Science.gov

Sample records for planetary geologic mappers

  1. Abstracts of the annual meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers: June 21-22, 2002, Tempe, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K. P., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual meeting of planetary geologic mappers allows mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems. In addition, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GEMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips that offer Earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems or workshops that provide information and status of current missions. The 2002 meeting of planetary geologic mappers was held June 21-22 at the Mars Flight Facility, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. Dr. Phil Christensen graciously offered the use of the newly renovated facility, and Ms. Kelly Bender not only proved to be a courteous hostess, but also arranged a short workshop on June 23 regarding TES and THEMIS data. Approximately 30 people attended each day of the 2-day meeting, although not the same 30—some attended only on Thursday and others only on Friday. On Thursday, eight mappers gave oral presentations of Mars mapping, and an additional two presentations were presented as posters only. Eight oral presentations on Venus mapping were given on Friday, and an additional four presentations were posters only. Twelve people attended the TES/THEMIS workshop. Presentations of Ganymede mapping and Europa mapping (the latter not yet financially sponsored by PG&G mapping program) were also given on Friday. Aside from the regular presentations of maps-in-progress, there were some additional talks. Lisa Gaddis (USGS) presented a proposal seeking support for a new lunar mapping program in light of all the new data available; she made a good case that the GEMS panel discussed. Jim Skinner (USGS) gave

  2. Abstracts of the annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Timothy J., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Senske, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The annual Planetary Geologic Mappers Meeting serves two purposes. In addition to giving mappers the opportunity to exchange ideas, experiences, victories, and problems with others, presentations are reviewed by the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GeMS) to provide input to the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Mapping Program review panel’s consideration of new proposals and progress reports that include mapping tasks. Funded mappers bring both oral presentation materials (slides or viewgraphs) and map products to post for review by GeMS and fellow mappers. Additionally, the annual meetings typically feature optional field trips offering earth analogs and parallels to planetary mapping problems. The 2001 Mappers Meeting, June 18-19, was convened by Tim Parker, Dave Senske, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by Larry Crumpler and Jayne Aubele of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Oral presentations were given in the Museum’s Honeywell Auditorium, and maps were posted in the Sandia Room. In addition to active mappers, guests included local science teachers who had successfully competed for the right to attend and listen to the reports. It was a unique pleasure for mappers to have the opportunity to interact with and provide information to teachers responding so enthusiastically to the meeting presentation. On Sunday, June 17, Larry and Jayne conducted an optional pre-meeting field trip. The flanks of Rio Grande Rift, east and west of Albuquerque and Valles Caldera north of town presented tectonic, volcanic, and sedimentary examples of the Rift and adjoining areas analogous to observed features on Mars and Venus. The arid but volcanically and tectonically active environment of New Mexico’s rift valley enables focus on features that appear morphologically young and spectacular in satellite images and digital relief models. The theme of the trip was to see what, at orbiter resolution, "obvious" geologic features look like at

  3. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Tucson, AZ 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K.P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Report of the Annual Mappers Meeting Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona June 28 and 29, 2007 Approximately 22 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The 2007 meeting was convened by Tracy Gregg, Les Bleamaster, Steve Saunders, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by David Crown and Les Bleamaster of the Planetary Science Institute (PSI) in Tucson, Arizona. Oral presentations and poster discussions took place on Thursday, June 28 and Friday, June 29. This year's meeting also included a unique opportunity to visit the operations centers of two active Mars missions; field trips to the University of Arizona took place on Thursday and Friday afternoons. Outgoing Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) chairperson, Tracy Gregg, commenced the meeting with an introduction and David Crown followed with a discussion of logistics and the PSI facility; Steve Saunders (Planetary Geology and Geophysics Discipline Scientist) then provided a brief program update. Science presentations kicked off with Venus mapper Vicki Hansen and graduate students Eric Tharalson and Bhairavi Shankar of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, showing a 3-D animation of the global distribution of tesserae and discussing the implications, a progress report for V-45 quadrangle mapping, and a brief discussion of circular lows. Les Bleamaster (PSI) followed with a progress report on mapping of the V-50 quadrangle and the 1:10M Helen Planitia quadrangle. David Crown (PSI) concluded the Venus presentations with a discussion of progress made on the V-30 quadrangle. The remainder of Thursday's presentations jumped around the Solar System including Mars, Io, and Earth. Ken Tanaka of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the afternoon with a general discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS. Buck Janes (University of Arizona) provided background information about the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) and

  4. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Nampa, Idaho 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, Tracy K. P., (Edited By); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 18 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The meeting was held on the campus of Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), and was graciously hosted by NNU's School of Health and Science. Planetary mapper Dr. Jim Zimbelman is an alumnus of NNU, and he was pivotal in organizing the meeting at this location. Oral and poster presentations were given on Friday, June 30. Drs. Bill Bonnichsen and Marty Godchaux led field excursions on July 1 and 2. USGS Astrogeology Team Chief Scientist Lisa Gaddis led the meeting with a brief discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS, and a more detailed description of the Lunar Mapping Program. She indicated that there is now a functioning website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/Lunar/) which shows which lunar quadrangles are available to be mapped. Like other USGS-published maps, proposals to complete a lunar geologic map must be submitted to the regular Planetary Geology & Geophysics (PGG) program for peer review. Jim Skinner (USGS) later presented the progress of the 1:2.5M-scale map of the lunar Copernicus quadrangle, and demonstrated the wide range of data that are available to support these maps. Gaddis and Skinner encouraged the community to submit proposals for generating lunar geologic maps, and reminded us that, as for all planetary maps, the project must be science-driven. Venus mapper Jim Zimbelman of the Smithsonian Institution (SI) presented the progress for his V-15 and V-16 quadrangles; Vicki Hansen (University of Minnesota Duluth) showed her preliminary work on V-45. Zimbelman addressed an issue that has been plaguing the community: 'delinquent Venus mappers'. In short, there were a number of Venus maps funded in the early 1990s under the Venus Data Analysis Program (VDAP). Unfortunately, funding for this program was cut before many Venus maps could be completed, resulting in about 10 Venus maps that

  5. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, San Antonio, TX, 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Kelley, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Geologic Mapping of the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) Region of Venus: A Progress Report; Geologic Map of the Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle (V-1): Implications for Tectonic and Volcanic History of the North Polar Region of Venus; Preliminary Geological Map of the Fortuna Tessera (V-2) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Map of the Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of V-19; Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle; Geologic Mapping of the Lunar South Pole, Quadrangle LQ-30: Volcanic History and Stratigraphy of Schr dinger Basin; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars; Geologic Mapping Investigations of the Northwest Rim of Hellas Basin, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region of Mars; Geology of a Portion of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002 and -25007; Geologic Mapping of Holden Crater and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava Outflow System; Mapping Tyrrhena Patera and Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of Athabaca Valles; Geologic Mapping of MTM -30247, -35247 and -40247 Quadrangles, Reull Vallis Region, Mars Topography of the Martian Impact Crater Tooting; Mars Structural and Stratigraphic Mapping along the Coprates Rise; Geology of Libya Montes and the Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: Project Introduction and First Year Work Plan; Geology of the Southern Utopia Planitia Highland-Lowland Boundary Plain: Second Year Results and Third Year Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping: About Half Way Done; New Geologic Map of the Scandia Region of Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars and the Northern Lowland Plains of Venus; Volcanism on Io: Insights from Global Geologic Mapping; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009.

  6. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Interbasin Plains of Northern Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: First Year Results and Second Year Work Plan; Mars Global Geologic Mapping Progress and Suggested Geographic-Based Hierarchal Systems for Unit Grouping and Naming; Progress in the Scandia Region Geologic Map of Mars; Geomorphic Mapping of MTMS -20022 and -20017; Geologic Mapping of the Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars, and the Northern Lowland Plains, Venus; Volcanism on Io: Results from Global Geologic Mapping; Employing Geodatabases for Planetary Mapping Conduct - Requirements, Concepts and Solutions; and Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010.

  7. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Flagstaff, AZ, 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleamaster, Leslie F., III (Editor); Tanaka, Kenneth L. (Editor); Kelley, Michael S. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Merging of the USGS Atlas of Mercury 1:5,000,000 Geologic Series; Geologic Mapping of the V-36 Thetis Regio Quadrangle: 2008 Progress Report; Structural Maps of the V-17 Beta Regio Quadrangle, Venus; Geologic Mapping of Isabella Quadrangle (V-50) and Helen Planitia, Venus; Renewed Mapping of the Nepthys Mons Quadrangle (V-54), Venus; Mapping the Sedna-Lavinia Region of Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Guinevere Planitia Quadrangle of Venus; Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons; Geological Mapping of the North Polar Region of Venus (V-1 Snegurochka Planitia): Significant Problems and Comparisons to the Earth's Archean; Venus Quadrangle Geological Mapping: Use of Geoscience Data Visualization Systems in Mapping and Training; Geologic Map of the V-1 Snegurochka Planitia Quadrangle: Progress Report; The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands; Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping; Geologic Map of the Meskhent Tessera Quadrangle (V-3), Venus: Evidence for Early Formation and Preservation of Regional Topography; Geological Mapping of the Lada Terra (V-56) Quadrangle, Venus: A Progress Report; Geology of the Lachesis Tessera Quadrangle (V-18), Venus; Geologic Mapping of the Juno Chasma Quadrangle, Venus: Establishing the Relation Between Rifting and Volcanism; Geologic Mapping of V-19, V-28, and V-53; Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update; Geologic Mapping of the Marius Quadrangle, the Moon; Geologic Mapping along the Arabia Terra Dichotomy Boundary: Mawrth Vallis and Nili Fossae, Mars: Introductory Report; New Geologic Map of the Argyre Region of Mars; Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007; Mapping Hesperia Planum, Mars; Geologic Mapping of the Meridiani Region, Mars; Geology of Holden Crater and the Holden and Ladon Multi

  8. Nasa's Planetary Geologic Mapping Program: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division supports the geologic mapping of planetary surfaces through a distinct organizational structure and a series of research and analysis (R&A) funding programs. Cartography and geologic mapping issues for NASA's planetary science programs are overseen by the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT), which is an assessment group for cartography similar to the Mars Exploration Program Assessment Group (MEPAG) for Mars exploration. MAPSIT's Steering Committee includes specialists in geological mapping, who make up the Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS). I am the GEMS Chair, and with a group of 3-4 community mappers we advise the U.S. Geological Survey Planetary Geologic Mapping Coordinator (Dr. James Skinner) and develop policy and procedures to aid the planetary geologic mapping community. GEMS meets twice a year, at the Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in March, and at the Annual Planetary Mappers' Meeting in June (attendance is required by all NASA-funded geologic mappers). Funding programs under NASA's current R&A structure to propose geological mapping projects include Mars Data Analysis (Mars), Lunar Data Analysis (Moon), Discovery Data Analysis (Mercury, Vesta, Ceres), Cassini Data Analysis (Saturn moons), Solar System Workings (Venus or Jupiter moons), and the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program. Current NASA policy requires all funded geologic mapping projects to be done digitally using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software. In this presentation we will discuss details on how geologic mapping is done consistent with current NASA policy and USGS guidelines.

  9. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  10. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  11. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  12. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces (e.g., Varnes, 1974). Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962 (Hackman, 1962). Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete

  13. Advances in planetary geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  14. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  15. Contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data to geologic exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.

  16. Planetary geology in the 1980s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic aspects of solar system studies are defined and the goals of planetary geology are discussed. Planetary geology is the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. It is a multidisciplinary effort involving investigators with backgrounds in geology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets. The report is primarily restricted to the kinds of experiments and observations made through unmanned missions.

  17. Planetary Geology: Goals, Future Directions, and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Planetary exploration has provided a torrent of discoveries and a recognition that planets are not inert objects. This expanded view has led to the notion of comparative planetology, in which the differences and similarities among planetary objects are assessed. Solar system exploration is undergoing a change from an era of reconnaissance to one of intensive exploration and focused study. Analyses of planetary surfaces are playing a key role in this transition, especially as attention is focused on such exploration goals as returned samples from Mars. To assess how the science of planetary geology can best contribute to the goals of solar system exploration, a workshop was held at Arizona State University in January 1987. The participants discussed previous accomplishments of the planetary geology program, assessed the current studies in planetary geology, and considered the requirements to meet near-term and long-term exploration goals.

  18. Reports of planetary geology program, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Several areas of the Planetary Geology Program were addressed including outer solar system satellites, asteroids, comets, Venus, cratering processes and landform development, volcanic processes, aeolian processes, fluvial processes, periglacial and permafrost processes, geomorphology, remote sensing, tectonics and stratigraphy, and mapping.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  20. Reports of planetary geology program, 1980. [Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler); Kosters, E. C. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports which summarize work conducted in the Planetary Geology Program. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  1. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  2. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Black, D.

    1977-01-01

    The conference was to foster a better understanding of the volcanic history of the planets through the presentation of papers and through field trips to areas on the basalt plains of Idaho that appear to be analogous to some planetary surfaces. Papers include discussions of the volcanic geology of the Snake River Plain, general volcanic geology, and aspects of volcanism on the terrestrial planets.

  3. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  4. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Work conducted in the Planetary Geology program is summarized. The following categories are presented: outer solar system satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; cratering processes and landform development; volcanic processes and landforms; aolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes and landform development; periglacial and permafrost processes; structure, tectonics and stratigraphy; remote sensing and regolith studies; geologic mapping, cartography and geodesy.

  5. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons.

  6. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  7. Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, George E.

    2004-01-01

    Geological mapping and topical studies, primarily in the southern Acidalia Planitia/Cydonia Mensae region of Mars is presented. The overall objective was to understand geologic processes and crustal history in the northern lowland in order to assess the probability that an ocean once existed in this region. The major deliverable is a block of 6 1:500,000 scale geologic maps that will be published in 2004 as a single map at 1:1,000,000 scale along with extensive descriptive and interpretive text. A major issue addressed by the mapping was the relative ages of the extensive plains of Acidalia Planitia and the knobs and mesas of Cydonia Mensae. The mapping results clearly favor a younger age for the plains. Topical studies included a preliminary analysis of the very abundant small domes and cones to assess the possibility that their origins could be determined by detailed mapping and remote-sensing analysis. We also tested the validity of putative shorelines by using GIs to co-register full-resolution MOLA altimetry data and Viking images with these shorelines plotted on them. Of the 3 proposed shorelines in this area, one is probably valid, one is definitely not valid, and the third is apparently 2 shorelines closely spaced in elevation. Publications supported entirely or in part by this grant are included.

  8. Reports of Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of 205 reports from Principal investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology Program succinctly summarize work conducted and reflect the significant accomplishments. The entries are arranged under the following topics: (1) Saturnian satellites; (2) asteroids, comets and Galilean satellites; (3) cratering processes and landform development; (4) volcanic processes and landforms; (5) Aerolian processes and landforms; (6) fluvial, preglacial, and other processes of landform development; (7) Mars polar deposits, volatiles, and climate; (8) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (9) remote sensing and regolith chemistry; (10) cartography and geologic mapping; and (11) special programs.

  9. Geologic exploration: The contribution of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major advantages of the TM data over that of MSS systems are increased spatial resolution and a greater number of narrow, strategically placed spectral bands. The 30 meter pixel size permits finer definition of ground features and improves reliability of the photointerpretation of geologic structure. The value of the spatial data increases relative to the value of the spectral data as soil and vegetation cover increase. In arid areas with good exposure, it is possible with careful digital processing and some inventive color compositing to produce enough spectral differentiation of rock types and thereby produce facsimiles of standard geologic maps with a minimum of field work or reference to existing maps. Hue-saturation value images are compared with geological maps of Death Valley, California, the Big Horn/Wind River Basin of Wyoming, the area around Cement, Oklahoma, and Detroit. False color composites of the Ontario region are also examined.

  10. Reports of planetary geology program, 1976 - 1977. [abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. (Compiler); Wahmann, R. (Compiler); Howard, J. H., III

    1977-01-01

    One hundred seventeen investigations undertaken in the NASA Planetary Geology Program in 1976-1977 are reported in abstract form. Topics discussed include solar system formation; planetary interiors; planetary evolution; asteroids, comets and moons; cratering; volcanic, eolian, fluvial and mass wasting processes; volatiles and the Martian regolith; mapping; and instrument development and techniques. An author index is provided.

  11. Activities in planetary geology for the physical and earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalli, R.; Greeley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A users guide for teaching activities in planetary geology, and for physical and earth sciences is presented. The following topics are discussed: cratering; aeolian processes; planetary atmospheres, in particular the Coriolis Effect and storm systems; photogeologic mapping of other planets, Moon provinces and stratigraphy, planets in stereo, land form mapping of Moon, Mercury and Mars, and geologic features of Mars.

  12. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  13. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  14. Reports of planetary geology program, 1977-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, R. (Compiler); Boyce, J. (Compiler); Boss, A. P.; Peale, S. J.; Alfven, H.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Sonett, C. P.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.; Carusi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation of abstracts of reports which summarizes work conducted by Planetary Geology Principal Investigators and their associates is presented. Full reports of these abstracts were presented to the annual meeting of Planetary Geology Principal Investigators and their associates at the Universtiy of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, May 31, June 1 and 2, 1978.

