Ksenia Boldyreva, ksenia@mpi-halle.de Address: Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics
Integrated physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shao-Liang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Lu-Bing; Long, Liang; Wu, Ya-Ming
2014-07-01
The physics package of a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC) has been successfully realized by integrating vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), neutral density (ND) filter, ?/4 wave plate, 87Rb vapor cell, photodiode (PD), and magnetic coil into a cuboid metal package with a volume of about 2.8 cm3. In this physics package, the critical component, 87Rb vapor cell, is batch-fabricated based on MEMS technology and in-situ chemical reaction method. Pt heater and thermistors are integrated in the physics package. A PTFE pillar is used to support the optical elements in the physics package, in order to reduce the power dissipation. The optical absorption spectrum of 87Rb D1 line and the microwave frequency correction signal are successfully observed while connecting the package with the servo circuit system. Using the above mentioned packaging solution, a CSAC with short-term frequency stability of about 7 × 10-10 ?-1/2 has been successfully achieved, which demonstrates that this physics package would become one promising solution for the CSAC.
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
equations where the boundary data follow from the properties of the matter in the disk. Since dust disks treatment of stationary counterrotating dust disks III Physical Properties by J. Frauendiener and C. Klein disks III Physical Properties J. Frauendiener, MaxPlanckInstitut f¨ur Mathematik in den
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
the boundary data follow from the properties of the matter in the disk. Since dust disks have no radial treatment of stationary counter-rotating dust disks III Physical Properties by J. Frauendiener and C. Klein III Physical Properties J. Frauendiener, Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften
Physics and cosmology: The milli-electron-volt scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massó, Eduard
2009-07-01
A short review about vacuum energy and the cosmological constant is presented. The observed acceleration of the universe introduces a new meV energy scale. The problem is that, theoretically, the predicted vacuum energy is many orders of magnitude larger than 10-3 eV. The problem is a link between two Standard Models, namely the Standard Model of Particles and their Interactions (where the vacuum energy appears) and the Standard Cosmological Model (where a cosmological constant is a good fit to data), and perhaps it is a clue in our search for new physics.
2009-01-01
This study sought to determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in elementary school children. The sample consisted of 564 3rd grade students (M age = 8.72 ± .54; 268 male, 296 female) surveyed at the beginning of the fall semester. Results indicated that the PACES displayed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factor structure. Scores on the PACES were significantly correlated with task goal orientation (r = .65, p < .01), athletic competence (r = .23, p < .01), physical appearance (r = .20, p < .01), and self-reported physical activity (r = .16, p < .01). However, results of invariance analysis suggested the factor structure is variant across sex. The present findings suggest support for the validity of the PACES as a valid measure of enjoyment of physical activity in children; nevertheless, further research examining the invariance of the factor structure across sex is warranted. PMID:20209028
Physical vacuum as a system manifesting itself on various scales - from nuclear physics to cosmology
Serge F. Timashev
2013-12-28
Suggested here is an attempt to resolve on a phenomenological basis the most keenly discussed enigma of the Universe, namely, the essence of its base medium, "dark energy", which is usually associated with the physical vacuum and accounts for 73% of the energy content of the Universe. To what extent are this vacuum of the standard model of the dynamics of the Universe and the vacuum introduced to describe the phenomena of the microworld; i.e., the vacuum in chromodynamics and quantum electrodynamics, one and the same vacuum? And what is the reason for the catastrophic difference, "discrepancy of many orders of magnitude", between the cosmological constant values evaluated on the basis of the vacuum of the microworld and that of the macroworld? It has been demonstrated that a key point in the solution of the variety of the above problems should be the rejection of the standard model associated with a single-stage matter-generation process that had taken its course during the Big Bang. It turned out that the principal dynamics specificities of the expanding Universe could be due to the constant action of an energy-mass source of the Planck power, developed at the instant of the Big Bang. In that case, the well-known problems of the standard model of the dynamics of the Universe, associated with the introduction of such hypothetical entities as dark energy and dark matter, can be solved in a non-contradictory fashion on a phenomenological basis, and the paradox of the "discrepancy of many orders of magnitude" between cosmological constant values can be resolved.
Physically-sound scaling laws for snow avalanche impact pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faug, T.; Chanut, B.; Caccamo, P.; Naaim, M.
2012-04-01
Estimating the force on obstacles stemming from snow avalanches is a non trivial task in avalanche-flow regimes at low velocity for which inertia does not prevail. In addition to the gravity force -proportional to the weight of the undisturbed incoming flow- that takes place at low velocity, extra forces induced by friction for granular snow avalanches, or by some possible viscosity effects for more fluid-like snow avalanches, should be considered. We discuss here the case of a wall-like obstacle overflowed by a granular snow avalanche. Recent small-scale discrete numerical simulations and laboratory tests with granular flows have allowed developing and validating an analytical model to predict the force on the wall. This model shows that the force is the sum of the inertial force, the gravity force of the undisturbed flow and an additional contribution caused by the presence of a stagnant zone formed upstream of the wall and co-existing with an inertial zone above. The model is used to derive a physically-sound scaling law giving the pressure relative to the typical inertial force of the undisturbed flow as a function of the Froude number. Rheological properties of the granular flowing material such as the typical friction angles of the granular material as well as the restitution coefficient of granules are included in the proposed scaling law. With appropriate values of those rheological properties for flowing granular snow, the scaling law can be used to interpret existing pressure data from full-scale snow avalanches and can be cross-compared to classical approaches used in snow avalanche engineering.
Stable mass hierarchies and dark matter from hidden sectors in the scale-invariant standard model
Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2010-08-01
Scale invariance may be a classical symmetry which is broken radiatively. This provides a simple way to stabilize the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking against radiative corrections. But for such a theory to be fully realistic, it must actually incorporate a hierarchy of scales, including the Planck and the neutrino mass scales in addition to the electroweak scale. The dark matter sector and the physics responsible for baryogenesis may or may not require new scales, depending on the scenario. We develop a generic way of using hidden sectors to construct a technically-natural hierarchy of scales in the framework of classically scale-invariant theories. We then apply the method to generate the Planck mass and to solve the neutrino mass and dark matter problems through what may be termed the ''scale-invariant standard model.'' The model is perturbatively renormalizable for energy scales up to the Planck mass.
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Max-Planck Hebrew University Center
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Max-Planck Hebrew University Center for Brain Research Call for Applications Ph.D. students, post-docs and Junior Fellows TheMaxPlanck and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC) in Jerusalem and the Max Planck Institute (MPI
The Planck Mission: Early Results
Marco Bersanelli (University of Milan, Italy) [University of Milan, Italy
2012-03-07
The ESA Planck space mission, launched on May 14, 2009, is dedicated to high precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the first light of the universe, both in temperature and polarization. The satellite observes the full sky from a far-Earth orbit with two cryogenic instruments in the 30-850 GHz range at the focal plane of a 1.5-meter telescope. The primary objective of Planck is to measure with unprecedented precision the key cosmological parameters and to provide accurate tests of physics in the early universe. Planck has recently completed the fifth full-sky survey. The data analysis is underway. The first cosmology results are expected in early 2013 while a number of astrophysical results have been recently delivered to the community, including galactic and extragalactic astrophysics and a rich catalogue of radio and infrared sources. These results demonstrate the excellent in-orbit performance of the instruments and give excellent prospects for the forthcoming cosmological results.
Supersymmetric Fokker-Planck strict isospectrality
H. C. Rosu
1997-05-14
I report a study of the nonstationary one-dimensional Fokker-Planck solutions by means of the strictly isospectral method of supesymmetric quantum mechanics. The main conclusion is that this technique can lead to a space-dependent (modulational) damping of the spatial part of the nonstationary Fokker-Planck solutions, which I call strictly isospectral damping. At the same time, using an additive decomposition of the nonstationary solutions suggested by the strictly isospectral procedure and by an argument of Englefield [J. Stat. Phys. 52, 369 (1988)], they can be normalized and thus turned into physical solutions, i.e., Fokker-Planck probability densities. There might be applications to many physical processes during their transient period
MAX PLANCK SOCIETY Press Release
MAX PLANCK SOCIETY Press Release SP / 2004 (1) January 15th, 2004 Max Planck Society at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. Eric F. Bell of the Max-Planck consortium and led by Dr. Hans-Walter Rix, Director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, said the image
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Stellungnahme
Falge, Eva
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Stellungnahme "Diät-Plan vom Max-Planck-Institut für Ernährung" 17. Dezember 2001 Die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft und ihre Forschungsinstitute erhalten seit Jahren laufend Anfragen aus der Bevölkerung zu einem offenbar inzwischen weit verbreiteten "Diät-Plan vom Max-Planck
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Presseinformation
MAX-PLANCK-GESELLSCHAFT Presseinformation SP 1 / 2004 (2)] 15. Januar 2004 Max-Planck Astronomical Society in Atlanta vorgestellt. Dr. Eric F. Bell vom Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Evolution from Morphology and Spectral Energy Distributions", das von Prof. Hans-Walter Rix, Direktor am Max-Planck
This article was downloaded by:[Max Planck Inst & Research Groups Consortium] On: 23 April 2008
Kling, Matthias
This article was downloaded by:[Max Planck Inst & Research Groups Consortium] On: 23 April 2008. Vrakking a a FOM Instituut voor Atoom en Molecuul Fysica (AMOLF), Amsterdam, 1098 SJ, The Netherlands b Max-Planck;DownloadedBy:[MaxPlanckInst&ResearchGroupsConsortium]At:13:4923April2008 Molecular Physics Vol. 106, Nos. 2
Planck 2015. XX. Constraints on inflation
Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Arroja, F; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit, A; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Contreras, D; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Gauthier, C; Giard, M; Giraud-Heraud, Y; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hamann, J; Handley, W; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huang, Z; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kim, J; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Lewis, A; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macias-Perez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munchmeyer, M; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Pandolfi, S; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peiris, H V; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prezeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rubino-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Shiraishi, M; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; White, M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We present the implications for cosmic inflation of the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in both temperature and polarization based on the full Planck survey. The Planck full mission temperature data and a first release of polarization data on large angular scales measure the spectral index of curvature perturbations to be $n_\\mathrm{s} = 0.968 \\pm 0.006$ and tightly constrain its scale dependence to $d n_s/d \\ln k =-0.003 \\pm 0.007$ when combined with the Planck lensing likelihood. When the high-$\\ell$ polarization data is included, the results are consistent and uncertainties are reduced. The upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is $r_{0.002} < 0.11$ (95% CL), consistent with the B-mode polarization constraint $r< 0.12$ (95% CL) obtained from a joint BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck analysis. These results imply that $V(\\phi) \\propto \\phi^2$ and natural inflation are now disfavoured compared to models predicting a smaller tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as $R^2$ ...
The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire; does it predict physical health?
Logan, Samantha L; Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Maitland, Scott B; Meegan, Dan; Spriet, Lawrence L
2013-09-01
A lack of physical activity is common in older adults. With the increasing Canadian senior population, identifying the minimum amount of physical activity required to maintain the health of older adults is essential. This study determined whether relationships existed between the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire scores and health-related measurements in community-dwelling older adults who were meal delivery volunteers. Based on observed relationships between PASE scores and health parameters, the study attempted to predict an optimal PASE score that would ensure health parameters fell in desired ranges for older adults. 297 community-dwelling older adults (61.3% female) 60-88 years (72.1 ± 6.5) completed the PASE and were measured for body composition, cardiovascular and blood parameters, flexibility, and handgrip strength. Significant regression models using PASE were produced for the health-related measures, but the relationships were not meaningful due to low predictive capacity. However, correlational data suggested that a minimum PASE score of ~140 for males and ~120 for females predicted a favorable waist circumference. In conclusion, findings demonstrated that PASE scores cannot be used to predict healthy physical measures, although the relationships between PASE and WC could be used to encourage older adults to become more physically active. PMID:23999546
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pagano, Luca
2014-09-01
The European Space Agency (hereafter ESA) Planck satellite was launched on May 2009 and has been surveying the microwave and the submillimeter sky since August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration publicly released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck operations. In this contribution we present the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Radiation temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. The Planck spectra at high multipoles are well described by the standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter (?CDM) cosmological model based on six parameters. We find a low value of the Hubble parameter, H 0 = 67.3 ± 1.2 km/s/Mpc, and, consequently, an high value of the matter parameter density ? m = 0.315±0.017 (±1 ? errors), in agreement with the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. We also present results from several possible extensions of the standard cosmological model, by using astrophysical datasets in addition to the Planck data. None of these models are favored significantly over the standard ?CDM. Using BAO and CMB data, we find N eff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.25 eV for the summed neutrino mass.
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
the rank of the solution to change. Experiments from quantum physics point out that the convergence-symmetrical FokkerPlanck and chemical master equations, for which the efficiency of the method is not fully, and is attacked by different lowparametric approximations, e.g. sparse grids [32, 3] and tensor product methods
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
multiresolution analysis for electron correlations by HeinzÂJË? urgen Flad, Wolfgang Hackbusch, Hongjun Luo correlations HeinzÂJË?urgen Flad and Wolfgang Hackbusch MaxÂPlanckÂInstitut fË?ur Mathematik in den physics. Antisymmetry of fermionic wavefunctions introduces, via Pauli's exclusion principle, a multiscale
Asymptotic series for singularly perturbed Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck equations
Khasminskii, R.Z.; Yin, G. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
1996-12-01
The authors derive limit theorems for the transition densities of diffusion processes and develop asymptotic expansions for solutions of a class of singularly perturbed Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck equations. The model under consideration can be viewed as a Markov process having two time scales. One of them is a rapidly changing scale, and the other is a slowly varying one. The study is motivated by a wide range of applications involving singularly perturbed Markov processes in manufacturing systems, reliability analysis, queueing networks, statistical physics, population biology, financial economics, and many other related fields. In this work, the asymptotic expansion is constructed explicitly. It is shown that the initial layer terms in the expansion decay at an exponential rate. Error bounds on the remainder terms also are obtained. The validity of the expansion is rigorously justified.
Physically representative atomistic modeling of atomic-scale friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Yalin
Nanotribology is a research field to study friction, adhesion, wear and lubrication occurred between two sliding interfaces at nano scale. This study is motivated by the demanding need of miniaturization mechanical components in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), improvement of durability in magnetic storage system, and other industrial applications. Overcoming tribological failure and finding ways to control friction at small scale have become keys to commercialize MEMS with sliding components as well as to stimulate the technological innovation associated with the development of MEMS. In addition to the industrial applications, such research is also scientifically fascinating because it opens a door to understand macroscopic friction from the most bottom atomic level, and therefore serves as a bridge between science and engineering. This thesis focuses on solid/solid atomic friction and its associated energy dissipation through theoretical analysis, atomistic simulation, transition state theory, and close collaboration with experimentalists. Reduced-order models have many advantages for its simplification and capacity to simulating long-time event. We will apply Prandtl-Tomlinson models and their extensions to interpret dry atomic-scale friction. We begin with the fundamental equations and build on them step-by-step from the simple quasistatic one-spring, one-mass model for predicting transitions between friction regimes to the two-dimensional and multi-atom models for describing the effect of contact area. Theoretical analysis, numerical implementation, and predicted physical phenomena are all discussed. In the process, we demonstrate the significant potential for this approach to yield new fundamental understanding of atomic-scale friction. Atomistic modeling can never be overemphasized in the investigation of atomic friction, in which each single atom could play a significant role, but is hard to be captured experimentally. In atomic friction, the interesting physical process is buried between the two contact interfaces, thus makes a direct measurement more difficult. Atomistic simulation is able to simulate the process with the dynamic information of each single atom, and therefore provides valuable interpretations for experiments. In this, we will systematically to apply Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation to optimally model the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurement of atomic friction. Furthermore, we also employed molecular dynamics simulation to correlate the atomic dynamics with the friction behavior observed in experiments. For instance, ParRep dynamics (an accelerated molecular dynamic technique) is introduced to investigate velocity dependence of atomic friction; we also employ MD simulation to "see" how the reconstruction of gold surface modulates the friction, and the friction enhancement mechanism at a graphite step edge. Atomic stick-slip friction can be treated as a rate process. Instead of running a direction simulation of the process, we can apply transition state theory to predict its property. We will have a rigorous derivation of velocity and temperature dependence of friction based on the Prandtl-Tomlinson model as well as transition theory. A more accurate relation to prediction velocity and temperature dependence is obtained. Furthermore, we have included instrumental noise inherent in AFM measurement to interpret two discoveries in experiments, suppression of friction at low temperature and the attempt frequency discrepancy between AFM measurement and theoretical prediction. We also discuss the possibility to treat wear as a rate process.
Detection of thermal SZ-CMB lensing cross-correlation in Planck nominal mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, J. Colin; Spergel, David N.
2014-02-01
The nominal mission maps from the Planck satellite contain a wealth of information about secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), including those induced by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and gravitational lensing. As both the tSZ and CMB lensing signals trace the large-scale matter density field, the anisotropies sourced by these processes are expected to be correlated. We report the first detection of this cross-correlation signal, which we measure at 6.2? significance using the Planck data. We take advantage of Planck's multifrequency coverage to construct a tSZ map using internal linear combination techniques, which we subsequently cross-correlate with the publicly-released Planck CMB lensing potential map. The cross-correlation is subject to contamination from the cosmic infrared background (CIB), which is known to correlate strongly with CMB lensing. We correct for this contamination via cross-correlating our tSZ map with the Planck 857 GHz map and confirm the robustness of our measurement using several null tests. We interpret the signal using halo model calculations, which indicate that the tSZ-CMB lensing cross-correlation is a unique probe of the physics of intracluster gas in high-redshift, low-mass groups and clusters. Our results are consistent with extrapolations of existing gas physics models to this previously unexplored regime and show clear evidence for contributions from both the one- and two-halo terms, but no statistically significant evidence for contributions from diffuse, unbound gas outside of collapsed halos. We also show that the amplitude of the signal depends rather sensitively on the amplitude of fluctuations (?8) and the matter density (?m), scaling as ?86.1?m1.5 at l = 1000. We constrain the degenerate combination ?8(?m/0.282)0.26 = 0.824±0.029, a result that is in less tension with primordial CMB constraints than some recent tSZ analyses. We also combine our measurement with the Planck measurement of the tSZ auto-power spectrum to demonstrate a technique that can in principle constrain both cosmology and the physics of intracluster gas simultaneously. Our detection is a direct confirmation that hot, ionized gas traces the dark matter distribution over a wide range of scales in the universe ( ~ 0.1-50 Mpc/h).
The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.
2002-01-01
We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.
The Physical Character of Small-Scale Interstellar Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lauroesch, James T.
2005-01-01
The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the multiple interstellar absorption lines of H2 toward the members of 3 resolvable binary/multiple star systems to explore the physical conditions in known interstellar small-scale structures. Each of the selected systems was meant to address a different aspect of the models for the origin of these structures: 1) The stars HD 32039/40 were meant to probe a temporally varying component which probed a cloud with an inferred size of tens to a few hundreds of AU. The goal was to see if there was any significant H2 associated with this component; 2) The star HD 36408B and its companion HD 36408A (observed as part of FUSE GTO program P119) show significant spatial and temporal (proper motion induced) Na I column variations in a strong, relatively isolated component, as well as a relatively simple component structure. The key goal here was to identify any differences in H2 or C I excitation between the sightlines, and to measure the physical conditions (primarily density and temperature) in the temporally varying component; 3) The stars HD 206267C and HD 206267D are highly reddened sightlines which showed significant variations in K I and molecular absorption lines in multiple velocity components. Coupled with FUSE GTO observations of HD 206267A (program P116), the goal was to study the variations in H2 along sightlines which are significantly more distant, with larger separations, and with greater extinctions than the other selected binary systems.
SETI at Planck Energy: When Particle Physicists Become Cosmic Engineers
Brian C. Lacki
2015-03-05
What is the meaning of the Fermi Paradox -- are we alone or is starfaring rare? Can general relativity be united with quantum mechanics? The searches for answers to these questions could intersect. It is known that an accelerator capable of energizing particles to the Planck scale requires cosmic proportions. The energy required to run a Planck accelerator is also cosmic, of order 100 M_sun c^2 for a hadron collider, because the natural cross section for Planck physics is so tiny. If aliens are interested in fundamental physics, they could resort to cosmic engineering for their experiments. These colliders are detectable through the vast amount of "pollution" they produce, motivating a YeV SETI program. I investigate what kinds of radiation they would emit in a fireball scenario, and the feasibility of detecting YeV radiation at Earth, particularly YeV neutrinos. Although current limits on YeV neutrinos are weak, Kardashev 3 YeV neutrino sources appear to be at least 30--100 Mpc apart on average, if they are long-lived and emit isotropically. I consider the feasibility of much larger YeV neutrino detectors, including an acoustic detection experiment that spans all of Earth's oceans, and instrumenting the entire Kuiper Belt. Any detection of YeV neutrinos implies an extraordinary phenomenon at work, whether artificial and natural. Searches for YeV neutrinos from any source are naturally commensal, so a YeV neutrino SETI program has value beyond SETI itself, particularly in limiting topological defects. I note that the Universe is very faint in all kinds of nonthermal radiation, indicating that cosmic engineering is extremely rare.
Composite inflation confronts BICEP2 and PLANCK
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karwan, Khamphee; Channuie, Phongpichit
2014-06-01
We examine observational constraints on single-field inflation in which the inflaton is a composite field stemming from a four-dimensional strongly interacting field theory. We confront the predictions with the Planck and very recent BICEP2 data. In the large non-minimal coupling regions, we discover for the minimal composite inflationary model that the predictions lie well inside the joint 68% CL for the Planck data, but is in tension with the recent BICEP2 observations. In the case of the glueball inflationary model, the predictions satisfy the Planck results. However, this model can produce a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the recent BICEP2 observations if the number of e-foldings is slightly smaller than the range commonly used. For a super Yang-Mills paradigm, we discover that the predictions satisfy the Planck data, and surprisingly a large tensor-to-scalar ratio consistent with the BICEP2 results can also be produced for an acceptable range of the number of e-foldings and of the confining scale. In the small non-minimal coupling regions, all of the models can satisfy the BICEP2 results. However, the predictions of the glueball and superglueball inflationary models cannot satisfy the observational bound on the amplitude of the curvature perturbation launched by Planck, and the techni-inflaton self-coupling in the minimal composite inflationary model is constrained to be extremely small.
The physics of megajoule, large-scale, and ultrafast short-scale laser plasmas
Campbell, E.M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))
1992-11-01
Recent advances in laser science and technology have opened new possibilities for the study of high energy density plasma physics. The advances include techniques to control the laser spatial and temporal coherence, and the development of laser architectures and optical materials that have led to the demonstration of compact, short pulse ([tau][le]10[sup [minus]12] sec) high brightness lasers, capable of irradiating plasmas with intensities [ge]10[sup 18] W/cm[sup 2]. Experiments with reduced laser coherence have shown a substantial decrease in laser-driven parametric instabilities and have extended the parameter range where inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is the dominant coupling process. Beam smoothing with short wavelength lasers should result in inverse bremsstrahlung dominated coupling in the irradiance parameter regimes of the millimeter scale-length plasmas envisioned for the megajoule class lasers for ignition and gain in inertial fusion. In addition new regimes of laser--plasma coupling will become experimentally accessible when plasmas are irradiated with [ital I][ge]10[sup 18] W/cm[sup 2]. Relativistic effects, extreme profile modification, and electrons heated to energies exceeding 1 MeV are several of the phenomena that are expected. Numerous applications in basic and applied plasma physics will result from these new capabilities.
Planck Distribution in Noncommutative Space
C. Yuce
2005-06-13
In this study, we derive the Planck distribution function in noncommutative space. It is found that it is modified by a small factor. It is shown that it is reduced to the usual Planck distribution function in the commutative limit .
Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research
Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.
2012-03-02
IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.
RELATING GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES USING FIELD-SCALE ROCK PHYSICS
Knight, Rosemary
CMWRXVI 1 RELATING GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROLOGIC PROPERTIES USING FIELD-SCALE ROCK PHYSICS STEPHEN has been made by rock physics investigations that define how pore-scale variations in properties like mineralogy, fluid content, and grain geometry affect the geophysical response of a rock or sediment
Physical modeling and analysis of rain and clouds by anisotropic scaling multiplicative processes
Daniel Schertzer; Shaun Lovejoy
1987-01-01
We argue that the basic properties of rain and cloud fields (particularly their scaling and intermittency) are best understood in terms of coupled (anisotropic and scaling) cascade processes. We show how such cascades provide a framework not only for theoretically and empirically investigating these fields, but also for constructing physically based stochastic models. This physical basis is provided by cascade
Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Scott, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8° to 15' are consistent with noise, and show no evidence of cosmic microwave background structure. Including small but important corrections for unresolved-source residuals, we demonstrate agreement (measured by deviation of the ratio from unity) between 70 and 100 GHz power spectra averaged over 70 ? ? ? 390 at the 0.8% level, and agreement between 143 and 100 GHz power spectra of 0.4% over the same ? range. These values are within and consistent with the overall uncertainties in calibration given in the Planck 2013 results. We also present results based on the 2013 likelihood analysis showing consistency at the 0.35% between the 100, 143, and 217 GHz power spectra. We analyse calibration procedures and beams to determine what fraction of these differences can be accounted for by known approximations or systematicerrors that could be controlled even better in the future, reducing uncertainties still further. Several possible small improvements are described. Subsequent analysis of the beams quantifies the importance of asymmetry in the near sidelobes, which was not fully accounted for initially, affecting the 70/100 ratio. Correcting for this, the 70, 100, and 143 GHz power spectra agree to 0.4% over the first two acoustic peaks. The likelihood analysis that produced the 2013 cosmological parameters incorporated uncertainties larger than this. We show explicitly that correction of the missing near sidelobe power in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3? except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1?. We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and find a roughly 2% difference between the Planck and WMAP power spectra in the region of the first acoustic peak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joglekar, Archis; Thomas, Alexander; Read, Martin; Kingham, Robert
2014-10-01
Here, we present 2D numerical modeling of near critical density plasma using a fully implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) code, IMPACTA, with the addition of a ray tracing package. In certain situations, such as those at the critical surface at the walls of a hohlraum, magnetic fields are generated through the crossed temperature and electron density gradients. Modeling shows 0.3 MG fields and the strong heating also results in magnetization of the plasma up to ?? ~ 5 . In the case without magnetic field generation, the heat flows from the laser heating region are isotropic. Including magnetic fields causes the heat flow to form jets along the wall due to the Righi-Leduc effect. The heating of the wall region causes steeper temperature gradients. This serves as a positive feedback mechanism for the field generation rate resulting in nearly twice the amount of field generated in comparison to the case without magnetic fields over 1 ns. The heat conduction, field generation, and the calculation of other transport quantities, is performed ab-initio due to the nature of the VFP equation set. In order to determine the importance of the kinetic effects from IMPACTA, we perform direct comparison with a classical (Braginskii) transport code with hydrodynamic motion (CTC+). The authors would like to acknowledge DOE Grant #DESC0010621 and Advanced Research Computing, UM-AA.
Hentschinski, M
2015-01-01
Physical anomalous dimensions are a formulation of the DGLAP evolution of Deep Inelastic structure functions which is independent of factorization scheme and -scale. In this proceedings we provide an outlook on possible applications, in particular in the search of saturation effects. As an original contribution we present a short study of the renormalization scale dependence of physical evolved structure functions for large initial scale $Q_0^2=30$GeV$^2$
Planck, LHC, and ? -attractors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei
2015-04-01
We describe a simple class of cosmological models called ? -attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. These theories are most naturally formulated in the context of supergravity with logarithmic Kähler potentials. We develop generalized versions of these models which can describe not only inflation but also dark energy and supersymmetry breaking.
Planck 2013 results. XXIV. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Heavens, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The Planck nominal mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps yield unprecedented constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three optimal bispectrum estimators, separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal, we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result fNLlocal = 2.7 ± 5.8, fNLequil = -42 ± 75, and fNLorth = -25 ± 39 (68% CL statistical). Non-Gaussianity is detected in the data; using skew-C? statistics we find a nonzero bispectrum from residual point sources, and the integrated-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing bispectrum at a level expected in the ?CDM scenario. The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are confirmed by skew-C?, wavelet bispectrum and Minkowski functional estimators. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and thus derive constraints on early-Universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, excited initial states (non-Bunch-Davies vacua), and directionally-dependent vector models. We provide an initial survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models. These results bound both general single-field and multi-field model parameter ranges, such as the speed of sound, cs ? 0.02 (95% CL), in an effective field theory parametrization, and the curvaton decay fraction rD ? 0.15 (95% CL). The Planck data significantly limit the viable parameter space of the ekpyrotic/cyclic scenarios. The amplitude of the four-point function in the local model ?NL< 2800 (95% CL). Taken together, these constraints represent the highest precision tests to date of physical mechanisms for the origin of cosmic structure.
Short Course Mineral Physics: Modeling from the Atomic to the Global Scale
Stixrude, Lars
Short Course Mineral Physics: Modeling from the Atomic to the Global Scale Dipartimento di Scienze challenges in relating atomic structure and bonding to physical properties. Practical exercises give students be inferred by examining the rocks. But these processes are in turn governed by the physics and chemistry
Developing a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale for Hong Kong Primary School-Aged Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yan, Zi; Bond, Trevor G.
2011-01-01
The main purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale (RMPFS) based on physical fitness indicators routinely used in Hong Kong primary schools. A total of 9,439 records of students' performances on physical fitness indicators, retrieved from the database of a Hong Kong primary school, were used to develop the…
B. Hnat; S. C. Chapman; G. Rowlands
2005-01-01
The evolution of magnetospheric indices on temporal scales shorter than that of substorms is characterized by bursty, intermittent events that may arise from turbulence intrinsic to the magnetosphere or that may reflect solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. This leads to a generic problem of distinguishing between the features of the system and those of the driver. We quantify scaling properties of short-term
Planck 2013 results. XXII. Constraints on inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tréguer-Goudineau, J.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to be ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5?.Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r< 0.11 (95% CL). The Planck data thus shrink the space of allowed standard inflationary models, preferring potentials with V''< 0. Exponential potential models, the simplest hybrid inflationary models, and monomial potential models of degree n ? 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining dns/ dlnk = - 0.0134 ± 0.0090. We verify these conclusions through a numerical analysis, which makes no slow-roll approximation, and carry out a Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection analysis for a number of inflationary models including monomial, natural, and hilltop potentials. For each model, we present the Planck constraints on the parameters of the potential and explore several possibilities for the post-inflationary entropy generation epoch, thus obtaining nontrivial data-driven constraints. We also present a direct reconstruction of the observable range of the inflaton potential. Unless a quartic term is allowed in the potential, we find results consistent with second-order slow-roll predictions. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit by ??2eff ? 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining power spectrum data with Planck bounds on fNL. Planck constrains with unprecedented accuracy the amplitude and possible correlation (with the adiabatic mode) of non-decaying isocurvature fluctuations. The fractional primordial contributions of cold dark matter (CDM) isocurvature modes of the types expected in the curvaton and axion scenarios have upper bounds of 0.25% and 3.9% (95% CL), respectively. In models with arbitrarily correlated CDM or neutrino isocurvature modes, an anticorrelated isocurvature component can improve the ?2eff by approximately 4 as a result of slightly lowering the theoretical prediction for the ? ? 40 multipoles relative to the higher multipoles. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with adiabatic initial conditions.
Quantifying the BICEP2-Planck tension over gravitational waves.
Smith, Kendrick M; Dvorkin, Cora; Boyle, Latham; Turok, Neil; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary; Gold, Ben
2014-07-18
The recent BICEP2 measurement of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (r = 0.2(-0.05)(+0.07)), a possible indication of primordial gravity waves, appears to be in tension with the upper limit from WMAP (r < 0.13 at 95% C.L.) and Planck (r < 0.11 at 95% C.L.). We carefully quantify the level of tension and show that it is very significant (around 0.1% unlikely) when the observed deficit of large-scale temperature power is taken into account. We show that measurements of TE and EE power spectra in the near future will discriminate between the hypotheses that this tension is either a statistical fluke or a sign of new physics. We also discuss extensions of the standard cosmological model that relieve the tension and some novel ways to constrain them. PMID:25083631
Quantifying the BICEP2-Planck Tension over Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Kendrick M.; Dvorkin, Cora; Boyle, Latham; Turok, Neil; Halpern, Mark; Hinshaw, Gary; Gold, Ben
2014-07-01
The recent BICEP2 measurement of B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background (r =0.2-0.05+0.07), a possible indication of primordial gravity waves, appears to be in tension with the upper limit from WMAP (r<0.13 at 95% C.L.) and Planck (r <0.11 at 95% C.L.). We carefully quantify the level of tension and show that it is very significant (around 0.1% unlikely) when the observed deficit of large-scale temperature power is taken into account. We show that measurements of TE and EE power spectra in the near future will discriminate between the hypotheses that this tension is either a statistical fluke or a sign of new physics. We also discuss extensions of the standard cosmological model that relieve the tension and some novel ways to constrain them.
B. Hnat; S. C. Chapman; G. Rowlands
2004-01-01
The evolution of magnetospheric indices on temporal scales shorter than that\\u000aof substorms is characterized by bursty, intermittent events that may arise\\u000afrom turbulence intrinsic to the magnetosphere or may reflect solar\\u000awind-magnetosphere coupling. This leads to a generic problem of distinguishing\\u000abetween the features of the system and those of the driver. We quantify scaling\\u000aproperties of short term
Channel Meander Migration in Large-Scale Physical Model Study
Yeh, Po Hung
2010-10-12
A set of large-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to study channel meander migration. Factors affecting the migration of banklines, including the ratio of curvature to channel width, bend angle, and the Froude ...
Planck's Constant as a Natural Unit of Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Quincey, Paul
2013-01-01
The proposed revision of SI units would embed Planck's constant into the definition of the kilogram, as a fixed constant of nature. Traditionally, Planck's constant is not readily interpreted as the size of something physical, and it is generally only encountered by students in the mathematics of quantum physics. Richard Feynman's…
Neutrinos help reconcile Planck measurements with the local universe.
Wyman, Mark; Rudd, Douglas H; Vanderveld, R Ali; Hu, Wayne
2014-02-01
Current measurements of the low and high redshift Universe are in tension if we restrict ourselves to the standard six-parameter model of flat ?CDM. This tension has two parts. First, the Planck satellite data suggest a higher normalization of matter perturbations than local measurements of galaxy clusters. Second, the expansion rate of the Universe today, H0, derived from local distance-redshift measurements is significantly higher than that inferred using the acoustic scale in galaxy surveys and the Planck data as a standard ruler. The addition of a sterile neutrino species changes the acoustic scale and brings the two into agreement; meanwhile, adding mass to the active neutrinos or to a sterile neutrino can suppress the growth of structure, bringing the cluster data into better concordance as well. For our fiducial data set combination, with statistical errors for clusters, a model with a massive sterile neutrino shows 3.5? evidence for a nonzero mass and an even stronger rejection of the minimal model. A model with massive active neutrinos and a massless sterile neutrino is similarly preferred. An eV-scale sterile neutrino mass--of interest for short baseline and reactor anomalies--is well within the allowed range. We caution that (i) unknown astrophysical systematic errors in any of the data sets could weaken this conclusion, but they would need to be several times the known errors to eliminate the tensions entirely; (ii) the results we find are at some variance with analyses that do not include cluster measurements; and (iii) some tension remains among the data sets even when new neutrino physics is included. PMID:24580585
Quantum Gravity Corrections and Entropy at the Planck time
Spyros Basilakos; Saurya Das; Elias C. Vagenas
2010-09-27
We investigate the effects of Quantum Gravity on the Planck era of the universe. In particular, using different versions of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle and under specific conditions we find that the main Planck quantities such as the Planck time, length, mass and energy become larger by a factor of order 10-10^{4} compared to those quantities which result from the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. However, we prove that the dimensionless entropy enclosed in the cosmological horizon at the Planck time remains unchanged. These results, though preliminary, indicate that we should anticipate modifications in the set-up of cosmology since changes in the Planck era will be inherited even to the late universe through the framework of Quantum Gravity (or Quantum Field Theory) which utilizes the Planck scale as a fundamental one. More importantly, these corrections will not affect the entropic content of the universe at the Planck time which is a crucial element for one of the basic principles of Quantum Gravity named Holographic Principle.
Assessing Life Events and Physical Health: Critique of the Holmes and Rahe Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baird, Pryor
1983-01-01
Critiques the Holmes and Rahe Schedule of Recent Events, which assesses the importance of life events in both psychological and physical health. Examines the scale's theoretical and technical weaknesses and suggests alterations to enhance the assessment of life events. (JAC)
Rebecca Ellis; Maria Kosma; Bradley J. Cardinal; Jeremy J. Bauer; Jeffrey A. McCubbin
2009-01-01
The purpose of the study was to examine the issue of scale correspondence by testing the theory of planned behavior (TPB)\\u000a using two models. Participants were 223 adults (M age?=?45.4 years, SD?=?10.8) with self-reported physical disabilities who completed an on-line survey. Using a cross-sectional design, participants\\u000a completed demographic questions, TPB items, and two measures of physical activity. Path analyses, using one
Saul, Jeffery M.
NSF SCALE-UP GRANT ANNUAL REPORT 1998 Summary The goal of the Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE- UP) is to create and study an introductory calculus-based physics student group. The SCALE-UP curriculum is different from other integrated research-based introductory
Joint Planck and WMAP assessment of low CMB multipoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iqbal, Asif; Prasad, Jayanti; Souradeep, Tarun; Malik, Manzoor A.
2015-06-01
The remarkable progress in cosmic microwave background (CMB) studies over past decade has led to the era of precision cosmology in striking agreement with the ?CDM model. However, the lack of power in the CMB temperature anisotropies at large angular scales (low-l), as has been confirmed by the recent Planck data also (up to 0l=4), although statistically not very strong (less than 3?), is still an open problem. One can avoid to seek an explanation for this problem by attributing the lack of power to cosmic variance or can look for explanations i.e., different inflationary potentials or initial conditions for inflation to begin with, non-trivial topology, ISW effect etc. Features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) motivated by the early universe physics has been the most common solution to address this problem. In the present work we also follow this approach and consider a set of PPS which have features and constrain the parameters of those using WMAP 9 year and Planck data employing Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis. The prominent feature of all the models of PPS that we consider is an infra-red cut off which leads to suppression of power at large angular scales. We consider models of PPS with maximum three extra parameters and use Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of model selection to compare the models. For most models, we find good constraints for the cut off scale kc, however, for other parameters our constraints are not that good. We find that sharp cut off model gives best likelihood value for the WMAP 9 year data, but is as good as power law model according to AIC. For the joint WMAP 9 + Planck data set, Starobinsky model is slightly preferred by AIC which is also able to produce CMB power suppression up to 0l<=3 to some extent. However, using BIC criteria, one finds model(s) with least number of parameters (power law model) are always preferred.
On the Einstein-Cartan cosmology vs. Planck data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palle, D.
2014-04-01
The first comprehensive analyses of Planck data reveal that the cosmological model with dark energy and cold dark matter can satisfactorily explain the essential physical features of the expanding Universe. However, the inability to simultaneously fit the large and small scale TT power spectrum, the scalar power index smaller than unity, and the observations of the violation of the isotropy found by few statistical indicators of the CMB urge theorists to search for explanations. We show that the model of the Einstein-Cartan cosmology with clustered dark matter halos and their corresponding clustered angular momenta coupled to torsion can account for small-scale-large-scale discrepancy and larger peculiar velocities (bulk flows) for galaxy clusters. The nonvanishing total angular momentum (torsion) of the Universe enters as a negative effective density term in the Einstein-Cartan equations causing partial cancellation of the mass density. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution of the Einstein-Cartan model is negative, and it can therefore provide partial cancellation of the large-scale power of the TT CMB spectrum. The observed violation of the isotropy appears as a natural ingredient of the Einstein-Cartan model caused by the spin densities of light Majorana neutrinos in the early stage of the evolution of the Universe and bound to the lepton CP violation and matter-antimatter asymmetry.
A framework for inferring field-scale rock physics relationships through numerical simulation
Singha, Kamini
-scale factors by creating numerical analogs to geophysical surveys via Monte Carlo simulation. The analogs experiment, the geophysical properties determined at the field scale involve much more than is captured in the physics of upscaling by ray or effective medium theory. Many aspects of a field experiment and the way
Bergman, Keren
the photonic network layout, is necessary to control each broadband switch through a circuit-switching protocolArchitectural Design Exploration of Chip-Scale Photonic Interconnection Networks Using Physical@ee.columbia.edu Abstract: We conduct an architectural exploration of three chip-scale photonic interconnection networks
Madeleine Patrice Gelband
1987-01-01
Scaling concepts are applied to three problems in condensed matter physics. The N -orbital, single impurity Kondo problem is shown to be equivalent to an N -state Potts model in one dimension with inverse-square interactions. Using renormalization techniques, it is found that the peak in the static magnetic susceptibility at finite N develops into a discontinuity as Ntoinfty. A scaling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong
2014-01-01
The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs satisfaction in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education, PNSSPE). Junior secondary school (grades 7 to 9) students (N?=?1,258) were invited to…
An ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock
Mark J. Mescher; R. Lutwak; Mathew Varghese
2005-01-01
We report the design and measured thermal and mechanical performance of an ultra-low-power physics package for a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC). This physics package enables communications and navigation systems that require a compact, low-power atomic frequency standard. The physics package includes a unique combination of thermal isolation, mechanical stability and robustness, and small package volume. We have demonstrated temperature control
Max-Planck-Institut fr molekulare Genetik
Spang, Rainer
Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Genetik Algorithmic Systems Biology 2009 Molecular Networks, Network Characterization & Graph Models Thomas Manke Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin #12;Max-Planck-Institut für molekulare Genetik Outline · From expression data (reverse engineering
Planck pre-launch status: The Planck mission
J. A. Tauber; N. Mandolesi; J.-L. Puget; T. Banos; M. Bersanelli; F. R. Bouchet; R. C. Butler; J. Charra; G. Crone; J. Dodsworth; G. Efstathiou; R. Gispert; G. Guyot; A. Gregorio; J. J. Juillet; J.-M. Lamarre; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; T. Passvogel; J. M. Reix; D. Texier; L. Vibert; A. Zacchei; P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; B. Aja; E. Alippi; L. Aloy; P. Armand; M. Arnaud; A. Arondel; A. Arreola-Villanueva; E. Artal; E. Artina; A. Arts; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; M. Azzaro; A. Bacchetta; C. Baccigalupi; M. Baker; M. Balasini; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; G. Barbier; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; P. Battaglia; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; J.-L. Beney; R. Beneyton; K. Bennett; A. Benoit; J.-P. Bernard; P. Bhandari; R. Bhatia; M. Biggi; R. Biggins; G. Billig; Y. Blanc; H. Blavot; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; R. Bond; J. Bonis; J. Borders; J. Borrill; L. Boschini; F. Boulanger; J. Bouvier; M. Bouzit; R. Bowman; E. Bréelle; T. Bradshaw; M. Braghin; M. Bremer; D. Brienza; D. Broszkiewicz; C. Burigana; M. Burkhalter; P. Cabella; T. Cafferty; M. Cairola; S. Caminade; P. Camus; C. M. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; J.-F. Cardoso; R. Carr; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; M. Cesa; M. Chaigneau; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; J. P. Chambelland; M. Charra; L.-Y. Chiang; G. Chlewicki; P. R. Christensen; S. Church; E. Ciancietta; M. Cibrario; R. Cizeron; D. Clements; B. Collaudin; J.-M. Colley; S. Colombi; A. Colombo; F. Colombo; O. Corre; F. Couchot; B. Cougrand; A. Coulais; P. Couzin; B. Crane; B. Crill; M. Crook; D. Crumb; F. Cuttaia; U. Dörl; P. da Silva; R. Daddato; C. Damasio; L. Danese; G. D'Aquino; O. D'Arcangelo; K. Dassas; R. D. Davies; W. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; D. de Chambure; G. de Gasperis; M. L. de La Fuente; P. de Paco; A. de Rosa; G. de Troia; G. de Zotti; M. Dehamme; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; G. di Girolamo; C. Dickinson; E. Doelling; K. Dolag; I. Domken; M. Douspis; D. Doyle; S. Du; D. Dubruel; C. Dufour; C. Dumesnil; X. Dupac; P. Duret; C. Eder; A. Elfving; T. A. Enßlin; K. English; H. K. Eriksen; P. Estaria; M. C. Falvella; F. Ferrari; F. Finelli; A. Fishman; S. Fogliani; S. Foley; A. Fonseca; G. Forma; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; J.-J. Fourmond; M. Frailis; C. Franceschet; E. Franceschi; S. François; M. Frerking; M. F. Gómez-Reñasco; K. M. Górski; T. C. Gaier; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; J. García Lázaro; A. Garnica; M. Gaspard; E. Gavila; M. Giard; G. Giardino; G. Gienger; Y. Giraud-Heraud; J.-M. Glorian; M. Griffin; A. Gruppuso; L. Guglielmi; D. Guichon; B. Guillaume; P. Guillouet; J. Haissinski; F. K. Hansen; J. Hardy; D. Harrison; A. Hazell; M. Hechler; V. Heckenauer; D. Heinzer; R. Hell; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; J. M. Herreros; V. Hervier; A. Heske; A. Heurtel; S. R. Hildebrandt; R. Hills; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; D. Hollert; W. Holmes; A. Hornstrup; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; G. Huey; K. M. Huffenberger; N. Hughes; U. Israelsson; B. Jackson; A. Jaffe; T. R. Jaffe; T. Jagemann; N. C. Jessen; J. Jewell; W. Jones; M. Juvela; J. Kaplan; P. Karlman; F. Keck; E. Keihänen; M. King; T. S. Kisner; P. Kletzkine; R. Kneissl; J. Knoche; L. Knox; T. Koch; M. Krassenburg; H. Kurki-Suonio; A. Lähteenmäki; G. Lagache; E. Lagorio; P. Lami; J. Lande; A. Lange; F. Langlet; R. Lapini; M. Lapolla; A. Lasenby; M. Le Jeune; J. P. Leahy; M. Lefebvre; F. Legrand; G. Le Meur; R. Leonardi; B. Leriche; C. Leroy; P. Leutenegger; S. M. Levin; P. B. Lilje; C. Lindensmith; M. Linden-Vørnle; A. Loc; Y. Longval; P. M. Lubin; T. Luchik; I. Luthold; J. F. Macias-Perez; T. Maciaszek; C. MacTavish; S. Madden; B. Maffei; C. Magneville; D. Maino; A. Mambretti; B. Mansoux; D. Marchioro; M. Maris; F. Marliani; J.-C. Marrucho; J. Martí-Canales; E. Martínez-González; A. Martín-Polegre; P. Martin; C. Marty; W. Marty; S. Masi; M. Massardi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. McDonald; P. McGrath; A. Mediavilla; P. R. Meinhold; J.-B. Mélin; F. Melot; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; C. Mervier; L. Meslier; M. Miccolis; M.-A. Miville-Deschenes; A. Moneti; D. Montet; L. Montier; J. Mora; G. Morgante; G. Morigi; G. Morinaud; N. Morisset; D. Mortlock; S. Mottet; J. Mulder; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Murphy; P. Musi; J. Narbonne; P. Naselsky; A. Nash; F. Nati; P. Natoli; B. Netterfield; J. Newell; M. Nexon; C. Nicolas; P. H. Nielsen; N. Ninane; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; P. Oldeman; P. Olivier; L. Ouchet; C. A. Oxborrow; L. Pérez-Cuevas; L. Pagan; C. Paine; F. Pajot; R. Paladini; F. Pancher; J. Panh; G. Parks; P. Parnaudeau; B. Partridge; B. Parvin; J. P. Pascual; F. Pasian; D. P. Pearson; T. Pearson; M. Pecora; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; E. Pierpaoli; O. Piersanti; E. Plaige; S. Plaszczynski; P. Platania; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; L. Popa; G. Poulleau; T. Poutanen
2010-01-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, launched on 14 May 2009, is the third-generation space experiment in the field of cosmic microwave background (CMB) research. It will image the anisotropies of the CMB over the whole sky, with unprecedented sensitivity ({{Delta T}over T} 2 × 10-6) and angular resolution ( 5 arcmin). Planck will provide a major source of information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojha, Richa; Govindaraju, Rao S.
2015-07-01
Scaling relationships are needed as measurements and desired predictions are often not available at concurrent spatial support volumes or temporal discretizations. Surface soil moisture values of interest to hydrologic studies are estimated using ground based measurement techniques or utilizing remote sensing platforms. Remote sensing based techniques estimate field-scale surface soil moisture values, but are unable to provide the local-scale soil moisture information that is obtained from local measurements. Further, obtaining field-scale surface moisture values using ground-based measurements is exhaustive and time consuming. To bridge this scale mismatch, we develop analytical expressions for surface soil moisture based on sharp-front approximation of the Richards equation and assumed log-normal distribution of the spatial surface saturated hydraulic conductivity field. Analytical expressions for field-scale evolution of surface soil moisture to rainfall events are utilized to obtain aggregated and disaggregated response of surface soil moisture evolution with knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. The utility of the analytical model is demonstrated through numerical experiments involving 3-D simulations of soil moisture and Monte-Carlo simulations for 1-D renderings—with soil moisture dynamics being represented by the Richards equation in each instance. Results show that the analytical expressions developed here show promise for a principled way of scaling surface soil moisture.
Effects of pore-scale physics on uranium geochemistry in Hanford sediments
Hu, Qinhong; Ewing, Robert P.
2013-11-25
Overall, this work examines a key scientific issue, mass transfer limitations at the pore-scale, using both new instruments with high spatial resolution, and new conceptual and modeling paradigms. The complementary laboratory and numerical approaches connect pore-scale physics to macroscopic measurements, providing a previously elusive scale integration. This Exploratory research project produced five peer-reviewed journal publications and eleven scientific presentations. This work provides new scientific understanding, allowing the DOE to better incorporate coupled physical and chemical processes into decision making for environmental remediation and long-term stewardship.
Compact wire array sources: power scaling and implosion physics.
Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Laboratoire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Jones, M. C.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Ivanov, V. V. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Ampleford, David J.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Rudakov, L. I. (Icarus Research, Bethesda, MD); Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada - Reno, Reno, NV); Vigil, Marcelino Patricio
2008-09-01
A series of ten shots were performed on the Saturn generator in short pulse mode in order to study planar and small-diameter cylindrical tungsten wire arrays at {approx}5 MA current levels and 50-60 ns implosion times as candidates for compact z-pinch radiation sources. A new vacuum hohlraum configuration has been proposed in which multiple z pinches are driven in parallel by a pulsed power generator. Each pinch resides in a separate return current cage, serving also as a primary hohlraum. A collection of such radiation sources surround a compact secondary hohlraum, which may potentially provide an attractive Planckian radiation source or house an inertial confinement fusion fuel capsule. Prior to studying this concept experimentally or numerically, advanced compact wire array loads must be developed and their scaling behavior understood. The 2008 Saturn planar array experiments extend the data set presented in Ref. [1], which studied planar arrays at {approx}3 MA, 100 ns in Saturn long pulse mode. Planar wire array power and yield scaling studies now include current levels directly applicable to multi-pinch experiments that could be performed on the 25 MA Z machine. A maximum total x-ray power of 15 TW (250 kJ in the main pulse, 330 kJ total yield) was observed with a 12-mm-wide planar array at 5.3 MA, 52 ns. The full data set indicates power scaling that is sub-quadratic with load current, while total and main pulse yields are closer to quadratic; these trends are similar to observations of compact cylindrical tungsten arrays on Z. We continue the investigation of energy coupling in these short pulse Saturn experiments using zero-dimensional-type implosion modeling and pinhole imaging, indicating 16 cm/?s implosion velocity in a 12-mm-wide array. The same phenomena of significant trailing mass and evidence for resistive heating are observed at 5 MA as at 3 MA. 17 kJ of Al K-shell radiation was obtained in one Al planar array fielded at 5.5 MA, 57 ns and we compare this to cylindrical array results in the context of a K-shell yield scaling model. We have also performed an initial study of compact 3 mm diameter cylindrical wire arrays, which are alternate candidates for a multi-pinch vacuum hohlraum concept. These massive 3.4 and 6 mg/cm loads may have been impacted by opacity, producing a maximum x-ray power of 7 TW at 4.5 MA, 45 ns. Future research directions in compact x-ray sources are discussed.
Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ili?, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.
2014-11-01
The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25?. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (?8) derived from CMB data and that derived from Sunyaev-Zeldovich data. The Planck and WMAP power spectra are offset from each other by an average level of about 2% around the first acoustic peak. Analysis of Planck polarization data is not yet mature, therefore polarization results are not released, although the robust detection of E-mode polarization around CMB hot and cold spots is shown graphically.
Technologies for large-scale physical mapping of human chromosomes
Beugelsdijk, T.J.
1994-12-01
Since its inception 6 years ago, the Human Genome Project has made rapid progress towards its ultimate goal of developing the complete sequence of all human chromosomes. This progress has been made possible through the development of automated devices by laboratories throughout the world that aid the molecular biologist in various phases of the project. The initial phase involves the generation of physical and genetic maps of each chromosome. This task is nearing completion at a low resolution level with several instances of very high detailed maps being developed for isolated chromosomes. In support of the initial mapping thrust of this program, the robotics and automation effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed DNA gridding technologies along with associated database and user interface systems. This paper will discuss these systems in detail and focus on the formalism developed for subsystems which allow for facile system integration.
On a relativistic Fokker-Planck equation in kinetic theory
José Antonio Alcántara Félix; Simone Calogero
2011-05-13
A relativistic kinetic Fokker-Planck equation that has been recently proposed in the physical literature is studied. It is shown that, in contrast to other existing relativistic models, the one considered in this paper is invariant under Lorentz transformations in the absence of friction. A similar property (invariance by Galilean transformations in the absence of friction) is verified in the non-relativistic case. In the first part of the paper some fundamental mathematical properties of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation are established. In particular, it is proved that the model is compatible with the finite propagation speed of particles in relativity. In the second part of the paper, two non-linear relativistic mean-field models are introduced. One is obtained by coupling the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics, and is therefore of interest in plasma physics. The other mean-field model couples the Fokker-Planck dynamics to a relativistic scalar theory of gravity (the Nordstr\\"om theory) and is therefore of interest in gravitational physics. In both cases the existence of steady states for all possible prescribed values of the mass is established. In the gravitational case this result is better than for the corresponding non-relativistic model, the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck system, for which existence of steady states is known only for small mass.
Planck 2013 results. XVI. Cosmological parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
This paper presents the first cosmological results based on Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and lensing-potential power spectra. We find that the Planck spectra at high multipoles (? ? 40) are extremely well described by the standard spatially-flat six-parameter ?CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. Within the context of this cosmology, the Planck data determine the cosmological parameters to high precision: the angular size of the sound horizon at recombination, the physical densities of baryons and cold dark matter, and the scalar spectral index are estimated to be ?? = (1.04147 ± 0.00062) × 10-2, ?bh2 = 0.02205 ± 0.00028, ?ch2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, and ns = 0.9603 ± 0.0073, respectively(note that in this abstract we quote 68% errors on measured parameters and 95% upper limits on other parameters). For this cosmology, we find a low value of the Hubble constant, H0 = (67.3 ± 1.2) km s-1 Mpc-1, and a high value of the matter density parameter, ?m = 0.315 ± 0.017. These values are in tension with recent direct measurements of H0 and the magnitude-redshift relation for Type Ia supernovae, but are in excellent agreement with geometrical constraints from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) surveys. Including curvature, we find that the Universe is consistent with spatial flatness to percent level precision using Planck CMB data alone. We use high-resolution CMB data together with Planck to provide greater control on extragalactic foreground components in an investigation of extensions to the six-parameter ?CDM model. We present selected results from a large grid of cosmological models, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data. None of these models are favoured over the standard six-parameter ?CDM cosmology. The deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity isinsensitive to the addition of tensor modes and to changes in the matter content of the Universe. We find an upper limit of r0.002< 0.11 on the tensor-to-scalar ratio. There is no evidence for additional neutrino-like relativistic particles beyond the three families of neutrinos in the standard model. Using BAO and CMB data, we find Neff = 3.30 ± 0.27 for the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, and an upper limit of 0.23 eV for the sum of neutrino masses. Our results are in excellent agreement with big bang nucleosynthesis and the standard value of Neff = 3.046. We find no evidence for dynamical dark energy; using BAO and CMB data, the dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained to be w = -1.13-0.10+0.13. We also use the Planck data to set limits on a possible variation of the fine-structure constant, dark matter annihilation and primordial magnetic fields. Despite the success of the six-parameter ?CDM model in describing the Planck data at high multipoles, we note that this cosmology does not provide a good fit to the temperature power spectrum at low multipoles. The unusual shape of the spectrum in the multipole range 20 ? ? ? 40 was seen previously in the WMAP data and is a real feature of the primordial CMB anisotropies. The poor fit to the spectrum at low multipoles is not of decisive significance, but is an "anomaly" in an otherwise self-consistent analysis of the Planck temperature data.
Physical Analysis and Scaling of a Jet and Vortex Actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lachowicz, Jason T.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Joslin, Ronald D.
2004-01-01
Our previous studies have shown that the Jet and Vortex Actuator generates free-jet, wall-jet, and near- wall vortex flow fields. That is, the actuator can be operated in different modes by simply varying the driving frequency and/or amplitude. For this study, variations are made in the actuator plate and wide-slot widths and sine/asymmetrical actuator plate input forcing (drivers) to further study the actuator induced flow fields. Laser sheet flow visualization, particle- image velocimetry, and laser velocimetry are used to measure and characterize the actuator induced flow fields. Laser velocimetry measurements indicate that the vortex strength increases with the driver repetition rate for a fixed actuator geometry (wide slot and plate width). For a given driver repetition rate, the vortex strength increases as the plate width decreases provided the wide-slot to plate-width ratio is fixed. Using an asymmetric plate driver, a stronger vortex is generated for the same actuator geometry and a given driver repetition rate. The nondimensional scaling provides the approximate ranges for operating the actuator in the free jet, wall jet, or vortex flow regimes. Finally, phase-locked velocity measurements from particle image velocimetry indicate that the vortex structure is stationary, confirming previous computations. Both the computations and the particle image velocimetry measurements (expectantly) show unsteadiness near the wide-slot opening, which is indicative of mass ejection from the actuator.
Signatures of Planck corrections in a spiralling axion inflation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, John
2015-05-01
The minimal sub-Planckian axion inflation model accounts for a large scalar-to-tensor ratio via a spiralling trajectory in the field space of a complex field ?. Here we consider how the predictions of the model are modified by Planck scale-suppressed corrections. In the absence of Planck corrections the model is equivalent to a phi4/3 chaotic inflation model. Planck corrections become important when the dimensionless coupling ? of |?|2 to the topological charge density of the strongly-coupled gauge sector F tilde F satisfies ? ~ 1. For values of |?| which allow the Planck corrections to be understood via an expansion in powers of |?|2/MPl2, we show that their effect is to produce a significant modification of the tensor-to-scalar ratio from its phi4/3 chaotic inflation value without strongly modifying the spectral index. In addition, to leading order in |?|2/MPl2, the Planck modifications of ns and r satisfy a consistency relation, ? ns = ??r/16. Observation of these modifications and their correlation would allow the model to be distinguished from a simple phi4/3 chaotic inflation model and would also provide a signature for the influence of leading-order Planck corrections.
Generalized Fokker-Planck Approximations of Particle Transport with Highly Forward-Peaked Scattering
Leakeas, Christopher L.; Larsen, Edward W. [University of Michigan (United States)
2001-03-15
The Fokker-Planck equation is often used to approximate the description of particle transport processes with highly forward-peaked scattering. Pomraning has shown that if the physical scattering kernel is sufficiently dominated by small-angle scattering, then the Fokker-Planck equation is an asymptotic approximation to the linear Boltzmann equation. However, most physically-meaningful scattering kernels contain a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering that the asymptotic criterion is not met. Thus, in many physical problems, solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation are substantially in error. In this paper, Pomraning's asymptotic results are generalized and a new generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory that robustly incorporates large-angle scattering is developed. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the resulting GFP equations are much more accurate than the standard Fokker-Planck equation.
The physics of megajoule, large-scale, and ultrafast short-scale laser plasmas
E. M. Campbell
1992-01-01
Recent advances in laser science and technology have opened new possibilities for the study of high energy density plasma physics. The advances include techniques to control the laser spatial and temporal coherence, and the development of laser architectures and optical materials that have led to the demonstration of compact, short pulse (??10?12 sec) high brightness lasers, capable of irradiating plasmas
Surveys of extragalactic sources with Planck
G. De Zotti; C. Burigana; M. Negrello; S. Tinti; R. Ricci; L. Silva; J. Gonzalez-Nuevo; L. Toffolatti
2004-11-08
Although the primary goal of ESA's Planck mission is to produce high resolution maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), its high-sensitivity all-sky surveys of extragalactic sources at 9 frequencies in the range 30--860 GHz will constitute a major aspect of its science products. In particular, Planck surveys will provide key information on several highly interesting radio source populations, such as Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars, BL Lac objects, and, especially, extreme GHz Peaked Spectrum sources, thought to correspond to the very earliest phases of the evolution of radio sources. Above 100 GHz, Planck will provide the first all-sky surveys, that are expected to supply rich samples of highly gravitationally amplified dusty proto-galaxies and large samples of candidate proto-clusters at z~2-3, thus shedding light on the evolution of large scale structure across the cosmic epoch when dark energy should start dominating the cosmic dynamics.
Neutrino physics with multi-ton scale liquid xenon detectors
L. Baudis; A. Ferella; A. Kish; A. Manalaysay; T. Marrodan Undagoitia; M. Schumann
2014-02-07
We study the sensitivity of large-scale xenon detectors to low-energy solar neutrinos, to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering and to neutrinoless double beta decay. As a concrete example, we consider the xenon part of the proposed DARWIN (Dark Matter WIMP Search with Noble Liquids) experiment. We perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the expected backgrounds, considering realistic energy resolutions and thresholds in the detector. In a low-energy window of 2-30 keV, where the sensitivity to solar pp and $^7$Be-neutrinos is highest, an integrated pp-neutrino rate of 5900 events can be reached in a fiducial mass of 14 tons of natural xenon, after 5 years of data. The pp-neutrino flux could thus be measured with a statistical uncertainty around 1%, reaching the precision of solar model predictions. These low-energy solar neutrinos will be the limiting background to the dark matter search channel for WIMP-nucleon cross sections below $\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{-48}$ cm$^2$ and WIMP masses around 50 GeV$\\cdot$c$^{-2}$, for an assumed 99.5% rejection of electronic recoils due to elastic neutrino-electron scatters. Nuclear recoils from coherent scattering of solar neutrinos will limit the sensitivity to WIMP masses below $\\sim$6 GeV$\\cdot$c$^{-2}$ to cross sections above $\\sim$4$\\times$10$^{-45}$cm$^2$. DARWIN could reach a competitive half-life sensitivity of 5.6$\\times$10$^{26}$ y to the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe after 5 years of data, using 6 tons of natural xenon in the central detector region.
Robust weak-lensing mass calibration of Planck galaxy clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von der Linden, Anja; Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Morris, R. Glenn; Wright, Adam; Allen, Mark T.; Burchat, Patricia R.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald
2014-09-01
In light of the tension in cosmological constraints reported by the Planck team between their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-selected cluster counts and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies, we compare the Planck cluster mass estimates with robust, weak-lensing mass measurements from the Weighing the Giants (WtG) project. For the 22 clusters in common between the Planck cosmology sample and WtG, we find an overall mass ratio of
New porous medium Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for strongly oscillating electric potentials
Markus Schmuck
2012-09-28
We consider the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system which is well-accepted for describing dilute electrolytes as well as transport of charged species in homogeneous environments. Here, we study these equations in porous media whose electric permittivities show a contrast compared to the electric permittivity of the electrolyte phase. Our main result is the derivation of convenient low-dimensional equations, that is, of effective macroscopic porous media Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, which reliably describe ionic transport. The contrast in the electric permittivities between liquid and solid phase and the heterogeneity of the porous medium induce strongly oscillating electric potentials (fields). In order to account for this special physical scenario, we introduce a modified asymptotic multiple-scale expansion which takes advantage of the nonlinearly coupled structure of the ionic transport equations. This allows for a systematic upscaling resulting in a new effective porous medium formulation which shows a new transport term on the macroscale. Solvability of all arising equations is rigorously verified. This emergence of a new transport term indicates promising physical insights into the influence of the microscale material properties on the macroscale. Hence, systematic upscaling strategies provide a source and a prospective tool to capitalize intrinsic scale effects for scientific, engineering, and industrial applications.