  15. Geologic results of the TMS survey over Mt. Emmons, Colorado. [Thematic Mapper Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, NASA conducted with an American company a cooperative study, involving the use of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data. The study was concerned with an area near Crested Butte, Colorado, which contains a known, but unmined, major molybdenum deposit. Detailed ground observations in the Mt. Emmons area demonstrated that the imagery was extremely effective for detection of geologically significant features. The imagery specifically delineated areas of ferric iron staining, seritization, and hornfelized rock. Attention is given to data acquisition and data processing, field work in 1982 and in 1983, the integration of gravity data, and costs.

  16. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  17. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Abstracts of reports from NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program are presented. Research is documented in summary form of the work conducted. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  18. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program are compiled. The research conducted under this program during 1989 is summarized. Each report includes significant accomplishments in the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  20. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paylor, E. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahle, A. B.; Lang, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of the project was to evaluate LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data in the context of geologic applications. This involved a quantitative assessment of the data quality including the spatial and spectral characteristics realized by the instrument. Three test sites were selected for the study: (1) Silver Bell, Arizona; (2) Death Valley, California; and (3) Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming. Conclusions include: (1) Artificial and natural targets can be used to atmospherically calibrate TM data and investigate scanner radiometry, atmospheric parameters, and construction of atmospheric Modulation Transfer Functions (MTF's), (2) No significant radiometric degradation occurs in TM data as a result of SCROUNGE processing; however, the data exhibit narrow digital number (DN) distributiosn suggesting that the configuration of the instrument is not optimal for each science applications, (30 Increased spatial resolution, 1:24,000 enlargement capability, and good geometric fidelity of TM data allow accurate photogeologic/geomorphic mapping, including relative age dating of alluvial fans, measurement of structural and bedding attitudes, and construction of such things as structural cross sections and stratigraphic columns. (4) TM bands 5 and 7 are particularly useful for geologic applications because they span a region of the spectrum not previously sampled by multispectral scanner data and are important for characterizing clay and carbonate materials.

  1. GIS-based realization of international standards for digital geological mapping - developments in planetary mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    The Helmholtz Alliance and the European Planetary Network are research communities with different main topics. One of the main research topics which are shared by these communities is the question about the geomorphological evolutions of planetary surfaces as well as the geological context of life. This research contains questions like "Is there volcanic activity on a planet?" or "Where are possible landing sites?". In order to help answering such questions, analyses of surface features and morphometric measurements need to be performed. This ultimately leads to the generation of thematic maps (e.g. geological and geomorphologic maps) as a basis for the further studies. By using modern GIS techniques the comparative work and generalisation during mapping processes results in new information. These insights are crucial for subsequent investigations. Therefore, the aim is to make these results available to the research community as a secondary data basis. In order to obtain a common and interoperable data collection results of different mapping projects have to follow a standardised data-infrastructure, metadata definition and map layout. Therefore, we are currently focussing on the generation of a database model arranging all data and processes in a uniform mapping schema. With the help of such a schema, the mapper will be able to utilise a predefined (but customisable) GIS environment with individual tool items as well as a standardised symbolisation and a metadata environment. This environment is based on a data model which is currently on a conceptual level and provides the layout of the data infrastructure including relations and topologies. One of the first tasks towards this data model is the definition of a consistent basis of symbolisation standards developed for planetary mapping. The mapper/geologist will be able to access the pre-built signatures and utilise these in scale dependence within the mapping project. The symbolisation will be related to the

  2. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1976-1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography cites publications submitted by 484 principal investigators and their associates who were supported through NASA's Office of Space Sciences Planetary Geology Program. Subject classifications include: solar system formation, comets, and asteroids; planetary satellites, planetary interiors, geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; impact crater studies, volcanism, eolian studies, fluvian studies, Mars geological mapping; Mercury geological mapping; planetary cartography; and instrument development and techniques. An author/editor index is provided.

  3. Abstracts for the Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor); Black, D. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Planetary Geology Field Conference on Aeolian Processes was organized at the request of the Planetary Geology Program office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to bring together geologists working on aeolian problems on earth and planetologists concerned with similar problems on the planets. Abstracts of papers presented at the conference are arranged herein by alphabetical order of the senior author. Papers fall into three broad categories: (1) Viking Orbiter and Viking Lander results on aeolian processes and/or landforms on Mars, (2) laboratory results on studies of aeolian processes, and (3) photogeology and field studies of aeolian processes on Earth.

  4. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefiting hydrocarbon exploration.

  5. Landsat 4 thematic mapper imagery: improved tool for geologic mapping in eastern overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    The central Appalachians were studied using Landsat 4 thematic mapper (TM) data to evaluate the improved spatial resolution (30 x 30 m, 100 x 100 ft) of TM for mapping capabilities. The TM bands 2, 3, and 4 were contrast stretched and edge enhanced using digital processing techniques. Photogeologic analysis of the 1:125,000-scale TM image examined drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. The study area comprises the junction of the central and southern Appalachians where fold axes change from N30/sup 0/E to N60/sup 0/E. Southeast-dipping thrust faults trend northeastward across the area. Cambrian through Devonian rocks are involved in and exposed by the thrust faults. Recognition of drainage relationships (density and pattern) are important in identifying lithologies. Landforms reflect structure and lithology through characteristic topographic expression. Improved identification and delineation of drainage and landform characteristics on TM imagery support structural and lithologic interpretations. Lineaments were identified by drainage, tonal, and topographic characteristics. Two major lineaments trending N83/sup 0/E and N56/sup 0/W, at the junction of the southern and central Appalachians, were identified. Identified structural features include fold axes, thrust faults, strike-slip faults, and thrust-faulted folds. Detailed lineament and structural mapping on TM imagery aids in unraveling complex surface geologic patterns in this critical area of the eastern overthrust. Digitally enhanced Landsat 4 TM data proved advantageous for accurate mapping of drainage, landform, lineament, and structural features. Improved accuracy on a regional scale allows reliable geologic mapping and therefore subsurface interpretations, benefitting hydrocarbon exploration.

  6. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Abstracts compiled from reports from Principal Investigators of the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications are presented. The purpose is to document in summary form work conducted in this program during 1986. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  7. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during Fiscal Year 1992. The sheets provide information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations.

  8. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to document in summary form research work conducted in this program during 1988. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  9. Reports of planetary geology and geophysics program, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts of reports from Principal Investigators of NASA's PLanetary Geology and Geophysics program, Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to document in summary form research work conducted in this program during 1987. Each report reflects significant accomplishments in the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  10. Directory of research projects, 1991. Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Ted A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Information is provided about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. The directory consists of the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded by the program during fiscal year 1991. Information is provided on the research topic, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed investigators.

  11. Directory of research projects: Planetary geology and geophysics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Henry (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Information about currently funded scientific research within the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is provided, including the proposal summary sheet from each proposal funded under the program during fiscal year 1990. Information about the research project, including title, principal investigator, institution, summary of research objectives, past accomplishments, and proposed new investigations is also provided.

  12. Activities in Planetary Geology for the Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Alli, Richard, Ed.; Greely, Ronald, Ed.

    The activities in this guide deal with concepts in planetary geology, but they can be generalized to illustrate broad problems in the earth sciences. They are designed to supplement or introduce topics usually encountered in earth science courses. The exercises, organized into independent units which can be presented in any order, are appropriate…

  13. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Compiler); Watters, T. R. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Topics include outer planets and satellites; asteroids and comets; Venus; lunar origin and solar dynamics; cratering process; planetary interiors, petrology, and geochemistry; volcanic processes; aeolian processes and landforms; fluvial processes; geomorphology; periglacial and permafrost processes; remote sensing and regolith studies; structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; geological mapping, cartography, and geodesy; and radar applications.

  14. Reports of Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Abstracts compiled from reports from Principal Investigators of the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Office of Space Science and Applications are presented. The purpose is to document in summary form work conducted in this program during 1986. Each report reflects significant accomplishments within the area of the author's funded grant or contract.

  15. Planetary Geology: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide discusses planetary geology. Exercises are grouped into five units: (1) introduction to geologic processes; (2) impact cratering activities; (3) planetary atmospheres; (4) planetary surfaces; and (5) geologic mapping. Suggested introductory exercises are noted at the beginning of each exercise. Each activity includes an…

  16. Planetary geology: Impact processes on asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental geological and geophysical properties of asteroids were studied by theoretical and simulation studies of their collisional evolution. Numerical simulations incorporating realistic physical models were developed to study the collisional evolution of hypothetical asteroid populations over the age of the solar system. Ideas and models are constrained by the observed distributions of sizes, shapes, and spin rates in the asteroid belt, by properties of Hirayama families, and by experimental studies of cratering and collisional phenomena. It is suggested that many asteroids are gravitationally-bound "rubble piles.' Those that rotate rapidly may have nonspherical quasi-equilibrium shapes, such as ellipsoids or binaries. Through comparison of models with astronomical data, physical properties of these asteroids (including bulk density) are determined, and physical processes that have operated in the solar system in primordial and subsequent epochs are studied.

  17. The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

  18. Planetary GIS at the U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Skinner, J. A.; Fortezzo, C. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-06-01

    For the past 51 years, the USGS Astrogeology Science Center has been a resource for planetary geoscience, cartography, and remote sensing. In more recent years, we have supported GIS for planetary data integration, geologic mapping and analysis.

  19. The Moon: Keystone To Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an interna- tional array of automated spacecraft provides data on geology, geochemistry, miner- alogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure unequaled except for Earth. This level of detail has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for under- standing of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include- Impact cratering: New information on the nature of the process, depth of excavation, role of oblique impact, nature of the modification stage, production of impact melt, ejecta emplacement dynamics, the role of volatile emplacement and fate, particularly at the poles, and the establishment of crater size-frequency distribution chronology. Magmatic activity: New insight into plutonism (intrusion) and volcanism (extrusion), and their role as major crustal building and resurfacing processes throughout history, as well as the distribution of mantle melting processes in space and time. The nature of magmatic activity during heavy bombardment (intrusion, extrusion, cryptomaria) and in later lunar history, in terms of the mare stratigraphic record, the distribution of basalt types, the distribution of melting in space and time, volume and flux informa- tion, and the full range of eruption styles and their petrogenetic significance. Tectonic activity: The Moon is the type location for tectonics on a one-plate planet which can be understood in the context of the complete lunar data set and extended to other planetary bodies. Issues include distinguishing magmatic and tectonic graben, estab- lishing the three-dimensional structure and chronology of wrinkle ridges and arches, determining the internal

  20. Geologic guide to the island of Hawaii: A field guide for comparative planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    With geological data available for all inner planets except Venus, we are entering an era of true comparative planetary geology, when knowledge of the differences and similarities for classes of structures (e.g., shield volcanoes) will lead to a better understanding of general geological processes, regardless of planet. Thus, it is imperative that planetologists, particularly those involved in geological mapping and surface feature analysis for terrestrial planets, be familiar with volcanic terrain in terms of its origin, structure, and morphology. One means of gaining this experience is through field trips in volcanic terrains - hence, the Planetology Conference in Hawaii. In addition, discussions with volcanologists at the conference provide an important basis for establishing communications between the two fields that will facilitate comparative studies as more data become available.

  1. USGS EDMAP Program-Training the Next Generation of Geologic Mappers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program

    2010-01-01

    EDMAP is an interactive and meaningful program for university students to gain experience and knowledge in geologic mapping while contributing to national efforts to map the geology of the United States. It is a matching-funds grant program with universities and is one of the three components of the congressionally mandated U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. Geology professors whose specialty is geologic mapping request EDMAP funding to support upper-level undergraduate and graduate students at their colleges or universities in a 1-year mentor-guided geologic mapping project that focuses on a specific geographic area. Every Federal dollar that is awarded is matched with university funds.

  2. Preliminary spectral and geologic analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Alley, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) image of the Wind River Basin area in Wyoming is currently under analysis for stratigraphic and structural mapping and for assessment of spectral and spatial characteristics using visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. To estimate the equivalent Lambertian surface reflectance, TM radiance data were calibrated to remove atmospheric and instrumental effects. Reflectance measurements for homogeneous natural and cultural targets were acquired about one year after data acquisition. Calibration data obtained during the analysis were used to calculate new gains and offsets to improve scanner response for earth science applications. It is shown that the principal component images calculated from the TM data were the result of linear transformations of ground reflectance. In images prepared from this transform, the separation of spectral classes was independent of systematic atmospheric and instrumental factors. Several examples of the processed images are provided.

  3. Rovers as Geological Helpers for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Rovers can be used to perform field science on other planetary surfaces and in hostile and dangerous environments on Earth. Rovers are mobility systems for carrying instrumentation to investigate targets of interest and can perform geologic exploration on a distant planet (e.g. Mars) autonomously with periodic command from Earth. For nearby sites (such as the Moon or sites on Earth) rovers can be teleoperated with excellent capabilities. In future human exploration, robotic rovers will assist human explorers as scouts, tool and instrument carriers, and a traverse "buddy". Rovers can be wheeled vehicles, like the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner, or can walk on legs, like the Dante vehicle that was deployed into a volcanic caldera on Mt. Spurr, Alaska. Wheeled rovers can generally traverse slopes as high as 35 degrees, can avoid hazards too big to roll over, and can carry a wide range of instrumentation. More challenging terrain and steeper slopes can be negotiated by walkers. Limitations on rover performance result primarily from the bandwidth and frequency with which data are transmitted, and the accuracy with which the rover can navigate to a new position. Based on communication strategies, power availability, and navigation approach planned or demonstrated for Mars missions to date, rovers on Mars will probably traverse only a few meters per day. Collecting samples, especially if it involves accurate instrument placement, will be a slow process. Using live teleoperation (such as operating a rover on the Moon from Earth) rovers have traversed more than 1 km in an 8 hour period while also performing science operations, and can be moved much faster when the goal is simply to make the distance. I will review the results of field experiments with planetary surface rovers, concentrating on their successful and problematic performance aspects. This paper will be accompanied by a working demonstration of a prototype planetary surface rover.

  4. Geologic Studies of Planetary Surfaces Using Radar Polarimetric Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, Donald B.; Campbell, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Radar is a useful remote sensing tool for studying planetary geology because it is sensitive to the composition, structure, and roughness of the surface and can penetrate some materials to reveal buried terrain. The Arecibo Observatory radar system transmits a single sense of circular polarization, and both senses of circular polarization are received, which allows for the construction of the Stokes polarization vector. From the Stokes vector, daughter products such as the circular polarization ratio, the degree of linear polarization, and linear polarization angle are obtained. Recent polarimetric imaging using Arecibo has included Venus and the Moon. These observations can be compared to radar data for terrestrial surfaces to better understand surface physical properties and regional geologic evolution. For example, polarimetric radar studies of volcanic settings on Venus, the Moon and Earth display some similarities, but also illustrate a variety of different emplacement and erosion mechanisms. Polarimetric radar data provides important information about surface properties beyond what can be obtained from single-polarization radar. Future observations using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar will provide information on roughness, composition and stratigraphy that will support a broader interpretation of surface evolution.

  5. Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustard, J.F.; Pieters, C.M.; Isaacson, P.J.; Head, J.W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Klima, R.L.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Runyon, C.J.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Using a Field Experience to Build Understanding of Planetary Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higbie, M.; Treiman, A.; Kiefer, W.; Shipp, S.

    2004-12-01

    In the summer of 2004, the Lunar and Planetary Institute hosted 25 middle- and high-school teachers on a week-long field experience in Idaho and Montana. This workshop mixed field work with classroom experiences and provided educators and scientists the opportunity to interact. The educators investigated deposits associated with Glacial Lake Missoula floods and lava flows in the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. The participants applied what they learned about Earth-based processes to develop understanding of processes operating on Mars and the most recent results from NASA's missions to Mars. This was the most recent of five field-based experiences that used Earth-planet comparisons as a basis for experiential learning. These field experiences all are designed to strengthen content knowledge of geologic processes and planetary sciences. Learning geology through fieldwork enables participants to take ownership of the content through real-life experience; in essence, the teacher becomes the student. Establishing deeper knowledge of the content increases their confidence in facilitating inquiry-based science in their own classrooms. In addition to content, the educators are immersed in the process of science. Participants make observations, compile notes and illustrations, debate interpretations, draw conclusions, and communicate findings. Care was taken to separate observations and interpretations to help build an understanding of scientific reasoning. Discussions often involved questions without solutions, or with multiple solutions. While some participants expressed discomfort with these aspects of the nature of science, most were more comfortable with open-ended, inquiry based exploration by the close of the workshop. The field work is coupled with discussion and activities in the classroom. Participants reflected on the field sites and placed them in the context of the geologic history of the region. Observations and interpretations at

  7. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1982 - 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography cites recent publications by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, Planetary Geology Program. It serves as a companion piece to NASA TM-85127, ""Reports of Planetary Programs, 1982". Entries are listed under the following subject areas: solar system, comets, asteroids, meteorites and small bodies; geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; structure, tectonics, and planetary and satellite evolutions; impact craters; volcanism; fluvial, mass wasting, glacial and preglacial studies; Eolian and Arid climate studies; regolith, volatiles, atmosphere, and climate, radar; remote sensing and photometric studies; and cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry. An author index is provided.