Planck 2015 results. XXII. A map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect
Aghanim, N; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Churazov, E; Clements, D L; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lacasa, F; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tramonte, D; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We have constructed all-sky y-maps of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 30 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck satellite survey. These reconstructed y-maps are delivered as part of the Planck 2015 release. The y-maps are characterised in terms of noise properties and residual foreground contamination, mainly thermal dust emission at large angular scales and CIB and extragalactic point sources at small angular scales. Specific masks are defined to minimize foreground residuals and systematics. Using these masks we compute the y-map angular power spectrum and higher order statistics. From these we conclude that the y-map is dominated by tSZ signal in the multipole range, 20-600. We compare the measured tSZ power spectrum and higher order statistics to various physically motivated models and discuss the implications of our results in terms of cluster physics and cosmology.
A simulation pipeline for the Planck mission
Martin Reinecke; Klaus Dolag; Reinhard Hell; Matthias Bartelmann; Torsten Ensslin
2005-08-24
We describe an assembly of numerical tools to model the output data of the Planck satellite. These start with the generation of a CMB sky in a chosen cosmology, add in various foreground sources, convolve the sky signal with arbitrary, even non-symmetric and polarised beam patterns, derive the time ordered data streams measured by the detectors depending on the chosen satellite-scanning strategy, and include noise signals for the individual detectors and electronic systems. The simulation products are needed to develop, verify, optimise, and characterise the accuracy and performance of all data processing and scientific analysis steps of the Planck mission, including data handling, data integrity checking, calibration, map making, physical component separation, and power spectrum estimation. In addition, the simulations allow detailed studies of the impact of many stochastic and systematic effects on the scientific results. The efficient implementation of the simulation allows the build-up of extended statistics of signal variances and co-variances. Although being developed specifically for the Planck mission, it is expected that the employed framework as well as most of the simulation tools will be of use for other experiments and CMB-related science in general.
Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
Ade, P A R; Akrami, Y; Aluri, P K; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Contreras, D; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Cruz, M; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fantaye, Y; Fergusson, J; Fernandez-Cobos, R; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Gauthier, C; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huang, Z; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kim, J; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Liu, H; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marinucci, D; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mikkelsen, K; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Pant, N; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rotti, A; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Souradeep, T; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zibin, J P; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...
The physics of megajoule, large-scale, and ultrafast short-scale laser plasmas
E. M. Campbell
1992-01-01
Recent advances in laser science and technology have opened new possibilities for the study of high energy density plasma physics. The advances include techniques to control the laser spatial and temporal coherence, and the development of laser architectures and optical materials that have led to the demonstration of compact, short pulse ([tau][le]10[sup [minus]12] sec) high brightness lasers, capable of irradiating
max planck institut Bericht 2009/2010
max planck institut informatik Bericht 2009/2010 #12;max planck institut informatik #12;........................................................................................................................................................ 5I N H A L T E ....... VORWORT DAS MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÃ?R INFORMATIK: EIN Ã?BERBLICK DIE ABTEILUNGEN DATENBANKEN UND INFORMATIONSSYSTEME DIE FORSCHUNGSGRUPPEN FG . 1 AUTOMATISIERUNG DER LOGIK DAS MAX PLANCK
Max-Planck-Institut fr molekulare Genetik
Spang, Rainer
Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare Genetik Software Praktikum, 1.2.2013 Folie 1 Functional Genomics with R Alena van BÃ¶mmel Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics #12;Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare Genetik Software Praktikum, 1.2.2013 Folie 2 Transcriptional Regulation #12;Max-Planck
max planck institut Bericht 2007/2008
max planck institut informatik Bericht 2007/2008 07 08 09 10 11 #12;max planck institut informatik;........................................................................................................................................................ 5I N H A L T E ....... VORWORT DAS MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÃ?R INFORMATIK: EIN Ã?BERBLICK DIE ABTEILUNGEN AUTOMATISIERUNG DER LOGIK UFG . 1 INFORMATIK FÃ?R DIE GENOMFORSCHUNG UND EPIDEMIOLOGIE DAS MAX PLANCK CENTER DIE
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig A Framework for Cheap Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences montufar@mis.mpg.de Nihat Ay Max Planck Institute Institute nay@mis.mpg.de Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences zahedi
PERSPECTIVES Max Planck Institute in Florida Opened
PERSPECTIVES Max Planck Institute in Florida Opened The Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience (MPFI) was inaugurated in an opening ceremony on December 6, 2012. This is the first Max Planck of Education and Research, and former Governor of Florida Jeb Bush. Max Planck Society President Peter Gruss
max planck institut Bericht 2005/2006
max planck institut informatik Bericht 2005/2006 #12;max planck institut informatik #12;........................................................................................................................................................ 5I N H A L T E ....... VORWORT DAS MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÃ?R INFORMATIK: EIN Ã?BERBLICK DIE ABTEILUNGEN INFORMATIONSSYSTEME DIE FORSCHUNGSGRUPPEN FG . 1 AUTOMATISIERUNG DER LOGIK FG . 2 MASCHINELLES LERNEN DAS MAX PLANCK
Regelung fr Max-Planck-Forschungsgruppen Beschluss des Senats der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Falge, Eva
Regelung für Max-Planck-Forschungsgruppen Beschluss des Senats der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft vom 11. März 1994 in der Fassung vom 20. November 2009 Werden an einem Max-Planck-Institut Max-Planck-Forschungsgruppen eingerichtet, so gelten für sie folgende Regeln: 1. Max-Planck-Forschungsgruppen dienen der Förderung begabter
Planck 2013 results. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Caniego, M.
2015-05-01
The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the Planck Nominal mission corresponding to 15 months of data. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of Galactic and extragalactic compact sources detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30--857 GHz with higher sensitivity and better angular resolution than previous all-sky surveys in the microwave band. The flux density at the 90% completeness level at 143 and 217 GHz, the most sensitive channels, are 190 and 180 mJy. The Planck beams are very different and has a big impact in the detection of compact sources. The resolution of the Planck beams range from 32.38 to 4.33 arcmin at 30 and 857 GHz, respectively. The number of detections change very much with frequency, ranging from ˜1,250 detections at 30 GHz up to ˜24,000 857 GHz, respectively. By construction its reliability is >80 %, and more than 65 % of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. Many of the Planck PCCS sources can be associated with stars with dust shells, stellar cores, radio galaxies, blazars, infrared luminous galaxies and Galactic interstellar medium features. Here we summarize the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.
Max-Planck-Institut fr molekulare Genetik
Spang, Rainer
Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare Genetik EBSV06 Martin Vingron Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare;Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare Genetik EBSV06 Amino Acid Replacement #12;Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare Genetik EBSV06 Degree of Divergence #12;Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r molekulare Genetik EBSV06 Markov
Local topology, multi-scale interactions and stochasticity in space plasma physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Materassi, M.; Consolini, G.
2014-12-01
In space physics very important phenomena, as reconnection, are determined by the local topology of the streamlines and magnetic lines of plasma, and by multi-scale interactions. In this work, an attempt is presented to deal with dynamical variables highlighting both the local topology and the role of space scale. In order to promote local topology to the role of a dynamical variable, use is made of the gradients of the velocity and of the magnetic field, through which the description of the local topology becomes very transparent. Such a formulation, well explored in Hydrodynamics, is extended here to the MHD. The new dynamical variables evolve in a finite scale stochastic dynamics: letting the scale appear explicitly as a variable of the problem helps studying inter-scale processes, while statistical aspects of topological variable dynamics are expected to be extremely relevant in the turbulent regime, where a stochastic field scenario is, in practice, taking place.
Laura C. Carpenter; Sara Anne Tompkins; Sarah J. Schmiege; Renea Nilsson; Angela Bryan
2010-01-01
Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need to examine whether measurement structure holds across groups (e.g., active vs.
M. Omerbashich
2010-02-09
I recently demonstrated that the Earth is a mechanical oscillator in which springtide induced magnification of all-masses resonance forces tectonics. I here generalize this georesonator concept so to make it apply to any body, anywhere in all the universes, and at all times. It turns out that there is no distinction between physics at intergalactic, mechanist, quantum, and smaller scales. Instead of being a constant (of proportionality of physics at all scales), G is a parameter of most general form: G = s e^2, nonlinearly varying amongst different scales s. The so called scale variability of physics but not of G, imagined as such by Planck and Einstein, is due to springtide-induced extreme resonance of Earth masses critically impeding terrestrial experiments for estimating G, while providing artificial settings for quantum experiments to all trivially "work". Thus the derived equation is that of levitation. Reality is a system of near infinitely many magnifying oscillators, where permanent energy decay of all oscillation forbids constancy of known "physical constants". This hyperresonator concept explains the magnetism (as every forced oscillator feature), as well as the gravitation (as forward propagation of mechanical vibrations along the aether i.e. throughout the vacuum structure). To test my claim I propose a Space mission to collect on site measurements of eigenperiods of the Sun, its planets, and their satellites. The levitation equitation enables propulsionless Space travel via gravity sailing: Space vehicle hull ought to be engineered so as to automatically adjust its grave mode, to the vehicle instant gravitational surroundings, akin to trout up swimming.
Sources Variability With Planck LFI
L. Terenzi; M. Bersanelli; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; G. De Zotti; N. Mandolesi; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; M. Sandri; L. Valenziano; F. Villa
2002-03-22
Planck LFI (Low Frequency Instrument) will produce a complete survey of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. Data stream analysis will provide the possibility to reveal unexpected millimeter sources and to study their flux evolution in time at different frequencies. We describe here the main implications and discuss data analysis methods. Planck sensitivities typical for this kind of detection are taken into account. We present also preliminary results of our simulation activity.
The Planck Low Frequency Instrument
N. Mandolesi; M. Bersanelli; C. Burigana; F. Villa; on behalf of LFI Consortium
1999-04-12
The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the "Planck Surveyor" ESA mission will perform high-resolution imaging of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies at four frequencies in the 30-100 GHz range. We review the LFI main scientific objectives, the current status of the instrument design and the on-going effort to develop software simulations of the LFI observations. In particular we discuss the design status of the PLANCK telescope, which is critical for reaching adequate effective angular resolution.
Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…
Scaling physics and material science applications on a massively parallel Blue Gene\\/L system
George Almasi; Gyan Bhanot; Alan Gara; Manish Gupta; James C. Sexton; Bob Walkup; Vasily V. Bulatov; Andrew W. Cook; Bronis R. de Supinski; James N. Glosli; Jeffrey A. Greenough; Francois Gygi; Alison Kubota; Steve Louis; Thomas E. Spelce; Frederick H. Streitz; Peter L. Williams; Robert K. Yates; Charles Archer; José E. Moreira; Charles A. Rendleman
2005-01-01
Blue Gene\\/L represents a new way to build supercomputers, using a large number of low power processors, together with multiple integrated interconnection networks. Whether real applications can scale to tens of thousands of processors (on a machine like Blue Gene\\/L) has been an open question. In this paper, we describe early experience with several physics and material science applications on
Experimental Results from a Physical Scale Model Alternator Pair as a Pulsed Power
Y. Yvonne Chen; Nathan Shepard; John Mallick
2007-01-01
The Institute for Advanced Technology is using a pair of physical scale model alternators as counter-rotating pulsed alternator simulators. These alternators have similar but not identical electrical characteristics. The original goal was to use these alternators to simulate a two-machine pulsed alternator system to study thyristor converter operation, with the two machines electrically connected at the output (dc side) of
Scaled intense laseratom physics: the long wavelength T. O. CLATTERBUCK{, C. LYNGA {*, P. COLOSIMOy,
Martin, James D. D.
and cross-correlation measure- ments using ionization of noble gas atoms have been performed on harmonicScaled intense laseratom physics: the long wavelength regime T. O. CLATTERBUCK{, C. LYNGA° {*, P-binding energy atom (caesium) excited by an intense mid-infrared (34 mm) laser pulse. The long- wavelength
Reliability and Construct Validity of Turkish Version of Physical Education Activities Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Memis, Ugur Altay
2013-01-01
This research was conducted to examine the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of physical education activities scale (PEAS) which was developed by Thomason (2008). Participants in this study included 313 secondary and high school students from 7th to 11th grades. To analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis, post hoc…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oncu, Erman
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Education Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers (PEAS-PCT). The study was conducted on 561 Turkish preservice classroom teachers at the end of the 2011-2012 Fall Semester. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain the…
Lattice formulation of the Fokker-Planck equation
S. Melchionna; S. Succi; J. -P. Hansen
2005-05-31
A lattice version of the Fokker-Planck equation (FPE), accounting for dissipative interactions, not resolved on the molecular scale, is introduced. The lattice FPE is applied to the study of electrorheological transport of a one-dimensional charged fluid, and found to yield quantitative agreement with a recent analytical solution. Future extensions, including inelastic ion-ion collisions, are also outlined.
Universal Landau Pole at the Planck scale
Andrianov, Alexander A. [V.A.Fock Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia and Departament ECM and Insitut de Ciencies del Cosmos(ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Espriu, Domenec [Departament ECM and Insitut de Ciencies del Cosmos(ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Kurkov, Maxim A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli, Italia and Departament ECM and Insitut de Ciencies del Cosmos(ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Italy)
2014-07-23
The concept of quantum gravity entails that the usual geometry loses its meaning at very small distances and therefore the grand unification of all gauge interactions with the property of asymptotic freedom happens to be questionable. We propose an unification of all gauge interactions in the form of an “Universal Landau Pole” (ULP), at which all gauge couplings diverge (or, better to say, become very strong). We show that the Higgs quartic coupling also substantially increases whereas the Yukawa couplings tend to zero. Such a singular (or strong coupling) unification is obtained after adding to the Standard Model matter more fermions with vector gauge couplings and hypercharges identical to the SM fermions. The influence of new particles also may prevent the Higgs quartic coupling from crossing zero, thus avoiding the instability (or metastability) of the SM vacuum. As well this fermion pattern opens a way to partially solve the hierarchy problem between masses of quarks and leptons.
Scattering Processes at the Planck Scale
C. O. Lousto; N. Sánchez
1994-10-28
The ultrarelativistic limit of the Kerr - Newman geometry is studied in detail. We find the gravitational shock wave background associated with this limit. We study the scattering of scalar fields in the gravitational shock wave geometries and compare this with the scattering by ultrarelativistic extended sources and with the scattering of fundamental strings. We also study planckian energy string collisions in flat spacetime as the scattering of a string in the effective curved background produced by the others as the impact parameter $b$ decreases. We find the effective energy density distribution generated by these collisions. The effective metric generated by these collisions is a gravitational shock wave with profile $f(\\rho)\\sim p\\rho^{4-D}$, for large impact parameter $b$. For intermediate $b$, $f(\\rho)\\sim q\\rho^2$, corresponding to an extended source of momentum $q$. We finally study the emergence of string instabilities in $D$ - dimensional black hole spacetimes and De Sitter space. We solve the first order string fluctuations around the center of mass motion at spatial infinity, near the horizon and at the spacetime singularity. We find that the time components are always well behaved in the three regions and in the three backgrounds. The radial components are unstable: imaginary frequencies develop in the oscillatory modes near the horizon, and the evolution is like $(\\tau-\\tau_0)^ {-P}$, $(P>0)$, near the spacetime singularity, $r\\to0$, where the world - sheet time $(\\tau-\\tau_0)\\to0$, and the proper string length grows infinitely.
Planck scale inflationary spectra from quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Casadio, Roberto; Tronconi, Alessandro
2006-11-01
We derive the semiclassical evolution of massless minimally coupled scalar matter in the de Sitter space-time from the Born-Oppenheimer reduction of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We show that the dynamics of trans-Planckian modes can be cast in the form of an effective modified dispersion relation and that high energy corrections in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation produced during inflation remain very small if the initial state is the Bunch-Davies vacuum.
Planck scale inflationary spectra from quantum gravity
Gian Luigi Alberghi; Roberto Casadio; Alessandro Tronconi
2006-01-01
We derive the semiclassical evolution of massless minimally coupled scalar matter in the de Sitter space-time from the Born-Oppenheimer reduction of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We show that the dynamics of trans-Planckian modes can be cast in the form of an effective modified dispersion relation and that high energy corrections in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation produced
Planck scale inflationary spectra from quantum gravity
Alberghi, Gian Luigi [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Department of Astronomy, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Casadio, Roberto; Tronconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, and I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)
2006-11-15
We derive the semiclassical evolution of massless minimally coupled scalar matter in the de Sitter space-time from the Born-Oppenheimer reduction of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We show that the dynamics of trans-Planckian modes can be cast in the form of an effective modified dispersion relation and that high energy corrections in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation produced during inflation remain very small if the initial state is the Bunch-Davies vacuum.
Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei
2011-05-01
The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external voltages. Extensive numerical experiments show that there is an excellent consistency between the results predicted from the present PBNP model and those obtained from the PNP model in terms of the electrostatic potentials, ion concentration profiles, and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The present PBNP model is further validated by a comparison with experimental measurements of I-V curves under various ion bulk concentrations. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed PBNP model is more efficient than the original PNP model in terms of simulation time.
Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck model
Zheng Qiong [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Wei Guowei [Department of Mathematics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)
2011-05-21
The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external voltages. Extensive numerical experiments show that there is an excellent consistency between the results predicted from the present PBNP model and those obtained from the PNP model in terms of the electrostatic potentials, ion concentration profiles, and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The present PBNP model is further validated by a comparison with experimental measurements of I-V curves under various ion bulk concentrations. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed PBNP model is more efficient than the original PNP model in terms of simulation time.
Poisson–Boltzmann–Nernst–Planck model
Zheng, Qiong; Wei, Guo-Wei
2011-01-01
The Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst–Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst–Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst–Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson–Boltzmann and Nernst–Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external voltages. Extensive numerical experiments show that there is an excellent consistency between the results predicted from the present PBNP model and those obtained from the PNP model in terms of the electrostatic potentials, ion concentration profiles, and current–voltage (I–V) curves. The present PBNP model is further validated by a comparison with experimental measurements of I–V curves under various ion bulk concentrations. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed PBNP model is more efficient than the original PNP model in terms of simulation time. PMID:21599038
Spectator field models in light of spectral index after Planck
Kobayashi, Takeshi [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide, E-mail: takeshi@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp, E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)
2013-10-01
We revisit spectator field models including curvaton and modulated reheating scenarios, specifically focusing on their viability in the new Planck era, based on the derived expression for the spectral index in general spectator field models. Importantly, the recent Planck observations give strong preference to a red-tilted power spectrum, while the spectator field models tend to predict a scale-invariant one. This implies that, during inflation, either (i) the Hubble parameter varies significantly as in chaotic inflation, or (ii) a scalar potential for the spectator field has a relatively large negative curvature. Combined with the tight constraint on the non-Gaussianity, the Planck data provides us with rich implications for various spectator field models.
A Map-Making Algorithm for the Planck Surveyor
P. Natoli; G. de Gasperis; C. Gheller; N. Vittorio
2001-03-19
We present a parallel implementation of a map-making algorithm for CMB anisotropy experiments which is both fast and efficient. We show for the first time a Maximum Likelihood, minimum variance map obtained by processing the entire data stream expected from the Planck Surveyor, under the assumption of a symmetric beam profile. Here we restrict ourselves to the case of the 30 GHz channel of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument. The extension to Planck higher frequency channels is straightforward. If the satellite pointing periodicity is good enough to average data that belong to the same sky circle, then the code runs very efficiently on workstations. The serial version of our code also runs on very competitive time-scales the map-making pipeline for current and forthcoming balloon borne experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Génova-Santos, R.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kitaura, F.-S.; Mücket, J. P.
2015-06-01
We cross-correlate foreground cleaned Planck Nominal cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps with two templates constructed from the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey of galaxies. The first template traces the large-scale filamentary distribution characteristic of the Warm–Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) out to ? 90 {{h}-1} Mpc. The second preferentially traces the virialized gas in unresolved halos around galaxies. We find a marginal signal from the correlation of Planck data and the WHIM template with a signal to noise from 0.84 to 1.39 at the different Planck frequencies, and with a frequency dependence compatible with the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect. When we restrict our analysis to the 60% of the sky outside the plane of the Galaxy and known point sources and galaxy clusters, the cross-correlation at zero lag is 0.064+/- 0.051 ? K. The correlation extends out to ? 6{}^\\circ , which at the median depth of our template corresponds to a physical length of ? 6--8 {{h}-1} Mpc. On the same fraction of the sky, the cross-correlation of the CMB data with the second template is \\lt 0.17 ? K (95% C.L.), providing no statistically significant evidence of a contribution from bound gas to the previous result. This limit translates into a physical constraint on the properties of the shock-heated WHIM of a log-normal model describing the weakly nonlinear density field. We find that our upper limit is compatible with a fraction of 45% of all baryons residing in filaments at overdensities ?1–100 and with temperatures in the range {{10}4.5}--{{10}7.5} K, in agreement with the detection at redshift z? 0.5 of Van Waerbeke et al..
Blondeel, Evelyne; Depuydt, Veerle; Cornelis, Jasper; Chys, Michael; Verliefde, Arne; Hulle, Stijin Wim Henk Van
2015-09-19
Pilot-scale optimisation of different possible physical-chemical water treatment techniques was performed on the wastewater originating from three different recovery and recycling companies in order to select a (combination of) technique(s) for further full-scale implementation. This implementation is necessary to reduce the concentration of both common pollutants (such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids) and potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly-chlorinated biphenyls frequently below the discharge limits. The pilot-scale tests (at 250 L h(-1) scale) demonstrate that sand anthracite filtration or coagulation/flocculation are interesting as first treatment techniques with removal efficiencies of about 19% to 66% (sand anthracite filtration), respectively 18% to 60% (coagulation/flocculation) for the above mentioned pollutants (metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls). If a second treatment step is required, the implementation of an activated carbon filter is recommended (about 46% to 86% additional removal is obtained). PMID:26191983
Fully Kinetic Fokker-Planck Model of Thermal Smoothing in Nonuniform Laser-Target Interactions
Keskinen, M. J. [Charged Particle Physics Branch, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)
2009-07-31
Using a fully kinetic 2D Fokker-Planck model, the generation and evolution of ion density perturbations from nonuniform laser deposition in a plasma slab have been studied. It is found that significant smoothing of the ion density perturbations from nonuniform optically smoothed single beam laser deposition can be achieved on hydrodynamic times scales over a range of scale sizes. In addition, it is observed that the Fokker-Planck model predicts more smoothing than the hydrodynamic Spitzer model.
Implications of SCUBA observations for the Planck Surveyor
Douglas Scott; Martin White
1999-03-18
We investigate the implications for the Planck Surveyor of the recent sub-millimetre number counts obtained using the SCUBA camera. Since it observes at the same frequency as one of the higher frequency science channels on Planck, SCUBA can provide constraints on the point-source contribution to the CMB angular power spectrum, which require no extrapolation in frequency. We have calculated the two-point function of these sub-millimetre sources, using a Poisson model normalized to the observed counts. While the current data are uncertain, under reasonable assumptions the point-source contribution to the anisotropy is comparable to the noise in the 353GHz channel. The clustering of these sources is currently unknown, however if they cluster like the z~3 Lyman-break galaxies their signal would be larger than the primary anisotropy signal on scales smaller than about 10 arcmin. We expect the intensity of these sources to decrease for wavelengths longward of 850 microns. At the next lowest Planck frequency, 217GHz, the contribution from both the clustered and Poisson terms are dramatically reduced. Hence we do not expect these sources to seriously affect Planck's main science goal, the determination of the primordial anisotropy power spectrum. Rather, the potential determination of the distribution of sub-mm sources is a further piece of cosmology that Planck may be able to tackle.
Planck 2015 results. XXI. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
Ade, P A R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Casaponsa, B; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Fernandez-Cobos, R; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Ili?, S; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Marcos-Caballero, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
This paper presents a study of the ISW effect from the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data release. The CMB is cross-correlated with different LSS tracers: the NVSS, SDSS and WISE catalogues, and the Planck 2015 convergence lensing map. This cross-correlation yields a detection at $4\\,\\sigma$, where most of the signal-to-noise is due to the Planck lensing and NVSS. In fact, the ISW effect is detected only from the Planck data (through the ISW-lensing bispectrum) at $\\approx 3\\,\\sigma$, which is similar to the detection level achieved by combining the cross-correlation signal coming from all the catalogues. This cross-correlation analysis is performed only with the Planck temperature data, since the polarization scales available in the 2015 release do not permit significant improvement of the CMB-LSS cross-correlation detectability. Nevertheless, polarization data is used to study the anomalously large ISW signal previously reported through the aperture photometry on stacked CMB features at the locat...
Visible sector inflation and the right thermal history in light of Planck data
Wang, Lingfei; Pukartas, Ernestas; Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2013-07-01
Inflation creates perturbations for the large scale structures in the universe, but it also dilutes everything. Therefore it is pertinent that the end of inflation must explain how to excite the Standard Model dof along with the dark matter. In this paper we will briefly discuss the role of visible sector inflaton candidates which are embedded within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and discuss their merit on how well they match the current data from the Planck. Since the inflaton carries the Standard Model charges their decay naturally produces all the relevant dof with no dark/hidden sector radiation and no isocurvature fluctuations. We will first discuss a single supersymmetric flat direction model of inflation and demonstrate what parameter space is allowed by the Planck and the LHC. We will also consider where the perturbations are created by another light field which decays after inflation, known as a curvaton. The late decay of the curvaton can create observable non-Gaussianity. In the end we will discuss the role of a spectator field whose origin may not lie within the visible sector physics, but its sheer presence during inflation can still create all the perturbations responsible for the large scale structures including possible non-Gaussianity, while the inflaton is embedded within the visible sector which creates all the relevant matter including dark matter, but no dark radiation.
The Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Probe of PeV Scale Physics
Amin Aboubrahim; Tarek Ibrahim; Pran Nath
2015-05-21
The experimental limit on the neutron electric dipole moment is used as a possible probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Within MSSM we use the current experimental limit on the neutron EDM and possible future improvement as a probe of high scale SUSY. Quantitative analyses show that scalar masses as large as a PeV and larger could be probed in improved experiment far above the scales accessible at future colliders. We also discuss the neutron EDM as a probe of new physics models beyond MSSM. Specifically we consider an MSSM extension with a particle content including a vectorlike multiplet. Such an extension brings in new sources of CP violation beyond those in MSSM. These CP phases contribute to the EDM of the quarks and to the neutron EDM. These contributions are analyzed in this work where we include the supersymmetric loop diagrams involving the neutralinos, charginos, the gluino, squark and mirror squark exchange diagrams at the one loop level. We also take into account the contributions from the $W$, $Z$, quark and mirror quark exchanges arising from the mixings of the vectorlike generation with the three generations. It is shown that the experimental limit on the neutron EDM can be used to probe such new physics models. In the future one expects the neutron EDM to improve an order of magnitude or more allowing one to extend the probe of high scale SUSY and of new physics models. For the MSSM the probe of high scales could go up to and beyond PeV scale masses.
Neutron electric dipole moment and probe of PeV scale physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aboubrahim, Amin; Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran
2015-05-01
The experimental limit on the neutron electric dipole moment is used as a possible probe of new physics beyond the standard model. Within the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), we use the current experimental limit on the neutron EDM and possible future improvement as a probe of high-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Quantitative analyses show that scalar masses as large as a PeV and larger could be probed in an improved experiment far above the scales accessible at future colliders. We also discuss the neutron EDM as a probe of new physics models beyond MSSM. Specifically, we consider an MSSM extension with a particle content including a vectorlike multiplet. Such an extension brings in new sources of charge conjugation and parity (C P ) violation beyond those in the MSSM. These C P phases contribute to the EDM of the quarks and to the neutron EDM. These contributions are analyzed in this work where we include the supersymmetric loop diagrams involving the neutralinos, charginos, and the gluino, squark and mirror squark exchange diagrams at the one-loop level. We also take into account the contributions from the W , Z , quark and mirror quark exchanges arising from the mixings of the vectorlike generation with the three generations. It is shown that the experimental limit on the neutron EDM can be used to probe such new physics models. In the future, one expects the neutron EDM to improve an order of magnitude or more allowing one to extend the probe of high-scale SUSY and of new physics models. For the MSSM, the probe of high scales could go up to and beyond PeV scale masses.
Planck 2013 results. XXVIII. The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Argüeso, F.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) is the catalogue of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck operations, the “nominal” mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30-857 GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180 mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution (from 32.88' to 4.33') than previous all-sky surveys in this frequency band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected in at least two contiguous Planck channels. In this paper we present the construction and validation of the PCCS, its contents and its statistical characterization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. This map shows an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales (? < 60), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales (? > 500) the clustered cosmic infrared background and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We thus measure the tSZ power spectrum over angular scales 0.17° ? ? ? 3.0° that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with clear evidence of additional signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. The measured tSZ power spectrum and high order statistics are used to place constraints on ?8.
Number theory as the ultimate physical theory
Igor V. Volovich
2010-01-01
At the Planck scale doubt is cast on the usual notion of space-time and one cannot think about elementary particles. Thus,\\u000a the fundamental entities of which we consider our Universe to be composed cannot be particles, fields or strings. In this\\u000a paper the numbers are considered as the fundamental entities. We discuss the construction of the corresponding physical theory.\\u000a A
Planck 2013 results. XII. Diffuse component separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dobler, G.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Wilkinson, A.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
Planck has produced detailed all-sky observations over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz. These observations allow robust reconstruction of the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations over nearly the full sky, as well as new constraints on Galactic foregrounds, including thermal dust and line emission from molecular carbon monoxide (CO). This paper describes the component separation framework adopted by Planck for many cosmological analyses, including CMB power spectrum determination and likelihood construction on large angular scales, studies of primordial non-Gaussianity and statistical isotropy, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, gravitational lensing, and searches for topological defects. We test four foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived using qualitatively different component separation algorithms. The quality of our reconstructions is evaluated through detailed simulations and internal comparisons, and shown through various tests to be internally consistent and robust for CMB power spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation up to ? = 2000. The parameter constraints on ?CDM cosmologies derived from these maps are consistent with those presented in the cross-spectrum based Planck likelihood analysis. We choose two of the CMB maps for specific scientific goals. We also present maps and frequency spectra of the Galactic low-frequency, CO, and thermal dust emission. The component maps are found to provide a faithful representation of the sky, as evaluated by simulations, with the largest bias seen in the CO component at 3%. For the low-frequency component, the spectral index varies widely over the sky, ranging from about ? = -4 to - 2. Considering both morphology and prior knowledge of the low frequencycomponents, the index map allows us to associate a steep spectral index (?< -3.2) with strong anomalous microwave emission, corresponding to a spinning dust spectrum peaking below 20 GHz, a flat index of ?> -2.3 with strong free-free emission, and intermediate values with synchrotron emission.
Scaling and correlation of human movements in cyberspace and physical space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Zi-Gang; Huang, Liang; Liu, Huan; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2014-11-01
Understanding the dynamics of human movements is key to issues of significant current interest such as behavioral prediction, recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and analyze big data sets of human movements in both cyberspace (through browsing of websites) and physical space (through mobile towers) and find a superlinear scaling relation between the mean frequency of visit
The Planck Low Frequency Instrument
N. Mandolesi; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; F. Cuttaia; A. De Rosa; F. Finelli; E. Franceschi; A. Gruppuso; M. Malaspina; G. Morgante; G. Morigi; L. Popa; M. Sandri; L. Stringhetti; L. Terenzi; L. Valenziano; F. Villa
2004-11-15
Planck is the third generation of mm-wave instruments designed for space observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies within the new Cosmic Vision 2020 ESA Science Program. Planck will map the whole sky with unprecedented sensitivity, angular resolution, and frequency coverage, and it likely leads us to the final comprehension of the CMB anisotropies. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), operating in the 30-70 GHz range, is one of the two instruments onboard Planck satellite, sharing the focal region of a 1.5 meter off-axis dual reflector telescope together with the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) operating at 100-857 GHz. We present LFI and discuss the major instrumental systematic effects that could degrade the measurements and the solutions adopted in the design and data analysis phase in order to adequately reduce and control them.
Radio observations of Planck clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kale, R.
2013-04-01
Recently, a number of new galaxy clusters have been detected by the ESA-Planck satellite, the South Pole Telescope, and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope using the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Several of the newly detected clusters are massive, merging systems with disturbed morphology in the X-ray surface brightness. Diffuse radio sources in clusters, called giant radio halos and relics, are direct probes of cosmic rays and magnetic fields in the intra-cluster medium. These radio sources are found to occur mainly in massive merging clusters. Thus, the new SZ-discovered clusters are good candidates to search for new radio halos and relics. We have initiated radio observations of the clusters detected by Planck with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. These observations have already led to the detection of a radio halo in PLCKG171.9-40.7, the first giant halo discovered in one of the new Planck clusters.
Energy Cascades in Physical Scales of 3D Incompressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Z. Bradshaw; Z. Gruji?
2013-07-29
The existence of a total energy cascade and the scale-locality of the total energy flux are rigorously established working directly from the 3D MHD equations and under assumptions consistent with physical properties of turbulent plasmas. Secondary results are included identifying scenarios where inertial effects on specific energies effect cascade-like behavior as well as a scenario in which the inter-field energy transfer is predominantly from the fluid to the magnetic field.
Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics Tel Position in Human Motion Simulation The Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen/Importance to overall motion perception (largest effect). #12;The Max Planck Society is an equal opportunity employer
Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Cognition and Action of the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics (Prof. Heinrich H. Bülthoff of the student's university, but it will approximately last 6 to 9 months. The Max Planck Society is an equal
Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics Tel Mathematics The Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, Germany launches a research, with the possibility of extension, starting as soon as possible. The Max Planck Society is an equal opportunity
Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics at the department of "Physiology of Cognitive Processes" at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics of the PhD. The Max Planck Society is an equal opportunity employer: Handicapped individuals are strongly
Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics / 601 - 520 www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de Group Leader for MR Research The Max Planck Institute for five years. The Max Planck Society is an equal opportunity employer: Handicapped individuals
String Inflation After Planck 2013
C. P. Burgess; M. Cicoli; F. Quevedo
2013-09-03
We briefly summarize the impact of the recent Planck measurements for string inflationary models, and outline what might be expected to be learned in the near future from the expected improvement in sensitivity to the primordial tensor-to-scalar ratio. We comment on whether these models provide sufficient added value to compensate for their complexity, and ask how they fare in the face of the new constraints on non-gaussianity and dark radiation. We argue that as a group the predictions made before Planck agree well with what has been seen, and draw conclusions from this about what is likely to mean as sensitivity to primordial gravitational waves improves.
Planck pre-launch status: The Planck-LFI programme
N. Mandolesi; M. Bersanelli; R. C. Butler; E. Artal; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; M. Bartelmann; K. Bennett; P. Bhandari; A. Bonaldi; J. Borrill; M. Bremer; C. Burigana; R. C. Bowman; P. Cabella; C. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; T. Courvoisier; G. Crone; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; O. D'Arcangelo; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; L. de Angelis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Troia; G. de Zotti; J. Dick; C. Dickinson; J. M. Diego; S. Donzelli; U. Dörl; X. Dupac; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; M. C. Falvella; F. Finelli; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; T. Gaier; S. Galeotta; F. Gasparo; G. Giardino; F. Gomez; J. Gonzalez-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. Hansen; R. Hell; D. Herranz; J. M. Herreros; S. Hildebrandt; W. Hovest; R. Hoyland; K. Huffenberger; M. Janssen; T. Jaffe; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. Kisner; H. Kurki-Suonio; A. Lähteenmäki; C. R. Lawrence; S. M. Leach; J. P. Leahy; R. Leonardi; S. Levin; P. B. Lilje; M. López-Caniego; S. R. Lowe; P. M. Lubin; D. Maino; M. Malaspina; M. Maris; J. Marti-Canales; E. Martinez-Gonzalez; M. Massardi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Meinhold; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; G. Morigi; N. Morisset; A. Moss; A. Nash; P. Natoli; R. Nesti; C. Paine; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; T. Passvogel; D. Pearson; L. Pérez-Cuevas; F. Perrotta; G. Polenta; L. A. Popa; T. Poutanen; G. Prezeau; M. Prina; J. P. Rachen; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; G. Rocha; N. Roddis; R. Rohlfs; J. A. Rubiño-Martin; E. Salerno; M. Sandri; D. Scott; M. Seiffert; J. Silk; A. Simonetto; G. F. Smoot; C. Sozzi; J. Sternberg; F. Stivoli; L. Stringhetti; J. Tauber; L. Terenzi; M. Tomasi; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; L. Valenziano; J. Varis; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. Wade; M. White; S. White; A. Wilkinson; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2010-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) programme within the ESA Planck mission. The LFI instrument has been developed to produce high precision maps of the microwave sky at frequencies in the range 27-77 GHz, below the peak of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum. The scientific goals are described, ranging from fundamental cosmology to
Planck early results. II. The thermal performance of Planck
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; M. Baker; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; P. Bhandari; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borders; J. Borrill; B. Bowman; T. Bradshaw; E. Bréelle; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; P. Cabella; C. M. Cantalupo; B. Cappellini; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; J. P. Chambelland; J. Charra; M. Charra; L.-Y. Chiang; C. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; B. Collaudin; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; M. Crook; F. Cuttaia; C. Damasio; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; K. Dolag; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; H. K. Eriksen; C. Filliard; F. Finelli; S. Foley; O. Forni; P. Fosalba; J.-J. Fourmond; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; E. Gavila; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; G. Guyot; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; C. Hernández-Monteagudo; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; A. Hornstrup; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; U. Israelsson; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; P. Lami; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; A. Lavabre; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Lee; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; P. B. Lilje; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; T. Maciaszek; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; P. McGehee; P. R. Meinhold; A. Melchiorri; F. Melot; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; J. Mora; G. Morgante; N. Morisset; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; A. Nash; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; I. J. O'Dwyer; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; D. Pearson; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; P. Platania; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; M. Prina; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; J. P. Rachen; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; B. M. Schaefer; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; P. Stassi; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Stompor; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; L. Valenziano; L. Vibert; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; A. Wilkinson; B. D. Wandelt; C. Watson; S. D. M. White; P. Wilson; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; B. Zhang; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
The performance of the Planck instruments in space is enabled by their low operating temperatures, 20 K for LFI and 0.1 K for HFI, achieved through a combination of passive radiative cooling and three active mechanical coolers. The scientific requirement for very broad frequency coverage led to two detector technologies with widely different temperature and cooling needs. Active coolers could
The finite range nature of solar wind turbulence-physics of kinetic and outer scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Sandra
2010-05-01
Spacecraft in- situ measurements in the solar wind typically show an 'inertial range' of MHD turbulence with a power-law power spectra. Fully developed inertial range turbulence has a characteristic statistical similarity property of quantities that characterize the flow, such as the magnetic field components Bk(t), so that the pth moment of fluctuations have power law dependence on scale ? such that < |Bk(t + ?) -Bk(t)|p >~ ??(p). The multifractal scaling of intermittent turbulence is captured in the nonlinear (concave) dependence of ?(p) upon p. The turbulence seen in the solar wind is however finite range. At higher frequencies a spectral break is seen around the ion-gyroscale with a subsequent steeper power-law, indicating a cross-over to spatial-temporal scales where kinetic effects become important. At lower frequencies there is an outer scale of the turbulence and a cross-over to approximately '1/f' power spectral scaling, presumably of solar origin. We will use solar wind in-situ spacecraft observations of 'quiet' stationary flow to explore to what extent these finite range properties of the turbulence are universal. Cluster burst mode high-frequency magnetic field data (FGM and STAFF) allow us to access the kinetic scales. We examine intervals of 'quiet' flow and find statistical similarity through both the inertial and kinetic ranges, but intriguingly, the exponents ?(p) change from nonlinear to linear dependence in p. As we cross over from the inertial to kinetic ranges of scaling, the character of the turbulence thus changes from intermittent to non- intermittent (globally scale invariant). ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in-situ observations of evolving MHD turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. At the outer scale we find a generalized similarity < |Bk(t + ?) - Bk(t)|p >~ g(?-?0)?(p). This extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature seen in turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales and here expresses the physics of the largest structures, that is, at the outer scale, of the evolving inertial range turbulence. We examine polar passes from the last two solar minima which in comparison show a decrease in the turbulent fluctuations of a factor of two in power. We find the same generalized scaling function g(?) in all these observations suggesting that this may be a universal feature of evolving MHD turbulence.
Research Report 2008 Max Planck Institute
Timme, Marc
Research Report 2008 Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization MAX - P L A N C K- G E S E L LS C H A F T #12;Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization Bunsenstraße 10 D, Göttingen Printed by: Goltze Druck, Göttingen © January 2008 #12;Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Weak Schmidt decomposition matrices Bobo Hua,1 Shaoming Fei,2 JÂ¨urgen Jost,3 and Xianqing Li-Jost4 1) Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, 04103 Leipzig, Germanya) 2) Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig The tensor with high-dimensional parameters Sergey V. Dolgova,1 , Vladimir A. Kazeevb,1 , Boris N. Khoromskijc a Max-PlanckÂ¨ur Angewandte Mathematik, ETH ZÂ¨urich. RÂ¨amistrasse 101, 8092 ZÂ¨urich, Switzerland. c Max-Planck-Institut f
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Discrepancy of Symmetric Hebbinghaus 3 January 6, 2006 1 Max--Planck--Institut fË?ur Informatik, SaarbrË?ucken, Germany. 2 Institut f by the Deutsche ForschungsgemeinÂ schaft, Grant SR7/10Â1. 3 Max--Planck--Institut fË?ur Informatik
Im Rotbad MPIK MRZ Max-Planck-Haus Spemannstr.36 Hotel am Schloss Burgsteige 18 Hotel Katharina Lessingweg 3 Uni Gästehaus Lessingweg 2 Uni - Klinik AufderMorgenstelle 3 4 Max Planck Institute Bus StopMax Planck Institute Parking One-Way StreetH H H H H 3 4 6 17 How to get Downtown by bus
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FR QUANTENOPTIK
Hänsch, Theodor W.
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÜR QUANTENOPTIK Garching, 5. Mai 2014 Presse-Information Professor Theodor, Direktor am Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenop- tik in Garching, wurde im Rahmen einer Festveranstaltung am Frequenzkammtechnik gewürdigt wurde. Seit 2006 wird seine Forschung von der Max- Planck-Förderstiftung und der Carl
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig A new approach to variational * The research of G.A. was supported by the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig, and by Max Planck prize and the University of Freiburg. Part of this work was done during a joint stay
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Time-space discretization through grants AFOSR/MURI (F 49602-98-1-0433), by the Max Planck Society and by the NSF through grant DMS and by the Max Planck Society. 1 #12; 2 CARSTEN CARSTENSEN AND GEORG DOLZMANN the deformation u, the deformation
max planck institut Faster Algorithms for Computing
Lonardi, Stefano
max planck institut informatik Faster Algorithms for Computing Longest Common Increasing Martin Kutz Max-Planck Institut fÃ¼r Informatik SaarbrÃ¼cken, Germany Martin Kutz: Faster Algorithms for Longest Common Increasing Subsequences Â p. #12;max planck institut informatik The Longest
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie
P. Murdin
2000-01-01
Founded by the Senate of the Max Planck Society in 1967, it is one of 68 Max-Planck-Institutes in Germany. The Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie has its headquarters in Heidelberg, where new buildings were erected between 1971 and 1975 on a 5.2 hectare site alongside the State Observatory....
PERSPEKTIVEN Neues Max Planck Center in London
Neuroscience Unit (Peter Dayan), das Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Bildungsforschung (Ulman Linden- berger), das Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Kognitions- und Neuro- wissenschaften (Arno Villringer) und das Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging (Ray Dolan). Das Hauptziel des neu gegrÃ¼ndeten Max Planck Centers besteht in der Erfor- schung der
Primordial power spectrum from Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun
2014-11-01
Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near l ~ 750-850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near l ~ 1800-2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters and the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2? C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ~ 2.5%. In this context low-l and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.
New Jarlskog determinant from Physics above the GUT Scal
Koranga, Bipin Singh
2007-01-01
We study the Planck scale effects on Jarlskog determinant. Quantum gravitational (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)_{L}\\times U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields, which gives rise to additional terms in neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry breaking. We assume that gravitational interaction is flavor blind and compute the Jarlskog determinant due to the Planck scale effects. In the case of neutrino sector, the strength of CP violation is measured by Jarlskog determinant. In this paper, we assume CP violation arise from Planck scale effects. We applied our approach to study Jarlskog determinant due to the Planck scale effects.
Attosecond Physics - Probing and Controlling Matter on Its Natural Time Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starace, Anthony F.
2014-03-01
The goal of attosecond physics is to probe and control matter on its natural time scale, which for electronic motion in atoms, molecules, and solids is measured in attoseconds (= 10-18 sec). Both single attosecond pulses and attosecond pulse trains can be produced. Such pulses have opened new avenues for time-domain studies of multi-electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and solids on their natural time scale and at dimensions shorter than molecular and even atomic dimensions. They promise a revolution in our microscopic knowledge and understanding of matter. At present the intensities of isolated attosecond pulses are very weak, so that perturbation theory is sufficient to describe the interaction of attosecond pulses with matter. Consequently, they can only be used either to initiate (``pump'') a physical process or to probe a process already under way by other means. Experimental efforts currently aim to increase the intensities of isolated attosecond pulses by orders of magnitude. Intense attosecond pulses will open the regime of nonlinear attosecond physics, in which pump/probe processes with isolated attosecond pulses will become possible and in which the broad bandwidth of isolated few-cycle attosecond pulses will enable significant control over electron motion. Work supported in part by AFOSR Award No. FA9550-12-1-0149; by DOE Office of Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Grant No. DE-FG03-96ER14646; and by NSF Grant No. PHY-1208059.
Comparing Planck and WMAP: Maps, Spectra, and Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.
2015-03-01
We examine the consistency of the 9 yr WMAP data and the first-release Planck data. We specifically compare sky maps, power spectra, and the inferred ? cold dark matter (?CDM) cosmological parameters. Residual dipoles are seen in the WMAP and Planck sky map differences, but their amplitudes are consistent within the quoted uncertainties, and they are not large enough to explain the widely noted differences in angular power spectra at higher l. We remove the residual dipoles and use templates to remove residual Galactic foregrounds; after doing so, the residual difference maps exhibit a quadrupole and other large-scale systematic structure. We identify this structure as possibly originating from Planck’s beam sidelobe pick-up, but note that it appears to have insignificant cosmological impact. We develop an extension of the internal linear combination technique to find the minimum-variance difference between the WMAP and Planck sky maps; again we find features that plausibly originate in the Planck data. Lacking access to the Planck time-ordered data we cannot further assess these features. We examine ?CDM model fits to the angular power spectra and conclude that the ˜2.5% difference in the spectra at multipoles greater than l˜ 100 is significant at the 3-5? level, depending on how beam uncertainties are handled in the data. We revisit the analysis of WMAP’s beam data to address the power spectrum differences and conclude that previously derived uncertainties are robust and cannot explain the power spectrum differences. In fact, any remaining WMAP errors are most likely to exacerbate the difference. Finally, we examine the consistency of the ?CDM parameters inferred from each data set taking into account the fact that both experiments observe the same sky, but cover different multipole ranges, apply different sky masks, and have different noise. We find that, while individual parameter values agree within the uncertainties, the six parameters taken together are discrepant at the ˜6? level, with {? }2}=56 for 6 degrees of freedom (probability to exceed, PTE = 3× {{10}-10}). The nature of this discrepancy is explored: of the six parameters, {{? }2} is best improved by marginalizing over {{{?}c}{{h}2}, giving {? }2}=5.2 for 5 degrees of freedom. As an exercise, we find that perturbing the WMAP window function by its dominant beam error profile has little effect on {{{?}c}{{h}2}, while perturbing the Planck window function by its corresponding error profile has a much greater effect on {{?}c}{{h}2}.
Planck pre-launch status: the Planck-LFI programme
Mandolesi, N; Butler, R C; Artal, E; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartelmann, M; Bennett, K; Bhandari, P; Bonaldi, A; Borrill, J; Bremer, M; Burigana, C; Bowman, R C; Cabella, P; Cantalupo, C; Cappellini, B; Courvoisier, T; Crone, G; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; D'Arcangelo, O; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; De Angelis, L; de Gasperis, G; De Rosa, A; De Troia, G; de Zotti, G; Dick, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Dörl, U; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Giardino, G; Gomez, F; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F; Hell, R; Herranz, D; Herreros, J M; Hildebrandt, S; Hovest, W; Hoyland, R; Huffenberger, K; Janssen, M; Jaffe, T; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S M; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Levin, S; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Lowe, S R; Lubin, P M; Maino, D; Malaspina, M; Maris, M; Marti-Canales, J; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Meinhold, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Morgante, G; Morigi, G; Morisset, N; Moss, A; Nash, A; Natoli, P; Nesti, R; Paine, C; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Passvogel, T; Pearson, D; Pérez-Cuevas, L; Perrotta, F; Polenta, G; Popa, L A; Poutanen, T; Prezeau, G; Prina, M; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Roddis, N; Rohlfs, R; Rubiño-Martin, J A; Salerno, E; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M; Silk, J; Simonetto, A; Smoot, G F; Sozzi, C; Sternberg, J; Stivoli, F; Stringhetti, L; Tauber, J; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L; White, M; White, S; Wilkinson, A; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2010-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) programme within the ESA Planck mission. The LFI instrument has been developed to produce high precision maps of the microwave sky at frequencies in the range 27-77 GHz, below the peak of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation spectrum. The scientific goals are described, ranging from fundamental cosmology to Galactic and extragalactic astrophysics. The instrument design and development are outlined, together with the model philosophy and testing strategy. The instrument is presented in the context of the Planck mission. The LFI approach to ground and inflight calibration is described. We also describe the LFI ground segment. We present the results of a number of tests demonstrating the capability of the LFI data processing centre (DPC) to properly reduce and analyse LFI flight data, from telemetry information to calibrated and cleaned time ordered data, sky maps at each frequency (in temperature and polarization), component emissi...
Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; R.-R. Chary; L.-Y. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; R. J. Davis; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; C. Dickinson; H. Dole; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; F. Finelli; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; A. Lähteenmäki; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; S. Madden; B. Maffei; D. Maino; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; F. Pajot; B. Partridge; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; M. Peel; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; F. Piacentini; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; P. Shellard; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; M. Türler; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; J. Varis; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
The all-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR\\/submm wavelengths over which they have been observed. We here present the first results on the properties of nearby galaxies using these
Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors
Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore) [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)] [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore) [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)
2013-12-23
We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes.
Planck early results. XXII. The submillimetre properties of a sample of Galactic cold clumps
P. A. R. Ade; N. Aghanim; M. Arnaud; M. Ashdown; J. Aumont; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; A. J. Banday; R. B. Barreiro; J. G. Bartlett; E. Battaner; K. Benabed; A. Benoît; J.-P. Bernard; M. Bersanelli; R. Bhatia; J. J. Bock; A. Bonaldi; J. R. Bond; J. Borrill; F. Boulanger; M. Bucher; C. Burigana; P. Cabella; C. M. Cantalupo; J.-F. Cardoso; A. Catalano; L. Cayón; A. Challinor; A. Chamballu; L.-Y. Chiang; P. R. Christensen; D. L. Clements; S. Colombi; F. Couchot; A. Coulais; B. P. Crill; F. Cuttaia; L. Danese; R. D. Davies; P. de Bernardis; G. de Gasperis; A. de Rosa; G. de Zotti; J. Delabrouille; J.-M. Delouis; F.-X. Désert; C. Dickinson; Y. Doi; S. Donzelli; O. Doré; U. Dörl; M. Douspis; X. Dupac; G. Efstathiou; T. A. Enßlin; E. Falgarone; F. Finelli; O. Forni; M. Frailis; E. Franceschi; S. Galeotta; K. Ganga; M. Giard; G. Giardino; Y. Giraud-Héraud; J. González-Nuevo; K. M. Górski; S. Gratton; A. Gregorio; A. Gruppuso; F. K. Hansen; D. Harrison; G. Helou; S. Henrot-Versillé; D. Herranz; S. R. Hildebrandt; E. Hivon; M. Hobson; W. A. Holmes; W. Hovest; R. J. Hoyland; K. M. Huffenberger; N. Ikeda; A. H. Jaffe; W. C. Jones; M. Juvela; E. Keihänen; R. Keskitalo; T. S. Kisner; Y. Kitamura; R. Kneissl; L. Knox; H. Kurki-Suonio; G. Lagache; J.-M. Lamarre; A. Lasenby; R. J. Laureijs; C. R. Lawrence; S. Leach; R. Leonardi; C. Leroy; M. Linden-Vørnle; M. López-Caniego; P. M. Lubin; J. F. Macías-Pérez; C. J. MacTavish; B. Maffei; J. Malinen; N. Mandolesi; R. Mann; M. Maris; D. J. Marshall; P. Martin; E. Martínez-González; S. Masi; S. Matarrese; F. Matthai; P. Mazzotta; P. McGehee; A. Melchiorri; L. Mendes; A. Mennella; C. Meny; S. Mitra; M.-A. Miville-Deschênes; A. Moneti; L. Montier; G. Morgante; D. Mortlock; D. Munshi; A. Murphy; P. Naselsky; F. Nati; P. Natoli; C. B. Netterfield; H. U. Nørgaard-Nielsen; F. Noviello; D. Novikov; I. Novikov; S. Osborne; L. Pagani; F. Piacentini; R. Paladini; F. Pasian; G. Patanchon; V.-M. Pelkonen; O. Perdereau; L. Perotto; F. Perrotta; M. Piat; S. Plaszczynski; E. Pointecouteau; G. Polenta; N. Ponthieu; T. Poutanen; G. Prézeau; S. Prunet; J.-L. Puget; W. T. Reach; R. Rebolo; M. Reinecke; C. Renault; S. Ricciardi; T. Riller; I. Ristorcelli; G. Rocha; C. Rosset; M. Rowan-Robinson; J. A. Rubiño-Martín; B. Rusholme; M. Sandri; D. Santos; G. Savini; D. Scott; M. D. Seiffert; G. F. Smoot; J.-L. Starck; F. Stivoli; V. Stolyarov; R. Sudiwala; J.-F. Sygnet; J. A. Tauber; L. Terenzi; L. Toffolatti; M. Tomasi; J.-P. Torre; V. Toth; M. Tristram; J. Tuovinen; G. Umana; L. Valenziano; P. Vielva; F. Villa; N. Vittorio; L. A. Wade; B. D. Wandelt; N. Ysard; D. Yvon; A. Zacchei; A. Zonca
2011-01-01
We perform a detailed investigation of sources from the Cold Cores Catalogue of Planck Objects (C3PO). Our goal is to probe the reliability of the detections, validate the separation between warm and cold dust emission components, provide the first glimpse at the nature, internal morphology and physical characterictics of the Planck-detected sources. We focus on a sub-sample of ten sources
Connecting LHC signals with deep physics at the TeV scale and baryogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Jing
We address in this dissertation two primary questions aimed at deciphering collider signals at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to give a deep and concrete understanding of the TeV scale physics and to interpret the origin of baryon asymmetry in our universe. We are at a stage of exploring new physics at the terascale which is responsible for the electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. The LHC, which begins its operation this year, will break us into such a new energy frontier and seek for the possible signals of new physics. Theorists have come up with many possible models beyond SM to explain the origin of EWSB. However, how we will determine the underlying physics from LHC data is still an open question. In the first part of this dissertation, we consider several examples to connect the expected LHC signals to the underlying physics in a completely model independent way. We first explore the Randall-Sundrum (RS) scenario, and use the collider signals of first Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of gluons to discriminate several commonly considered theories which attempt to render RS consistent with precision electroweak data. We then investigate top compositeness. We derive a bound for the energy scale of right handed top compositeness from top pair production at the Tevatron, and we find that the cross section to produce four tops will be greatly amplified by 3 orders of magnitude. We next consider the possibilities that the gauge symmetry in the underlying theory is violated in the incomplete theory that we can reconstruct from the LHC observables. We derive a model independent bound on the scale of new physics from unitarity of the S-matrix if we observe a new massive vector boson with nonzero axial couplings to fermions at LHC. Finally, we derive a generalized Landau-Yang theorem and apply it to the Z' decay into two Z bosons. We show that there is a phase shift in the azimuthal angle distribution in the normalized differential cross section and the anomalous coupling of Z'-Z-Z can be discriminated from the regular one at the 3s level when both Z bosons decay leptonically at the LHC. The origin of baryon asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) remains an important, unsolved problem for particle physics and cosmology, and is one of the motivations to search for possible new physics beyond SM. In the second part of this dissertation, we attempt to account for the baryon number generation in our universe through some novel mechanisms. We first systematically investigate models of baryogenesis from spontaneously Lorentz violating background (SLVB). We find that the sphaleron transitions will generate a nonzero B+L asymmetry in the presence of SLVB and we identify two scenarios of interest. We then consider the possibilities to generate a baryon asymmetry through an earlier time phase transition and address the question whether or not we can still test the baryogenesis mechanism at LHC/ILC if the electroweak phase transition is not strongly first order. We find a general framework and realize this idea in the top flavor model. We show that the realistic baryon density can be achieved in the natural parameter space of topflavor model.
Equilibrium Distribution of Heavy Quarks in Fokker-Planck Dynamics
Walton, D. Brian [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Rafelski, Johann [Physics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)
2000-01-03
We obtain an explicit generalization, within Fokker-Planck dynamics, of Einstein's relation between drag, diffusion, and the equilibrium distribution for a spatially homogeneous system, considering both the transverse and longitudinal diffusion for dimension n>1 . We provide a complete characterization of the equilibrium distribution in terms of the drag and diffusion transport coefficients. We apply this analysis to charm quark dynamics in a thermal quark-gluon plasma for the case of collisional equilibration. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Champa Joshi; Binayak P. Mohanty
2010-01-01
Understanding of near-surface soil moisture variability at different spatial scales and associated dominant physical controls is limited. In the past, soil moisture dynamics studies have been conducted extensively at different spatial scales using both in situ and remote sensing (RS) data in the subhumid Southern Great Plains region, which has mostly pasture and range land cover with rolling topography. Compared
Multi-physics and multi-scale characterization of shale anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarout, J.; Nadri, D.; Delle Piane, C.; Esteban, L.; Dewhurst, D.; Clennell, M. B.
2012-12-01
Shales are the most abundant sedimentary rock type in the Earth's shallow crust. In the past decade or so, they have attracted increased attention from the petroleum industry as reservoirs, as well as more traditionally for their sealing capacity for hydrocarbon/CO2 traps or underground waste repositories. The effectiveness of both fundamental and applied shale research is currently limited by (i) the extreme variability of physical, mechanical and chemical properties observed for these rocks, and by (ii) the scarce data currently available. The variability in observed properties is poorly understood due to many factors that are often irrelevant for other sedimentary rocks. The relationships between these properties and the petrophysical measurements performed at the field and laboratory scales are not straightforward, translating to a scale dependency typical of shale behaviour. In addition, the complex and often anisotropic micro-/meso-structures of shales give rise to a directional dependency of some of the measured physical properties that are tensorial by nature such as permeability or elastic stiffness. Currently, fundamental understanding of the parameters controlling the directional and scale dependency of shale properties is far from complete. Selected results of a multi-physics laboratory investigation of the directional and scale dependency of some critical shale properties are reported. In particular, anisotropic features of shale micro-/meso-structures are related to the directional-dependency of elastic and fluid transport properties: - Micro-/meso-structure (?m to cm scale) characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray tomography; - Estimation of elastic anisotropy parameters on a single specimen using elastic wave propagation (cm scale); - Estimation of the permeability tensor using the steady-state method on orthogonal specimens (cm scale); - Estimation of the low-frequency diffusivity tensor using NMR method on orthogonal specimens (scale). For each of the above properties, leading-edge experimental techniques have been associated with novel interpretation tools. In this contribution, these experimental and interpretation methods are described. Relationships between the measured properties and the corresponding micro-/meso-structural features are discussed. For example, P-wave velocity was measured along 100 different propagation paths on a single cylindrical shale specimen using miniature ultrasonic transducers. Assuming that (i) the elastic tensor of this shale is transversely isotropic; and (i) the sample has been cored perfectly perpendicular to the bedding plane (symmetry plane is horizontal), Thomsen's anisotropy parameters inverted from the measured velocities are: - P-wave velocity along the symmetry axis (perpendicular to the bedding plane) ?o=3.45km/s; - P-wave anisotropy ?=0.12; - Parameter controlling the wave front geometry ?=0.058. A novel inversion algorithm allows for recovering these parameters without assuming a priori a horizontal bedding (symmetry) plane. The inversion of the same data set using this algorithm yields (i) ?o=3.23km/s, ?=0.25 and ?=0.18, and (ii) the elastic symmetry axis is inclined of ?=30° with respect to the specimen's axis. Such difference can have strong impact on field applications (AVO, ray tracing, tomography).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kellis I.; Vernadakis N.; Albanidis E.; Derri V.; Kourtesses T.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the structural validity and reliability of a student's behaviors' self-evaluation scale (SBSS) in the physical education class. The SBSS was created in order to evaluate the effect of a physical education program in the context of the multicultural composition of the student population in the…
Jeong, Hawoong
2013-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 052803 (2013) Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea 2 Department of Physics Education Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea 4 APCTP, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saul, Jeffery M.; Deardorff, Duane L.; Abbott, David S.; Allain, Rhett J.; Beichner, Robert J.
The Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE-UP) project at North Carolina State University (NCSU) is developing a curriculum to promote learning through in-class group activities in introductory physics classes up to 100 students. The authors are currently in Phase II of the project using a specially designed…
Analysis of horizontal-well performance by scaled physical modeling and numerical simulation
Ying, N.H.
1988-01-01
Steam flooding of heavy oil formations can be economical. Horizontal wells located at the bottom of a reservoir of extensive length increase the area exposed to the steam. This may well slow the rapid steam flow and release more heat at the steam-oil interface. A considerable role may be played by gravity drainage and imbibition, which will improve the efficiency of steamflooding. Few laboratory model studies of steam injection with horizontal wells, to examine recovery from reservoirs with extremely high oil viscosity, have been conducted. A scaled physical model was developed to inspect the producing mechanism of horizontal wells and was useful in obtaining much quantitative information. The partial support of SBIR/DOE permitted the design and construction of a most desirable physically scaled model for the investigation of such a mechanism during the steamflood processes. A three-dimensional generalized numerical simulation model named All Purpose Simulation of Thermal Recovery Operations (ASTRO) was applied to the design and analysis of this steam project. This model was processed by the IBM-3090 computer at the Union Oil Science and Technology Division. The results were used to analyze production performance in steam injection for both horizontal and vertical wells. Considerable improvement in performance was shown using horizontal wells in reservoirs containing moderately viscous oil as well as in those containing extremely heavy oil. This research has suggested that such processes will extend the applicability of steam injection for the recovery of truly viscous crudes and bitumens.
A survey of physically-based catchment-scale modeling over the last half century
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paniconi, Claudio; Putti, Mario
2015-04-01
Integrated, process-based based numerical models in hydrology and connected disciplines (ecohydrology, hydrometeorology, hydrogeomorphology, biogeochemistry, hydrogeophysics, etc) are rapidly evolving, spurred by advances in computer technology, numerical algorithms, and environmental observation, and by the need to better understand the potential impacts of population, land use, and climate change on water and other natural resources. At the catchment scale, simulation models are commonly based on conservation principles for surface and subsurface water flow and mass transport (e.g., the Richards, St. Venant, and advection-dispersion-reaction equations, and approximations thereof), and need to be resolved by robust numerical techniques for space and time discretization, linearization, interpolation, etc. Model development through the years has continually faced physical and numerical challenges arising from heterogeneity and variability in parameters and state variables; nonlinearities and scale effects in process interactions and interface dynamics; and complex or poorly known boundary conditions and initial system states. We give an historical perspective (past 50 years) on some of the key developments in physically-based hydrological modeling, examining how these various challenges have been addressed and providing some insight on future directions as catchment modeling enters a highly interdisciplinary era.
Modeling the Role of Small Scale Physics in Sediment Transport From Grain Size to Grain Shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calantoni, J.; Holland, K. T.