  8. Geologic mapping of the Semipalatinsk region, Eastern Kazakstan, using Landsat Thematic Mapper and spot panchromatic data

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Berlin, G.L.

    1992-12-31

    This geologic reconnaissance study centers on a 90 by 140 km area about 100 km southwest of Semipalatinsk near the east border of the Kazakstan Republic of the USSR. Semipalatinsk, a regional center for grain growing, and several other cities along the Irtysh River were originally established as fortified outposts by the Russians during the 18th and 19th centuries to contain the indigenous, nomadic Kazak herdsmen. The Kazakstan region remained largely undeveloped until after the 1917 Russian Revolution, when exploration geologists began discovering many large mineral deposits. Today, known resources include coal, copper, iron ore, lead, zinc, and barite; most of these are of national significance. These vast mineral resources have prompted development of many metallurgical and chemical industries in the republic. Despite the extensive exploration for mineral resources in this region, published geologic maps (Nalivkin, 1960; Esenov, 1971; Borovikov, 1972) are all at scales of 1:1,100,000 or smaller, and there are no detailed descriptions of the geology around Semipalatinsk in the open literature. Our preliminary examination of commercial remote-sensing, data indicated that the lithology and structure of this area are extremely varied and complex at all scales -- much more so than that portrayed on the published geologic maps. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to use commercially available remotely sensed data for the area and remotely sensed data obtained for analog study sites, as well as the sparse, sketchy information in the published literature, to better define and map the geologic units (Sheet 1), structure (Sheet 2), and drainage features (Sheet 3) of this area.

  9. Integrating a Planetary Science Curriculum into Geology and Astronomy Curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbine, T. H.; Dyar, M. D.; Hamilton, C. M.

    2008-03-01

    This abstract discusses courses that were developed or adapted for this planetary science curriculum at a small liberals arts college to assist other institutions in developing planetary science programs.

  10. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a compilation of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principle investigators and their associates, supported through the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program.

  11. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1986-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A compilation is presented of selected bibliographic data relating to recent publications submitted by principal investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program

  12. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1990-1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A compilation of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principal investigators and their associates, supported through the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program is presented.

  13. A bibliography of planetary geology and geophysics principal investigators and their associates, 1983 - 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witbeck, N. E. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A compilation is given of selected bibliographic data specifically relating to recent publications submitted by principle investigators and their associates, supported through NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, Solar System Exploration Division, Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. Topics include the solar system, asteroids, volcanoes, stratigraphy, remote sensing, and planetary craters.

  14. Reports of planetary geology program, 1979 - 1980. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, P.; Greeley, R.; Dalli, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abstracts of 145 reports are compiled addressing the morphology, geochemistry, and stratigraphy of planetary surfaces with some specific examinations of volcanic, aeolian, fluvial, and periglacial processes and landforms. In addition, reports on cartography and remote sensing of planet surfaces are included.

  15. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1981 - 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Over 800 publications submitted by researchers supported through NASA's Planetary Geology Program are cited and an author/editor index is provided. Entries are listed under the following subjects: (1) general interest topics; (2) solar system, comets, asteroids, and small bodies; (3) geologic mapping, geomorphology, and stratigraphy; (4) structure, tectonics, geologic and geophysical evolution; (5) impact craters: morphology, density, and geologic studies; (6) volcanism; (7) fluvial, mass wasting, and periglacial processes; (8) Eolian studies; (9) regolith, volatile, atmosphere, and climate; (10) remote sensing, radar, and photometry; and (11) cartography, photogrammetry, geodesy, and altimetry.

  16. A bibliography of planetary geology principal investigators and their associates, 1979 - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lettvin, E. (Compiler); Boyce, J. M. (Compiler)

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography cites 698 reports and articles published from May 1979 through May 1980 by principal investigators and associates who received support from NASA's Office of Space Science, as part of the Planetary Geology program. Entries are arranged in the following categories: (1) general interest; (2) solar system, asteroids, comets, and satellites; (3) structure, tectonics, and stratigraphy; (4) regolith and volatiles; (5) volcanism; (6) impact craters; (7) Eolian glacial An author index is provided. The bibliography serves as a companion document to NASA TM 81776, "Reports of Planetary Geology Programs, 1979-1980".

  17. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  18. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  19. Application of Interferometric Radars to Planetary Geologic Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Rosen, P.; Freeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radar interferometry is rapidly becoming one of the major applications of radar systems in Earth orbit. So far the 2000 flight of the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) is the only dedicated U.S. radar to be flown for the collection of interferometric data, but enough has been learned from this mission and from the use of foreign partner radars (ERS-1/2, Radarsat, ENIVISAT and JERS-1) for the potential planetary applications of this technique to be identified. A recent workshop was organized by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), and was held at Oxnard, CA, from October 20th - 22nd, 2004. At this meeting, the major interest was in terrestrial radar systems, but approx. 20 or the approx. 250 attendees also discussed potential applications of interferometric radar for the terrestrial planets. The primary foci were for the detection of planetary water, the search for active tectonism and volcanism and the improved topographic mapping. This abstract provides a summary of these planetary discussions at the Oxnard meeting.

  20. Application of planetary analog mechanical properties to subsurface geological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElShafie, A.; Chevrier, V. F.; Dennis, N.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of the mechanical properties of planetary analog materials are of great importance to improve future mission success and to enhance our understanding of the history and evolution of planetary surfaces and subsurfaces. Determining the stratigraphy of the subsurface using drills and penetrometers implies knowing the mechanical properties of the regolith. Therefore, we investigated the mechanical properties of Martian regolith analogs (JSC Mars-1 and an unaltered basaltic soil from Mojave desert). Penetration force is dependent on the bearing capacity factor (Nq) and the angle of internal friction which is found to be function of the level of compaction and increases with relative density. The bearing capacity factor (Nq) showed an exponential trend with the angle of internal friction. For Mojave soil, (Nq) increased from 64 to 338 with φ increasing from 32 to 41.3° while (Nq) increased from 161 to 3347 with φ increasing from 39.4 to 54.7° for JSC Mars-1. Based on estimation of the bearing capacity factor and the angle of internal friction, we predicted the force of penetration under the Martian gravity using a 1.2 cm diameter penetrometer. Under a bulk density of 1240 and 1500 kg m-3 in JSC Mars-1 and Mojave soil, 460 and 200 N is the estimated force to reach a depth of about 20 cm deep. Based on this investigation, distinguishing between different regolith layers on the subsurface of Mars is possible and observable using penetration force.

  1. Thematic mapper data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.; Chavez, P.; Kieffer, H. H.; Everett, J. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Kitcho, C. A.; Milton, N. M.; Mouat, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The geological applications of remote sensing technology are discussed, with emphasis given to the analysis of data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument onboard the Landsat 4 satellite. The flight history and design characteristics of the Landsat 4/TM are reviewed, and some difficulties endountered in the interpretation of raw TM data are discussed, including: the volume of data; residual noise; detector-to-detector striping; and spatial misregistration between measurements. Preliminary results of several geological, lithological, geobotanical mapping experiments are presented as examples of the geological applications of the TM, and some areas for improving the guality of TM imagery are identified.

  2. Cooperative research in terrestrial planetary geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This final report for the period of July 1991 to August 1994 covered a variety of topics concerning the study of Earth and Mars. The Earth studies stressed the interpretation of the MAGSAT crustal magnetic anomalies in order to determine the geological structure, mineralogical composition, magnetic nature, and the historical background of submarine features, and also featured work in the area of terrestrial remote sensing. Mars research included the early evolution of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere and the investigations of the large Martian impact basins. Detailed summaries of the research is included, along with lists of the publications resulting from this research.

  3. NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Undergraduate Research Program (PGGURP): The Value of Undergraduate Geoscience Internships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program began funding PGGURP in 1978, in an effort to help planetary scientists deal with what was then seen as a flood of Viking Orbiter data. Each subsequent year, PGGURP has paired 8 - 15 undergraduates with NASA-funded Principal Investigators (PIs) around the country for approximately 8 weeks during the summer. Unlike other internship programs, the students are not housed together, but are paired, one-on-one, with a PI at his or her home institution. PGGURP interns have worked at sites ranging from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Through NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, the interns' travel and lodging costs are covered, as are a cost-of-living stipend. Approximately 30% of the undergraduate PGGURP participants continue on to graduate school in the planetary sciences. We consider this to be an enormous success, because the participants are among the best and brightest undergraduates in the country with a wide range of declared majors (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology, as well as geology). Furthermore, those students that do continue tend to excel, and point to the internship as a turning point in their scientific careers. The NASA PIs who serve as mentors agree that this is a valuable experience for them, too, and many of them have been hosting interns annually for well over a decade. The PI obtains enthusiastic and intelligent undergraduate, free of charge, for a summer, while having the opportunity to work closely with today's students who are the future of planetary science. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, TX, also sponsors a summer undergraduate internship. Approximately 12 students are selected to live together in apartments located near the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Johnson Space Center. Similar to PGGURP, the LPI interns are carefully selected to work one-on-one for ~10 weeks during the summer with one of the LPI staff scientists

  4. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet s surface, and it is the first order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics or remote sensing. These allied sciences, as important as they are, derive the basis of their understanding from the knowledge of the geology of a given location. When we go back to the Moon, and on to Mars, the surface systems we deploy will need to support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture will consider what field geology is about - why it s important, how we do it, how the conduct of field geology informs many other sciences, and how it will affect the design of surface systems and implementation of operations in the future.

  5. Research in volcanic geology, petrology and planetary science at MIT, 1969 to 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    The behavior of volcanoes was studied by geologic mapping, petrologic investigations of lava and xenoliths, physical measurements, and theoretical modelling. Field observations were conducted in Alaska (Nunivak Island), Iceland, Hawaii (Mauna Kea), Italy (Etna, Stromboli), and Arizona. The results are discussed and compared with known data for lunar and planetary gelogy. Field methods used for the volcano research are cited and a list is given of all participating scientists and students. Publications and abstracts resulting from the research are also listed.

  6. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  7. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  8. Examining Volcanic Terrains Using In Situ Geochemical Technologies; Implications for Planetary Field Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Rogers, A. D.; Ito, G.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Gendreau, K.

    2015-01-01

    Regardless of the target destination for the next manned planetary mission, the crew will require technology with which to select samples for return to Earth. The six Apollo lunar surface missions crews had only the tools to enable them to physically pick samples up off the surface or from a boulder and store those samples for return to the Lunar Module and eventually to Earth. Sample characterization was dependent upon visual inspection and relied upon their extensive geology training. In the four decades since Apollo however, great advances have been made in traditionally laboratory-based instrument technologies that enable miniaturization to a field-portable configuration. The implications of these advancements extend past traditional terrestrial field geology and into planetary surface exploration. With tools that will allow for real-time geochemical analysis, an astronaut can better develop a series of working hypotheses that are testable during surface science operations. One such technology is x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Traditionally used in a laboratory configuration, these instruments have now been developed and marketed commercially in a field-portable mode. We examine this technology in the context of geologic sample analysis and discuss current and future plans for instrument deployment. We also discuss the development of the Chromatic Mineral Identification and Surface Texture (CMIST) instrument at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Testing is taking place in conjunction with the RIS4E (Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration) SSERVI (Solar System Exploration and Research Virtual Institute) team activities, including field testing at Kilauea Volcano, HI..

  9. Tour Through the Solar System: A Hands-On Planetary Geology Course for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, S. B.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a course in planetary geology for high school students, the primary goals of which are to help students learn how to learn, to reduce the fear and anxiety associated with learning science and math, and to encourage an interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Our emphasis in this course is on active learning in a learner-centered environment. All students scored significantly higher on the post-knowledge survey compared with the pre-knowledge survey, and there is a good correlation between the post-knowledge survey and the final exam. Student evaluations showed an increased interest in STEM fields as a result of this course.

  10. Tools and Technologies Needed for Conducting Planetary Field Geology While On EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  11. Field geologic observation and sample collection strategies for planetary surface exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic fieldwork, the Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crewmembers who participated in the 2010 field test. We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies related to duplication of samples and observations; logistical constraints on the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to "flexibly execute" their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  12. Field Geologic Observation and Sample Collection Strategies for Planetary Surface Exploration: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, Jose M., Jr.; Young, Kelsey; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Observation is the primary role of all field geologists, and geologic observations put into an evolving conceptual context will be the most important data stream that will be relayed to Earth during a planetary exploration mission. Sample collection is also an important planetary field activity, and its success is closely tied to the quality of contextual observations. To test protocols for doing effective planetary geologic field- work, the Desert RATS(Research and Technology Studies) project deployed two prototype rovers for two weeks of simulated exploratory traverses in the San Francisco volcanic field of northern Arizona. The authors of this paper represent the geologist crew members who participated in the 2010 field test.We document the procedures adopted for Desert RATS 2010 and report on our experiences regarding these protocols. Careful consideration must be made of various issues that impact the interplay between field geologic observations and sample collection, including time management; strategies relatedtoduplicationofsamplesandobservations;logisticalconstraintson the volume and mass of samples and the volume/transfer of data collected; and paradigms for evaluation of mission success. We find that the 2010 field protocols brought to light important aspects of each of these issues, and we recommend best practices and modifications to training and operational protocols to address them. Underlying our recommendations is the recognition that the capacity of the crew to flexibly execute their activities is paramount. Careful design of mission parameters, especially field geologic protocols, is critical for enabling the crews to successfully meet their science objectives.

  13. Scannerless terrain mapper

    SciTech Connect

    Sackos, J.; Bradley, B.; Diegert, C.; Ma, P.; Gary, C.

    1996-09-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center, in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories, is developing a Scannerless Terrain Mapper (STM) for autonomous vehicle guidance through the use of virtual reality. The STM sensor is based on an innovative imaging optical radar technology that is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The sensor uses active flood-light scene illumination and an image intensified CCD camera receiver to rapidly produce and record very high quality range imagery of observed scenes. The STM is an all solid-state device (containing no moving parts) and offers significant size, performance, reliability, simplicity, and affordability advantages over other types of 3-D sensor technologies, such as scanned laser radar, stereo vision, and structured lighting. The sensor is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is very well suited for affordable application to a wide variety of military and commercial uses, including: munition guidance, target recognition, robotic vision, automated inspection, driver enhanced vision, collision avoidance, site security and monitoring, and facility surveying. This paper reviews the sensor technology, discusses NASA`s terrain mapping applications, and presents results from the initial testing of the sensor at NASA`s planetary landscape simulator.

  14. Field/Lab Training Workshops in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology for Secondary School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treiman, A.; Newsom, H.; Hoehler, T.; Tsairides, C.; Karlstrom, K.; Crossey, L.; Kiefer, W.; Kadel, S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Aubele, J.; Crumpler, L.

    2003-12-01

    Thematic field-lab-classroom workshops can be successful in training secondary teachers in planetary geology and astrobiology, from the LPI's 4 years experience. A typical workshop includes ˜4 days of field study and ˜3 days of related classroom/lab lectures and exercises. Up to 30 teachers have participated at once, and the staff averages 5 researchers and educators. The 2003 workshop, The Great Desert, focused on geology and life in the Colorado Plateau as analogs for Mars. Specific emphases were on geologic processes exemplified in the Grand Canyon, Sunset Crater and Meteor Crater, and on biotic communities in desert soils and hot springs. The classroom portion, hosted by UNM, included lectures, lab work, and teaching exercises keyed to the field experience and its extensions to Mars. Formal followups: non-directive exit questionnaires; email list-serves for participants; websites with images, presentations, and exercises from the workshop, and links to related materials (e.g., http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/EPO/yellowstone2002/index.html); and interviews for six-month retrospective. Graduate and continuing education credit are available. Past workshops, all relevant to Mars, have targeted: geology and extremophiles of Yellowstone NP, geology of the Cascade volcanos; and giant floods and lava flows of central Washington. The greatest benefit of this workshop format is the teachers' intense, deep experience, emphasizing scientific content. They learn from field, classroom, and laboratory perspectives, and work with PhD level researchers who contribute their excitement, demonstrate and teach critical thought processes, and provide authoritative background and answers. The small group size permits personal interactions (among teachers and presenters) that complement each other's understanding and appreciation of the subject. They log ˜65 contact hours with the staff, in small groups or one-on-one. Teachers return to the classroom with personal experiences

  15. Tools and technologies needed for conducting planetary field geology while on EVA: Insights from the 2010 Desert RATS geologist crewmembers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Kelsey; Hurtado, José M.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Brent Garry, W.; Bleisath, Scott; Buffington, Jesse; Rice, James W.

    2013-10-01

    The tools used by crews while on extravehicular activity during future missions to other bodies in the Solar System will be a combination of traditional geologic field tools (e.g. hammers, rakes, sample bags) and state-of-the-art technologies (e.g. high definition cameras, digital situational awareness devices, and new geologic tools). In the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) field test, four crews, each consisting of an astronaut/engineer and field geologist, tested and evaluated various technologies during two weeks of simulated spacewalks in the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona. These tools consisted of both Apollo-style field geology tools and modern technological equipment not used during the six Apollo lunar landings. The underlying exploration driver for this field test was to establish the protocols and technology needed for an eventual manned mission to an asteroid, the Moon, or Mars. The authors of this paper represent Desert RATS geologist crewmembers as well as two engineers who worked on technology development. Here we present an evaluation and assessment of these tools and technologies based on our first-hand experience of using them during the analog field test. We intend this to serve as a basis for continued development of technologies and protocols used for conducting planetary field geology as the Solar System exploration community moves forward into the next generation of planetary surface exploration.