2007-12-01
In recent years work has focused on the detailed physics of sediment transport at or near the grain scale. Although computational resources often restrict the domain size, deterministic models for sediment motions can prove useful in improving our understanding of sediment dynamics. Using a discrete particle model (DPM), we have performed computer simulations that describe the collective and individual motions of sediment grains immersed in fluid in an effort to emulate the physics of the sea floor, at the fluid-sediment interface, in shallow water under forcing from waves and currents. Examples of our DPM (briefly described) are shown for research applications at a range scales from millimeters to meters involving fluid flow models from simple one- dimensional eddy viscosity up to three-dimensional direct numerical simulation. Based on hundreds of different simulations over the past decade, our findings have shown: how a parameterization of pressure gradients or equivalently fluid accelerations on particle motions under waves influences sand bar migration in the surf zone; how grain shape changes bulk bedload transport rates; how efforts to model sediment particle motions in the swash zone can yield insight toward models for shoreline erosion and accretion; how recently simulated bedload transport using bimodal size distributions has uncovered a new power law; how upcoming work focuses on simulating the role of grain size distributions in small-scale sand ripple dynamics. Good agreement is found between comparisons of model output for both bulk transport rates and time dependent concentration profiles with laboratory data. Likewise, parameterizations obtained from simulation results have demonstrated skill in hindcast applications to both field and laboratory measurements. Conclusions will discuss the future role of reductionism in sediment transport modeling.
Constraints on secret neutrino interactions after Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forastieri, Francesco; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Natoli, Paolo
2015-07-01
Neutrino interactions beyond the standard model of particle physics may affect the cosmological evolution and can be constrained through observations. We consider the possibility that neutrinos possess secret scalar or pseudoscalar interactions mediated by the Nambu-Goldstone boson of a still unknown spontaneously broken global U(1) symmetry, as in, e.g., Majoron models. In such scenarios, neutrinos still decouple at Tsimeq 1 MeV, but become tightly coupled again (``recouple'') at later stages of the cosmological evolution. We use available observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, including Planck 2013 and the joint BICEP2/Planck 2015 data, to derive constraints on the quantity ???4, parameterizing the neutrino collision rate due to scalar or pseudoscalar interactions. We consider both a minimal extension of the standard ?CDM model, and more complicated scenarios with extra relativistic degrees of freedom or non-vanishing tensor amplitude. For a wide range of dataset and model combinations, we find a typical constraint ???4 lesssim 0.9× 10?27 (95% C.L.), implying an upper limit on the redshift z?rec of neutrino recoupling 0lesssim 850, leaving open the possibility that the latter occured well before hydrogen recombination. In the framework of Majoron models, the upper limit on ??? roughly translates on a constraint g lesssim 8.2× 10?7 on the Majoron-neutrino coupling constant g. In general, the data show a weak (~ 1?) but intriguing preference for non-zero values of ???4, with best fits in the range ???4 = (0.15–0.35)× 10?27, depending on the particular dataset. This is more evident when either high-resolution CMB observations from the ACT and SPT experiments are included, or the possibility of non-vanishing tensor modes is considered. In particular, for the minimal model ?CDM+??? and including the Planck 2013, ACT and SPT data, we report ???4=(0.44+0.17?0.36)×10?27 (0300 lesssim z?rec lesssim 550) at 68% confidence level.
Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation in a wind turbine array boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melius, Matthew S.; Tutkun, Murat; Cal, Raúl Bayoán
2014-07-01
Hot-wire velocity signals from a model wind turbine array boundary layer flow wind tunnel experiment are analyzed. In confirming Markovian properties, a description of the evolution of the probability density function of velocity increments via the Fokker-Planck equation is attained. Solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is possible due to the direct computation of the drift and diffusion coefficients from the experimental measurement data which were acquired within the turbine canopy. A good agreement is observed in the probability density functions between the experimental data and numerical solutions resulting from the Fokker-Planck equation, especially in the far-wake region. The results serve as a tool for improved estimation of wind velocity within the array and provide evidence that the evolution of such a complex and turbulent flow is also governed by a Fokker-Planck equation at certain scales.
Inflation as a probe of new physics
Ulf H. Danielsson
2005-11-27
In this paper we consider inflation as a probe of new physics near the string or Planck scale. We discuss how new physics can be captured by the choice of vacuum, and how this leads to modifications of the primordial spectrum as well as the way in which the universe expands during inflation. Provided there is a large number of fields contributing to the vacuum energy -- as typically is expected in string theory -- we will argue that both types of effects can be present simultaneously and be of observational relevance. Our conclusion is that the ambiguity in choice of vacuum is an interesting new parameter in serious model building.
Stability, Higgs boson mass, and new physics.
Branchina, Vincenzo; Messina, Emanuele
2013-12-13
Assuming that the particle with mass ?126??GeV discovered at LHC is the standard model Higgs boson, we find that the stability of the electroweak (EW) vacuum strongly depends on new physics interaction at the Planck scale MP, despite of the fact that they are higher-dimensional interactions, apparently suppressed by inverse powers of MP. In particular, for the present experimental values of the top and Higgs boson masses, if ? is the lifetime of the EW vacuum, new physics can turn ? from ??TU to ??TU, where TU is the age of the Universe, thus, weakening the conclusions of the so called metastability scenario. PMID:24483644
Scale development for measuring and predicting adolescents' leisure time physical activity behavior.
Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents' physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items' time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from ? = 0.759 to ? = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from ? = 0.735 to ? = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key pointsWhen using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained. Rephrasing the items and scoring items on a Likert-type scale enhanced greatly the subscales reliability.Identical factorial structure was extracted for both culturally different samples.The obtained factors, namely perceived physical competence, parents' physical activity, perceived resources support, attitude toward physical activity and perceived parental support were hypothesized as for the original TPB constructs. PMID:24149606
Inflation after false vacuum decay: Observational prospects after Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael; Harlow, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo
2015-04-01
We assess two potential signals of the formation of our universe by the decay of a false vacuum. Negative spatial curvature is one possibility, but the window for its detection is now small. However, another possible signal is a suppression of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum at large angles. This arises from the steepening of the effective potential as it interpolates between a flat inflationary plateau and the high barrier separating us from our parent vacuum. We demonstrate that these two effects can be parametrically separated in angular scale. Observationally, the steepening effect appears to be excluded at large ?; but it remains consistent with the slight lack of power below ??30 found by the WMAP and Planck collaborations. We give two simple models which improve the fit to the Planck data; one with observable curvature and one without. Despite cosmic variance, we argue that future CMB polarization and most importantly large-scale structure observations should be able to corroborate the Planck anomaly if it is real. If we further assume the specific theoretical setting of a landscape of metastable vacua, as suggested by string theory, we can estimate the probability of seeing a low-? suppression in the CMB. There are significant theoretical uncertainties in such calculations, but we argue the probability for a detectable suppression may be as large as O (1 ), and in general is significantly larger than the probability of seeing curvature.
Guidelines for Doctoral Training at Max Planck Institutes Preamble
Guidelines for Doctoral Training at Max Planck Institutes Preamble The following Guidelines for Doctoral Training at Max Planck Institutes supplement they are incompatible with these regulations. 1. The Max Planck Society is committed
Large Scale Air Shower Simulations and the Search for New Physics at AUGER
Alessandro Cafarella; Claudio Coriano; Alon E. Faraggi
2003-08-17
Large scale airshower simulations around the GZK cutoff are performed. An extensive analysis of the behaviour of the various subcomponents of the cascade is presented. We focus our investigation both on the study of total and partial multiplicities along the entire atmosphere and on the geometrical structure of the various cascades, in particular on the lateral distributions. The possibility of detecting new physics in Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) at AUGER is also investigated. We try to disentangle effects due to standard statistical fluctuations in the first proton impact in the shower formation from the underlying interaction and comment on these points. We argue that theoretical models predicting large missing energy may have a chance to be identified, once the calibration errors in the energy measurements are resolved by the experimental collaborations, in measurements of inclusive multiplicities.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Britcher, C. P.
1983-01-01
Wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems (MSBSs) have so far failed to find application at the large physical scales necessary for the majority of aerodynamic testing. Three areas of technology relevant to such application are investigated. Two variants of the Spanwise Magnet roll torque generation scheme are studied. Spanwise Permanent Magnets are shown to be practical and are experimentally demonstrated. Extensive computations of the performance of the Spanwise Iron Magnet scheme indicate powerful capability, limited principally be electromagnet technology. Aerodynamic testing at extreme attitudes is shown to be practical in relatively conventional MSBSs. Preliminary operation of the MSBS over a wide range of angles of attack is demonstrated. The impact of a requirement for highly reliable operation on the overall architecture of Large MSBSs is studied and it is concluded that system cost and complexity need not be seriously increased.
Planck and reionization history: a model selection view
Pia Mukherjee; Andrew R. Liddle
2008-07-09
We use Bayesian model selection tools to forecast the Planck satellite's ability to distinguish between different models for the reionization history of the Universe, using the large angular scale signal in the cosmic microwave background polarization spectrum. We find that Planck is not expected to be able to distinguish between an instantaneous reionization model and a two-parameter smooth reionization model, except for extreme values of the additional reionization parameter. If it cannot, then it will be unable to distinguish between different two-parameter models either. However, Bayesian model averaging will be needed to obtain unbiased estimates of the optical depth to reionization. We also generalize our results to a hypothetical future cosmic variance limited microwave anisotropy survey, where the outlook is more optimistic.
Planck priors for dark energy surveys
Pia Mukherjee; Martin Kunz; David Parkinson; Yun Wang
2008-03-11
Although cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data alone cannot constrain simultaneously the spatial curvature and the equation of state of dark energy, CMB data provide a valuable addition to other experimental results. However computing a full CMB power spectrum with a Boltzmann code is quite slow; for instance if we want to work with many dark energy and/or modified gravity models, or would like to optimize experiments where many different configurations need to be tested, it is possible to adopt a quicker and more efficient approach. In this paper we consider the compression of the projected Planck CMB data into four parameters, R (scaled distance to last scattering surface), l_a (angular scale of sound horizon at last scattering), Omega_b h^2 (baryon density fraction) and n_s (powerlaw index of primordial matter power spectrum), all of which can be computed quickly. We show that, although this compression loses information compared to the full likelihood, such information loss becomes negligible when more data is added. We also demonstrate that the method can be used for scalar field dark energy independently of the parametrisation of the equation of state, and discuss how this method should be used for other kinds of dark energy models.
Scaled-physical-model studies of the steam-drive process. Final report
Doscher, T.M.
1982-11-01
The main goal of this project was to gain an understanding of the influence of controllable, operating practices and of reservoir parameters on the steam drive. The steam drive, because the chief phenomena of fluid flow and heat flow obey the same laws of diffusion, can be physically scaled. The validity of the results of the scaled models is evidenced by the correspondence of the results with those reported in field operations. In order to conserve on resources, this report is limited to a summary statement of the findings and conclusions of the overall project with separate chapters devoted to an account of specific tasks which came to fruition during the latter part of the project. Summary of results are presented for the following projects: gravitational instability of a steam drive; roles of oil viscosity and steam temperature on the production of crude oil when the steam flow is stratified; extension of the steam drive to tars and bitumens; occurrence of the optimum steam injection rate; emulsification and oil productivity; role of reservoir thickness; cyclic injection of steam in a steam drive; high gravity crudes; partial substitution of inert gas for steam. Two projects completed and described in detail are: effect of oil viscosity on reservoir thickness on the steam drive; and anticipated effect of diurnal injection on steam efficiency.
Meacham, J. Mark; Durvasula, Kiranmai; Degertekin, F. Levent; Fedorov, Andrei G.
2015-01-01
Effective intracellular delivery is a significant impediment to research and therapeutic applications at all processing scales. Physical delivery methods have long demonstrated the ability to deliver cargo molecules directly to the cytoplasm or nucleus, and the mechanisms underlying the most common approaches (microinjection, electroporation, and sonoporation) have been extensively investigated. In this review, we discuss established approaches, as well as emerging techniques (magnetofection, optoinjection, and combined modalities). In addition to operating principles and implementation strategies, we address applicability and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo platforms. Importantly, we perform critical assessments regarding (1) treatment efficacy with diverse cell types and delivered cargo molecules, (2) suitability to different processing scales (from single cell to large populations), (3) suitability for automation/integration with existing workflows, and (4) multiplexing potential and flexibility/adaptability to enable rapid changeover between treatments of varied cell types. Existing techniques typically fall short in one or more of these criteria; however, introduction of micro-/nanotechnology concepts, as well as synergistic coupling of complementary method(s), can improve performance and applicability of a particular approach, overcoming barriers to practical implementation. For this reason, we emphasize these strategies in examining recent advances in development of delivery systems. PMID:23813915
An AHP-derived method for mapping the physical vulnerability of coastal areas at regional scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Cozannet, G.; Garcin, M.; Bulteau, T.; Mirgon, C.; Yates, M. L.; Méndez, M.; Baills, A.; Idier, D.; Oliveros, C.
2013-05-01
Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change at regional scales is now mandatory in France since the adoption of recent laws to support adaptation to climate change. However, there is presently no commonly recognised method to assess accurately how sea level rise will modify coastal processes in the coming decades. Therefore, many assessments of the physical component of coastal vulnerability are presently based on a combined use of data (e.g. digital elevation models, historical shoreline and coastal geomorphology datasets), simple models and expert opinion. In this study, we assess the applicability and usefulness of a multi-criteria decision-mapping method (the analytical hierarchy process, AHP) to map physical coastal vulnerability to erosion and flooding in a structured way. We apply the method in two regions of France: the coastal zones of Languedoc-Roussillon (north-western Mediterranean, France) and the island of La Réunion (south-western Indian Ocean), notably using the regional geological maps. As expected, the results show not only the greater vulnerability of sand spits, estuaries and low-lying areas near to coastal lagoons in both regions, but also that of a thin strip of erodible cliffs exposed to waves in La Réunion. Despite gaps in knowledge and data, the method is found to provide a flexible and transportable framework to represent and aggregate existing knowledge and to support long-term coastal zone planning through the integration of such studies into existing adaptation schemes.
Prediction of full-scale dewatering results of sewage sludges by the physical water distribution.
Kopp, J; Dichtl, N
2001-01-01
The dewaterability of sewage sludge can be described by the total solids concentration of the sludge cake and the polymer-demand for conditioning. The total solids concentration of the sludge cake depends on the physical water distribution. The various types of water in sewage sludge are mainly distinguished by the type and the intensity of their physical bonding to the solids. In a sewage sludge suspension four different types of water can be distinguished. These are the free water, which is not bound to the particles, the interstitial water, which is bound by capillary forces between the sludge flocs, the surface water, which is bound by adhesive forces and intracellular water. Only the share of free water can be separated during mechanical dewatering. It can be shown, that by thermo-gravimeteric measurement of the free water content, an exact prediction of full-scale dewatering results is possible. By separation of all free water during centrifugation the maximum dewatering result is reached. Polymer conditioning increases the velocity of the sludge water release, but the free water content is not influenced by this process. Furthermore it is not possible, to replace the measuring of the water distribution by other individual parameters such as ignition loss. PMID:11443955
Seldin, Jonathan P.
, the major branches of physics include condensed matter physics, medical physics, biophysics, atomic with a B.Sc. in Physics find employment in related areas such as engineering,computer science Independent Studies and Summer employment. BachelorofScience/BachelorofEducation Physics/Science
Pore-scale Analysis on Physics Property Changes of CO2 Bleached Sandstone, Entrada Fromation, Utah
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, J.; Keehm, Y.
2012-12-01
Since carbon dioxide injected into geological formations can cause a variety of physical and chemical reaction with minerals, it is important to evaluate the characteristics and aspects of these effects in CO2 geological sequestration. For the analog of the phenomena, we conducted pore-scale analysis on porosity and permeability changes and their characteristics for CO2-bleached Entrada formation, Utah due to natural leakage of CO2. From thin section analysis, we observed mineralogical and pore-shape changes: precipitation of carbonate minerals. Then, we estimated porosity and permeability from thin section, using a computational rock physics technique. The estimated porosity of unbleached sample is approximately 13% and that of bleached sample is around 10%, which implies the precipitation of carbonate minerals. The estimated permeability showed a little differences between two samples. This observations seems to imply that the precipitation would occur where permeability is not significantly affected: grain contacts. For more systematic analysis, we obtained 3D pore microstructures by X-ray microtomography technique. The preliminary analysis using the 3D pore microstructures showed similar results to what we found in the thin-section analysis. And a set of simulations for porosity and permeability are now being conducted. The final result will help understand how injected CO2 changes pore structures and physical properties such as porosity and permeability, and will also help accurate monitoring of geological storage sites. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2010201020001A).
Zero Point Energy: Planck Radiation Law
H. Vic Dannon
The assumption of discrete radiation energy in Planck's 1901 radiation law, conflicted with Planck's belief in radiation of continuous waves. To reconcile his quantum hypothesis with his conception of wave radiation, he avoided the conclusion that radiation energy must be made of particles, and postulated that radiation is a transition between the energy levels of an oscillator. Furthermore, ignoring the
Zodiacal light emission in the PLANCK mission
M. Maris; C. Burigana; S. Fogliani
2006-01-01
Context: .The Planck satellite, scheduled for launch in 2007, will produce a set of all sky maps in nine frequency bands spanning from 30 GHz to 857 GHz, with an unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Planets, minor bodies and diffuse interplanetary dust will contribute to the (sub)mm sky emission observed by Planck, representing a source of foreground contamination to be removed
Kapitel berschrift Max-planck-Gesellschaft
Wissenschaftler bildet. Das einzelne Max- planck-institut ist kein satellit, der auf Dauer erfolgreich alleine drei einen enormen beitrag dazu, dass der blick nicht nur auf das Max-planck-institut gerichtet bleibt sektion gelenkt und das Ge- perspeKtiVeNKOMMissiON theMeN perspeKtiVeNKOMMissiON theMeN beratu
Enabling Grid technologies for Planck space mission
Giuliano Taffoni; Davide Maino; Claudio Vuerli; Giuliano Castelli; Riccardo Smareglia; Andrea Zacchei; Fabio Pasian
2007-01-01
Planck, the ESA satellite aimed at mapping the microwave sky through two complete sky surveys, will fly in 2007. It is an extremely demanding space mission in terms of computing power and data storage. Planck simulations mimic the whole mission starting from a virtual sky (ideal or contaminated by introducing several noise sources). Their main goal is the validation of the
Quantum Physics: An Introduction
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Introduction to Quantum Physics concepts with an activity demonstrating Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, wave/particle duality, Planck's Constant, de Broglie wavelength, and how Newton's Laws go right out the window on a quantum level.
Planck 2013 results. XXVI. Background geometry and topology of the Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from Planck provide the highest-quality full-sky view of the surface of last scattering available to date. This allows us to detect possible departures from the standard model of a globally homogeneous and isotropic cosmology on the largest scales. We search for correlations induced by a possible non-trivial topology with a fundamental domain intersecting, or nearly intersecting, the last scattering surface (at comoving distance ?rec), both via a direct search for matched circular patterns at the intersections and by an optimal likelihood search for specific topologies. For the latter we consider flat spaces with cubic toroidal (T3), equal-sided chimney (T2) and slab (T1) topologies, three multi-connected spaces of constant positive curvature (dodecahedral, truncated cube and octahedral) and two compact negative-curvature spaces. These searches yield no detection of the compact topology with the scale below the diameter of the last scattering surface. For most compact topologies studied the likelihood maximized over the orientation of the space relative to the observed map shows some preference for multi-connected models just larger than the diameter of the last scattering surface. Since this effect is also present in simulated realizations of isotropic maps, we interpret it as the inevitable alignment of mild anisotropic correlations with chance features in a single sky realization; such a feature can also be present, in milder form, when the likelihood is marginalized over orientations. Thus marginalized, the limits on the radius ?i of the largest sphere inscribed in topological domain (at log-likelihood-ratio ?ln ? > -5 relative to a simply-connected flat Planck best-fit model) are: in a flat Universe, ?i> 0.92?rec for the T3 cubic torus; ?i> 0.71?rec for the T2 chimney; ?i> 0.50?rec for the T1 slab; and in a positively curved Universe, ?i> 1.03?rec for the dodecahedral space; ?i> 1.0?rec for the truncated cube; and ?i> 0.89?rec for the octahedral space. The limit for a wider class of topologies, i.e., those predicting matching pairs of back-to-back circles, among them tori and the three spherical cases listed above, coming from the matched-circles search, is ?i> 0.94?rec at 99% confidence level. Similar limits apply to a wide, although not exhaustive, range of topologies. We also perform a Bayesian search for an anisotropic global Bianchi VIIh geometry. In the non-physical setting where the Bianchi cosmology is decoupled from the standard cosmology, Planck data favour the inclusion of a Bianchi component with a Bayes factor of at least 1.5 units of log-evidence. Indeed, the Bianchi pattern is quite efficient at accounting for some of the large-scale anomalies found in Planck data. However, the cosmological parameters that generate this pattern are in strong disagreement with those found from CMB anisotropy data alone. In the physically motivated setting where the Bianchi parameters are coupled and fitted simultaneously with the standard cosmological parameters, we find no evidence for a Bianchi VIIh cosmology and constrain the vorticity of such models to (?/H)0< 8.1 × 10-10 (95% confidence level).
Physical modelling of granular flows at multiple-scales and stress levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Take, Andy; Bowman, Elisabeth; Bryant, Sarah
2015-04-01
The rheology of dry granular flows is an area of significant focus within the granular physics, geoscience, and geotechnical engineering research communities. Studies performed to better understand granular flows in manufacturing, materials processing or bulk handling applications have typically focused on the behavior of steady, continuous flows. As a result, much of the research on relating the fundamental interaction of particles to the rheological or constitutive behaviour of granular flows has been performed under (usually) steady-state conditions and low stress levels. However, landslides, which are the primary focus of the geoscience and geotechnical engineering communities, are by nature unsteady flows defined by a finite source volume and at flow depths much larger than typically possible in laboratory experiments. The objective of this paper is to report initial findings of experimental studies currently being conducted using a new large-scale landslide flume (8 m long, 2 m wide slope inclined at 30° with a 35 m long horizontal base section) and at elevated particle self-weight in a 10 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the granular flow behavior at multiple-scales and stress levels. The transparent sidewalls of the two flumes used in the experimental investigation permit the combination of observations of particle-scale interaction (using high-speed imaging through transparent vertical sidewalls at over 1000 frames per second) with observations of the distal reach of the landslide debris. These observations are used to investigate the applicability of rheological models developed for steady state flows (e.g. the dimensionless inertial number) in landslide applications and the robustness of depth-averaged approaches to modelling dry granular flow at multiple scales. These observations indicate that the dimensionless inertial number calculated for the flow may be of limited utility except perhaps to define a general state (e.g. liquid regime) for the material due to the high slip velocity encountered in the granular flows. Further, the depth-averaged approach to providing an empirically-calibrated estimate of landslide travel distance was observed to match all configurations tested using a single set of empirically back-calculated frictional properties. The empirically derived basal interface friction was found to be lower than the static interface friction determined by conventional testing, suggesting that new methods are needed for the a priori determination of suitable rheological parameters for high-speed dry granular flows.
Use of Plot Scale Observations to gauge the applicability of Physically-Based Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Boe, E.
2011-12-01
Catchment hydrologic modeling efforts should be initiated with a comparison between a perceptual model of how the basin functions, and what processes the numerical hydrologic model represents. The majority of recent attention in literature has been focused on using this process to inform conceptual model structures aimed at predicting streamflow from precipitation events. However, this method may also be used to assess the applicability of physically-based models when lumped parameter models are insufficient for research questions. Physically-based models are chosen over lumped parameter conceptual models for their ability to provide detailed spatial information on soil moisture, ephemeral streamflow, and differential snow melt. A plot scale study was conducted in a 0.02 km2 headwater catchment to build a perceptual model of the Tree Line (TL) Experimental Catchment within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) in the semi-arid foothills north of Boise, ID. Overland flow, through flow, and radiation flux measurements were taken in addition to existing weather station variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, snow depth, and soil moisture) for the 2011 water year. The 2011 water year is typical of this study site and is characterized by a shallow snowpack that lasts from the late fall to early spring and includes several rain-on-snow events. A soil storage field capacity threshold in the upper highly conductive soil (approximately 145 mm) must be crossed before lateral flow is observed. The total soil storage threshold for lateral flow slowly increases from 253 mm during a December rain-on-snow event, to 269 mm during the spring melt event as deeper, less conductive soils wet up. Lateral flow primarily takes place as overland flow and as concentrated flow paths at the soil-bedrock interface, which are controlled by bedrock topography. Results suggest that the watershed models used in TL need to account for unsaturated soil storage, the development of a shallow hillslope saturated zone, and lateral flow at the soil-bedrock interface. Both the snowmelt model and the watershed model need to account for commonly observed aspect differences in vegetation and insolation. Future work will assess the applicability of the coupled physically-based snowmelt model (SNOBAL) and physically-based watershed model (PIHM) to the 26.9 km2 DCEW.
The physics of non-volcanic tremor: insights from laboratory-scale earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Toro, G.; Meredith, P.
2012-04-01
Due to his extensive early experience in field structural geology, Luigi Burlini's experimental research was always aimed at using laboratory techniques and simulations to improve our understanding of the physics of natural rock deformation. Here we present an example of collaborative work from the later part of his scientific career in which the main goal was unravelling the physics of non-volcanic tremor in subduction zones. This was achieved by deforming typical source rocks (serpentinites) under conditions (300 MPa and 600oC) that approach those expected in nature (up to 1 GPa and 500oC). The main technical challenge was to capture deformation-induced microseismicity (in the form of acoustic emissions) released under such extreme conditions by means of in-situ transducers designed to work at only modest temperatures (up to 200oC). The main scientific challenges were (1) to link the acoustic emission output to specific physical processes, such as cracking, fluid flow or fluid-crack interactions, by means of waveform and microstructural analysis; and (2) to extrapolate the laboratory acoustic emission signals (kHz to MHz frequency) associated with mm to cm-scale processes, to natural seismicity (0.1-1 Hz frequency) associated with km-scale rock volumes by means of frequency scaling (Aki and Richards, 1980). Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) has been correlated with rupture phenomena in subducting oceanic lithosphere at 30 to 45 km depth, where high Vp/Vs ratios, suggestive of high-fluid pressure, have also been observed. ETS, by accommodating slip in the down-dip portion of the subduction zone, may trigger megathrust earthquakes up-dip in the locked section. In our experiments we measured the output of acoustic emissions during heating of serpentinite samples to beyond their equilibrium dehydration temperature. Experiments were performed on cores samples 15 mm in diameter by 30 mm long under hydrostatic stresses of 200 or 300 MPa in a Paterson high-pressure/high-temperature, internally-heated gas apparatus. Acoustic emission (AE) output was recorded via two piezoelectric transducers embedded within the sample end caps and a third remote transducer located outside the pressure vessel. Drained and undrained experimental conditions were achieved by placing either permeable or impermeable ceramic discs at the samples ends. At 200 MPa, serpentinite dehydrates to talc + olivine + water around 5000C. Associated microseismicity, in the form of high-energy AE events, was confined to a narrow temperature interval just above the equilibrium dehydration temperature. This temperature overstep is expected, and is due to the heating rate in our experiments being much higher than for equilibrium studies. The high-energy AE events were characterised by very long durations, which is typical of a cascade of multiple, overlapping, shorter events that cannot be individually discriminated. Under drained conditions, the serpentinite samples showed a clear volume reduction following dehydration and subsequent compaction. By contrast, under undrained conditions, the samples maintained the same dimensions, but lost weight, implying that no compaction occurred during dehydration. Our results therefore demonstrate conclusively that seismicity can be generated by dehydration reactions even in the absence of a deviatoric stress. This observation is consistent with recent finding that tremor activity in nature has a strong tidal periodicity, indicating that tidal forces modulate slip velocity and suggesting near lithostatic fluid pressures at hypocentral depths. Furthermore, we suggest that the cascades of events that follow the onset of dehydration may well be related to the low-amplitude long-duration seismic events (seismic tremor) that characterize the seismic activity in subduction zones and that has been tentatively interpreted as being caused by dehydration of the subducting slab. Our laboratory observations support this hypothesis, since our low-amplitude, long-duration events were correlated with outflow of water from the samples through the p
Seldin, Jonathan P.
, the major branches of physics include condensed matter physics, medical physics, biophysics, atomic with a B.Sc. in Physics find employment in related areas such as engineering,computer science programs of the Faculty members through Independent Studies and Summer employment. BachelorofScience
Integrated multi-scale model for ionized plasma physical vapor deposition
Arunachalam, V.; Rauf, S.; Coronell, D. G.; Ventzek, P. L. G.
2001-07-01
In order to aid process development and address extendibility of ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) technology to future integrated circuit generations, an integrated model capable of simulating phenomena across the various length scales characteristic of these systems has been developed. The model is comprised of a two-dimensional equipment simulation, which relates process variables to characteristics of material fluxes to the wafer, and a three-dimensional Monte Carlo based feature scale model. The ion-surface interaction data required to model the surface processes is generated by a molecular dynamics based simulation. The integrated model is used to study the effect of various IPVD process parameters such as wafer bias, coil power, target power, and buffer gas composition on copper film profile inside a trench. Variations in film profile across the wafer are also examined. It is found that increasing the wafer bias results in an increase in the mean ion energy and the amount of sputtering inside the feature. This results in material transfer from the bottom of the feature to the sidewalls and faceting of the upper corners of the trench. Two variables, namely the total ion to Cu flux ratio (R{sub I/N}) and the mean ion energy, are found to play a crucial role in determining the effects of coil power and target power. Increasing the coil power enhances R{sub I/N} and slightly decreases the mean ion energy. This leads to more sputtering, and therefore a thicker film on the sidewalls relative to that on the bottom. Increase in target power causes R{sub I/N} to decrease, which decreases sputtering within the feature. Film profiles generally show evidence of enhanced sputtering as buffer gas ionization threshold decreases (He{r_arrow}Ne{r_arrow}Ar{r_arrow}Xe) for the gases considered. These variations can be explained in terms of two factors: Cu flux ionization fraction, which decreases with buffer gas ionization threshold, and mean ion energy, which increases with ionization threshold. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Pore-scaling Modeling of Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keehm, Y.; Yoo, G.
2009-12-01
Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be an important factor in global warming and climate change. Many countries around the world are working on reducing and sequestrating CO2 to follow international regulations. One of promising area for CO2 sequestration is the storage in geological formation. To accurately determine the performance of geological injection and storage, quantification and monitoring of the physical property changes are essential. In this paper, we are presenting a new approach for the monitoring of CO2 sequestration in sandstone using pore-scale simulation techniques. The method consists of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We use three different sandstone samples: sand-pack, Berea sandstone, and B2 sandstone from offshore of Korea. The porosity of the sand-pack is 42% and that of two sandstone samples is around 17%. The digital pore structures were obtained by X-ray micro-tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 micron. The LB two-phase flow simulation is then conducted by injecting CO2 into fully water-saturated samples and gives a realistic movement of CO2 in the pore structure. At each CO2 saturation, electrical and elastic properties are determined by pore-scale FEM simulation techniques. The electrical conductivity decreases almost linearly as CO2 saturations increases; however, the P-wave velocity decrease more rapidly at the low CO2 saturation (up to 30%), than at higher saturation. S-wave velocity does not show any significant changes. The higher porosity rock shows more sensitivity to saturation changes. The modeling shows that we can have quantitative relations between physical properties and CO2 saturation, which can be used to determine injection performance and migration of CO2. However, the change in P-wave velocity is not very significant during CO2 injection, which indicates that the monitoring of CO2 sequestration by acoustic survey would be difficult. Our modeling technique can be a very effective tool for the characterizing of prospecting geological sequestration formation and determining an effective monitoring technique for specific sites. Acknowledgement: This research was funded by CO2 Storage in Marine Geological Structure Program of Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime Affairs of South Korea, Grant No. E10500109A060000121.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, James; Spergel, D. N.; Atacama Cosmology Telescope Collaboration
2014-01-01
Galaxy clusters form from the rarest peaks in the initial matter distribution, and hence are a sensitive probe of the amplitude of density fluctuations (?8), the amount of matter in the universe, and the growth rate of structure. Galaxy clusters have the potential to constrain dark energy and neutrino masses. However, cluster cosmology is currently limited by systematic uncertainties due to poorly understood intracluster gas physics. I will present new statistical approaches to understand clusters and improve their cosmological constraining power through the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. First, I will describe the first detection of the cross-correlation of the tSZ signal reconstructed from Planck data with the large-scale matter distribution traced by the Planck CMB lensing potential. This statistic measures the amount of hot gas found in moderately massive groups and clusters (M ~ 1013 - 1014.5 Msun), a mass scale below that probed by direct cluster detections. Second, I will describe the first measurement of the PDF of the tSZ field using ACT 148 GHz maps. This measurement contains information from all (zero-lag) moments of the tSZ field, beyond simply the 2- or 3-point functions. It is a very sensitive probe of ?8 and may also provide a method with which to break the degeneracy between ?8 and uncertainties in the physics of the intracluster gas.