  16. Internet protocol network mapper

    DOEpatents

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  17. Comparing Geologic Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping: Desert Rats Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Wanda; Evans, Cynthia; Gruener, John; Eppler, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Geologic mapping involves interpreting relationships between identifiable units and landforms to understand the formative history of a region. Traditional field techniques are used to accomplish this on Earth. Mapping proves more challenging for other planets, which are studied primarily by orbital remote sensing and, less frequently, by robotic and human surface exploration. Systematic comparative assessments of geologic maps created by traditional mapping versus photogeology together with data from planned traverses are limited. The objective of this project is to produce a geologic map from data collected on the Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 analog mission using Apollo-style traverses in conjunction with remote sensing data. This map is compared with a geologic map produced using standard field techniques.

  18. Lunar And Planetary Perspectives On The Geological History Of The Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W., III

    During the latter part of the last century, a profound change took place in our perception of the Earth. First, this change was holistic: Plate tectonic theory provided a unifying theme that seems to explain disparate observations about the Earth and how it works, and lets us see the Earth as a planet. Secondly, actually seeing the Earth from the Moon, and exploring the other planets provided additional perspectives on our own home planet and hastened the decline of scientific terracentrism. Thirdly, learning that the uniqueness of the Moon in terms of size and aspects of its chemistry may be due to its derivation from the Earth as the result of a giant impact, provided a concrete filial link. Finally, the geological record revealed by exploration of the Moon and planets has provided us with the missing chapters in the dynamic history of the Earth. We now know that gargantuan impact basins formed in Earth's formative years and that impact events are likely to be the cause of many punctuations in Earth's biological evolution. Perspectives on ancient tectonic activity are provided by Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon, and show that the Earth has changed considerably since its youth. Widely varying volcanic eruption styles are seen on the planets, providing insight into how puzzling rocks from early Earth history formed. The composition of planetary atmospheres has revealed the unusual nature of Earth's, and its link to the evolution of life. The atmospheres of the planets have undergone radical changes with time, providing clues to Earth's history and destiny. Fundamentally different hydrological cycles on Earth, Venus, Europa and Mars, and evidence for significant changes with time, have provided insight into Earth's history. The probable presence of oceans on Europa and Mars has changed our thinking about the origin and evolution of life on Earth. We no longer think of the Earth in isolation. Instead, Earth is now perceived of as a member of a family of planets

  19. Image mapping with the Thematic Mapper.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals principally with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image maps as published by the US Geological Survey (USGS). Landsat data have certain characteristics that make them suitable for conversion into image maps. These characteristics involve 1) spatial resolution, 2) geometric fidelity, and 3) spectral response. This paper analyzes the three mentioned characteristics and discusses the processes involved in producing TM image maps.-from Author

  20. Geologic Interpretation of Data Sets Collected by Planetary Analog Geology Traverses and by Standard Geologic Field Mapping. Part 1; A Comparison Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Bleacher, Jacob F.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Feng, Wanda; Gruener, John; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Whitson, Peggy; Janoiko, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Geologic maps integrate the distributions, contacts, and compositions of rock and sediment bodies as a means to interpret local to regional formative histories. Applying terrestrial mapping techniques to other planets is challenging because data is collected primarily by orbiting instruments, with infrequent, spatiallylimited in situ human and robotic exploration. Although geologic maps developed using remote data sets and limited "Apollo-style" field access likely contain inaccuracies, the magnitude, type, and occurrence of these are only marginally understood. This project evaluates the interpretative and cartographic accuracy of both field- and remote-based mapping approaches by comparing two 1:24,000 scale geologic maps of the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF), north-central Arizona. The first map is based on traditional field mapping techniques, while the second is based on remote data sets, augmented with limited field observations collected during NASA Desert Research & Technology Studies (RATS) 2010 exercises. The RATS mission used Apollo-style methods not only for pre-mission traverse planning but also to conduct geologic sampling as part of science operation tests. Cross-comparison demonstrates that the Apollo-style map identifies many of the same rock units and determines a similar broad history as the field-based map. However, field mapping techniques allow markedly improved discrimination of map units, particularly unconsolidated surficial deposits, and recognize a more complex eruptive history than was possible using Apollo-style data. Further, the distribution of unconsolidated surface units was more obvious in the remote sensing data to the field team after conducting the fieldwork. The study raises questions about the most effective approach to balancing mission costs with the rate of knowledge capture, suggesting that there is an inflection point in the "knowledge capture curve" beyond which additional resource investment yields progressively

  1. RNA as an Astrophysical or Geophysical Document?? Correlated issues in nebular and planetary astronomy, geology and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, L. C.

    1999-12-01

    The emergence of the largely silicate earth from a presumably cosmically normal, H-rich solar nebula 4.5 eons ago is an obviously important issue relevant to many disciplines of the physical sciences. The emergence of terrestrial life is an equally important issue for biological sciences. Recent discoveries of isotopically light carbon (i.e. putative chemical fossils) in 3.85+ Ga Issua, Greenland sediments have reopened the issue of whether terrestrial life may have emerged prior to the earliest known rocks so that one might use biological records to deduce early terrestrial environments. In addition, recent advances in molecular genetics have suggested that all known ancestral life forms passed through an early hydrogen-rich environment which is more consistent with the now rejected Urey hypothesis of a early jovian atmosphere than with contemporary geological and planetological paradigms. In this essay, then, we examine possible limitations of contemporary paradigms of planetary science since a prima facie case will be made that life could not emerge in those environments which those paradigms now allow. Of necessity, the discussion will also address some hidden conflicts embedded in various disciplinary methodologies (e.g. astronomy, biology, geology).

  2. Conducting Planetary Field Geology on EVA: Lessons from the 2010 DRATS Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Rice, J.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare for the next phase of planetary surface exploration, the Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) field program seeks to test the next generation of technology needed to explore other surfaces. The 2010 DRATS 14-day field campaign focused on the simultaneous operation of two habitatable rovers, or Space Exploration Vehicles (SEVs). Each rover was crewed by one astronaut/commander and one geologist, with a change in crews on day seven of the mission. This shift change allowed for eight crew members to test the DRATS technology and operational protocols [1,2]. The insights presented in this abstract represent the crew s thoughts on lessons learned from this field season, as well as potential future testing concepts.

  3. Sapping Features of the Colorado Plateau: a Comparative Planetary Geology Field Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Alan D. (Editor); Kochel, R. Craig (Editor); Holt, Henry E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This book is an attempt to determine geomorphic criteria to be used to distinguish between channels formed predominantly by sapping and seepage erosion and those formed principally by surface runoff processes. The geologic nature of the Colorado Plateau has resulted in geomorphic features that show similarities to some areas on Mars, especially certain valley networks within thick sandstone formations. Where spring sapping is an effective process, the valleys that develop are unique in terms of their morphology and network pattern.

  4. Employing Geodatabases for Planetary Mapping Conduct - Requirements, Concepts and Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanGasselt, Stephan; Nass, A.

    2010-01-01

    Planetary geologic mapping has become complex in terms of merging and co-registering a variety of different datasets for analysis and mapping. But it has also become more convenient when it comes to conducting actual (geoscientific) mapping with the help of desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The complexity and variety of data, however, are major issues that need to be taken care of in order to provide mappers with a consistent and easy-to-use mapping basis. Furthermore, a high degree of functionality and interoperability of various commercial and open-source GIS and remote sensing applications allow mappers to organize map data, map components and attribute data in a more sophisticated and intuitional way when compared to workflows 15 years ago. Integration of mapping results of different groups becomes an awkward task as each mapper follows his/her own style, especially if mapping conduct is not coordinated and organized programmatically. Problems of data homogenization start with various interpretations and implementations of planetary map projections and reference systems which form the core component of any mapping and analysis work. If the data basis is inconsistent, mapping results in terms of objects georeference become hard to integrate. Apart from data organization and referencing issues, which are important on the mapping as well as the data-processing side of every project, the organization of planetary geologic map units and attributes, as well as their representation within a common GIS environment, are key components that need to be taken care of in a consistent and persistent way.

  5. Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Charles (Editor); Treiman, Allan H. (Editor); Kostiuk, Theodor (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This report on planetary surface investigations and planetary landers covers: (1) the precise chemical analysis of solids; (2) isotopes and evolved gas analyses; (3) planetary interiors; planetary atmospheres from within as measured by landers; (4) mineralogical examination of extraterrestrial bodies; (5) regoliths; and (6) field geology/processes.

  6. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1987-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to produce improved geologic maps of the ophiolites of the Brooks Range, and to recognize regional-scale structures that might affect the spatial distribution of the ophiolites. From the TM data, significant information was obtained concerning the distribution of rock types and structures that could not easily be acquired with conventional geologic studies. The information obtained from the TM data, in combination with other geologic data, is being used to further the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. Results of the work in the Maiyumerak Mountains area are used to illustrate the information being obtained with the LANDSAT TM data, and the way that the information is being integrated with other geologic data.

  7. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  8. Numerical Models in Planetary Geology - Specifics of One-Plate Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Doris; Wünnemann, Kai; Spohn, Tilman

    2015-04-01

    Impact craters, volcanic constructs and compressional and extensional fracture zones are typical landforms found on terrestrial planets. Features characteristic of plate-tectonics like on Earth are generally lacking. An exception are the surfaces of Ganymede and perhaps Europa where indications of lateral displacements of surface units have been observed. Planetary geologists modeling tectonic features often resort to studies of features on Earth such as Graben formation of which Valles Marineris on Mars is a giant example or shield volcanoes where Olympus Mons is another giant example. Scaling laws can be used, for instance for shield volcanoes to relate their height and base diameter to the value of the planet's gravity. More specific for numerical modeling of landforms on terrestrial planets is the formation of impact craters, which can be more easily studied on airless bodies or planets of low atmospheric pressure such as Mercury, the Moon, and Mars. Impact modeling relates crater diameters and morphology to the size and mass of the impactor. Very large impacts may even be affecting the mantles and cores and have been modeled, for instance, to study the heating and melting of a planet's deep interior. The giant impact hypothesis for the formation of Earth's moon has been tested by modeling. Such studies have only been possible due to significant improvements of so-called hydrocodes over the last couple of decades, specifically in terms of material modeling. The consideration of elastic-plastic material behavior taking ductile and brittle deformation, fracturing, and the compaction and opening of pore space into account was recognized to be key for a better understanding of impact crater formation. As a consequence of the advancements in material modeling the classic term "hydrocode" is actually no longer justified and is now often replaced by the term "shock physics code". Another tectonic feature that is more specific to terrestrial planets are lobate scarps

  9. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Images of the Andes as a Classroom Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fox, Andrew N.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of Thematic Mapper images in undergraduate geology instruction. The work of the Andes Project at Cornell University is discussed. Digitally enhanced illustrations of landforms in the Andes mountains of South America are provided. (CW)

  10. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, C.D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Planetary geological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-02-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  12. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include: (1) Martian global tectonics; (2) the origin and evolution of a circular and an irregular lunar mare; (3) stratigraphy of Oceanus Procellarum basalts: sources and styles of emplacement; (4) the tectonic evolution of the Oceanus Procellarum Basin; (5) charting the Southern Seas: the evolution of the Lunar Mare Australe; (6) the stratigraphy of Mare Imbrium; and (7) Storms and rains: a comparison of the Lunar Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum.

  13. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Three dissertations are provided covering (1) the stochastic evolution of asteroidal regoliths and the origin of brecciated and gas-rich meteorites; (2) ridge systems on Mars; and (3) the morphology and evolution of Ganymede and Callisto.

  14. Lithologic mapping using Landsat thematic mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Salisbury, J.W.; Jones, O.D.; Mimms, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM), with its new near infrared bands centered at 1.65 μm and 2.20 μm and spatial resolution of 30 m has been used to distinguish rocks containing minerals having ferric-iron absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared and Al-O- and CO3 absorption bands in the 2.1-2.4 μm regions. On the basis of characteristic absorption bands, digitally processed TM data were used to differentiate vegetated from non-vegetated areas, limonitic from nonlimonitic rocks, rocks containing minerals having absorption bands in the near-infrared region from rocks lacking infrared absorption bands. Specific minerals were detected in both the humid eastern and semi-arid western United States. The absorption bands in the near-infrared region were used to detect kaolinite in open-pit exposures of a kaolin mining district near Macon, Georgia; calcium carbonate in the back sands along the east coast of Floridia; and kaolinite, alunite, jarosite, sericite and gypsum in natural exposures near Boulder City, Nevada. These results show that the additional spectral bands in the near-infrared region and increased spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper provide a valuable tool for distinguishing several significant geologic materials not distinguishable from space using previous imaging systems. They also show that TM data can be successfully used in a variety of geologic environments.

  15. Geological interpretation and analysis of surface based, spatially referenced planetary imagery data using PRoGIS 2.0 and Pro3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Gupta, S.; Giordano, M.; Morley, J. G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Sprinks, J.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Ortner, T.; Sander, K.; Nauschnegg, B.; Paar, G.; Willner, K.; Pajdla, T.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the capabilities of the geospatial environment PRoGIS 2.0 and the real time rendering viewer PRo3D to geological analysis of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B Opportunity rover) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL Curiosity rover) datasets. Short baseline and serendipitous long baseline stereo Pancam rover imagery are used to create 3D point clouds which can be combined with super-resolution images derived from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE orbital data, andsuper-resolution outcrop images derived from MER Pancam, as well as hand-lens scale images for geology and outcrop characterization at all scales. Data within the PRoViDE database are presented and accessed through the PRoGIS interface. Simple geological measurement tools are implemented within the PRoGIS and PRo3D web software to accurately measure the dip and strike of bedding in outcrops, create detailed stratigraphic logs for correlation between the areas investigated, and to develop realistic 3D models for the characterization of planetary surface processes. Annotation tools are being developed to aid discussion and dissemination of the observations within the planetary science community.

  16. Mercury Mapper: First Look at the Innermost Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirshon, B.

    2012-12-01

    Until very recently little has been known about the planet Mercury, despite its relative proximity to Earth. Mercury is difficult to observe from Earth, because it is so small and so close to the sun, and only one spacecraft had visited the planet: Mariner 10, in the mid 1970s. But now, the MESSENGER spacecraft is in orbit around Mercury, sending back high-resolution images of virtually the entire planetary surface. This provides a rare opportunity for public engagement in the exploration of a new world—a chance for non-scientists to help scientists locate, measure and describe terrain never before seen. Mercury Mapper, designed by CosmoQuest, will provide the training and toolkit needed to accomplish the task. Using thousands of images selected by the MESSENGER science team, Mercury Mapper will guide citizen scientists through the process of finding, categorizing and measuring key topographic features of interest to researchers. Mercury Mapper users will in many cases be the first people to examine these features. In this session, members of the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach team along with CosmoQuest designers involved in developing Mercury Mapper will share the many considerations and tradeoffs involved in creating a fun environment for engaging the public while also serving the interests of scientists performing original research.; ;

  17. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, and planetary mantles.

  18. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  19. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  20. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    1982-01-01

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  1. Planetary geosciences, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  2. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  3. Issues of geologically-focused situational awareness in robotic planetary missions: Lessons from an analogue mission at Mistastin Lake impact structure, Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonenko, I.; Osinski, G. R.; Battler, M.; Beauchamp, M.; Cupelli, L.; Chanou, A.; Francis, R.; Mader, M. M.; Marion, C.; McCullough, E.; Pickersgill, A. E.; Preston, L. J.; Shankar, B.; Unrau, T.; Veillette, D.