Constraints on neutrino masses from Planck and Galaxy clustering data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusarma, Elena; de Putter, Roland; Ho, Shirley; Mena, Olga
2013-09-01
We present here bounds on neutrino masses from the combination of recent Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements and galaxy clustering information from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III. We use the full shape of either the photometric angular clustering (Data Release 8) or the 3D spectroscopic clustering (Data Release 9) power spectrum in different cosmological scenarios. In the ?CDM scenario, spectroscopic galaxy clustering measurements improve significantly the existing neutrino mass bounds from Planck data. We find ?m?<0.39eV at 95% confidence level for the combination of the 3D power spectrum with Planck CMB data (wi lensing included) and Wilkinson Microwave Anisoptropy Probe 9-year polarization measurements. Therefore, robust neutrino mass constraints can be obtained without the addition of the prior on the Hubble constant from Hubble Space Telescope. In extended cosmological scenarios with a dark energy fluid or with nonflat geometries, galaxy clustering measurements are essential to pin down the neutrino mass bounds, providing in the majority of cases better results than those obtained from the associated measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale only. In the presence of a freely varying (constant) dark energy equation of state, we find ?m?<0.49eV at 95% confidence level for the combination of the 3D power spectrum with Planck CMB data (with lensing included) and Wilkinson Microwave Anisoptropy Probe 9-year polarization measurements. This same data combination in nonflat geometries provides the neutrino mass bound ?m?<0.35eV at 95% confidence level.
Planck data and ultralight axions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csáki, Csaba; Kaloper, Nemanja; Terning, John
2015-06-01
We examine the effects of photon-axion mixing on the CMB. We show that if there are very underdense regions between us and the last scattering surface which contain coherent magnetic fields (whose strength can be orders of magnitude weaker than the current bounds), then photon-axion mixing can induce observable deviations in the CMB spectrum. Specifically, we show that the mixing can give rise to non-thermal spots on the CMB sky. As an example we consider the well known CMB cold spot, which according to the Planck data has a weak distortion from a black body spectrum, that can be fit by our model. While this explanation of the non-thermality in the region of the cold spot is quite intriguing, photon-axion oscillations do not explain the temperature of the cold spot itself. Nevertheless we demonstrate the possible sensitivity of the CMB to ultralight axions which could be exploited by observers.
Coolen, ACC "Ton"
Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement No. 161, 2006 385 A Large Scale Dynamical System Immune that in immune systems there generally exist several kinds of immune cells which can recognize any particular with only a small number of randomly selected other components. One such system is the immune network
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Lubben, Fred; Bennett, Judith
2011-01-01
Quantitative secondary analysis of large-scale data can be combined with in-depth qualitative methods. In this paper, we discuss the role of this combined methods approach in examining the uptake of physics and chemistry in post compulsory schooling for students in England. The secondary data analysis of the National Pupil Database (NPD) served…
Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-01-01
October 2011) We study the daily trading volume volatility of 17 197 stocks in the US stock markets during financial factors: stock lifetime, market capitalization, volume, and trading value. We find a systematicPHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 046112 (2011) Financial factor influence on scaling and memory of trading
2011-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023815 (2011) General scaling limitations of ground-plane and isolated three-dimensional transformation-based invisibility cloaking of an object above a ground plane, in that speed-of-light or causality constraints intrinsically limit perfect cloaking to an infinitesimal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.
2009-01-01
Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…
PhoenixSim: A simulator for physical-layer analysis of chip-scale photonic interconnection networks
Johnnie Chan; Gilbert Hendry; Aleksandr Biberman; Keren Bergman; Luca P. Carloni
2010-01-01
Recent developments have shown the possibility of leveraging silicon nanophotonic technologies for chip-scale interconnection fabrics that deliver high bandwidth and power efficient communications both on- and off-chip. Since optical devices are fundamentally different from conventional electronic interconnect technologies, new design methodologies and tools are required to exploit the potential performance benefits in a manner that accurately incorporates the physically different
Impact of Event Scale Prediction of DSM-IV PTSD and Physical Symptoms in Gulf War Veterans
Patrick Sloan; Linda Arsenault; Mark J. Hilsenroth
2005-01-01
This study examined the effectiveness of the Impact of Event Scale (IES; Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979) variables in detecting posttraumatic stress and physical symptoms in relevant groups of Gulf War veterans. A large sample of Gulf War veterans were administered the the IES, a semi-structured interview (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993) on DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994)
Cosmic Physics: The High Energy Frontier
F. W. Stecker
2003-09-09
Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies $10^8$ times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violation of Lorentz invariance, as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity.
PERSPEKTIVEN Max-Planck-Institut in Florida erffnet
Falge, Eva
PERSPEKTIVEN Max-Planck-Institut in Florida eröffnet Im Rahmen eines Festakts wurde das Max Planck Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in den USA. An der Eröffnungszeremonie nahmen unter anderen teil Jeff Atwater Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Peter Gruss hob die Vorteile des Standorts hervor: ,,In Jupiter finden unsere
Regionale Verteilung der Forschungseinrichtungen der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft *
Regionale Verteilung der Forschungseinrichtungen der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft * Stand: Juni 2011 Baden-WÃ¼rttemberg - Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Astronomie, Heidelberg - Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Entwicklungsbiologie, TÃ¼bingen - Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r FestkÃ¶rperforschung, Stuttgart - Friedrich
Max Planck InstItute for Molecular GenetIcs
Spang, Rainer
Max Planck InstItute for Molecular GenetIcs research report 2006 Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin #12;Imprint | Research Report 2006 Published by the Max Planck Institute for Molecular see our website: www.molgen.mpg.de #12;table of contents The Max Planck Institute for Molecular
Tree Level Potential on Brane after Planck and BICEP2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferricha-Alami, M.; Safsafi, A.; Lahlou, L.; Chakir, H.; Bennai, M.
2015-06-01
The recent detection of degree scale B-mode polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) by the BICEP2 experiment implies that the inflationary ratio of tensor-to-scalar fluctuations is r=0.2_{-0.05}^{+0.07}, which has opened a new window in the cosmological investigation. In this regard, we propose a study of the tree level potential inflation in the framework of the Randall-Sundrum type-2 braneworld model. We focus on three branches of the potential, where we evaluate some values of brane tension ?. We discuss how the various inflationary perturbation parameters can be compatible with recent Planck and BICEP2 observations.
Spang, Rainer
MaxPlanckForschungberichtetüberaktuelleForschungsarbeitenan den Max-Planck-Instituten und richtet englischer Sprache (MaxPlanckResearch)jeweilsmitvierAusgabenproJahr;dieAuflage dieser Ausgabe beträgt 85000 Exemplare (MaxPlanckResearch: 10000 Exemplare). Der Bezug ist kostenlos. Ein Nachdruck der Texte ist nur mit
MaxPlanckForschungberichtetÃ¼beraktuelleForschungsarbeitenan den Max-Planck-Instituten und richtet englischer Sprache (MaxPlanckResearch)jeweilsmitvierAusgabenproJahr;dieAuflage dieser Ausgabe betrÃ¤gt 85000 Exemplare (MaxPlanckResearch: 10000 Exemplare). Der Bezug ist kostenlos. Ein Nachdruck der Texte ist nur mit
Max-Planck-Institut fr Mathematik Das Max-Planck-Institut fr Mathematik in Bonn sucht befristet vom
Bovier, Anton
Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Mathematik Das Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Mathematik in Bonn sucht befristet nach den MPG-Richtlinien zur FÃ¶rderung des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses. Die Max-Planck ausdrÃ¼cklich aufgefordert, sich zu bewerben. Die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ist bemÃ¼ht, mehr schwerbehinderte
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FÃ?R AUSLÃ?NDISCHES UND INTERNATIONALES SOZIALRECHT MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR FOREIGN AND INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL LAW Henning Frankenberger FaMI-Ausbildung in der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 21. Oktober 2008 Ausbildertreffen im Max-Planck-Institut fÃ¼r Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanchev, Orlin; Veltchev, Todor V.; Kauffmann, Jens; Donkov, Sava; Shetty, Rahul; Körtgen, Bastian; Klessen, Ralf S.
2015-07-01
We present an analysis of probability distribution functions (pdfs) of column density in different zones of the star-forming region Perseus and its diffuse environment based on the map of dust opacity at 353 GHz available from the Planck archive. The pdf shape can be fitted by a combination of a lognormal function and an extended power-law tail at high densities, in zones centred at the molecular cloud Perseus. A linear combination of several lognormals fits very well the pdf in rings surrounding the cloud or in zones of its diffuse neighbourhood. The slope of the mean-density scaling law L?L? is steep (? = -1.93) in the former case and rather shallow (? = -0.77 ± 0.11) in the rings delineated around the cloud. We interpret these findings as signatures of two distinct physical regimes: (i) a gravoturbulent one which is characterized by nearly linear scaling of mass and practical lack of velocity scaling; and (ii) a predominantly turbulent one which is best described by steep velocity scaling and by invariant for compressible turbulence < ? > _L u_L^3/L, describing a scale-independent flux of the kinetic energy per unit volume through turbulent cascade. The gravoturbulent spatial domain can be identified with the molecular cloud Perseus while a relatively sharp transition to predominantly turbulent regime occurs in its vicinity.
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
in physics and other fields, for instance in elastoplasticity, magnetic potential problems, viscous fluid, University of Leipzig, Augustusplatz 10/11, 04109 Leipzig, Germany Abstract The numerical solution, the complexity of the proposed method scales almost linearly. Numerical examples demonstrate the e
Doscher, T M
1980-12-01
Scaling laws of the heat transport mechanism in steam displacement processes are developed based upon an integral energy balance equation. Unlike the differential approach adopted by previous workers, the above scaling laws do not necessitate the use of any empirical correction factor as has been done in previous scaling calculations. The results provide a complete and consistent scale-down of the energy transport behavior, which is the critical mechanism for the success of a steam injection process. In the course of the study, the scaling problems associated with relative permeability and capillary pressure are also discussed. A method which has often been used in scaling nonthermal displacement processes is applied to reduce errors due to scaling in relative permeability. Both dimensional and inspectional analyses are applied to illustrate their use in steam processes. Scale-up laws appeared in the literature and those used in this study are compared and numerical examples are given.
New Jarlskog determinant from Physics above the GUT Scal
Bipin Singh Koranga; S. Uma Sankar
2007-01-01
We study the Planck scale effects on Jarlskog determinant. Quantum\\u000agravitational (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)_{L}\\\\times U(1)\\u000ainvariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields, which\\u000agives rise to additional terms in neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry\\u000abreaking. We assume that gravitational interaction is flavor blind and compute\\u000athe Jarlskog determinant due to the Planck scale
New Jarlskog determinant from Physics above the GUT Scal
Bipin Singh Koranga; S. Uma Sankar
2007-01-01
We study the Planck scale effects on Jarlskog determinant. Quantum gravitational (Planck scale) effects lead to an effective SU(2)_{L}\\\\times U(1) invariant dimension-5 Lagrangian involving neutrino and Higgs fields, which gives rise to additional terms in neutrino mass matrix on electroweak symmetry breaking. We assume that gravitational interaction is flavor blind and compute the Jarlskog determinant due to the Planck scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shanina, Violetta; Gerke, Kirill; Bichkov, Andrey; Korost, Dmitry
2013-04-01
Alternative renewable energy sources research is getting more and more attention due to its importance for future exploitation and low ecological impacts. Geothermal energy is quite abundant and represents a cheap and easily extractable power source for electricity generation or central heating. For these purposes naturally heated geothermal fluids are extracted via drilled wells; after cooling water is usually pumped back to the reservoir to create a circle, or dumped into local streams. In addition to fundamental interest in understanding natural geothermal processes inside the reservoir, in both cases fluids can significantly alter rock properties around the well or stream bed, which is of great practical and ecological importance for the geothermal industry. Detailed knowledge of these transformations is necessary for power plant construction and well design, geophysical modeling and the prediction of geological properties. Under natural conditions such processes occur within geological time frames and are hard to capture. To accelerate geothermal alteration and model deep reservoir high temperature and pressure conditions we use autoclave laboratory experiments. To represent different geothermal conditions, rock samples are autoclaved using a wide range of parameters: temperature (100-450°C), pressure (16-1000 Bars), solution chemistry (from acidic to alkali artificial solutions and natural geothermal fluids sampled in Kamchatka), duration (from weeks to 1 year). Rock samples represent unaltered andesite-dacite tuffs, basalts and andesite collected at the Kamchatka peninsula. Numerous rock properties, e.g., density (bulk and specific), porosity (total and effective), hygroscopicity, P/S wave velocities, geomechanical characteristics (compressive and tensile strength, elastic modulus), etc., were thoroughly analyzed before and after alteration in laboratory autoclave or natural conditions (in situ). To reveal structural changes, some samples were scanned using X-ray microtomography prior to any alteration and after the experiments. 3D images were used to quantify structural changes and to determine permeability values using a pore-scale modeling approach, as laboratory measurements with through flow are known to have a potential to modify the pore structure. Chemical composition and local mineral formations were investigated using a «Spectroscan Max GV» spectrometer and scanning electron microscope imaging. Our study revealed significant relationships between structure modifications, physical properties and alteration conditions. Main results and conclusions include: 1) initial porosity and its connectivity have substantial effect on alteration dynamics, rocks with higher porosity values and connected pore space exhibit more pronounced alterations; 2) under similar experimental conditions (pressure, temperature, duration) pH plays an important role, acidic conditions result in significant new mineral formation; 3) almost all physical properties, including porosity, permeability, and elastic properties, were seriously modified in the modeled geothermal processes within short (from geological point of view) time frames; 4) X-ray microtomography was found useful for mineral phases distribution and the pore-scale modeling approach was found to be a promising technique to numerically obtain rock properties based on 3D scans; 5) we conclude that alteration and change of reservoir rocks should be taken into account for re-injecting well and geothermal power-plant design.
Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP
Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan
2013-04-30
Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi- physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis. The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.
Planck 2013 results. XIV. Zodiacal emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colley, J.-M.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smoot, G. F.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
The Planck satellite provides a set of all-sky maps at nine frequencies from 30 GHz to 857 GHz. Planets, minor bodies, and diffuse interplanetary dust emission (IPD) are all observed. The IPD can be separated from Galactic and other emissions because Planck views a given point on the celestial sphere multiple times, through different columns of IPD. We use the Planck data to investigate the behaviour of zodiacal emission over the whole sky at sub-millimetre and millimetre wavelengths. We fit the Planck data to find the emissivities of the various components of the COBE zodiacal model - a diffuse cloud, three asteroidal dust bands, a circumsolar ring, and an Earth-trailing feature. The emissivity of the diffuse cloud decreases with increasing wavelength, as expected from earlier analyses. The emissivities of the dust bands, however, decrease less rapidly, indicating that the properties of the grains in the bands are different from those in the diffuse cloud. We fit the small amount of Galactic emission seen through the telescope's far sidelobes, and place limits on possible contamination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) results from both zodiacal and far-sidelobe emission. When necessary, the results are used in the Planck pipeline to make maps with zodiacal emission and far sidelobes removed. We show that the zodiacal correction to the CMB maps is small compared to the Planck CMB temperature power spectrum and give a list of flux densities for small solar system bodies.
Planck 2013 results. XIX. The integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ili?, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, M.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
Based on cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps from the 2013 Planck Mission data release, this paper presents the detection of the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect, that is, the correlation between the CMB and large-scale evolving gravitational potentials. The significance of detection ranges from 2 to 4?, depending on which method is used. We investigated three separate approaches, which essentially cover all previous studies, and also break new ground. (i) We correlated the CMB with the Planck reconstructed gravitational lensing potential (for the first time). This detection was made using the lensing-induced bispectrum between the low-? and high-? temperature anisotropies; the correlation between lensing and the ISW effect has a significance close to 2.5?. (ii) We cross-correlated with tracers of large-scale structure, which yielded a significance of about 3?, based on a combination of radio (NVSS) and optical (SDSS) data. (iii) We used aperture photometry on stacked CMB fields at the locations of known large-scale structures, which yielded and confirms a 4? signal, over a broader spectral range, when using a previously explored catalogue, but shows strong discrepancies in amplitude and scale when compared with expectations. More recent catalogues give more moderate results that range from negligible to 2.5? at most, but have a more consistent scale and amplitude, the latter being still slightly higher than what is expected from numerical simulations within ?CMD. Where they can be compared, these measurements are compatible with previous work using data from WMAP, where these scales have been mapped to the limits of cosmic variance. Planck's broader frequency coverage allows for better foreground cleaning and confirms that the signal is achromatic, which makes it preferable for ISW detection. As a final step we used tracers of large-scale structure to filter the CMB data, from which we present maps of the ISW temperature perturbation. These results provide complementary and independent evidence for the existence of a dark energy component that governs the currently accelerated expansion of the Universe.
Need to plan for a full-scale lns-physics program at the SSC
White, A.R.
1984-03-01
Arguments for a full lns physics program at the SSC are enumerated and elaborated on. They are: first - the inadequacy of data from a minimal program, second - the potential fundamental significance of a high-energy soft physics collective phenomenon and third - the possible diffractive production of much of the interesting new physics that will be searched for.
Higgs boson mass and new physics
Fedor Bezrukov; Mikhail Yu. Kalmykov; Bernd A. Kniehl; Mikhail Shaposhnikov
2012-09-27
We discuss the lower Higgs boson mass bounds which come from the absolute stability of the Standard Model (SM) vacuum and from the Higgs inflation, as well as the prediction of the Higgs boson mass coming from asymptotic safety of the SM. We account for the 3-loop renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the Standard Model and for a part of two-loop corrections that involve the QCD coupling alpha_s to initial conditions for their running. This is one step above the current state of the art procedure ("one-loop matching--two-loop running"). This results in reduction of the theoretical uncertainties in the Higgs boson mass bounds and predictions, associated with the Standard Model physics, to 1-2 GeV. We find that with the account of existing experimental uncertainties in the mass of the top quark and alpha_s (taken at 2sigma level) the bound reads M_H>=M_min (equality corresponds to the asymptotic safety prediction), where M_min=129+-6 GeV. We argue that the discovery of the SM Higgs boson in this range would be in agreement with the hypothesis of the absence of new energy scales between the Fermi and Planck scales, whereas the coincidence of M_H with M_min would suggest that the electroweak scale is determined by Planck physics. In order to clarify the relation between the Fermi and Planck scale a construction of an electron-positron or muon collider with a center of mass energy ~200+200 GeV (Higgs and t-quark factory) would be needed.
Construction of the weakly-relativistic Fokker-Planck kinetic equation in the Darwin approximation
Pozzo, M.; Tessarotto, M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Trieste, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
1996-06-01
The explicit form of the weakly-relativistic Vlasov and the Fokker-Planck collision operators for a multispecies plasma are evaluated by using a systematic expansion in {beta}{underscore}={ital v}{underscore}/{ital c} and retaining corrections up to the second order. Properties of these operators are investigated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, M.
2013-02-01
Since 1889 the international prototype of the kilogram has served as the definition of the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). It is the last material artefact to define a base unit of the SI, and it influences several other base units. This situation is no longer acceptable in a time of ever increasing measurement precision. It is therefore planned to redefine the unit of mass by fixing the numerical value of the Planck constant. At the same time three other base units, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined. As a first step, the kilogram redefinition requires a highly accurate determination of the Planck constant in the present SI system, with a relative uncertainty of the order of 1 part in 108. The most promising experiment for this purpose, and for the future realization of the kilogram, is the watt balance. It compares mechanical and electrical power and makes use of two macroscopic quantum effects, thus creating a relationship between a macroscopic mass and the Planck constant. In this paper the background for the choice of the Planck constant for the kilogram redefinition is discussed and the role of the Planck constant in physics is briefly reviewed. The operating principle of watt balance experiments is explained and the existing experiments are reviewed. An overview is given of all presently available experimental determinations of the Planck constant, and it is shown that further investigation is needed before the redefinition of the kilogram can take place. This article is based on a lecture given at the International School of Physics ‘Enrico Fermi’, Course CLXXXV: Metrology and Physical Constants, held in Varenna on 17-27 July 2012. It will also be published in the proceedings of the school, edited by E Bava, M Kühne and A M Rossi (IOS Press, Amsterdam and SIF, Bologna).
Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics
Ling Yi; Li Xiang [Center for Gravity and Relativity, Department of Physics, Nanchang University, 330047 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Hu Bo [Center for Gravity and Relativity, Department of Physics, Nanchang University, 330047 (China)
2006-04-15
A modified formulation of the energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such a modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular, this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaches the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result providing a plausible mechanism to treat the remnant of black holes as a candidate for dark matter.
Buet, C. [CEA-CEL-V, Villeneuve Saint Georges (France)] [CEA-CEL-V, Villeneuve Saint Georges (France); Cordier [Universite de Paris VI, Paris (France)] [Universite de Paris VI, Paris (France); Degond, P.; Lemou, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)] [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)
1997-05-15
We present fast numerical algorithms to solve the nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation in 3D velocity space. The discretization of the collision operator preserves the properties required by the physical nature of the Fokker-Planck-Landau equation, such as the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, the decay of the entropy, and the fact that the steady states are Maxwellians. At the end of this paper, we give numerical results illustrating the efficiency of these fast algorithms in terms of accuracy and CPU time. 20 refs., 7 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taitano, William T.; Knoll, Dana A.; Chacón, Luis
2015-03-01
In this study, we extend the moment-based acceleration algorithm for the charge, momentum, and energy conserving Vlasov-Ampère discretization developed in Ref. [1] by including a reduced Fokker-Planck operator. We propose an energy conserving discretization for the Fokker-Planck collision operator. We show by numerical experiment that the new algorithm 1) efficiently converges the nonlinearly coupled Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Ampère system, and 2) accurately steps over stiff time-scales such as the inverse electron plasma frequency, and the electron-electron collision time-scale. We demonstrate that discrete energy conservation is critical to eliminate numerical heating issues when strong density gradients exist.
Bridging Fusion and Space and Astrophysical Plasma Physics
Bridging Fusion and Space and Astrophysical Plasma Physics Amitava Bhattacharjee Theory Department Planck-Princeton Plasma Physics Cent · Some of these ideas can intersect and leverage the work of the recently established Max Planck-Princeton Plasma Physics Center. #12;Opportunities in PPPL · Space Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tribbia, Joseph
2015-04-01
The problem of parameterization of physical process in large scale numerical models of the atmosphere has until recently focused upon modeling the 'average' or mean tendencies and the models developed for the average tendencies have been almost exclusively developed from idealized process models. Sub-grid physical processes have made little use of the observed spatial scaling structure in atmospheric turbulence in the development of parameterizations. This is complicated by the observation that the atmosphere has two distinct scaling ranges: -3 for planetary to synoptic wave numbers and -5/3 for mesoscale wave numbers and beyond. I will describe some efforts and strategies aimed at moving beyond the use of averaged process models for the computation of the sub-grid tendencies due to sub-grid effects of moist processes (precipitation and clouds). Stochastic fractal interpolation will be used to refine coarsely resolved field variables important for moist processes in order to investigate whether moist physics is necessary to explain the existence of the Nastrom-Gage -5/3 spectral range in atmospheric Kinetic energy or merely amplifies and maintains this spectrum in the atmospheric mesoscale and beyond.
How Measuring the Planck Constant gets to an Electronic Kilogram Standard
Steiner, Richard
2007-08-01
The best measurement of the Planck constant is now derived from the watt balance method. This method measures mechanical power, in reference units of the kilogram (artifact mass standard), second (atomic clocks), and meter (lasers), in ratio to electrical power, in reference units of the volt (Josephson effect) and ohm (quantum Hall effect). Of these reference standards, only the kilogram is still an artifact standard. Thus a high precision measurement of the Planck constant is equivalent to monitoring the SI kilogram artifact, and may be used to redefine the kilogram. This talk will summarize the complexity of making a Planck constant measurement, where there are interesting aspects of basic physics that appear when the ultimate precision of the standards laboratory is applied to obtain an uncertainty of 20 parts in a billion.
Murray Gibson
2007-04-27
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernard, J. P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Gehrels, N.
2011-01-01
Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.
Effect of transitions in the Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra
Amjad Ashoorioon; Carsten van de Bruck; Peter Millington; Susan Vu
2014-10-23
We study the effect of sudden transitions in the effective Planck mass during inflation on primordial power spectra. Specifically, we consider models in which this variation results from the non-minimal coupling of a Brans-Dicke type scalar field. We find that the scalar power spectra develop features at the scales corresponding to those leaving the horizon during the transition. In addition, we observe that the tensor perturbations are largely unaffected, so long as the variation of the Planck mass is below the percent level. Otherwise, the tensor power spectra exhibit damped oscillations over the same scales. Due to significant features in the scalar power spectra, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r shows variation over the corresponding scales. Thus, by studying the spectra of both scalar and tensor perturbations, one can constrain sudden but small variations of the Planck mass during inflation. We illustrate these effects with a number of benchmark single- and two-field models. In addition, we comment on their implications and the possibility to alleviate the tension between the observations of the tensor-to-scalar ratio performed by the Planck and BICEP2 experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beekman, Izaak; Martin, Pino
2012-11-01
We analyze the statistical properties of supersonic turbulent boundary layers via spatial direct numerical simulations (SDNS). The computational domains are very large with 60 by 10 ?inlet in the streamwise and spanwise directions respectively. The inflow is provided with a rescaling technique, where the recycling station is taken near the outlet, with Re? ~ 650 . We vary the nominally adiabatic wall boundary condition between a treatment that enforces a null mean heat transfer to the wall (Tw =Trecovery ,T' = 0) and an instantaneously adiabatic wall with (?T / ?z)w = 0 . The data, including spectra, are converged over 600 ? /U? and capture the largest scales of the flow. We study broadband relations such as the strong Reynolds analogy (SRA) and Morkovin's scaling of the turbulent shear stresses in scale decomposed manner to gain insight and physical understanding for turbulence modeling. This work is supported by the University of Maryland Center of Excellence for Testing and Evaluation.
Current dependence of spin torque switching rate based on Fokker-Planck approach
Taniguchi, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomohiro-taniguchi@aist.go.jp; Imamura, Hiroshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)
2014-05-07
The spin torque switching rate of an in-plane magnetized system in the presence of an applied field is derived by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that three scaling currents are necessary to describe the current dependence of the switching rate in the low-current limit. The dependences of these scaling currents on the applied field strength are also studied.
Physics on the Smallest Scales: An Introduction to Minimal Length Phenomenology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sprenger, Martin; Nicolini, Piero; Bleicher, Marcus
2012-01-01
Many modern theories which try to unify gravity with the Standard Model of particle physics, such as e.g. string theory, propose two key modifications to the commonly known physical theories: the existence of additional space dimensions; the existence of a minimal length distance or maximal resolution. While extra dimensions have received a wide…
Brief scales to assess physical activity and sedentary equipment in the home
Dori E Rosenberg; James F Sallis; Jacqueline Kerr; Jason Maher; Gregory J Norman; Nefertiti Durant; Sion K Harris; Brian E Saelens
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing are associated with childhood obesity, while physical activity promotes healthy weight. The role of the home environment in shaping these behaviors among youth is poorly understood. The study purpose was to examine the reliability of brief parental proxy-report and adolescent self-report measures of electronic equipment and physical activity equipment in the home and
Dedicated hardware for linearly-scaling algorithms in condensed-matter physics
Fabrizio Cleri; Alessandro Marongiu; Vittorio Rosato
2001-01-01
The locality of the interactions in a Hamiltonian model gives origin to the linearization of the algorithms expressing the calculation of the interactions. This specific property, often used in condensed matter physics, has originated approximate models which, although preserving most of the physical insights of the parent exact models, display attractive computational properties which has determined their use in several
Identification of parameters in large scale physical model structures, for the purpose of
Van den Hof, Paul
. If the models are the result of partial differential equations being discretized, they are of- ten large dynamical physical processes raise many challenges for model-based monitoring, control and optimization. On-line (possibly non-convex) optimization methods. The only issue that has to be taken care of is that the physical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, Peter; Christensen, Hannah; Palmer, Tim
2015-04-01
Important questions concerning parameterization of tropical convection are how should subgrid-scale variability be represented and which large-scale variables should be used in the parameterizations? Here the statistics of observational data in Darwin, Australia, are compared with those of short-term forecasts of convection made by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecast System. The forecasts use multiplicative-noise stochastic physics (MNSP) that has led to many improvements in weather forecast skill. However, doubts have recently been raised about whether MNSP is consistent with observations of tropical convection. It is shown that the model can reproduce the variability of convection intensity for a given large-scale state, both with and without MNSP. Therefore MNSP is not inconsistent with observations, and much of the modeled variability arises from nonlinearity of the deterministic part of the convection scheme. It is also shown that the model can reproduce the lack of correlation between convection intensity and large-scale CAPE and an entraining CAPE, even though the convection parameterization assumes that deep convection is more intense when the vertical temperature profile is more unstable, with entrainment taken into account. Relationships between convection and large-scale convective inhibition and vertical velocity are also correctly captured.
Straight-edge diffraction of Planck radiation
Mohr, Peter J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8420 (United States); Shirley, Eric L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8441 (United States)
2006-11-15
The irradiance diffraction profile of a straight edge is given as a Taylor series in powers of the distance from the geometrical shadow boundary to any point in the profile for monochromatic radiation. The coefficients of the series, which are obtained as simple analytic expressions, are proportional to the real part of a complex number whose phase cycles through a complete period every eight terms in the series. Integration of this series over a Planck distribution of radiation yields the power series for the Planck profile; this derived series has a finite radius of convergence. The asymptotic series for the Planck profile far from the shadow boundary and beyond the radius of convergence of its power series is obtained by analytic continuation of the power series with the aid of a Barnes type of integral representation.
Effect of Finite Computational Domain on Turbulence Scaling Law in Both Physical and Spectral Spaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hou, Thomas Y.; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Shiyi; Zhou, Ye
1998-01-01
The well-known translation between the power law of energy spectrum and that of the correlation function or the second order structure function has been widely used in analyzing random data. Here, we show that the translation is valid only in proper scaling regimes. The regimes of valid translation are different for the correlation function and the structure function. Indeed, they do not overlap. Furthermore, in practice, the power laws exist only for a finite range of scales. We show that this finite range makes the translation inexact even in the proper scaling regime. The error depends on the scaling exponent. The current findings are applicable to data analysis in fluid turbulence and other stochastic systems.
Johnnie Chan; Gilbert Hendry; Aleksandr Biberman; Keren Bergman
2010-01-01
We conduct an architectural exploration of three chip-scale photonic interconnection networks in a novel simulation environment, exploring insertion loss, crosstalk, and energy. The impact of these metrics is evaluated in the context of network performance.
Quasi-Classical dynamical determination of the Basic Planck Units and fine structure constant
Vladan Pankovic; Darko V. Kapor
2012-11-15
In this work all basic Planck units (Planck mass, Planck length, Planck time and Planck electrical charge) and some derived Planck units (Planck force and Planck energy) are exactly determined by solution of a simple system of quasi-classical (Bohr-Sommerfeld) quantum dynamical equations. Also we determine approximately, but with high accuracy, fine structure constant using typical quasi classical methods in a crystal lattice structure.
Swanson, Molly E. C. (Molly Ellen Crosby)
2008-01-01
Particles have tremendous potential as astronomical messengers, and conversely, studying the universe as a whole also teaches us about particle physics. This thesis encompasses both of these research directions. Many models ...
Physical modeling of wind turbine generators in a small scale analog system
Wang, Xuntuo
2014-01-01
This project represents the physical modeling and experimental test of a Doubly-fed Induction Machine (DFIM), in order to substantially analyze the characteristic behaviors of wind turbines and its use in the micro-grid ...
High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems.
Mahadevan, Vijay S; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul
2014-08-01
An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250
Conformal Symmetry as a Template:Commensurate Scale Relations and Physical Renormalization Schemes
Brodsky, Stanley J.
1999-06-09
Commensurate scale relations are perturbative QCD predictions which relate observable to observable at fixed relative scale, such as the ''generalized Crewther relation'', which connects the Bjorken and Gross-Llewellyn Smith deep inelastic scattering sum rules to measurements of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation cross section. We show how conformal symmetry provides a template for such QCD predictions, providing relations between observables which are present even in theories which are not scale invariant. All non-conformal effects are absorbed by fixing the ratio of the respective momentum transfer and energy scales. In the case of fixed-point theories, commensurate scale relations relate both the ratio of couplings and the ratio of scales as the fixed point is approached. In the case of the {alpha}{sub V} scheme defined from heavy quark interactions, virtual corrections due to fermion pairs are analytically incorporated into the Gell-Mann Low function, thus avoiding the problem of explicitly computing and resuming quark mass corrections related to the running of the coupling. Applications to the decay width of the Z boson, the BFKL pomeron, and virtual photon scattering are discussed.
Max Planck Institute of Economics Evolutionary Economics Group
Tesfatsion, Leigh
Max Planck Institute of Economics Evolutionary Economics Group Kahlaische Str. 10 07745 Jena Classification B41, B52, C63 *Corresponding author: Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena (Germany), email
Planck Low Frequency Instrument: Beam Patterns
M. Sandri; M. Bersanelli; C. Burigana; R. C. Butler; M. Malaspina; N. Mandolesi; A. Mennella; G. Morgante; L. Terenzi; L. Valenziano; F. Villa
2003-04-08
The Low Frequency Instrument on board the ESA Planck satellite is coupled to the Planck 1.5 meter off-axis dual reflector telescope by an array of 27 corrugated feed horns operating at 30, 44, 70, and 100 GHz. We briefly present here a detailed study of the optical interface devoted to optimize the angular resolution (10 arcmin at 100 GHz as a goal) and at the same time to minimize all the systematics coming from the sidelobes of the radiation pattern. Through optical simulations, we provide shapes, locations on the sky, angular resolutions, and polarization properties of each beam.
MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENTS OF 51 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE ORION COMPLEX
Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com, E-mail: ywu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)
2012-09-15
A mapping survey of 51 Planck cold clumps projected on the Orion complex was performed with J = 1-0 lines of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO with the 13.7 m telescope at the Purple Mountain Observatory. The mean column densities of the Planck gas clumps range from 0.5 to 9.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, with an average value of (2.9 {+-} 1.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}. The mean excitation temperatures of these clumps range from 7.4 to 21.1 K, with an average value of 12.1 {+-} 3.0 K and the average three-dimensional velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub 3D} in these molecular clumps is 0.66 {+-} 0.24 km s{sup -1}. Most of the clumps have {sigma}{sub NT} larger than or comparable to {sigma}{sub Therm}. The H{sub 2} column density of the molecular clumps calculated from molecular lines correlates with the aperture flux at 857 GHz of the dust emission. By analyzing the distributions of the physical parameters, we suggest that turbulent flows can shape the clump structure and dominate their density distribution on large scales, but not function on small scales due to local fluctuations. Eighty-two dense cores are identified in the molecular clumps. The dense cores have an average radius and local thermal equilibrium (LTE) mass of 0.34 {+-} 0.14 pc and 38{sup +5}{sub -30} M{sub Sun }, respectively. The structures of low column density cores are more affected by turbulence, while the structures of high column density cores are more affected by other factors, especially by gravity. The correlation of velocity dispersion versus core size is very weak for the dense cores. The dense cores are found to be most likely gravitationally bounded rather than pressure confined. The relationship between M{sub vir} and M{sub LTE} can be well fitted with a power law. The core mass function here is much flatter than the stellar initial mass function. The lognormal behavior of the core mass distribution is most likely determined by internal turbulence.
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT On Multi-Party Communication Complexity
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT Â·Â· FUR INFORMATIK On Multi-Party Communication Complexity of Random Functions Technical Report No. MPII-1993.....162 Vince Grolmusz Max Planck Institute for Computer Science and EÃ¶tvÃ¶s-162 Vince Grolmusz Max Planck Institute {or Computer Science and EÃ¶tvÃ¶s University December 1, 1993 #12;On
International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging & Structural Dynamics
International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging & Structural Dynamics The International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics (IMPRS-UFAST) is a joint enterprise of Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), the Max Planck Research Department for Structural
QUANTUM MECHANICS When German physicist Max Planck became the
Haas, Stephan
QUANTUM MECHANICS When German physicist Max Planck became the father of quantum theory in 1900, he and recentlyofGermany'sMaxPlanckInstitute.Ateam of computational scientists led by Dr. Roscilde is using the Oak under your arm. Planck had a much more modest and immediate need
Leipzig, February 27 -March 01, 2013 Max Planck Institute
Leipzig, February 27 - March 01, 2013 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi Georg Martius Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences Administrative Contact Antje Vandenberg Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences More Information
Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung von Gemeinschaftsgtern
Rauhut, Holger
Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung von GemeinschaftsgÃ¼tern Zum 1. April 2014 suchen wir mehrere einzuarbeiten? Dann freuen wir uns Ã¼ber Ihre Bewerbung! Das Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung von Qualifikation ausdrÃ¼cklich auf sich zu bewerben. Die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ist bemÃ¼ht, mehr schwerbehinderte
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science Pressand Abrell (-1416) ISSN 0170-4656 MAX PLANCK SOCIETY Press Release B/2009 (27) Here's looking at you, fellow humans and monkeys really are. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics have now
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT Circuits and Multi-Party Protocols
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT Â·Â· FUR INFORMATIK '\\ Circuits and Multi-Party Protocols - technical report No. 104- Vmce Grolmusz Max.Planck Institute for Computer Science and EÃ¶tvÃ¶s University January 30, 1992 o - technical report No. 104- Vince Grolmusz Max Planck Institute for Computer Science and EÃ¶tvÃ¶s University We
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science Pressand Abrell (-1416) ISSN 0170-4656 MAX PLANCK SOCIETY Press Release B / 2009 (31) Regions of the brain can of nerves in the brain can fundamentally reorganize as required Scientists at the Max Planck Institute
Seite 1 von 3 Max-Planck-Forschungspreis
Seite 1 von 3 Max-Planck-Forschungspreis Hinweise fÃ¼r eine vollstÃ¤ndige Nominierung Erforderliche Sie dabei besonders auf folgende Punkte: Die Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung und die Max-Planck-Gesellschaft verleihen gemeinsam den vom Bundesministerium fÃ¼r Bildung und Forschung gestifteten Max-Planck
plasticity sculpts Max Planck Institute of Human development and
Shyamasundar, R.K.
Frequency plasticity sculpts the Max Planck Institute of Human development and The relation between and sculpts spontaneous correlation the Human Cortex Dipanjan Roy Max Planck Institute of Human development (Tea/Coffee at 11:15 AM) , TCIS and correlation in Max Planck Institute of Human development
Research Report 2009 Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin
Spang, Rainer
Research Report 2009 Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin #12;Imprint | Research Report 2009 Published by the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG), Berlin, Germany: MPIMG Production: Thomas Didier, Meta Data Contact: Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics Ihnestr
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT An Abstract Program Generation Logic
MAX-PLANCK-INSTITUT FUR INFORMATIK An Abstract Program Generation Logic David A. Plaisted MPI{I{94 David Plaisted Max-Planck-Institut fur Informatik Im Stadtwald D-66123 Saarbrucken Germany plaisted the author was on sabbatical and leave of absence at the Max Planck Institute in Saarbrucken, Germany
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science
Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science Pressand Abrell (-1416) ISSN 0170-4656 MAX PLANCK SOCIETY Press Release News G / 2010 (136) Recognition at first glance Max Planck researchers investigate facial recognition We meet a multitude of people on a daily
Page 1 of 3 Max Planck Research Award
Page 1 of 3 Max Planck Research Award Notes on submitting a complete nomination Documents required of the following points: The Max Planck Research Award funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research is presented jointly by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society
Point and Potential Symmetries of the Fokker-Planck Equation
Faya Doumbo Kamano; Bakary Manga; Joël Tossa
2015-04-14
We determine the Lie point symmetries of the Fokker-Planck equation and provide examples of solutions of this equation. The Fokker-Planck equation admits a conserved form, hence there is an auxiliary system associated to this equation and whose point symmetries give rise to potential symmetries of the Fokker-Planck equation.
Coleman-Weinberg inflation in light of Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barenboim, Gabriela; Chun, Eung Jin; Lee, Hyun Min
2014-03-01
We revisit a single field inflationary model based on Coleman-Weinberg potentials. We show that in small field Coleman-Weinberg inflation, the observed amplitude of perturbations needs an extremely small quartic coupling of the inflaton, which might be a signature of radiative origin. However, the spectral index obtained in a standard cosmological scenario turns out to be outside the 2? region of the Planck data. When a non-standard cosmological framework is invoked, such as brane-world cosmology in the Randall-Sundrum model, the spectral index can be made consistent with Planck data within 1?, courtesy of the modification in the evolution of the Hubble parameter in such a scheme. We also show that the required inflaton quartic coupling as well as a phenomenologically viable B-L symmetry breaking together with a natural electroweak symmetry breaking can arise dynamically in a generalized B-L extension of the Standard Model where the full potential is assumed to vanish at a high scale.
Construction of large-scale simulation codes using ALPAL (A Livermore Physics Applications Language)
Cook, G.
1990-10-01
A Livermore Physics Applications Language (ALPAL) is a new computer tool that is designed to leverage the abilities and creativity of computational scientist. Some of the ways that ALPAL provides this leverage are: first, it eliminates many sources of errors; second, it permits building code modules with far greater speed than is otherwise possible; third, it provides a means of specifying almost any numerical algorithm; and fourth, it is a language that is close to a journal-style presentation of physics models and numerical methods for solving them. 13 refs., 9 figs.
2014-01-01
Background The need for valid and reproducible questionnaires to routinely assess the physical activity level of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of particular concern in clinical settings. Aims of this study were to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE) questionnaire in TKA patients, with a particular view on gender differences. Methods A total of 50 elderly patients (25 women and 25 men aged 70?±?6 years) following primary unilateral TKA were recruited. The reproducibility was evaluated by administering the PASE questionnaire during two occasions separated by 7 days. The construct (criterion) validity was investigated by comparing the physical activity level reported by patients in the PASE questionnaire to that measured by accelerometry. Reproducibility was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,1) for reliability and standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest detectable change (SDC) for agreement, while validity was investigated with Pearson correlation coefficients. Results Reliability of the PASE total score was acceptable for men (ICC?=?0.77) but not for women (ICC?=?0.58). Its agreement was low for both men and women, as witnessed by high SEM (32% and 35%, respectively) and SDC (89% and 97%, respectively). Construct validity of the PASE total score was low in both men (r?=?0.45) and women (r?=?0.06). Conclusions The PASE questionnaire has several validity and reproducibility shortcomings, therefore its use is not recommended for the assessment of physical activity level in patients after TKA, particularly in women. PMID:24555852
THE CHIP-SCALE ATOMIC CLOCK - LOW-POWER PHYSICS PACKAGE
R. Lutwak; J. Deng; W. Riley; M. Varghese; J. Leblanc; G. Tepolt; M. Mescher
2004-01-01
We have undertaken a development effort to produce a prototype chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC). The design goals include short-term stability, 2 \\/ 1 10 y 10 6 ) ( ? ? × < ? ? ? , with a total power consumption of less than 30 mW and overall device volume < 1 cm3. The stringent power requirement dominates the
A Cross-Cultural Validation of Perceived Locus of Causality Scale in Physical Education Context
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, C. K. John; Hagger, Martin; Liu, Woon Chia
2009-01-01
We examined the validity of the factor structure and invariance of the Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale instrument scores across two nations endorsing collectivist (Singapore) and individualist (Great Britain) cultural values. Results indicated that confirmatory factor analytic models of the PLOC exhibited adequate ft according to…
M. Demaria; K. S. Maclay; J. A. Knaff
2005-01-01
Tropical cyclones include many scales, ranging from the individual convective elements (1-10 km) to the upper level outflow that can extend to more than 1000 km from the storm center. At the present time there is no individual sensor that can measure all aspects of tropical cyclones. In this study, a multi-sensor method for diagnosing the tropical cyclone wind field
Physical scale modeling the millimeter-wave backscattering behavior of ground clutter
Massachusetts at Lowell, University of
the radar cross section per unit area of 1/16th scale rough surface terrain in a 1.56 THz compact radar smooth to rough soil terrain. In addition to studying the backscattering behavior as a function of surface roughness, the dependence on soil moisture content was also characterized by tailoring
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
universal enveloping algebra. It is already well-established 11,12] that the two structures are dual to each quantum group GLq (2). In Section 3, we construct the coloured L functionals for GLq (2) and deriveMax-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Duality for coloured quantum
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Regularization in Position Space, and a Forest Formula for Epstein-Glaser Renormalization Michael Dütsch(2 Hopf Algebra and Renormalization 39 A Regularization in the Epstein-Glaser framework 43 B MinimalMax-Planck-Institut f¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Dimensional Regularization
Axion hot dark matter bounds after Planck
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
2013-10-01
We use cosmological observations in the post-Planck era to derive limits on thermally produced cosmological axions. In the early universe such axions contribute to the radiation density and later to the hot dark matter fraction. We find an upper limit ma < 0.67 eV at 95% C.L. after marginalising over the unknown neutrino masses, using CMB temperature and polarisation data from Planck and WMAP respectively, the halo matter power spectrum extracted from SDSS-DR7, and the local Hubble expansion rate H0 released by the Carnegie Hubble Program based on a recalibration of the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project sample. Leaving out the local H0 measurement relaxes the limit somewhat to 0.86 eV, while Planck+WMAP alone constrain the axion mass to 1.01 eV, the first time an upper limit on ma has been obtained from CMB data alone. Our axion limit is therefore not very sensitive to the tension between the Planck-inferred H0 and the locally measured value. This is in contrast with the upper limit on the neutrino mass sum, which we find here to range from ? m? < 0.27 eV at 95% C.L. combining all of the aforementioned observations, to 0.84 eV from CMB data alone.
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
synchronization of coupled neural networks by Frank Pasemann and Thomas Wennekers Preprint no.: 48 1999 #12; #12; Generalized and Partial Synchronization of Coupled Neural Networks Frank Pasemann and Thomas Wennekers MaxPlanckInstitute for Mathematics in the Sciences Inselstr. 2226, D04103 Leipzig, Germany Email: (pasemann,wennekers
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
kunstlichen neuronalen Netzen by Thomas Wennekers and Gunther Palm Preprint no.: 27 2000 #12;#12;Kognitive Modellierung mit kunstlichen neuronalen Netzen Thomas Wennekers1 und Gunther Palm2 1 Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Inselstra e 22-26, 04103 Leipzig Thomas.Wennekers@mis.mpg.de 2
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
of strongly interacting Markov chains by Nihat Ay and Thomas Wennekers Preprint no.: 107 2001 #12; #12; Dynamical Properties of Strongly Interacting Markov Chains Nihat Ay and Thomas Wennekers MaxPlanckInstitute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstr. 2226, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Email: (nay,wenneker)@mis.mpg.de Tel
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
¨unstlichen neuronalen Netzen by Thomas Wennekers and G¨unther Palm Preprint no.: 27 2000 #12; #12; Kognitive Modellierung mit k¨ unstlichen neuronalen Netzen \\Lambda Thomas Wennekers 1 und G¨ unther Palm 2 1 MaxPlanckInstitut f¨ ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Inselstraße 2226, 04103 Leipzig Thomas.Wennekers
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
synchronization of coupled neural networks by Frank Pasemann and Thomas Wennekers Preprint no.: 48 1999 #12;#12;Generalized and Partial Synchronization of Coupled Neural Networks Frank Pasemann and Thomas Wennekers Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences Inselstr. 22-26, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany Email: (pasemann,wennekers
Herschel and Planck contacts STFC contact
Herschel and Planck contacts STFC contact Richard Holdaway Director STFC Space Science Director of Space Science & Exploration Tel: (0)1793 44 2174 mobile: 07901 514969 david. Christine Brockley-Blatt MSSL SPIRE Project Manager University College London Mullard Space Science
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Hyphs and the Ashtekar-Lewandowski measure by Christian Fleischhack Preprint no.: 3 2000 #12;#12;Hyphs and the Ashtekar-Lewandowski Measure case, any nite set of paths depends on a nite set of independent paths, a so-called hyph
MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik
MaxÂPlanckÂInstitut fÂ¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Hyphs and the AshtekarÂLewandowski measure by Christian Fleischhack Preprint no.: 3 2000 #12; #12; Hyphs and the AshtekarÂLewandowski Measure, a soÂcalled hyph. This generalizes the wellÂknown directedness of the set of smooth webs
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig The Tits alternative for non-spherical triangles of groups by Johannes Cuno and J¨org Lehnert Preprint no.: 52 2014 #12;#12;The Tits alternative-spherical triangle of groups either contains a non-abelian free subgroup or is virtually solvable. Keywords: Tits
Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik
the behavior of units in higher layers. Keywords: Deep learning, neural network, input space partition networks, have become pop- ular due to their unprecedented success in a variety of machine learning tasks Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences montufar@mis.mpg.de Razvan Pascanu UniversitÂ´e de Montr
Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik
Âparticle quantum system is mathematically described by a NÂparticle Hamilton operator HN consisting of a kineticMax-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Large systems of pathÂBernard Bru, and Wolfgang KË? onig Preprint no.: 119 2005 #12; #12; LARGE SYSTEMS OF PATHÂREPELLENT BROWNIAN
Five laboratory studies of benthic macroinvertebrate recolonization were conducted for 6-wk periods to evaluate the effects of physical factors (i.e., microcosm size, seawater flow rates and sediment depth) on benthic community structure. esign variables included4 open-faced acry...
Small-Scale Behavior of the Physical Conditions and the Abundance Discrepancy in the Orion Nebula
Adal Mesa-Delgado; César Esteban; Jorge García-Rojas
2008-01-01
We present the results of long-slit spectroscopy, in several positions, of the Orion Nebula. Our goal is to study the spatial distributions of a large number of nebular quantities, including line fluxes, physical conditions, and ionic abundances, at a spatial resolution of about 1\\
Large-Scale Simulations in Condensed Matter Physics THE Need for a Teraflop Computer
K. Binder
1992-01-01
The introduction of vector processors {``supercomputers'' with a performance in the range of 109 floating point operations (1 GFLOP) per second} has had an enormous impact on computational condensed matter physics. The possibility of a substantially enhanced performance by massively parallel processors (``teraflop'' machines with 1012 floating point operations per second) will allow satisfactory treatment of a large range of
Using the RPE-Talk Scale to Individualize Physical Activity for Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nye, Susan B.; Todd, M. Kent
2013-01-01
For some students, self-selecting a pace during exercise may not provide enough of a physical challenge. Others push themselves so hard that they tire out before they can experience the benefits of exercise. In order to improve self-monitoring of exercise intensity, a variety of tools using the perception of effort and the ability to talk while…
Spatial-scale effects on relative importance of physical habitat predictors of stream health.
Frimpong, Emmanuel A; Sutton, Trent M; Engel, Bernard A; Simon, Thomas P
2005-12-01
A common theme in recent landscape studies is the comparison of riparian and watershed land use as predictors of stream health. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of reach-scale habitat and remotely assessed watershed-scale habitat as predictors of stream health over varying spatial extents. Stream health was measured with scores on a fish index of biotic integrity (IBI) using data from 95 stream reaches in the Eastern Corn Belt Plain (ECBP) ecoregion of Indiana. Watersheds hierarchically nested within the ecoregion were used to regroup sampling locations to represent varying spatial extents. Reach habitat was represented by metrics of a qualitative habitat evaluation index, whereas watershed variables were represented by riparian forest, geomorphology, and hydrologic indices. The importance of reach- versus watershed-scale variables was measured by multiple regression model adjusted-R2 and best subset comparisons in the general linear statistical framework. Watershed models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.25 to 0.93 and reach models had adjusted-R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.86. Better-fitting models were associated with smaller spatial extents. Watershed models explained about 15% more variation in IBI scores than reach models on average. Variety of surficial geology contributed to decline in model predictive power. Results should be interpreted bearing in mind that reach habitat was qualitatively measured and only fish assemblages were used to measure stream health. Riparian forest and length-slope (LS) factor were the most important watershed-scale variables and mostly positively correlated with IBI scores, whereas substrate and riffle-pool quality were the important reach-scale variables in the ECBP. PMID:16261278
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willson, C. S.
2011-12-01
Over the past several thousand years the Mississippi River has formed one of the world's largest deltas and much of the Louisiana coast. However, in the last 100 years or so, anthropogenic controls have been placed on the system to maintain important navigation routes and for flood control resulting in the loss of the natural channel shifting necessary for replenishment of the deltaic coast with fresh sediment and resources. In addition, the high relative sea level rise in the lowermost portion of the river is causing a change in the distributary flow patterns of the river and deposition center. River and sediment diversions are being proposed as way to re-create some of the historical distribution of river water and sediments into the delta region. In response to a need for improving the understanding of the potential for medium- and large-scale river and sediment diversions, the state of Louisiana funded the construction of a small-scale physical model (SSPM) of the lower ~76 river miles (RM). The SSPM is a 1:12,000 horizontal, 1:500 vertical, highly-distorted, movable bed physical model designed to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative results regarding bulk noncohesive sediment transport characteristics in the river and through medium- and large-scale diversion structures. The SSPM was designed based on Froude similarity for the hydraulics and Shields similarity for sand transport and has a sediment time scale of 1 year prototype to 30 minutes model allowing for decadal length studies of the land building potential of diversions. Annual flow and sediment hydrographs were developed from historical records and a uniform relative sea level rise of 3 feet in 100 years is used to account for the combined effects of eustatic sea level rise and subsidence. Data collected during the experiments include river stages, dredging amounts and high-resolution video of transport patterns within the main channel and photographs of the sand deposition patterns in the diversion receiving areas. First, the similarity analysis that went into the model design along with a discussion of the resulting limitations will be presented. Next, calibration and validation results will be shown demonstrating the ability of the SSPM to capture the general lower Mississippi River sediment transport trends and deposition patterns. Third, results from a series of diversion experiments will be presented to semi-quantitatively show the effectiveness of diversion locations, sizes, and operating strategies on the quantities of sand diverted from the main river and the changes in main channel dredging volumes. These results will are then correlated with recent field and numerical studies of the study area. This talk will then close with a brief discussion of a new and improved physical model that will cover a larger domain and be designed to provide more quantitative results.
Chu, Shih-I
Volume 167, number 1,2 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS I6 March 1990 THE COMPLEX-SCALING FOURIERKansas, Lawrence, KS 66045. USA Received 7 December I989 We present a new complex scaling method for the study that the resonance states char- acterized by complex energies correspond to poles of the resolvent operator (E- fi
Scaling Educational Transformation in a Physics Department (part 2 of 2)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollock, Steven; Finkelstein, Noah; Beale, Paul; Chasteen, Stephanie; Dubson, Michael; Goldhaber, Steven; Perkins, Katherine; Turpen, Chandra
2009-10-01
We report on two interrelated research threads, sustaining and scaling of educational innovations. In this second of two talks, we examine the scaling of educational innovations into the upper division. We have begun course transformation of Quantum Mechanics and E&M, which employ the practices and findings from educational research at the lower division. Related, we examine the spread of clicker-based approaches into the upper division and graduate level courses. We have studied faculty choices about how they come to adopt these reforms, and what choices they make as they adopt new materials and pedagogical approaches. We identify critical components of success: resources (whether undergraduate learning assistants or post-doctoral science teaching fellows), faculty buy-in and inclusion (from the earliest stages), and institutional support.
W Nicholson Price II; Yang Chen; Samuel K Handelman; Helen Neely; Philip Manor; Richard Karlin; Rajesh Nair; Jinfeng Liu; Michael Baran; John Everett; Saichiu N Tong; Farhad Forouhar; Swarup S Swaminathan; Thomas Acton; Rong Xiao; Joseph R Luft; Angela Lauricella; George T DeTitta; Burkhard Rost; Gaetano T Montelione; John F Hunt
2008-01-01
Crystallization is the most serious bottleneck in high-throughput protein-structure determination by diffraction methods. We have used data mining of the large-scale experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium and experimental folding studies to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. This analysis leads to the conclusion that crystallization propensity depends primarily on the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes
Johnnie Chan; Gilbert Hendry; Aleksandr Biberman; Keren Bergman
2010-01-01
Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks have emerged as a promising technology solution that can address many of the scalability challenges facing the communication networks in next-generation high-performance multicore processors. Photonic interconnects can offer significantly higher bandwidth density, lower latencies, and better energy efficiency. Even though photonics exhibits these inherent advantages over electronics, the network designs that can successfully leverage these benefits
Features and New Physical Scales in Primordial Observables: Theory and Observation
Jens Chluba; Jan Hamann; Subodh P. Patil
2015-06-18
All cosmological observations to date are consistent with adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale invariant initial conditions. These findings provide strong evidence for a particular symmetry breaking pattern in the very early universe (with a close to vanishing order parameter, $\\epsilon$), widely accepted as conforming to the predictions of the simplest realizations of the inflationary paradigm. However, given that our observations are only privy to perturbations, in inferring something about the background that gave rise to them, it should be clear that many different underlying constructions project onto the same set of cosmological observables. Features in the primordial correlation functions, if present, would offer a unique and discriminating window onto the parent theory in which the mechanism that generated the initial conditions is embedded. In certain contexts, simple linear response theory allows us to infer new characteristic scales from the presence of features that can break the aforementioned degeneracies among different background models, and in some cases can even offer a limited spectroscopy of the heavier degrees of freedom that couple to the inflaton. In this review, we offer a pedagogical survey of the diverse, theoretically well grounded mechanisms which can imprint features into primordial correlation functions in addition to reviewing the techniques one can employ to probe observations. These observations include cosmic microwave background anisotropies and spectral distortions as well as the matter two and three point functions as inferred from large-scale structure and potentially, 21 cm surveys.
Low-level jet development and the interaction of different scale physical processes
G. Sgouros; C. G. Helmis
2009-01-01
Two cases of low-level jet events and the interaction of the involved physical processes are investigated. The vertical distribution\\u000a of the dominant atmospheric motions is studied, using data from a SODAR-RASS system and in situ instrumentation, at a coastal\\u000a region of the Eastern Mediterranean (Messogia Plain in Attica—Greece). The first low-level jet (LLJ) case was observed during\\u000a the cold period, after
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenney, M. A.; Mohrig, D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Parker, G.
2011-12-01
Land loss in the Mississippi River Delta caused by subsidence and erosion has resulted in habitat loss, interference with human activities, and increased exposure of New Orleans and other settled areas to storm surge risks. Prior to dam and levee building and oil and gas production in the 20th century, the long term rates of land building roughly balanced land loss through subsidence. Now, however, sediment is being deposited at dramatically lower rates in shallow areas in and adjacent to the Delta, with much of the remaining sediment borne by the Mississippi being lost to the deep areas of the Gulf of Mexico. A few projects have been built in order to divert sediment from the river to areas where land can be built, and many more are under consideration as part of State of Louisiana and Federal planning processes. Most are small scale, although there have been some proposals for large engineered avulsions that would divert a significant fraction of the remaining available sediment (W. Kim, et al. 2009, EOS). However, there is debate over whether small or large diversions are the economically optimally and socially most acceptable size of such land building projects. From an economic point of view, the optimal size involves tradeoffs between scale economies in civil work construction, the relationship between depth of diversion and sediment concentration in river water, effects on navigation, and possible diminishing returns to land building at a single location as the edge of built land progresses into deeper waters. Because land building efforts could potentially involve billions of dollars of investment, it is important to gain as much benefit as possible from those expenditures. We present the result of a general analysis of scale economies in land building from engineered avulsions. The analysis addresses the question: how many projects of what size should be built at what time in order to maximize the amount of land built by a particular time? The analysis integrates three models: 1. coarse sediment diversion as a function of the width, depth, and timing of water diversions (using our field measurements of sediment concentration as a function of depth), 2. land building as a function of the location, water, and amount of sediment diverted, accounting for bathymetry, subsidence, and other factors, and 3. cost of building and operating the necessary civil works. Our statistical analysis of past diversions indicates existence of scale economies in width and scale of diseconomies in depth. The analysis explores general relationships between size, cost, and land building, and does not consider specific actual project proposals or locations. Sensitivity to assumptions about fine sediment capture, accumulation rates for organic material, and other inputs will be discussed.
A 100-3000 GHz model of thermal dust emission observed by Planck, DIRBE and IRAS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meisner, Aaron M.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.
2015-01-01
We apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. This parametrization of the far-infrared dust spectrum as the sum of two modified blackbodies serves as an important alternative to the commonly adopted single modified blackbody (MBB) dust emission model. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We also derive full-sky 6.1' resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting the two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100?m data. Because our two-component model matches the dust spectrum near its peak, accounts for the spectrum's flattening at millimeter wavelengths, and specifies dust temperature at 6.1' FWHM, our model provides reliable, high-resolution thermal dust emission foreground predictions from 100 to 3000 GHz. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anistropy on small angular scales. We have recently released maps and associated software utilities for obtaining thermal dust emission and reddening predictions using our Planck-based two-component model.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planck Catalog of Compact Sources Release 1 (Planck, 2013)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration
2013-03-01
Planck is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with significant contributions from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). It is the third generation of space-based cosmic microwave background experiments, after the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Planck was launched on 14 May 2009 on an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana. Following a cruise to the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point, cooling and in orbit checkout, Planck initiated the First Light Survey on 13 August 2009. Since then, Planck has been continuously measuring the intensity of the sky over a range of frequencies from 30 to 857GHz (wavelengths of 1cm to 350?m) with spatial resolutions ranging from about 33' to 5' respectively. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on Planck provides temperature and polarization information using radiometers which operate between 30 and 70GHz. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI) uses pairs of polarization-sensitive bolometers at each of four frequencies between 100 and 353GHz but does not measure polarization information in the two upper HFI bands at 545 and 857GHz. The lowest frequencies overlap with WMAP, and the highest frequencies extend far into the submillimeter in order to improve separation between Galactic foregrounds and the cosmic microwave background (CMB). By extending to wavelengths longer than those at which the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) operated, Planck is providing an unprecedented window into dust emission at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The PCCS (Planck Catalog of Compact Sources) is the list of sources detected in the first 15 months of Planck "nominal" mission. It consists of nine single-frequency catalogues of compact sources, both Galactic and extragalactic, detected over the entire sky. The PCCS covers the frequency range 30-857 GHz with higher sensitivity (it is 90% complete at 180mJy in the best channel) and better angular resolution than previous all-sky surveys in the microwave band. By construction its reliability is >80% and more than 65% of the sources have been detected at least in two contiguous Planck channels. Many of the Planck PCCS sources can be associated with stars with dust shells, stellar cores, radio galaxies, blazars, infrared luminous galaxies and Galactic interstellar medium features. (12 data files).
Fuzzy dimensions and Planck's uncertainty principle for p-branes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurilia, Antonio; Ansoldi, Stefano; Spallucci, Euro
2002-06-01
The explicit form of the quantum propagator of a bosonic p-brane, previously obtained by the authors in the quenched-minisuperspace approximation, suggests the possibility of a novel, unified description of p-branes with different dimensionality. The background metric that emerges in this framework is a quadratic form on a Clifford manifold. Substitution of the Lorentzian metric with the Clifford line element has two far-reaching consequences. On the one hand, it changes the very structure of the spacetime fabric since the new metric is built out of a minimum length below which it is impossible to resolve the distance between two points; on the other hand, the introduction of the Clifford line element extends the usual relativity of motion to the case of relative dimensionalism of all p-branes that make up the spacetime manifold near the Planck scale.
Computing generalized Langevin equations and generalized Fokker–Planck equations
Darve, Eric; Solomon, Jose; Kia, Amirali
2009-01-01
The Mori–Zwanzig formalism is an effective tool to derive differential equations describing the evolution of a small number of resolved variables. In this paper we present its application to the derivation of generalized Langevin equations and generalized non-Markovian Fokker–Planck equations. We show how long time scales rates and metastable basins can be extracted from these equations. Numerical algorithms are proposed to discretize these equations. An important aspect is the numerical solution of the orthogonal dynamics equation which is a partial differential equation in a high dimensional space. We propose efficient numerical methods to solve this orthogonal dynamics equation. In addition, we present a projection formalism of the Mori–Zwanzig type that is applicable to discrete maps. Numerical applications are presented from the field of Hamiltonian systems. PMID:19549838
Induced gravity and Planck zeros
Khuri, N.N.