    2013-07-01

    Remote robotic data provides different information than that obtained from immersion in the field. This significantly affects the geological situational awareness experienced by members of a mission control science team. In order to optimize science return from planetary robotic missions, these limitations must be understood and their effects mitigated to fully leverage the field experience of scientists at mission control.Results from a 13-day analogue deployment at the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, Canada suggest that scale, relief, geological detail, and time are intertwined issues that impact the mission control science team's effectiveness in interpreting the geology of an area. These issues are evaluated and several mitigation options are suggested. Scale was found to be difficult to interpret without the reference of known objects, even when numerical scale data were available. For this reason, embedding intuitive scale-indicating features into image data is recommended. Since relief is not conveyed in 2D images, both 3D data and observations from multiple angles are required. Furthermore, the 3D data must be observed in animation or as anaglyphs, since without such assistance much of the relief information in 3D data is not communicated. Geological detail may also be missed due to the time required to collect, analyze, and request data.We also suggest that these issues can be addressed, in part, by an improved understanding of the operational time costs and benefits of scientific data collection. Robotic activities operate on inherently slow time-scales. This fact needs to be embraced and accommodated. Instead of focusing too quickly on the details of a target of interest, thereby potentially minimizing science return, time should be allocated at first to more broad data collection at that target, including preliminary surveys, multiple observations from various vantage points, and progressively smaller scale of focus. This operational model

  4. Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Crumpler, L.S.; Dohm, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We photogeologically mapped the SP Mountain region of the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona, USA to evaluate and improve the fidelity of approaches used in geologic mapping of Mars. This test site, which was previously mapped in the field, is chiefly composed of Late Cenozoic cinder cones, lava flows, and alluvium perched on Permian limestone of the Kaibab Formation. Faulting and folding has deformed the older rocks and some of the volcanic materials, and fluvial erosion has carved drainage systems and deposited alluvium. These geologic materials and their formational and modificational histories are similar to those for regions of the Martian surface. We independently prepared four geologic maps using topographic and image data at resolutions that mimic those that are commonly used to map the geology of Mars (where consideration was included for the fact that Martian features such as lava flows are commonly much larger than their terrestrial counterparts). We primarily based our map units and stratigraphic relations on geomorphology, color contrasts, and cross-cutting relationships. Afterward, we compared our results with previously published field-based mapping results, including detailed analyses of the stratigraphy and of the spatial overlap and proximity of the field-based vs. remote-based (photogeologic) map units, contacts, and structures. Results of these analyses provide insights into how to optimize the photogeologic mapping of Mars (and, by extension, other remotely observed planetary surfaces). We recommend the following: (1) photogeologic mapping as an excellent approach to recovering the general geology of a region, along with examination of local, high-resolution datasets to gain insights into the complexity of the geology at outcrop scales; (2) delineating volcanic vents and lava-flow sequences conservatively and understanding that flow abutment and flow overlap are difficult to distinguish in remote data sets; (3) taking care to

  5. LANDSAT 4 investigations of thematic mapper and multispectral scanner applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, D. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Initial data screening, data handling and program testing were completed on the four-band Detroit scene and the seven-band northeast Arkansas scene. Data were received in early December for one primary eastern test site (Washington, D.C.) and one secondary eastern test site (Allegheny National Forest). A comprehensive digital data base was built for a portion of the Black Hills test site and is composed of historic LANDSAT MSS data; elevation, slope, and aspect data; land cover data; geologic data; thematic mapper simulator data; and digitized high altitude aircraft data. The thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data of the Washington area were resampled at 25 and 50 meters respectively, with map projection to UTM grid.

  6. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  7. GEM: The GAAIN Entity Mapper

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Peehoo; Ambite, Jose-Luis; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a software system solution that significantly simplifies data sharing of medical data. This system, called GEM (for the GAAIN Entity Mapper), harmonizes medical data. Harmonization is the process of unifying information across multiple disparate datasets needed to share and aggregate medical data. Specifically, our system automates the task of finding corresponding elements across different independently created (medical) datasets of related data. We present our overall approach, detailed technical architecture, and experimental evaluations demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:26665184

  8. A Retrospective: Active Volatile-Driven Geologic Processes Across the Solar System—Lessons for Planetary Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    When Voyagers 1 and 2 left Earth in 1977, we had little clue as to the rich variety of activity we'd find on the outer Solar System moons. The moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune would likely exhibit little geologic evolution¾much less even than our Moon. We expected battered, cratered, dead worlds. Like the Moon, Mars had showed volcanic activity in the geologic past, but ancient, heavily crater highlands dominated both surfaces. It seemed unlikely that we'd find even extinct volcanism in the cold, dead reaches of the outer Solar System. Voyager 1 shocked us by revealing Io's prolific ongoing volcanism. (Not all were surprised: just days earlier, Peale, Cassen, and Reynolds published a prediction that Io could be volcanically active). Europa, too, was a Voyager surprise; only a small handful of impact craters pocked its surface. It too had to be a geologically young body—likely still actively evolving. We have even found very recent geological activity on tiny cometary nuclei, where young flows have oozed forth across their surfaces. At Neptune, incredibly, Voyager 2 found eruptions on Triton's 37K polar cap—plumes driven by solar-heated nitrogen gas blasting dark dust and bright ice in 8-km-high columns. On Mars, "dark spiders" near the pole signaled similar active eruptions, in this case driven by pressurized carbon dioxide. Cassini witnessed a myriad of jets near tiny Enceladus' south pole, arising from an internal ocean evidently driven by active chemical processes and modulated by Saturn's proximity. Cassini revealed Titan to be Earth's alien twin, with a host of processes borrowed from textbooks on terrestrial geomorphology and meteorology. Akin to Earth's global hydrological cycle, Titan's runs on methane—methane rivers, seas, and rain abound. What lessons can we take from these active places into the next phase of exploration? When the Voyagers were launched, our naiveté allowed that only planet Earth was dynamically active. But exploring

  9. Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonenko, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The final report consists of 10 journal articles concerning Planetary Volcanism. The articles discuss the following topics: (1) lunar stratigraphy; (2) cryptomare thickness measurements; (3) spherical harmonic spectra; (4) late stage activity of volcanoes on Venus; (5) stresses and calderas on Mars; (6) magma reservoir failure; (7) lunar mare basalt volcanism; (8) impact and volcanic glasses in the 79001/2 Core; (9) geology of the lunar regional dark mantle deposits; and (10) factors controlling the depths and sizes of magma reservoirs in Martian volcanoes.

  10. Lightning mapper sensor design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

  11. Registering Thematic Mapper imagery to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frew, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problems encountered when attempting to register Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to U.S. geological survey digital elevation models (DEMs) are examined. It is shown that TM and DEM data are not available in the same map projection, necessitating geometric transformation of one of the data type, that the TM data are not accurately located in their nominal projection, and that TM data have higher resolution than most DEM data, but oversampling the DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Further work needed in this area is discussed.

  12. Planetary atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.; Morgan, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Two kinds of planetary map atlases are in production. Atlases of the first kind contain reduced-scale versions of maps in hard-bound books with dimensions of 11 x 14 inches. These new atlases are intended to: (1) provide concise but comprehensive references to the geography of the planets needed by planetary scientists and others; and (2) allow inexpensive access to the planetary map dataset without requiring acquisition and examination of tens or hundreds of full-size map sheets. Two such atlases have been published and a third is in press. Work was begun of an Atlas of the Satellite of the Outer Planets. The second kind of atlas is a popular or semi-technical version designed for commercial publication and distribution. The first edition, The Atlas of the Solar System, is nearly ready for publication. New funding and contracting constraints now make it unlikely that the atlas can be published in the format originally planned. Currently, the possibility of publishing the maps through the U.S. Geological Survey as a series of folios in the I-map series is being explored. The maps are global views of each solid-surface body of the Solar System. Each map shows airbrushed relief, albedo, and, where available, topography. A set of simplified geologic maps is also included. All of the maps are on equal-area projections. Scales are 1:40,000,000 for the Earth and Venus; 1:2,000,000 for the Saturnian satellites Mimas and Enceladus and the Uranian satellite Miranda; 1:100,000 for the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos; and 1:10,000,000 for all other bodies.

  13. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  14. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The two principle objectives of the project Thematic Mapper Study of Alaskan Ophiolites were to further develop techniques for producing geologic maps, and to study the tectonics of the ophiolite terrains of the Brooks Range and Ruby Geanticline of northern Alaska. Ophiolites, sections of oceanic lithosphere emplaced along island arcs and continental margins, are important to the understanding of mountain belt evolution. Ophiolites also provide an opportunity to study the structural, lithologic, and geochemical characteristics of ocean lithosphere, yielding a better understanding of the processes forming lithosphere. The first part of the report is a description of the methods and results of the TM mapping and gravity modeling. The second part includes papers being prepared for publication. These papers are the following: (1) an analysis of basalt spectral variations; (2) a study of basalt geochemical variations; (3) an examination of the cooling history of the ophiolites using radiometric data; (4) an analysis of shortening produced by thrusting during the Brooks Range orogeny; and (5) a study of an ophiolite using digital aeromagnetic and topographic data. Additional papers are in preparation.

  15. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. Activities at the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    The scientific and administrative activities of the Lunar and Planetary Institute are summarized. Recent research relating to geophysics, planetary geology, the origin of the Earth and Moon, the lunar surface, Mars, meteorites, and image processing techniques is discussed.

  17. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H. (Editor); Saunders, R. S.; Strom, R. G.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    The geologic history of the terrestrial planets is outlined in light of recent exploration and the revolution in geologic thinking. Among the topics considered are planet formation; planetary craters, basins, and general surface characteristics; tectonics; planetary atmospheres; and volcanism.

  18. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: planetary geology, meteorites, planetary composition, meteoritic composition, planetary craters, lunar craters, meteorite craters, petrology, petrography, volcanology, planetary crusts, geochronology, geomorphism, mineralogy, lithology, planetary atmospheres, impact melts, K-T Boundary Layer, volcanoes, planetary evolution, tectonics, planetary mapping, asteroids, comets, lunar soil, lunar rocks, lunar geology, metamorphism, chemical composition, meteorite craters, planetary mantles, and space exploration.

  19. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc.

  20. Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: G-M

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: meteorites, meteoritic composition, geochemistry, planetary geology, planetary composition, planetary craters, the Moon, Mars, Venus, asteroids, planetary atmospheres, meteorite craters, space exploration, lunar geology, planetary surfaces, lunar surface, lunar rocks, lunar soil, planetary atmospheres, lunar atmosphere, lunar exploration, space missions, geomorphology, lithology, petrology, petrography, planetary evolution, Earth surface, planetary surfaces, volcanology, volcanos, lava, magma, mineralogy, minerals, ejecta, impact damage, meteoritic damage, tectonics, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  1. The First Global Geological Map of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Head, J. W., III; Byrne, P. K.; Denevi, B. W.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Fassett, C.; Whitten, J. L.; Thomas, R.; Ernst, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geological maps are tools with which to understand the distribution and age relationships of surface geological units and structural features on planetary surfaces. Regional and limited global mapping of Mercury has already yielded valuable science results, elucidating the history and distribution of several types of units and features, such as regional plains, tectonic structures, and pyroclastic deposits. To date, however, no global geological map of Mercury exists, and there is currently no commonly accepted set of standardized unit descriptions and nomenclature. With MESSENGER monochrome image data, we are undertaking the global geological mapping of Mercury at the 1:15M scale applying standard U.S. Geological Survey mapping guidelines. This map will enable the development of the first global stratigraphic column of Mercury, will facilitate comparisons among surface units distributed discontinuously across the planet, and will provide guidelines for mappers so that future mapping efforts will be consistent and broadly interpretable by the scientific community. To date we have incorporated three major datasets into the global geological map: smooth plains units, tectonic structures, and impact craters and basins >20 km in diameter. We have classified most of these craters by relative age on the basis of the state of preservation of morphological features and standard classification schemes first applied to Mercury by the Mariner 10 imaging team. Additional datasets to be incorporated include intercrater plains units and crater ejecta deposits. In some regions MESSENGER color data is used to supplement the monochrome data, to help elucidate different plains units. The final map will be published online, together with a peer-reviewed publication. Further, a digital version of the map, containing individual map layers, will be made publicly available for use within geographic information systems (GISs).

  2. Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natraj, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases related to climate change and human activity.Understanding of sources and sinks of CO2 is currently limited by frequency of observations and uncertainty in vertical transport. GCPM improves this situation by making simultaneous high resolution measurements of CO2, CH4, CF, and CO in near-IR, many times per day. GCPM is able to investigate processes with time scales of minutes to hours. CO2, CH4, CF, Co selected because their combination provides information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic sources/sinks. Quasi-continuous monitoring effectively eliminates atmospheric transport uncertainties from source/sink inversion modeling. will have one instrument (GeoFTS), hosted on a commercial communications satellite, planned for two years operation. GCPM will affordably advance the understanding of observed cycle variability improving future climate projections.

  3. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  4. Twenty-Second Lunar and Planetary Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written for general presentation, avoiding jargon and unnecessarily complex terms. Some of the topics covered include: planetary evolution, planetary satellites, planetary composition, planetary surfaces, planetary geology, volcanology, meteorite impacts and composition, and cosmic dust. Particular emphasis is placed on Mars and the Moon.

  5. Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper for high-latitude airglow studies.

    PubMed

    Pautet, P-D; Taylor, M J; Pendleton, W R; Zhao, Y; Yuan, T; Esplin, R; McLain, D

    2014-09-10

    Over the past 60 years, ground-based remote sensing measurements of the Earth's mesospheric temperature have been performed using the nighttime hydroxyl (OH) emission, which originates at an altitude of ∼87  km. Several types of instruments have been employed to date: spectrometers, Fabry-Perot or Michelson interferometers, scanning-radiometers, and more recently temperature mappers. Most of them measure the mesospheric temperature in a few sample directions and/or with a limited temporal resolution, restricting their research capabilities to the investigation of larger-scale perturbations such as inertial waves, tides, or planetary waves. The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ∼1.5  μm) to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere around 87 km. The data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (∼0.5  km) and temporal (typically 30″) resolution over a large 120° field of view, allowing detailed measurements of wave propagation and dissipation at the ∼87  km level, even in the presence of strong aurora or under full moon conditions. This paper describes the AMTM characteristics, compares measured temperatures with values obtained by a collocated Na lidar instrument, and presents several examples of temperature maps and nightly keogram representations to illustrate the excellent capabilities of this new instrument. PMID:25321674

  6. GIS-based Conceptual Database Model for Planetary Geoscientific Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Nass, Andrea; Neukum, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    We here report on the conceptual design of a geodatabase model as part of a larger-scaled GIS-based system composed of several applications, templates and database backend which supports conducting combined geological as well as geomorphological mapping of planetary surfaces and which simplifies the process of maintaining data and map products. Performing geological and/or geomorphological stand-alone or systematic mapping of planetary surfaces supported by modern GIS environments involves several tasks to be performed before the actual mapping process can be carried out. Such tasks deal with setting up a working environment by querying and defining raster data from a variety of planetary missions to be used and processed, importing auxiliary data, defining projection parameters for one or more map layer(s) and each raster/vector dataset, importing processed data, and defining a variety of vector shape geometries and attributes for mapping in terms of geometry type, representation symbology and attribute domains in a consistent way. In order to allow consistent mapping approaches and subsequent homogenisation success, a mapper makes use of pre-defined model schemas (templates) and definitions allowing to import mapping representation and styles as well as a backbone geo-database to immediately start working and making use of the provided infrastructure. The conceptual geo-database design developed far involves the design of the main object and data layers and consists of objects, object types, their relationships and additionally the formulation of integrity conditions on a level which is in principle independent of the exact implementation and its environment. Furthermore, the data layer containing attribute domains has been implemented. The conceptual design has been crafted using ESRI's ArcGIS File Geodatabase environment but it can be exported to any other GDBMS. The overall layout consists of several main elements or entity groups composed of relations

  7. Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettengill, G.H.; Ford, P.G.; Brown, W.E.; Kaula, W.M.; Keller, C.H.; Masursky, H.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 112500 and may be substantially smaller. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  8. Pioneer venus radar mapper experiment.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, G H; Ford, P G; Brown, W E; Kaula, W M; Keller, C H; Masursky, H; McGill, G E

    1979-02-23

    Altimetry and radar scattering data for Venus, obtained from 10 of the first 13 orbits of the Pioneer Venus orbiter, have disclosed what appears to be a rift valley having vertical relief of up to 7 kilometers, as well as a neighboring, gently rolling plain. Planetary oblateness appears unlikely to exceed 1/2500 and may be substantially smaller. PMID:17833006

  9. MAPPER: A personal computer map projection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Steven A.

    1993-01-01

    MAPPER is a set of software tools designed to let users create and manipulate map projections on a personal computer (PC). The capability exists to generate five popular map projections. These include azimuthal, cylindrical, mercator, lambert, and sinusoidal projections. Data for projections are contained in five coordinate databases at various resolutions. MAPPER is managed by a system of pull-down windows. This interface allows the user to intuitively create, view and export maps to other platforms.

  10. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  11. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  12. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 2: H-O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: planetary geology, lunar geology, meteorites, shock loads, cometary collisions, planetary mapping, planetary atmospheres, chondrites, chondrules, planetary surfaces, impact craters, lava flow, achondrites, geochemistry, stratigraphy, micrometeorites, tectonics, mineralogy, petrology, geomorphology, and volcanology.

  13. Development, Deployment, and Assessment of Dynamic Geological and Geophysical Models Using the Google Earth APP and API: Implications for Undergraduate Education in the Earth and Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Gobert, J.