1982-11-15
Starting with an asymptotically free gauge theory with dynamical symmetry breaking and a mass hierarchy, we investigate the Adler-Zee formula for the induced gravitational constant. We study the two-point function psi(q/sup 2/), constructed with the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. First, we show that if the zeros of psi are at a mass scale significantly below the leading scale, then G/sub ind/ /sup -1/ = 0 (m/sub zero/ /sup 2/) making it impossible to get a realistic G/sub ind/ from the Adler-Zee formula with low-mass zeros. Next we use the Jensen formula to derive a sum rule for Vertical Barm/sub zero/Vertical Bar. The analysis of this sum rule coupled with the result above leads to a dilemma with only one reasonable resolution. To get a realistic G/sub ind/ from the Adler-Zee formula, psi(q/sup 2/) must have a pair of complex-conjugate zeros at q/sup 2/ = M/sub 0/ /sup 2/ +- 2i..gamma..M/sub 0/, where M/sub 0/ is large and of the maximal scale and ..gamma../M/sub 0/<<1. The presence of this zero essentially determines G/sub ind/ /sup -1/. It gives a lower bound, which with our previously derived general upper bound gives (..pi../sup 2//4(ln10)288) C/sub psi/M/sub 0/ /sup 2/< or =(16..pi..G)/sup -1/ < or = (5..pi../sup 2//288) C/sub psi/M/sub 0/ /sup 2/, where C/sub psi/ is the anomaly coefficient, a number easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any group.
NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.
1973-01-01
NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.
Teleportation fidelity as a probe of sub-Planck phase-space structure
Scott, A.J. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology and Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: andrew.scott@griffith.edu.au; Caves, Carlton M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MSC07-4220, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)], E-mail: caves@info.phys.unm.edu
2008-11-15
We investigate the connection between sub-Planck structure in the Wigner function and the output fidelity of continuous-variable teleportation protocols. When the teleporting parties share a two-mode squeezed state as an entangled resource, high fidelity in the output state requires a squeezing large enough that the smallest sub-Planck structures in an input pure state are teleported faithfully. We formulate this relationship, which leads to an explicit relation between the fine-scale structure in the Wigner function and large-scale extent of the Wigner function, and we treat specific examples, including coherent, number, and random states and states produced by chaotic dynamics. We generalize the pure-state results to teleportation of mixed states.
News about TeV-scale Black Holes
S. Hossenfelder
2005-10-18
Collider produced black holes are the most exciting prediction from models with large extra dimensions. These black holes exist in an extreme region, in which gravity meets quantum field theory, particle physics, and thermodynamics. An investigation of the formation and decay processes can therefore provide us with important insights about the underlying theory and open a window to the understanding of Physics at the Planck scale. The production and the evaporation of TeV-scale black holes yields distinct signatures that have been examined closely during the last years, with analytical approaches as well as by use of numerical simulations. I present new results for the LHC, which take into account that, instead of a final decay, a black hole remnant can be left. This is a summary of the talk given at the Quark Matter 2005, Budapest, Hungary, Aug. 2005.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerber, S.; Brookshire, J.
2013-12-01
Nutrient limitation in terrestrial ecosystems is often accompanied with maintaining a nearly closed vegetation-soil nutrient cycle. The ability to retain nutrients in an ecosystem requires the capacity of the plant-soil system to draw down nutrient levels in soils effectually such that export concentrations in soil solutions remain low. Here we address the physical constraints of plant nutrient uptake which may be limited by the diffusive movement of nutrients in soils, the uptake at the root/mycorrhizal surface, and from interactions with soil water flow. We derive an analytical framework of soil nutrient transport and uptake and predict levels of plant available nutrient concentration and residence time. Our results, which we evaluate for nitrogen, show that the physical environment permits plants to lower soil solute concentration substantially. Our analysis confirms that plant uptake capacities in soils are considerable such that water movement in soils is generally too small to significantly erode dissolved plant available nitrogen. Inorganic nitrogen concentrations in headwater streams are congruent with the prediction of our theoretical framework. Our framework offers a physical-based parameterization of nutrient uptake in ecosystem models and has the potential to serve as an important tool towards scaling biogeochemical cycles from individual roots to landscapes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Supratik
2015-03-01
Conventional density and performance scaling of the silicon microprocessor will reach an end within about a decade. In anticipation of this, there has been extensive interest in examining materials and devices that will replace silicon transistors. There is also the more far reaching interest in going beyond conventional computing and exploring non-Boolean forms of logic, and the devices and materials that will go with it. I will describe some of the research at IBM in these areas, including our work in developing carbon nanotube transistors as a drop in replacement for the silicon MOSFET.
Staton, Robert J.; Jones, A. Kyle; Lee, Choonik; Hintenlang, David E.; Arreola, Manuel M.; Williams, Jonathon L.; Bolch, Wesley E. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0374 (United States); Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States)
2006-09-15
Following the recent completion of a tomographic physical newborn dosimetry phantom with incorporated metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimetry system, it was necessary to derive scaling factors in order to calculate organ doses in the physical phantom given point dose measurements via the MOSFET dosimeters (preceding article in this issue). In this study, we present the initial development of scaling factors using projection radiograph data. These point-to-organ dose scaling factors (SF{sub POD}) were calculated using a computational phantom created from the same data set as the physical phantom, but which also includes numerous segmented internal organs and tissues. The creation of these scaling factors is discussed, as well as the errors associated when using only point dose measurements to calculate mean organ doses and effective doses in physical phantoms. Scaling factors for various organs ranged from as low as 0.70 to as high as 1.71. Also, the ability to incorporate improvements in the computational phantom into the physical phantom using scaling factors is discussed. An comprehensive set of SF{sub POD} values is presented in this article for application in pediatric radiography of newborn patients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swanson, Molly E. C.
2008-08-01
Particles have tremendous potential as astronomical messengers, and conversely, studying the universe as a whole also teaches us about particle physics. This thesis encompasses both of these research directions. Many models predict a diffuse flux of high energy neutrinos from active galactic nuclei and other astrophysical sources. The "Astrophysics Underground" portion of this thesis describes a search for this neutrino flux performed by looking for very high energy upward-going muons using the Super-K detector. In addition to using particles to do astronomy, we can also use the universe itself as a particle physics lab. The "Particle Physics in the Sky" portion of this thesis focuses on extracting cosmological information from galaxy surveys. To overcome technical challenges faced by the latest galaxy surveys, we produced a comprehensive upgrade to mangle, a software package that processes the angular masks defining the survey area on the sky. We added dramatically faster algorithms and new useful features that are necessary for managing complex masks of current and next-generation galaxy surveys. With this software in hand, we utilized SDSS data to investigate the relation between galaxies and dark matter by studying relative bias, i.e., the relation between different types of galaxies. Separating galaxies by their luminosities and colors reveals a complicated picture: red galaxies are clustered more strongly than blue galaxies, with both the brightest and the faintest red galaxies showing the strongest clustering. Furthermore, red and blue galaxies tend to occupy different regions of space. In order to make precise measurements from the next generation of galaxy surveys, it will be essential to account for this complexity.
Hlushkou, Dzmitry; Bruns, Stefan; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Tallarek, Ulrich
2011-08-01
This work describes individual steps of an approach toward quantitative correlations between morphological and mass transport properties of capillary silica monoliths. The macropore space morphology of the central core region of the capillary monolith is visualized by a fast, nondestructive, and quantitative method using three-dimensional reconstruction from confocal laser scanning microscopy images. The reconstructed 60??m×60??m×12??m monolith domain consisted of 1.6×10(9) cubic voxels with 30?nm edge length. The received morphological data were chord length distributions for the bulk macropore space and skeleton of the monolith, which we characterized by k-gamma distributions. This analysis provides parameters that can be correlated with the mass transport properties obtained by macropore-scale simulations of flow and transport in the reconstructed monolith. These simulations were realized on a supercomputing platform and comprised the lattice-Boltzmann method for fluid flow and a random-walk particle-tracking method for advective-diffusive mass transport. The characteristic length scales of eddy dispersion correlate with the statistical measures of the chord length distributions. Simulated plate height curves demonstrate that the bulk monolith is very homogeneous, and that the intraskeleton transport properties and a stochastic variation of macropore space characteristics can be neglected compared with the importance of reducing column radial heterogeneity in chromatographic practice. PMID:21648079
A Large Scale Wind Tunnel for the Study of High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Priyadarshana, Paththage; Klewicki, Joseph; Wosnik, Martin; White, Chris
2008-11-01
Progress and the basic features of the University of New Hampshire's very large multi-disciplinary wind tunnel are reported. The refinement of the overall design has been greatly aided through consultations with an external advisory group. The facility test section is 73 m long, 6 m wide, and 2.5 m nominally high, and the maximum free stream velocity is 30 m/s. A very large tunnel with relatively low velocities makes the small scale turbulent motions resolvable by existing measurement systems. The maximum Reynolds number is estimated at &+circ;= ?u?/?˜50000, where ? is the boundary layer thickness and u? is the friction velocity. The effects of scale separation on the generation of the Reynolds stress gradient appearing in the mean momentum equation are briefly discussed to justify the need to attain &+circ; in excess of about 40000. Lastly, plans for future utilization of the facility as a community-wide resource are outlined. This project is supported through the NSF-EPSCoR RII Program, grant number EPS0701730.
1/12-scale physical modeling experiments in support of tank 241-SY- 101 hydrogen mitigation
Fort, J.A.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Enderlin, C.W.; Elmore, M.R.
1993-01-01
Hanford tank 241-SY-101 is a 75-ft-dia double-shell tank that contains approximately 1.1 M gal of radioactive fuel reprocessing waste. Core samples have shown that the tank contents are separated into two main layers, a article laden supernatant liquid at the top of the tank and a more dense slurry on the bottom. Two additional layers may be present, one being a potentially thick sludge lying beneath the slurry at the bottom of the tank and the other being the crust that has formed on the surface of the supernatant liquid. The supernatant is more commonly referred to as the convective layer and the slurry as the non-convective layer. Accumulation of gas (partly hydrogen) in the non-convective layer is suspected to be the key mechanism behind the gas burp phenomena, and several mitigation schemes are being developed to encourage a more uniform gas release rate (Benegas 1992). To support the full-scale hydraulic mitigation test, scaled experiments were performed to satisfy two objectives: 1. provide an experimental database for numerical- model validation; 2. establish operating parameter values required to mobilize the settled solids and maintain the solids in suspension.
Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries. PMID:25448192
Physics-based compact model for ultra-scaled FinFETs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yesayan, Ashkhen; Prégaldiny, Fabien; Chevillon, Nicolas; Lallement, Christophe; Sallese, Jean-Michel
2011-08-01
A physical and explicit compact model for lightly doped FinFETs is presented. This design-oriented model is valid for a large range of silicon Fin widths and lengths, using only a very few number of model parameters. The quantum mechanical effects (QMEs), which are very significant for thin Fins below 15 nm, are included in the model as a correction to the surface potential. A physics-based approach is also followed to model short-channel effects (roll-off), drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), subthreshold slope degradation, drain saturation voltage, velocity saturation, channel length modulation and carrier mobility degradation. The quasi-static model is then developed and accurately accounts for small-geometry effects as well. This compact model is accurate in all regions of operation, from weak to strong inversion and from linear to saturation regions. It has been implemented in the high-level language Verilog-A and exhibits an excellent numerical efficiency. Finally, comparisons of the model with 3D numerical simulations show a very good agreement making this model well-suited for advanced circuit simulations.
Web-Based Assessments of Physical Activity in Youth: Considerations for Design and Scale Calibration
2014-01-01
This paper describes the design and methods involved in calibrating a Web-based self-report instrument to estimate physical activity behavior. The limitations of self-report measures are well known, but calibration methods enable the reported information to be equated to estimates obtained from objective data. This paper summarizes design considerations for effective development and calibration of physical activity self-report measures. Each of the design considerations is put into context and followed by a practical application based on our ongoing calibration research with a promising online self-report tool called the Youth Activity Profile (YAP). We first describe the overall concept of calibration and how this influences the selection of appropriate self-report tools for this population. We point out the advantages and disadvantages of different monitoring devices since the choice of the criterion measure and the strategies used to minimize error in the measure can dramatically improve the quality of the data. We summarize strategies to ensure quality control in data collection and discuss analytical considerations involved in group- vs individual-level inference. For cross-validation procedures, we describe the advantages of equivalence testing procedures that directly test and quantify agreement. Lastly, we introduce the unique challenges encountered when transitioning from paper to a Web-based tool. The Web offers considerable potential for broad adoption but an iterative calibration approach focused on continued refinement is needed to ensure that estimates are generalizable across individuals, regions, seasons and countries. PMID:25448192
MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes
Yanling Zhang; Yong Zhang; Jun Adachi; Jesper V. Olsen; Rong Shi; Gustavo De Souza; Erica Pasini; Leonard J. Foster; Boris Macek; Alexandre Zougman; Chanchal Kumar; Jacek R. Wisniewski; Jan Wang; Matthias Mann
2007-01-01
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of
Geometric Singular Perturbation Approach to Steady-State Poisson--Nernst--Planck Systems
Weishi Liu
2005-01-01
Boundary value problems of a one-dimensional steady-state Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system for ion flow through a narrow membrane channel are studied. By assuming the ratio of the Debye length to a characteristic length to be small, the PNP system can be viewed as a singularly perturbed problem with multiple time scales and is analyzed using the newly developed geometric singular perturbation
Planck-scale modified dispersion relations and Finsler geometry
Girelli, F.; Liberati, S.; Sindoni, L. [SISSA, Via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)
2007-03-15
A common feature of all quantum gravity (QG) phenomenology approaches is to consider a modification of the mass-shell condition of the relativistic particle to take into account quantum gravitational effects. The framework for such approaches is therefore usually set up in the cotangent bundle (phase space). However it was recently proposed that this phenomenology could be associated with an energy dependent geometry that has been coined 'rainbow metric'. We show here that the latter actually corresponds to a Finsler geometry, the natural generalization of Riemannian geometry. We provide in this way a new and rigorous framework to study the geometrical structure possibly arising in the semiclassical regime of QG. We further investigate the symmetries in this new context and discuss their role in alternative scenarios like Lorentz violation in emergent spacetimes or deformed special relativity-like models.
Fokker–Planck modeling of electron kinetics in plasmas and semiconductors
Vladimir I. Kolobov
2003-01-01
The paper reviews physical principles and computational methods of solving the multi-dimensional Fokker–Planck equation (FPE) in application to electron kinetics in gas discharge plasmas and semiconductor devices. The four-dimensional (3 spatial coordinates+energy) FPE is obtained from the 6D Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) for the case when momentum relaxation occurs faster than energy relaxation. The FPE-based methods offer a very good
Quasilinear simulation of auroral kilometric radiation by a relativistic Fokker-Planck code
Matsuda, Y.
1991-01-01
An intense terrestrial radiation called the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is believed to be generated by cyclotron maser instability. We study a quasilinear evolution of this instability by means of a two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code which treats waves and distributions self-consistently, including radiation loss and electron source and sink. We compare the distributions and wave amplitude with spacecraft observations to elucidate physical processes involved. 3 refs., 1 fig.
Gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck Collision Operator
Li, B.; Ernst, D. R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2011-05-13
The gyrokinetic linearized exact Fokker-Planck collision operator is obtained in a form suitable for plasma gyrokinetic equations, for arbitrary mass ratio. The linearized Fokker-Planck operator includes both the test-particle and field-particle contributions, and automatically conserves particles, momentum, and energy, while ensuring non-negative entropy production. Finite gyroradius effects in both field-particle and test-particle terms are evaluated. When implemented in gyrokinetic simulations, these effects can be precomputed. The field-particle operator at each time step requires the evaluation of a single two-dimensional integral, and is not only more accurate, but appears to be less expensive to evaluate than conserving model operators.
On Quantum Fokker-Planck Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Ryosuke
2015-01-01
The quantum Fokker-Planck equation (QFPE) is revisited. Provided that the molecule is the Maxwellian molecule, the quantum Landau-Fokker-Planck equation is divided into characteristic four terms. The characteristics of three terms among four terms are investigated on the basis of Grad's method, whereas the characteristics of the remained term, which is attributed to the collisional term of the QFPE proposed by Kaniadakis-Quarati, when the distribution function of the colliding partner is under the equilibrium state, are numerically investigated. The numerical result indicates that the time evolution of the distribution function obtained using such a remained term is instable, when the equilibrium or nonequilibrium state is given as initial data of the distribution function. Such an instability of the distribution function can be described by analyzing the propagation of the plane harmonic wave in one dimensional velocity space.
Planck 2013 results. III. LFI systematic uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, D.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
We present the current estimate of instrumental and systematic effect uncertainties for the Planck-Low Frequency Instrument relevant to the first release of the Planck cosmological results. We give an overview of the main effects and of the tools and methods applied to assess residuals in maps and power spectra. We also present an overall budget of known systematic effect uncertainties, which are dominated by sidelobe straylight pick-up and imperfect calibration. However, even these two effects are at least two orders of magnitude weaker than the cosmic microwave background fluctuations as measured in terms of the angular temperature power spectrum. A residual signal above the noise level is present in the multipole range ? < 20, most notably at 30 GHz, and is probably caused by residual Galactic straylight contamination. Current analysis aims to further reduce the level of spurious signals in the data and to improve the systematic effects modelling, in particular with respect to straylight and calibration uncertainties.
Physical Mechanisms and Scaling Laws of K-Shell Double Photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoszowska, J.; Kheifets, A. K.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Berset, M.; Bray, I.; Cao, W.; Fennane, K.; Kayser, Y.; Kav?i?, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Szlachetko, M.
2009-02-01
We report on the photon energy dependence of the K-shell double photoionization (DPI) of Mg, Al, and Si. The DPI cross sections were derived from high-resolution measurements of x-ray spectra following the radiative decay of the K-shell double vacancy states. Our data evince the relative importance of the final-state electron-electron interaction to the DPI. By comparing the double-to-single K-shell photoionization cross-section ratios for neutral atoms with convergent close-coupling calculations for He-like ions, the effect of outer shell electrons on the K-shell DPI process is assessed. Universal scaling of the DPI cross sections with the effective nuclear charge for neutral atoms is revealed.
Black hole physics. Black hole lightning due to particle acceleration at subhorizon scales.
Aleksi?, J; Ansoldi, S; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barrio, J A; Becerra González, J; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Delgado Mendez, C; Dominis Prester, D; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido Terrats, D; Gaug, M; Godinovi?, N; González Muñoz, A; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Prada Moroni, P G; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rodriguez Garcia, J; Rügamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzi?, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Zanin, R; Kadler, M; Schulz, R; Ros, E; Bach, U; Krauß, F; Wilms, J
2014-11-28
Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet. PMID:25378461
Scale-free flow of life: on the biology, economics, and physics of the cell
Kurakin, Alexei
2009-01-01
The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies. PMID:19416527
Price, W.; Chen, Y; Handelman, S; Neely, H; Manor, P; Karlin, R; Nair, R; Montelione, G; Hunt, J; et. al.
2008-01-01
Crystallization is the most serious bottleneck in high-throughput protein-structure determination by diffraction methods. We have used data mining of the large-scale experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium and experimental folding studies to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. This analysis leads to the conclusion that crystallization propensity depends primarily on the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes capable of mediating interprotein interactions and is not strongly influenced by overall thermodynamic stability. We identify specific sequence features that correlate with crystallization propensity and that can be used to estimate the crystallization probability of a given construct. Analyses of entire predicted proteomes demonstrate substantial differences in the amino acid-sequence properties of human versus eubacterial proteins, which likely reflect differences in biophysical properties, including crystallization propensity. Our thermodynamic measurements do not generally support previous claims regarding correlations between sequence properties and protein stability.
Price, W Nicholson; Chen, Yang; Handelman, Samuel K; Neely, Helen; Manor, Philip; Karlin, Richard; Nair, Rajesh; Liu, Jinfeng; Baran, Michael; Everett, John; Tong, Saichiu N; Forouhar, Farhad; Swaminathan, Swarup S; Acton, Thomas; Xiao, Rong; Luft, Joseph R; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George T; Rost, Burkhard; Montelione, Gaetano T; Hunt, John F
2009-01-01
Crystallization is the most serious bottleneck in high-throughput protein-structure determination by diffraction methods. We have used data mining of the large-scale experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium and experimental folding studies to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. This analysis leads to the conclusion that crystallization propensity depends primarily on the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes capable of mediating interprotein interactions and is not strongly influenced by overall thermodynamic stability. We identify specific sequence features that correlate with crystallization propensity and that can be used to estimate the crystallization probability of a given construct. Analyses of entire predicted proteomes demonstrate substantial differences in the amino acid-sequence properties of human versus eubacterial proteins, which likely reflect differences in biophysical properties, including crystallization propensity. Our thermodynamic measurements do not generally support previous claims regarding correlations between sequence properties and protein stability. PMID:19079241
The Qweak Experiment -- A search for new physics at the TeV Scale
Willem T. H. van Oers
2007-08-21
A new precision measurement of the parity violating analyzing power in longitudinally polarized electron scattering from the proton at very low Q^2 at an incident energy of 1.16 GeV is in the final stages of preparation for execution at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). A 2200 hour measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at Q^2 = 0.03 (GeV/c)^2 employing 180 microamp of 85% polarized beam on a 0.35 m long liquid hydrogen target will determine the weak charge of the proton, Q_w = 1 - 4sin^2(theta_W), with 4% combined statistical and systematic errors. The Standard Model makes a firm prediction of Q_w, based on the `running' of the weak mixing angle sin^2(theta_W) from the Z-pole down to lower energies. Any significant deviation of sin^2(theta_W) from its Standard Model prediction at low Q^2 would constitute a signal of new physics. In the absence of new physics, the envisaged experiment will provide a 0.3% determination of sin^2(theta_W), making this a very competitive measurement of the weak mixing angle. Complementary to the present experiment is a measurement of the weak charge of the electron in parity violating Moller scattering at 11 GeV, currently under consideration, with the upgraded CEBAF at JLab. The objective of that experiment would be a measurement of sin2(theta_W) with a precision comparable to or better than any individual measurement at the Z-pole.
Stabilizing the Planck mass shortly after inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Bruck, Carsten; Christopherson, Adam; Robinson, Mathew
2015-06-01
We consider a model of the early Universe which consists of two scalar fields: the inflaton and a second field which drives the stabilization of the Planck mass (or gravitational constant). We show that the nonminimal coupling of this second field to the Ricci scalar sources a nonadiabatic pressure perturbation. By performing a fully numerical calculation, we find, in turn, that this boosts the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum after inflation.
Angular momentum quantization from Planck's energy quantization
J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki; D. S. Bonafe
2007-09-26
We present in this work a pedagogical way of quantizing the atomic orbit for the hydrogen's atom model proposed by Bohr without using his hypothesis of angular momentum quantization. In contrast to the usual treatment for the orbital quantization, we show that using energy conservation, correspondence principle and Plank's energy quantization Bohr's hypothesis can be deduced from and is a consequence of the Planck's energy quantization.
SINGER, A.; GILLESPIE, D.; NORBURY, J.; EISENBERG, R. S.
2009-01-01
Ion channels are proteins with a narrow hole down their middle that control a wide range of biological function by controlling the flow of spherical ions from one macroscopic region to another. Ion channels do not change their conformation on the biological time scale once they are open, so they can be described by a combination of Poisson and drift-diffusion (Nernst–Planck) equations called PNP in biophysics. We use singular perturbation techniques to analyse the steady-state PNP system for a channel with a general geometry and a piecewise constant permanent charge profile. We construct an outer solution for the case of a constant permanent charge density in three dimensions that is also a valid solution of the one-dimensional system. The asymptotical current–voltage (I–V ) characteristic curve of the device (obtained by the singular perturbation analysis) is shown to be a very good approximation of the numerical I–V curve (obtained by solving the system numerically). The physical constraint of non-negative concentrations implies a unique solution, i.e., for each given applied potential there corresponds a unique electric current (relaxing this constraint yields non-physical multiple solutions for sufficiently large voltages). PMID:19809600
Scale-invariance as the origin of dark radiation?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbunov, Dmitry; Tokareva, Anna
2014-12-01
Recent cosmological data favor R2-inflation and some amount of non-standard dark radiation in the Universe. We show that a framework of high energy scale invariance can explain these data. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry provides gravity with the Planck mass and particle physics with the electroweak scale. We found that the corresponding massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons - dilatons - are produced at reheating by the inflaton decay right at the amount needed to explain primordial abundances of light chemical elements and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Then we extended the discussion on the interplay with Higgs-inflation and on general class of inflationary models where dilatons are allowed and may form the dark radiation. As a result we put a lower limit on the reheating temperature in a general scale invariant model of inflation.
Scale-invariance as the origin of dark radiation?
Dmitry Gorbunov; Anna Tokareva
2014-11-11
Recent cosmological data favour R^2-inflation and some amount of non-standard dark radiation in the Universe. We show that a framework of high energy scale invariance can explain these data. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry provides gravity with the Planck mass and particle physics with the electroweak scale. We found that the corresponding massless Nambu--Goldstone bosons -- dilatons -- are produced at reheating by the inflaton decay right at the amount needed to explain primordial abundances of light chemical elements and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Then we extended the discussion on the interplay with Higgs-inflation and on general class of inflationary models where dilatons are allowed and may form the dark radiation. As a result we put a lower limit on the reheating temperature in a general scale invariant model of inflation.
Thomas, Peter J.
Complexity, segregation, and pattern formation in rotating-drum flows G. Seiden* Max Planck 17 November 2011) Rotating-drum flows span a variety of research areas, ranging from physics. The existing literature related to rotating-drum flows is reviewed, highlighting similarities and differences
ASYMPTOTIC-PRESERVING SCHEME FOR THE FOKKER-PLANCK-LANDAU-MAXWELL SYSTEM IN THE QUASI-NEUTRAL
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ASYMPTOTIC-PRESERVING SCHEME FOR THE FOKKER-PLANCK-LANDAU-MAXWELL SYSTEM IN THE QUASI and limit models. Such schemes are called Asymptotic-Preserving (AP) schemes in literature. This new scheme physically relevant numerical test cases are presented for the Asymptotic-Preserving scheme in different
Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration
Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2015-01-01
We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...
Making sky maps from Planck data
M. A. J. Ashdown; C. Baccigalupi; A. Balbi; J. G. Bartlett; J. Borrill; C. Cantalupo; G. de Gasperis; K. M. Gorski; E. Hivon; E. Keihanen; H. Kurki-Suonio; C. R. Lawrence; P. Natoli; T. Poutanen; S. Prunet; M. Reinecke; R. Stompor; B. Wandelt
2006-06-14
We compare the performance of multiple codes written by different groups for making polarized maps from Planck-sized, all-sky cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Three of the codes are based on a destriping algorithm; the other three are implementations of an optimal maximum-likelihood algorithm. Time-ordered data (TOD) were simulated using the Planck Level-S simulation pipeline. Several cases of temperature-only data were run to test that the codes could handle large datasets, and to explore effects such as the precision of the pointing data. Based on these preliminary results, TOD were generated for a set of four 217 GHz detectors (the minimum number required to produce I, Q, and U maps) under two different scanning strategies, with and without noise. Following correction of various problems revealed by the early simulation, all codes were able to handle the large data volume that Planck will produce. Differences in maps produced are small but noticeable; differences in computing resources are large.
Reichenheim, M; Moraes, C
2004-01-01
Study objective: Because of the promise of its ability to quickly identify cases of violence against women during pregnancy, the abuse assessment screen (AAS) should be the focus of numerous psychometric evaluations. This paper assesses its measurement accuracy compared with the revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) used as standard. Design: Cross sectional study. Besides several ancillary questions, the AAS consists of three anchor questions about violence against pregnant women. These are inclusive, respectively covering lifetime, preceding 12 months, and pregnancy periods. These questions are the main focus of this article. The CTS2 physical aggression scale consists of 12 items divided into minor and severe subscales. A positive event is defined as having at least one positive item in the respective subscale. The 12 item score is also used. Setting and participants: The instruments were applied to 748 women, 24 to 72 hours after delivery in three major public sector maternity wards of Rio de Janeiro from March to September 2000. Main results: According to the CTS2, prevalences of minor and severe physical violence perpetrated against a pregnant woman are 18.4% (95% CI 15.7 to 21.4) and 7.6% (95% CI 5.8 to 9.8), respectively. Taking these subscales as standards, sensitivities are 31.9% (95% CI 24.9 to 40.3) and 61.4% (95% CI 47.6 to 74.0), respectively. Specificities are above 97%. Conclusion: These findings are somewhat worrying because the number of victims who are not identified and offered assistance is considerable. On a practical note, it would be sensible not to use the AAS as a stand alone screening tool until more evidence is gathered. PMID:15143123
NSDL National Science Digital Library
K-12 Outreach,
Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.
Price, W. Nicholson; Chen, Yang; Handelman, Samuel K.; Neely, Helen; Manor, Philip; Karlin, Richard; Nair, Rajesh; Liu, Jinfeng; Baran, Michael; Everett, John; Tong, Saichiu N.; Forouhar, Farhad; Swaminathan, Swarup S.; Acton, Thomas; Xiao, Rong; Luft, Joseph R.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George T.; Rost, Burkhard; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Hunt, John F.
2009-01-01
Crystallization has proven to be the most significant bottleneck to high-throughput protein structure determination using diffraction methods. We have used the large-scale, systematically generated experimental results of the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium to characterize the biophysical properties that control protein crystallization. Datamining of crystallization results combined with explicit folding studies lead to the conclusion that crystallization propensity is controlled primarily by the prevalence of well-ordered surface epitopes capable of mediating interprotein interactions and is not strongly influenced by overall thermodynamic stability. These analyses identify specific sequence features correlating with crystallization propensity that can be used to estimate the crystallization probability of a given construct. Analyses of entire predicted proteomes demonstrate substantial differences in the bulk amino acid sequence properties of human versus eubacterial proteins that reflect likely differences in their biophysical properties including crystallization propensity. Finally, our thermodynamic measurements enable critical evaluation of previous claims regarding correlations between protein stability and bulk sequence properties, which generally are not supported by our dataset. PMID:19079241
Magnetism on a Mesoscopic Scale: Molecular Nanomagnets Bridging Quantum and Classical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konstantinidis, Nikolaos P.; Sundt, Alexander; Nehrkorn, Joscha; Machens, Anna; Waldmann, Oliver
2011-07-01
In recent years polynuclear transition metal molecules have been synthesized and proposed for example as magnetic storage units or qubits in quantum computers. They are known as molecular nanomagnets and belong in the class of mesoscopic systems, which are large enough to display many-body effects but small enough to be away from the finite-size scaling regime. It is a challenge for physicists to understand their magnetic properties, and for synthetic chemists to efficiently tailor them by assembling fundamental units. They are complementary to artificially engineered spin systems for surface deposition, as they support a wider variety of complex states in their low energy spectrum. Here a few characteristic examples of molecular nanomagnets showcasing unusual many-body effects are presented. Antiferromagnetic wheels and chains can be described in classical terms for small sizes and large spins to a great extent, even though their wavefunctions do not significantly overlap with semiclassical configurations. Hence, surprisingly, for them the transition from the classical to the quantum regime is blurred. A specific example is the Fe18 wheel, which displays quantum phase interference by allowing Néel vector tunneling in a magnetic field. Finally, the Co5Cl single-molecule magnet is shown to have an unusual anisotropic response to a magnetic field.
Simulations of cosmic rays in large-scale structures: numerical and physical effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vazza, F.; Gheller, C.; Brüggen, M.
2014-04-01
Non-thermal (relativistic) particles are injected into the cosmos by structure formation shock waves, active galactic nuclei and stellar explosions. We present a suite of unigrid cosmological simulations (up to 20483) using a two-fluid model in the grid code ENZO. The simulations include the dynamical effects of cosmic ray (CR) protons and cover a range of theoretically motivated acceleration efficiencies. For the bulk of the cosmic volume the modelling of CR processes is rather stable with respect to resolution, provided that a minimum (cell) resolution of ?100 kpc h-1 is employed. However, the results for the innermost cluster regions depend on the assumptions for the baryonic physics. Inside clusters, non-radiative runs at high resolution tend to produce an energy density of CRs that are below available upper limits from the Fermi satellite, while the radiative runs are found to produce a higher budget of CRs. We show that weak (M ? 3-5) shocks and shock-re-acceleration are crucial to set the level of CRs in the innermost region of clusters, while in the outer regions the level of CR energy is mainly set via direct injection by stronger shocks, and is less sensitive to cooling and feedback from active galactic nuclei and supernovae.
Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure
Slosar, A.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al
2015-03-01
This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more »Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less