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported on innovative techniques for presenting data on virtual globes such as Google Earth using emergent Collada models that reveal subsurface geology and geophysics. We here present several new and enhanced models and linked lesson plans to aid deployment in undergraduate geoscience courses, along with preliminary results from our assessment of their effectiveness. The new Collada models are created with Google SketchUp, Bonzai3D, and MeshLab software, and are grouped to cover (i) small scale field mapping areas; (ii) regional scale studies of the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, the Appalachian Orogen, and the Pacific Ring of Fire; and (iii) global scale studies of terrestrial planets, moons, and asteroids. Enhancements include emergent block models with three-dimensional surface topography; models that conserve structural orientation data; interactive virtual specimens; models that animate plate movements on the virtual globe; exploded 3-D views of planetary mantles and cores; and server-generated dynamic KML. We tested volunteer students and professors using Silverback monitoring software, think-aloud verbalizations, and questionnaires designed to assess their understanding of the underlying geo-scientific phenomena. With the aid of a cohort of instructors across the U.S., we are continuing to assess areas in which users encounter difficulties with both the software and geoscientific concepts. Preliminary results suggest that it is easy to overestimate the computer expertise of novice users even when they are content knowledge experts (i.e., instructors), and that a detailed introduction to virtual globe manipulation is essential before moving on to geoscience applications. Tasks that seem trivial to developers may present barriers to non-technical users and technicalities that challenge instructors may block adoption in the classroom. We have developed new models using the Google Earth API which permits enhanced interaction and dynamic feedback and

  14. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrametz, K.; Kofler, L.

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution were addressed.

  15. Conference on Planetary Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O. (Compiler); Oconnell, R. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Initial and present volatile inventories and distributions in the Earth, other planets, meteorites, and comets; observational evidence on the time history of volatile transfer among reservoirs; and volatiles in planetary bodies, their mechanisms of transport, and their relation to thermal, chemical, geological and biological evolution are addressed.

  16. Geologic Mapping of V-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Guest, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A geologic map of the Sedna Planitia (V-19) quadrangle is being completed at the 1:5,000,000 scale as part of the NASA Planetary Geologic Mapping Program, and will be submitted for review by September 2009.

  17. Thematic Mapper Spectral Dimensionality and Data Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.; Cicone, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data, simulated from field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of a variety of agricultural crops and a wide range of soils, are analyzed to determine their dispersion in the six space defined by the reflective TM bands (i.e., excluding the thermal band). While similar analyses of MSS data from agricultural scenes show that the vast majority of the MSS data occupy a single plane, the simulated TM data primarily occupy three dimensions, defining two intersecting planes and a zone of transition between the two. Viewing the plane of Vegetation head on provides a projection comparable to the single plane of MSS data. The Plane of Soils and transition zone represent new information made available largely as a result of the longer infrared bands included in the Thematic Mapper. A transformation, named the Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap, is presented which rotates the TM data such that the described data structure is most readily accessible to view.

  18. Stratigraphy and structural geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Greeley, R.; Guest, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The immediate goal of stratigraphy and structural geology is to reduce the enormous complexity of a planetary surface to comprehensible proportions by dividing the near-surface rocks into units and mapping their distribution and attitude.

  19. The Moon mineralogy mapper (M3) on Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Head, J.; Isaacson, P.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Mustard, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a NASA-supported guest instrument on ISRO's remote sensing mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1. The M3 is an imaging spectrometer that operates from the visible into the near-infrared (0.42-3.0 ??m) where highly diagnostic mineral absorption bands occur. Over the course of the mission M3 will provide low resolution spectroscopic data for the entire lunar surface at 140 m/pixel (86 spectral channels) to be used as a base-map and high spectral resolution science data (80 m/pixel; 260 spectral channels) for 25-50% of the surface. The detailed mineral assessment of different lunar terrains provided by M3 is principal information needed for understanding the geologic evolution of the lunar crust and lays the foundation for focused future in-depth exploration of the Moon.

  20. Planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.; Brahic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are the development history of planetary ring research, the view of planetary rings in astronomy and cosmology over the period 1600-1900, the characteristics of the ring systems of Saturn and Uranus, the ethereal rings of Jupiter and Saturn, dust-magnetosphere interactions, the effects of radiation forces on dust particles, the collisional interactions and physical nature of ring particles, transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms, and collision-induced transport processes in planetary rings. Also discussed are planetary ring waves, ring particle dynamics in resonances, the dynamics of narrow rings, the origin and evolution of planetary rings, the solar nebula and planetary disk, future studies of the planetary rings by space probes, ground-based observatories and earth-orbiting satellites, and unsolved problems in planetary ring dynamics.

  1. Planetary radar astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-03-01

    The present investigation is concerned with planetary radar research reported during the time from 1979 to 1982. A brief synopsis of radar definitions and technical terminology is also provided. In connection with the proximity of the moon to earth, lunar radar studies have been performed over a wider range of wavelengths than radar investigations of other planetary targets. The most recent study of lunar quasispecular scattering is due to Simpson and Tyler (1982). The latest efforts to interpret the lunar radar maps focus on maria-highlands regolith differences and models of crater ejecta evolution. The highly successful Pioneer Venus Radar Mapper experiment has provided a first look at Venus' global distributions of topography, lambda 17-cm radar reflectivity, and rms surface slopes. Attention is given to recent comparisons of Viking Orbiter images of Mars to groundbased radar altimetry of the planet, the icy Galilean satellites, radar observations of asteroids and comets, and lambda 4-cm and lambda 13-cm observations of Saturn's rings.

  2. Blue Marble Matches: Using Earth for Planetary Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    Goal: This activity is designed to introduce students to geologic processes on Earth and model how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Objectives: Students will: 1. Identify common descriptor characteristics used by scientists to describe geologic features in images. 2. Identify geologic features and how they form on Earth. 3. Create a list of defining/distinguishing characteristics of geologic features 4. Identify geologic features in images of other planetary bodies. 5. List observations and interpretations about planetary body comparisons. 6. Create summary statements about planetary body comparisons.

  3. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  4. Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, petrography, meteoritic composition, planetary geology, atmospheric composition, astronomical spectroscopy, lunar geology, Mars (planet), Mars composition, Mars surface, volcanology, Mars volcanoes, Mars craters, lunar craters, mineralogy, mineral deposits, lithology, asteroids, impact melts, planetary composition, planetary atmospheres, planetary mapping, cosmic dust, photogeology, stratigraphy, lunar craters, lunar exploration, space exploration, geochronology, tectonics, atmospheric chemistry, astronomical models, and geochemistry.

  5. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  6. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  7. Juno's Earth flyby: the Jovian infrared Auroral Mapper preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M. L.; Mura, A.; Tosi, F.; Sindoni, G.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Filacchione, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper, JIRAM, is an image-spectrometer onboard the NASA Juno spacecraft flying to Jupiter. The instrument has been designed to study the aurora and the atmosphere of the planet in the spectral range 2-5 μm. The very first scientific observation taken with the instrument was at the Moon just before Juno's Earth fly-by occurred on October 9, 2013. The purpose was to check the instrument regular operation modes and to optimize the instrumental performances. The testing activity will be completed with pointing and a radiometric/spectral calibrations shortly after Jupiter Orbit Insertion. Then the reconstruction of some Moon infrared images, together with co-located spectra used to retrieve the lunar surface temperature, is a fundamental step in the instrument operation tuning. The main scope of this article is to serve as a reference to future users of the JIRAM datasets after public release with the NASA Planetary Data System.

  8. Thematic mapper critical elements breadboard program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dale, C. H., Jr.; Engel, J. L.; Harney, E. D.

    1976-01-01

    A 40.6 cm bidirectional scan mirror assembly, a scan line corrector and a silicon photodiode array with integral preamplifier input stages were designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate performance consistent with requirements of the Hughes thematic mapper system. The measured performance met or exceeded the original design goals in all cases with the qualification that well defined and well understood deficiencies in the design of the photodiode array package will require the prescribed corrections before flight use.

  9. Thematic Mapper: Design through flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.

  10. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  11. AMICA, an astro-mapper for AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfardini, Alessandro; Trampus, Paolo; Battiston, Roberto; Gargiulo, Corrado

    2006-07-01

    The alpha magnetic spectrograph (AMS) is a composite particle detector to be accommodated on the International Space Station (ISS). AMS is mainly devoted to galactic, charged cosmic rays studies, antimatter and dark matter searches. Besides the main, classical physics goals, capabilities in the field of GeV and multi-GeV gamma astrophysics have been established and are under investigation by a number of groups. Due to the unsteadiness of the ISS platform, a star-mapper device is required in order to fully exploit the intrinsic arc-min angular resolution provided by the silicon tracker. A star-mapper is conceptually an imaging, optical instrument able to autonomously recognize a stellar field and to calculate its own orientation with respect to an inertial reference frame. AMICA (Astro Mapper for Instruments Check of Attitude) on AMS is responsible for providing real-time information that is going to be used off-line for compensating the large uncertainties in the ISS flight attitude and the structural degrees of freedom. In this paper, we describe in detail the AMICA sub-system, the accommodation/integration issues and the in-flight alignment procedure adopting identified galactic (Pulsars) and extra-galactic (AGNs) sources.

  12. Planetary science: Flow of an alien ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Liquid water may lurk beneath the frozen surfaces of Jupiter's moon Europa and other icy worlds. Extending ocean science beyond Earth, planetary oceanographers are linking Europa's ocean dynamics to its enigmatic surface geology.

  13. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  14. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  15. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  16. Planetary Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Radar is a powerful technique that has furnished otherwise unavailable information about solar system bodies for three decades. The advantages of radar in planetary astronomy result from: (1) the observer's control of all the attributes of the coherent signal used to illuminate the target, especially the wave form's time/frequency modulation and polarization; (2) the ability of radar to resolve objects spatially via measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency; (3) the pronounced degree to which delay-Doppler measurements constrain orbits and spin vectors; and (4) centimeter-to-meter wavelengths, which easily penetrate optically opaque planetary clouds and cometary comae, permit investigation of near-surface macrostructure and bulk density, and are sensitive to high concentrations of metal or, in certain situations, ice. Planetary radar astronomy has primarily involved observations with Earth-based radar telescopes, but also includes some experiments with a spaceborne transmitter or receiver. In addition to providing a wealth of information about the geological and dynamical properties of asteroids, comets, the inner planets, and natural satellites, radar experiments have established the scale of the solar system, have contributed significantly to the accuracy of planetary ephemerides, and have helped to constrain theories of gravitation. This review outlines radar astronomical techniques and describes principal observational results.

  17. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  18. Thematic mapper studies of Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective was to identify all the active volcanoes in the Andean region of Bolivia. Morphological features of the Tata Sabaya volcano, Bolivia, were studied with the thematic mapper. Details include marginal levees on lava and pyroclastic flows, and summit crater structure. Valley glacier moraine deposits, not easily identified on the multispectral band scanner, were also unambiguous, and provide useful marker horizons on large volcanic edifices which were built up in preglacial times but which were active subsequently. With such high resolution imagery, it is not only possible to identify potentially active volcanoes, but also to use standard photogeological interpretation to outline the history of individual volcanoes.

  19. Thematic Mapper bandpass solar exoatmospheric irradiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    Based on solar irradiance data published by Neckel and Labs (1984) and Iqbal (1983), the solar exoatmospheric irradiances for Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been calculated. Results vary by up to 1 percent from previous published values, which were based on the earlier data of Neckel and Labs. For TM bands 5 and 7, integrated solar exoatmospheric irradiances have also been recalculated using solar irradiance data published by Labs and Neckel (1968), Arvesen et al. (1969), and Iqbal (1983). These irradiances vary by up to 6 percent from previously published results, which were based on data published by Thekaekara (1972).

  20. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysoki, M.H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L.U.; Jones, O.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

  1. Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. SkyMapper Discovery of a Nearby SN IIn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, M.; Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Tucker, B.; Zhang, B.; Ruiter, A.; Seitenzahl, I.; Schmidt, B.; Ryder, S.

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby Type IIn SN as part of the SkyMapper Transient (SMT) survey conducted with the 268-megapixel camera on the SkyMapper 1.3-m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia (Keller et al., 2007, PASA, 24, 1).

  3. Planetary geosciences, 1989-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Lunine, Jonathan I. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn J. (Editor); Phillips, Roger J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Geosciences Programs (the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the Planetary Material and Geochemistry Programs) provide support and an organizational framework for scientific research on solid bodies of the solar system. These research and analysis programs support scientific research aimed at increasing our understanding of the physical, chemical, and dynamic nature of the solid bodies of the solar system: the Moon, the terrestrial planets, the satellites of the outer planets, the rings, the asteroids, and the comets. This research is conducted using a variety of methods: laboratory experiments, theoretical approaches, data analysis, and Earth analog techniques. Through research supported by these programs, we are expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This document is intended to provide an overview of the more significant scientific findings and discoveries made this year by scientists supported by the Planetary Geosciences Program. To a large degree, these results and discoveries are the measure of success of the programs.

  4. The geologic setting of the Mars north polar cap's Basal Unit from the three dimensional analysis of MARSIS planetary radar sounder data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigeri, A.; Orosei, R.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Giuppi, S.; Noschese, R.; Plaut, J.

    2012-12-01

    Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) is the orbital subsurface sounder aboard ESA's Mars Express spacecraft. It transmits a low-frequency radar pulse capable of penetrating below the surface, where subsurface dielectric discontinuities originate secondary echoes. MARSIS has been used to probe both the south and the north polar caps of Mars, revealing their thickness and structure. We report on the results of a campaign of observations of the north polar ice cap of Mars that took place between May and December 2011 in uniquely favorable conditions, and produced data of unprecedented quality. The focus of our work is the detection of signals from the Basal Unit, the dark, ice-rich, complexely layered geologic unit lying stratigraphically between the polar layered deposits and the Vastitas Borealis Formation, and extending beneath most of Planum Boreum and Olympia Planitia. The objective of this work is the study of the full three dimensional structure of the Northern Polar Deposit and in particular of the Basal Unit (BU). The analysis of signals in bi-dimensional radargrams sounding the BU reveal a layering of the unit, probably correlated with the Rupes Tenuis - Planum Boreum Cavi units' boundary. Using the density of data available from the 2011 polar campaign, we assembled radar observations into a three dimensional volume of data. The use of visualization techniques allow to explore these data interactively, identifying patterns that can be problematic to detect with unsupervised automatic methods. This way, specific areas, or sub-volumes, are being selected to be studied in detail. We will present MARSIS data from the Mars North Polar campaign, as well as the preliminary interpretation of these data in three dimensions, and the possible implications for the geologic history of the northern Martian ice-cap.

  5. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper Calibration Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helder, Dennis; Malla. Rimy; Mettler, Cory; Markham, Brian; Micijevic, Esad

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5, which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the Thematic Mapper-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988 through 1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations, a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert PICS, were developed. Results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all the reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this work have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  6. ExoExoZodi Mapper: a starshade probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Lo, Amy

    2012-09-01

    Direct detection and imaging of Exo-Earths is a prime candidate for the next Astrophysics flagship mission. Much effort is focused on developing the mission concept and technology to enable the direct imaging of an Exo-Earth. However, several key astronomical unknowns stand in the way of a fully optimized Exo-Earth imaging mission, the primary of which is the uncertainty in the Exo-Zodi brightness. By analogy to our own Zodiacal dust, Exo-Zodiacal dust is predicted to exist in the habitable zones of other stars, exactly in the locations where Exo-Earths would reside. Reflected light from this dust could be a primary background contribution to measurements of the Exo-Earth. We propose a mission concept called the Exo-Zodi Mapper (EZM) to obtain definitive measurements of the brightness of the Exo-Zodi dust around target stars which are the prime targets for a future mission aimed at the direct detection of Exo-Earths. Our mission concept uses a medium sized starshade that works with the James Webb Space Telescope to image and characterize the brightness and distribution of Exo-Zodiacal dust around ~40 primary target stars. This measurement would provide more precise requirements for the eventual Exo-Earth flagship mission, which may translate into significant savings. In addition, EZM can provide a host of ancillary science information on these important targets, including detailed maps of their dust distribution, studies of outer, giant planets, and exploration of the overall architecture of these planetary systems. The EZM starshade can also be used to enable high-contrast imaging of other targets of value to the astronomical community such as debris disks around young stars. We present an overview of the science that motivated the mission concept, the driving requirements, and the top level mission architecture.

  7. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  8. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  9. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  10. Throughput enhancement technique for MAPPER maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, M. J.; Derks, H.; Gupta, H.; van de Peut, T.; Postma, F. M.; van Veen, A. H. V.; Zhang, Y.

    2010-03-01

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing in combination with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. With 13,000 electron beams each delivering a current of 13nA on the wafer, a throughput of 10 wph is realized for 22nm node lithography. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV. The most mature and reliable electron source currently available that combines a high brightness, a high emission current and uniform emission is the dispenser cathode. For this electron source a reduced brightness of 106 A/m2SrV has been measured, with no restrictions on emission current. With this brightness however it is possible to realize a beam current of 0.3nA (@ 25nm spotsize), which is almost a factor 50 lower than the 13nA that is required for 10 wph. Three methods can be distinguished to increase the throughput: 1. Use an electron source with a 50× higher brightness 2. Increase the number of beams and lenses 50× 3. Patterned beams: Image multiple sub-beams with each projection lens MAPPER has selected option 3) 'Patterned beams' as the method to increase the beam current to 13nA. This because an electron source with a 50x higher brightness is simply not available at this time, and increasing the number of beams and lenses 50× leads to undesirable engineering issues. During the past years MAPPER has been developing the concept of 'Patterned beams'. By imaging 7×7 sub-beams per projection lens the beam current is increased to the required 13nA level. This technique will also be used to maintain throughput at 10 wph for smaller technology nodes by further increasing the number of sub-beams per projection lens. In this paper we will describe the electron optical design used to image these multiple sub-beams per lens, as well as

  11. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition.

  12. The Twenty-Fifth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: P-Z

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Various papers on lunar and planetary science are presented, covering such topics as: impact craters, tektites, lunar geology, lava flow, geodynamics, chondrites, planetary geology, planetary surfaces, volcanology, tectonics, topography, regolith, metamorphic rock, geomorphology, lunar soil, geochemistry, petrology, cometary collisions, geochronology, weathering, and meteoritic composition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

  13. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  14. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  15. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  16. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  17. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed methodologies and procedures for the reduction of microbial burden on an assembled spacecraft at the time of encapsulation or terminal sterilization are reported. This technology is required for reducing excessive microbial burden on spacecraft components for the purposes of either decreasing planetary contamination probabilities for an orbiter or minimizing the duration of a sterilization process for a lander.

  18. MTF Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R.

    1984-01-01

    A research program to measure the LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) modulation transfer function (MTF) is described. Measurement of a satellite sensor's MTF requires the use of a calibrated ground target, i.e., the spatial radiance distribution of the target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test. A small reflective mirror or a dark light linear pattern such as line or edge, and relatively high resolution underflight imagery are used to calibrate the target. A technique that utilizes an analytical model for the scene spatial frequency power spectrum will be investigated as an alternative to calibration of the scene. The test sites and analysis techniques are also described.

  19. Thematic mapper studies of central Andean volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    A series of false color composite images covering the volcanic cordillera was written. Each image is 45 km (1536 x 1536 pixels) and was constructed using bands 7, 4, and 2 of the Thematic Mapper (TM) data. Approximately 100 images were prepared to date. A set of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images was used in conjunction with the TM hardcopy to compile a computer data base of all volcanic structure in the Central Andean province. Over 500 individual structures were identified. About 75 major volcanoes were identified as active, or potentially active. A pilot study was begun combining Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data with TM for a test area in north Chile and Bolivia.

  20. Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper outgassing effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Micijevic, E.

    2004-01-01

    A periodic 3% to 5% variation in detector response affecting both image and internal calibrator (IC) data has been observed in bands 5 and 7 of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper. The source for this variation is thought to be an interference effect due to buildup of an ice-like contaminant film on a ZnSe window, covered with an antireflective coating (ARC), of the cooled dewar containing these detectors. Periodic warming of the dewar is required in order to remove the contaminant and restore detector response to an uncontaminated level. These effects in the IC data have been characterized over four individual outgassing cycles using thin-film models to estimate transmittance of the window/ARC and ARC/contaminant film stack throughout the instrument lifetime. Based on the results obtained from this modeling, a lookup table procedure has been implemented that provides correction factors to improve the calibration accuracy of bands 5 and 7 by approximately 5%.

  1. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  2. Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Robert T.; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2010-01-01

    A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 × 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm. PMID:20357875

  3. Scrounge data processing film products for the thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Information on the format of the film product and type of film used for the LANDSAT-4 scrounge processed thematic mapper data is presented. Image gray scale, annotation field, and general layout are described.

  4. Thematic Mapper. Volume 1: Calibration report flight model, LANDSAT 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, R. C.; Lansing, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.

  5. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  6. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints were identified. The specific objectives for this reporting period were (1) to perform an analysis of the effects of PQ on an outer planet atmospheric probe, and (2) to prepare a quantitative illustration of spacecraft microbial reduction resulting from exposure to space environments. The Jupiter Orbiter Probe mission was used as a model for both of these efforts.

  7. A Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber Equipped with Multiple Spectroscopic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobron, P.; Wang, A.

    2010-03-01

    A Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACH) has been developed at Washington University in St. Louis, in order to conduct co-registered spectroscopic measurements on geological samples under planetary relevant environmental conditions.

  8. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. K.; Araki, S.; Black, G. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Brahic, A.; Brooks, S. M.; Charnoz, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Dones, L.; Durisen, R. H.; Esposito, L. W.; Ferrari, C.; Festou, M.; French, R. G.; Giuliatti-Winter, S. M.; Graps, A. L.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.; Karjalainen, R. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Krueger, H.; Larson, S. M.; Levison, H. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Murray, C. D.; Namouni, F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Olkin, C. B.; Poulet, F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Salo, H. J.; Schmidt, J.; Showalter, M. R.; Spahn, F.; Spilker, L. J.; Srama, R.; Stewart, G. R.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2002-08-01

    The past two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in our view and understanding of planetary rings. We now know that each of the giant planets in the Solar System possesses a complex and unique ring system. Recent studies have identified complex gravitational interactions between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto, or collisions between, parent bodies. Yet, as far as we have come, our understanding is far from complete. The fundamental questions confronting ring scientists at the beginning of the twenty-first century are those regarding the origin, age and evolution of the various ring systems, in the broadest context. Understanding the origin and age requires us to know the current ring properties, and to understand the dominant evolutionary processes and how they influence ring properties. Here we discuss a prioritized list of the key questions, the answers to which would provide the greatest improvement in our understanding of planetary rings. We then outline the initiatives, missions, and other supporting activities needed to address those questions, and recommend priorities for the coming decade in planetary ring science.

  9. Planetary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  10. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  11. Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

  12. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  13. Compositional Survey of Central Peaks in the South Pole-Aitken Basin from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, P.; Nettles, J.; Boardman, J. W.; Petro, N. E.; Klima, R. L.; Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C. M.; Cheek, L.; Clark, R. N.; Head, J. W.; Whitten, J.; Tompkins, S.; Besse, S.; Dhingra, D.; Moriarty, D.; Moon Mineralogy Mapper Team

    2010-12-01

    Orbital measurements allow the composition of planetary surfaces to be mapped globally, something not possible with returned samples. Optical instruments such as reflectance spectrometers, which are sensitive to the very uppermost surface (~1-2 mm depth), provide the highest spatial resolution of the various compositional remote sensing techniques. Major lunar rock-forming minerals exhibit diagnostic absorptions across visible to near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths, and data returned by VNIR reflectance spectrometers can use these absorptions to map lunar mineralogy. However, on the Moon, much of the surface is dominated by mature lunar soils formed by the continual bombardment of the lunar surface over geologic time. This weathering process effectively weakens diagnostic mineral absorption features, complicating mineralogical analyses. Focused analyses of central peaks eliminate two of the drawbacks of remote VNIR reflectance spectroscopy. The steep slopes of central peaks inhibit the development of a thick regolith layer, meaning that central peaks are relatively optically immature and thus preserve the diagnostic spectral absorption features critical to compositional analyses. Furthermore, the crater formation process excavates materials from depth [e.g., Melosh, 1989, Cintala and Grieve, 1998], exposing materials that would otherwise be inaccessible to optical remote sensing. We are in the midst of a survey of lunar crater central peaks with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data, following the work of Tompkins and Pieters [1999], who used Clementine UVVIS multispectral data. We employ a band fitting procedure that gives estimates of the position, strength, and width of the mafic 1 μm absorption feature, which are used to evaluate the mineralogy of the central peaks. Within SPA are a number of craters of various sizes with well defined central peaks (e.g,. Bhabha, Fizeau, Finsen, Dryden) that presumably tap multiple depths across SPA, which itself excavated material

  14. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper calibration update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, Dennis L.; Malla, Rimy; Mettler, Cory J.; Markham, Brian L.; Micijevic, Esad

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) collected imagery of the Earth's surface from 1982 to 1993. Although largely overshadowed by Landsat 5 which was launched in 1984, Landsat 4 TM imagery extends the TM-based record of the Earth back to 1982 and also substantially supplements the image archive collected by Landsat 5. To provide a consistent calibration record for the TM instruments, Landsat 4 TM was cross-calibrated to Landsat 5 using nearly simultaneous overpass imagery of pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) in the time period of 1988-1990. To determine if the radiometric gain of Landsat 4 had changed over its lifetime, time series from two PICS locations (a Saharan site known as Libya 4 and a site in southwest North America, commonly referred to as the Sonoran Desert site) were developed. The results indicated that Landsat 4 had been very stable over its lifetime, with no discernible degradation in sensor performance in all reflective bands except band 1. In contrast, band 1 exhibited a 12% decay in responsivity over the lifetime of the instrument. Results from this paper have been implemented at USGS EROS, which enables users of Landsat TM data sets to obtain consistently calibrated data from Landsat 4 and 5 TM as well as Landsat 7 ETM+ instruments.

  15. Thematic mapper study of Alaskan ophiolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The combinations of Thematic Mapper (TM) bands that best distinguish basalts of the Brooks Range ophiolites were determined. Geochemical analyses, including major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE), are being done in order to study the significance of TM spectral variations that were observed within some of the sampled rock units. An image of the topography of the western Brooks Range and Colville Basin was constructed. Elevation data for the rest of Northern Alaska are being acquired to expand the area covered by the topography image. Two balanced cross sections (one along the eastern margin, the other along the western margin of the Brooks Range) are being constructed, using the techniques of fault-bend and fault-propagation folding. These are being used to obtain regional shortening estimates for the Brooks Range in an attempt to constrain tectonic models for the evolution of Northern Alaska. The TM data are being used to confirm reconnaissance maps and to obtain structural data where no maps exist. Along with the TM data, digital topography, seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravity surveys are examined to better understand the evolution of the Colville Basin, north of the Brooks Range.

  16. Snow reflectance from Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In California 75 percent of the agricultural water supply comes from the melting Sierra Nevada snowpack. Basin-wide spectral albedo measurements from the Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) could be used to better forecast the timing of the spring runoff, because these data can be combined with solar radiation calculations to estimate the net radiation balance. The TM is better-suited for this purpose than the Multispectral Scanner because of its larger dynamic range. Saturation still occurs in bands 1-4, but is severe only in TM1 (0.45-0.52 micron). Snow reflectance in TM2 (0.43-0.61 micron) is typical of the visible wavelength region, where reflectance is almost insensitive to crystal size but sensitive to contamination. TM4 (0.78-0.90 micron) allows estimation of effective optical grain size and thereby spectral extension throughout the near-infrared. TM5 (1.57-1.78 microns) can discriminate clouds from snow.

  17. Information extraction from thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1983-01-01

    The improvements introduced in spectral, spatial, and ratiometric capabilities through installation of the thematic mapper (TM) on the Landsat-4 spacecraft are described. The TM optical sensors scan in the visible (0.45-0.52, 0.52-0.60, and 0.63-0.69 micron), near-IR (0.76-0.90 micron), middle-IR (1.55-1.75 micron), and thermal IR (10.4-12.5 microns). The reflectances of vegetation and the differences in chlorophyll absorption by various plants are discerned more accurately than with the MSS, while the effects of land surface obscuration by water vapor are reduced. The blue-green band upgrades water measurements for bathymetry, reef, and atoll mapping, and the middle-IR increases sensitivity to leaf water content. The field-of-view is a 30 x 30 m square, one-fifth that of the MSS. Results from sample surveys of forested wetlands in Tennessee and agricultural land use patterns are presented.

  18. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  19. Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busse, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    The MAGSAT-program has added significantly to our knowledge of planetary magnetism. The accuracy of observations has been improved such that a reliable extrapolation of the magnetic field to the core surface is now much more feasible than it has been before, and the prospect of further MAGSAT missions raises the expectation that the time dependence of the geomagnetic field will be known with similar accuracy in the future. In the research support it has been attempted to develop dynamo theory with these applications in mind.

  20. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  1. Planetary magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A concise overview is presented of our understanding of planetary magnetospheres (and in particular, of that of the Earth), as of the end of 1981. Emphasis is placed on processes of astrophysical interest, e.g., on particle acceleration, collision-free shocks, particle motion, parallel electric fields, magnetic merging, substorms, and large scale plasma flows. The general morphology and topology of the Earth's magnetosphere are discussed, and important results are given about the magnetospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury, including those derived from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions and those related to Jupiter's satellite Io. About 160 references are cited, including many reviews from which additional details can be obtained.

  2. Planetary science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.; Bridges, Frank; Gault, Donald; Greeley, Ronald; Houpis, Harry; Lin, Douglas; Weidenschilling, Stuart

    1987-01-01

    The following types of experiments for a proposed Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility are described: (1) low velocity collisions between fragile particles; (2) low velocity collisions of ice particles; (3) plasma-dust interaction; and (4) aggregation of finely-comminuted geological materials. The required capabilities and desired hardware for the facility are detailed.

  3. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  4. Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1998-01-01

    This 1-year project was an augmentation grant to my NASA Planetary Astronomy grant. With the awarded funding, we accomplished the following tasks: (1) Conducted two NVK imaging runs in conjunction with the ILAW (International Lunar Atmosphere Week) Observing Campaigns in 1995 and 1997. In the first run, we obtained repeated imaging sequences of lunar Na D-line emission to better quantify the temporal variations detected in earlier runs. In the second run we obtained extremely high resolution (R=960.000) Na line profiles using the 4m AAT in Australia. These data are being analyzed under our new 3-year Planetary Astronomy grant. (2) Reduced, analyzed, and published our March 1995 spectroscopic dataset to detect (or set stringent upper limits on) Rb. Cs, Mg. Al. Fe, Ba, Ba. OH, and several other species. These results were reported in a talk at the LPSC and in two papers: (1) A Spectroscopic Survey of Metallic Abundances in the Lunar Atmosphere. and (2) A Search for Magnesium in the Lunar Atmosphere. Both reprints are attached. Wrote up an extensive, invited Reviews of Geophysics review article on advances in the study of the lunar atmosphere. This 70-page article, which is expected to appear in print in 1999, is also attached.

  5. Status of the Landsat thematic mapper and multispectral scanner archive conversion system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Darla J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center (EDC) manages the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive. This archive includes Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired since 1972. The Landsat archive is an important resource to global change research. To ensure long-term availability of Landsat data from the archive, the EDC specified requirements for a Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System (TMACS) that would preserve the data by transcribing it to a more durable medium. In addition to media conversion, hardware and software was installed at EDC in July 1992. In December 1992, the EDC began converting Landsat MSS data from high-density, open reel instrumentation tapes to digital cassette tapes. Almost 320,000 MSS images acquired since 1979 and more than 200,000 TM images acquired since 1982 will be converted to the new medium during the next 3 years. During the media conversion process, several high-density tapes have exhibited severe binder degradation. Even though these tapes have been stored in environmentally controlled conditions, hydrolysis has occurred, resulting in "sticky oxide shed". Using a thermostatically controlled oven built at EDC, tape "baking" has been 100 percent successful and actually improves the quality of some images.

  6. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. ); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. )

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  7. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  8. Comparison of Landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper data from Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Geronsin, R.L.; Merry, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data are limited by MSS spatial resolution (80 m or 262 ft) and bandwidth selection. Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data have greatly enhanced spatial resolution (30 m or 98 ft) and TM operates in spectral bands suited to geologic interpretation. To compare the two systems, three images center over the Wind River basin of Wyoming were obtained. Two were TM images - a false color composite (FCC) and a natural color composite (NCC) - and the third was an MSS image. A systematic analysis of drainage, landforms, geologic structure, gross lithologic characteristics, lineaments, and curvilinears was performed on the three images. Drainage density and landform distinction were greatly enhanced on the TM images. Geologic features such as faults, strike and dip, folds, and lithologic characteristics are often difficult to distinguish on the MSS image but are readily apparent on the TM images. The lineament-curvilinear analysis of the MSS image showed longer but less distinct linear features. In comparison, the TM images allowed interpretation of shorter but more distinct linear elements, providing a more accurate delineation of the actual dimensions of the geologic features which these lineaments are thought to represent. An analysis of the oil production present in the study area showed 75% of the surface productive structures were delineated on the TM images, whereas only the most obvious structures were visible on the MSS image.

  9. The Wisconsin Hα Mapper Northern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. M.; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.; Tufte, S. L.; Jaehnig, K. P.; Percival, J. P.; Hausen, N. R.

    2001-12-01

    The ionized gas in the Milky Way has been fully surveyed from the Northern Hemisphere by the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM). The WHAM Northern Sky Survey (WHAM-NSS) has an angular resolution of one-degree and provides the first kinematically resolved map of the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM). With 12 km s-1 spectral resolution, we have removed atmospheric emission and zodiacal absorption features from each of the 37,565 spectra, leaving behind a fully resolved Galactic Hα profile. Galactic emission is detected in nearly every spectrum. Velocity channel maps from the survey show complex filamentary structure in the local WIM and in the nearest spiral arms. Some of these halo features are clearly associated with active star formation in the Galactic plane. High-latitude Hα emission at intermediate velocities traces out IVC complexes previously discovered through 21 cm observations. An initial analysis of the relationship between the high latitude Hα and 21 cm emission suggests that although the spatial extent and velocity profiles are quite similar, the intensities are completely uncorrelated. Our deep emission sensitivity also reveals several H 2 regions around early B stars and sdO stars, providing an indirect probe of their Lyman continuum and adding another ionizing source for the WIM. Total intensity maps, velocity channel maps, and full spectral profiles from the WHAM-NSS are available for download at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/wham/. WHAM was built and continues to explore the rich science of ionized gas through generous support of the National Science Foundation. This work is funded by grant AST96-19424.

  10. Current research in geological applications of remote sensing techniques and implications for petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    Exploration geologists have made extensive use of aerial photography and orbital Landsat imagery, primarily for purposes of structural mapping. The Landsat 4 spacecraft launched in July 1982 is carrying a new imaging instrument called the Thematic Mapper which represents a significant advance over earlier Landsat sensors. Experimental studies with airborne Thematic Mapper simulators tentatively indicate that these measurement capabilities will have a major payoff in terms of our ability to detect variations in clay mineralogy and abundance, to map bleaching effects in surficial rocks and soils that may be produced by hydrocarbon seepage, and to detect variations in the distribution and vigor of natural vegetation that are also related to seepage phenomena. The improved spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper will enable photogeologists to identify smaller scale landforms and drainage features which will also contribute to improved structural mapping capabilities. Research is currently underway to determine the utility of Thematic Mapper measurements for geologic mapping in complex areas characterized by large relief and extensive vegetation. Radar imaging techniques also represent an important source of information concerning geological conditions at the earth's surface. Exploration geologists have made extensive use of airborne radar surveys for terrain analysis and structural mapping, particularly in tropical environments. Orbital radar techniques may provide an important new tool for mapping facies variations within sedimentary basins.

  11. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  12. Advanced planetary analyses. [for planetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results are summarized of research accomplished during this period concerning planetary mission planning are summarized. The tasks reported include the cost estimations research, planetary missions handbook, and advanced planning activities.

  13. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1981-01-01

    A synoptic view of early and recent data on the planetary magnetism of Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is presented. The data on Mercury from Mariner 10 are synthesized with various other sources, while data for Venus obtained from 120 orbits of Pioneer Venus give the upper limit of the magnetic dipole. Explorer 35 Lunar Orbiter data provided the first evidence of lunar magnetization, but it was the Apollo subsatellite data that measured accurately the magnetic dipole of the moon. A complete magnetic survey of Mars is still needed, and only some preliminary data are given on the magnetic dipole of the planet. Figures on the magnetic dipoles of Jupiter and Saturn are also suggested. It is concluded that if the magnetic field data are to be used to infer the interior properties of the planets, good measures of the multiple harmonics in the field are needed, which may be obtained only through low altitude polar orbits.

  14. Geologic Evolution of the Martian Highlands: MTMs -20002, -20007, -25002, and -25007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Williams, K. K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a continuing study to understand the relationship between valleys and highland resurfacing through geologic mapping, the authors are continuing to map seven 1:500,000-scale MTM quads in portions of the Margaritifer, Arabia, and Noachis Terrae. Results from this mapping will also help constrain the role and extent of past water in the region. The MTMs are grouped in two different areas within the region and compliment previous mapping in adjacent areas. Three western quads focus on Jones crater and the Himera, Samara, and Loire Valles systems. This abstract focuses on the four eastern quads wherein a large, ancient impact structure, Noachis basin, is flanked on its south and east by a series of valley networks. A solitary valley drains this basin and stretches north-northeast for approximately 450 km, transporting materials into Arabia Terra. Pertinent raster and vector data have been imported and registered using ESRI's ArcMap GIS software. To inspect and quantify stratigraphic relations, crater counts are being compiled in ESRI's ArcView GIS software to make use of crater counting tools specifically developed for planetary mappers. New datasets from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter including 4 CTX images, 31 CRISM multi-spectral pushbroom images, and 4 HiRISE images were incorporated into the project during the third year. The CRISM dataset uses summary parameters with thresholds to select targets for the high-resolution datasets. The befit for mappers is the extensive coverage and general compositional information. Results of a cursory analysis show strong mafic absorptions on the floors of Peta crater and Noachis basin. LCP absorptions occur more often than olivine, however, olivine tends to be denser than both pyroxenes. Olivine and HCP mat indicate relatively younger rocks, which is supported by the occurrence of wrinkle ridges associated with high olivine and HCP absorptions in the Peta crater and Noachis basin floors.

  15. Mineralogy of the Lunar Crust in Spatial Context: First Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R.; Combe, J-P; Green, R.; Goswami, J. N.; Head, J. W., III; Hicks, M.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, S.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T. B.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Runyon, C.; Staid, M. I.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Tompkins, S.; Varanasi, P.

    2009-01-01

    India's Chandrayaan-1 successfully launched October 22, 2008 and went into lunar orbit a few weeks later. Commissioning of instruments began in late November and was near complete by the end of the year. Initial data for NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) were acquired across the Orientale Basin and the science results are discussed here. M 3 image-cube data provide mineralogy of the surface in geologic context. A major new result is that the existence and distribution of massive amounts of anorthosite as a continuous stratigraphic crustal layer is now irrefutable.

  16. Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

  17. Novice to Expert Cognition During Geologic Bedrock Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcovic, H. L.; Libarkin, J.; Hambrick, D. Z.; Baker, K. M.; Elkins, J. T.; Callahan, C. N.; Turner, S.; Rench, T. A.; LaDue, N.

    2011-12-01

    novices in our sample, but not for the experts. For experienced mappers, we found a significant correlation between GCI scores and the thoroughness with which they covered the map area, plus a relationship between speed and map accuracy such that faster mappers produced better maps. However, fast novice mappers tended to produce the worst maps. Successful mappers formed a mental model of the underlying geologic structure immediately to early in the mapping task, then spent field time collecting observations to confirm, disconfirm, or modify their initial model. In contrast, the least successful mappers (all inexperienced) rarely generated explanations or models of the underlying geologic structure in the field.

  18. Cloud-shadow suppression technique for enhancement of Airborne Thematic Mapper imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, L.J.; Moore, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data are often degraded by the shadows from clouds above the aircraft during the flight. The spectral information in cloud-shadowed areas is reduced but not totally lost because the reflected energy of diffuse illumination (sky light) reaches the sensors from the shadowed ground despite obstruction of direct solar radiation. The thermal band image is almost unaffected by the temporary change of radiation caused by clouds. An enhancement technique for cloud-shadow suppression has been developed based on differencing, RGB-HSI-RGB transformation, and thermal band modulation. The method suppresses cloud shadows with topographic shading retained; spectral information is retrieved and enhanced. The result is a nearly normal color composite with full topographic expression but without cloud shadows. Such a color composite is easy to interpret for geological structures and lithologies. 6 refs.

  19. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  20. Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

    1985-01-01

    Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

  1. CosmoQuest MoonMappers: Citizen Lunar Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Antonenko, I.; Robbins, S. J.; Bracey, G.; Lehan, C.; Moore, J.; Huang, D.

    2012-09-01

    The MoonMappers citizen science project is part of CosmoQuest, a virtual research facility designed for the public. CosmoQuest seeks to take the best aspects of a research center - research, seminars, journal clubs, and community discussions - and provide them to a community of citizen scientists through a virtual facility. MoonMappers was the first citizen science project within CosmoQuest, and is being used to define best practices in getting the public to effectively learn and do science.

  2. Evaluation of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data as Applied to Geologic Exploration: Summary of Results. [Death Valley, California, Cement-Velma, Oklahoma; Big Horn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming; Spanish Peaks, Colorado; and the Four Corners area (Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dykstra, J. D.; Sheffield, C. A.; Everett, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    As with any tool applied to geologic exploration, maximum value results from the innovative integration of optimally processed LANDSAT-4 data with existing pertinent information and perceptive geologic thinking. The synoptic view of the satellite images and the relatively high resolution of the data permits recognization of regional tectonic patterns and their detailed mapping. The refined spatial and spectral characteristics and digital nature surface alterations associated with hydrothermal activity and microseepage of hydrocarbons. In general, as vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases with respect to the value of the spatial component of the data. This observation reinforces the experience from working with MSS data that digital processing must be optimized both for the area and for the application.

  3. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  4. Planetary nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobell, M. E.; Masursky, Harold

    1987-01-01

    In fiscal 1986, names were chosen for prominent features on the five previously known Uranian satellites and for features on the largest of the 10 satellites discovered by Voyager 2. The names of the five large satellites are taken mostly from Shakespeare, and most are spirits; therefore, Shakespearean and spirit themes were used to choose names for topographic features on the satellites. Crater names and most other feature names on Miranda, Oberon, and Titania are from Shakespeare; features on Ariel are named for bright spirits and those on Umbriel for dark, all taken from universal mythology. Preliminary coordinates for these features are derived from shaded relief maps of the satellites to be published in 1987. Orbital elements have been established for the 10 new satellites, and a paper describing this work is in progress; satellite positions are under review by Commission 16 of the IAU. The moon 1985 U1 is informally designated Puck. The nine small satellites discovered in 1986 are to be named for Shakespearean heroines; these names are to be listed in the 1987 edition of the Annual Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature.

  5. Planetary Seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2015-01-01

    Of the many geophysical means that can be used to probe a planet's interior, seismology remains the most direct. In addition to Earth, seismometers have been installed on Venus, Mars, and the Moon. Given that the seismic data gathered on the Moon (now over 40 years ago) revolutionized our understanding of the Moon and are still being used today to produce new insight into the state of the lunar interior, it is no wonder that many future missions, both real and conceptual, plan to take seismometers to other planets. To best facilitate the return of high-quality data from these instruments, as well as to further our understanding of the dynamic processes that modify a planet's interior, various modeling approaches are used to quantify parameters such as the amount and distribution of seismicity, tidal deformation, and seismic structure of the terrestrial planets. In addition, recent advances in wavefield modeling have permitted a renewed look at seismic energy transmission and the effects of attenuation and scattering, as well as the presence and effect of a core, on recorded seismograms. In this talk I will discuss some of these methods and review the history of planetary seismology.

  6. Planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseking, F.

    1983-02-01

    The first planetary nebula (PN) was discovered by Darquier in 1779. In 1981, a compilation of galactic PN listed a total of 1455 objects. Outside the Milky Way Galaxy, PN are currently known in the Magellanic Clouds and in several members of the local group of galaxies. The PN have a rich emission-line spectrum, which makes it possible to recognize them at large distances. A central stellar object can be observed within the nebula. In 1927, spectral lines at 4959 A and 5007 A emitted by the PN could finally be identified as 'forbidden lines' of O(++). The life expectancy of a PN, estimated on the basis of the observed expansion rate, is only about 30,000 years. The PN have a number of interesting characteristics which are partly related to the high effective temperature and luminosity of the central stars, the presence of a particle system under extreme physical conditions, and the stellar material provided by the PN for the interstellar medium. Attention is given to the determination of the distance of PN, the Shklovsky distances, and two mysterious aspects related to the spectrum

  7. Lunar Geologic Mapping Program: 2008 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddis, L.; Tanaka, K.; Skinner, J.; Hawke, B. R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Lunar Geologic Mapping Program is underway and a mappers handbook is in preparation. This program for systematic, global lunar geologic mapping at 1:2.5M scale incorporates digital, multi-scale data from a wide variety of sources. Many of these datasets have been tied to the new Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 [1] and are available online. This presentation summarizes the current status of this mapping program, the datasets now available, and how they might be used for mapping on the Moon.

  8. Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Lunar Resource Mapper/Lunar Geodetic Scout (LRM/LGS) program status. Topics covered include the LEXWG Lunar Observer science measurement priorities, space exploration initiative priorities, the question of why a lunar orbiting mission is attractive to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), instrument selection, major milestones, and the organization of the LRM/LGS Program Office.

  9. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The eleventh quarterly report on Spectroradiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper (Contract NAS5-27832) discusses calibrations made at White Sands on 24 May 1985. An attempt is made to standardize test results. Critical values used in the final steps of the data reduction and the comparison of the results of the pre-flight and internal calibration (IC) data are summarized.

  10. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.

    1983-01-01

    The results of an analysis that relates thematic mapper (TM) saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric condition is provided. A revised version of the preprint included with the last quarterly report is also provided for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.

  11. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, J. (Principal Investigator); Slater, P.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an analysis that relates TM saturation level to ground reflectance, calendar date, latitude, and atmospheric conditions are reported. The determination of the spectral reflectance at the entrance pupil of the LANDSAT 4 pupil of the thematic mapper is described.

  12. Nitrogen Source and Loading Data for EPA Estuary Data Mapper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen source and loading data have been compiled and aggregated at the scale of estuaries and associated watersheds of the conterminous United States, using the spatial framework in EPA's Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to provide system boundaries. Original sources of data include...

  13. Thematic Mapper. Volume 2: Flight model preshipment review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The various systems of the Thematic Mapper are reviewed and a comparison of measured and specified performance is given. Test methodologies are described. The specific instrument systems discussed include the power supply assembly, scan mirror, electronics module, focal plane assembly, radiometer, and radiation cooler.

  14. Yield estimation from hyperspectral imagery using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remotely sensed imagery are commonly used to estimate crop yields. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) provides an alternative approach to quantifying the spectral differences among all pixels in imagery and therefore has the potential for mapping yield variability. The...

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The present conference discusses such topics as density crossovers in lunar picrites, the geology of the Cassini impact basin, Mars, nanobacteria in carbonates, the properties of shocked aerogels, a chemical model of Comet Halley, lunar mascons, the impact evolution of icy regoliths, the geology of the Venera 8 landing site, the photogeologic mapping of northern Venus, HST observations of Mars, observational constraints on the rotational dynamics of Mars, and primordial magnetic field measurements from the moon. Also discussed are models of the S2 fluorescence spectra of comets, Martian crater ejecta, the heights of Venusian steep-sided domes, cloud-climate interactions on Venus, the Humorum basin geology from Clementine data, an early Amazonian lake in the Gale crater of Mars, nebular fractionations and Mn-Cr systematics, the Rock Chipper planetary surface sample collection, Mariner 10 stereo images of Mercury, remote and local stresses and Calderas on Mars, the electrostatic charging of saltating particles, SO2 detected on Callisto, the Mars Explorer Planetary Data System, an assessment of explosive venting on Europa, the sequential faulting history of the Mars Valles Marineris, a search for Martian sediments, the composition and internal structure of Europa, long-term and 'diurnal' tidal stresses on Europa, and episodic greenhouse climates on Mars.

  16. Cassini atmospheric chemistry mapper. Volume 1. Investigation and technical plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Hayden; Baines, Kevin Hays; Drossart, Pierre; Fegley, Bruce; Orton, Glenn; Noll, Keith; Reitsema, Harold; Bjoraker, Gordon L.

    1990-01-01

    The Cassini Atmospheric Chemistry Mapper (ACM) enables a broad range of atmospheric science investigations for Saturn and Titan by providing high spectral and spatial resolution mapping and occultation capabilities at 3 and 5 microns. ACM can directly address the major atmospheric science objectives for Saturn and for Titan, as defined by the Announcement of Opportunity, with pivotal diagnostic measurements not accessible to any other proposed Cassini instrument. ACM determines mixing ratios for atmospheric molecules from spectral line profiles for an important and extensive volume of the atmosphere of Saturn (and Jupiter). Spatial and vertical profiles of disequilibrium species abundances define Saturn's deep atmosphere, its chemistry, and its vertical transport phenomena. ACM spectral maps provide a unique means to interpret atmospheric conditions in the deep (approximately 1000 bar) atmosphere of Saturn. Deep chemistry and vertical transport is inferred from the vertical and horizontal distribution of a series of disequilibrium species. Solar occultations provide a method to bridge the altitude range in Saturn's (and Titan's) atmosphere that is not accessible to radio science, thermal infrared, and UV spectroscopy with temperature measurements to plus or minus 2K from the analysis of molecular line ratios and to attain an high sensitivity for low-abundance chemical species in the very large column densities that may be achieved during occultations for Saturn. For Titan, ACM solar occultations yield very well resolved (1/6 scale height) vertical mixing ratios column abundances for atmospheric molecular constituents. Occultations also provide for detecting abundant species very high in the upper atmosphere, while at greater depths, detecting the isotopes of C and O, constraining the production mechanisms, and/or sources for the above species. ACM measures the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols via their opacity at 3 microns and, particularly, at 5

  17. Planetary Evolution, Habitability and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, Spohn; Breuer, Doris; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Jaumann, Ralf; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Rauer, Heike; Richter, Lutz

    A Helmholtz Alliance has been established to study the interactions between life and the evo-lution of planets. The approach goes beyond current studies in Earth-System Sciences by including the entire planet from the atmosphere to the deep interior, going beyond Earth to include other Earth-like planets such as Mars and Venus and satellites in the solar system where ecosystems may exist underneath thick ice shells,considering other solar systems. The approach includes studies of the importance of plate tectonics and other tectonic regimes such as single plate tectonics for the development and for sustaining life and asks the question: If life can adapt to a planet, can a planet adapt to life? Can life be seen as a geological process and if so, can life shape the conditions on a planet such that life can flourish? The vision goes beyond the solar system by including the challenges that life would face in other solar systems. The Alliance uses theoretical modelling of feedback cycles and coupled planetary atmosphere and interior processes. These models are based on the results of remote sensing of planetary surfaces and atmospheres, laboratory studies on (meteorite) samples from other planets and on studies of life under extreme conditions. The Alliance uses its unique capabilities in remote sensing and in-situ exploration to prepare for empirical studies of the parameters affecting habitability. The Alliance aims to establish a network infrastructure in Germany to enable the most ad-vanced research in planetary evolution studies by including life as a planetary process. Finding extraterrestrial life is a task of fundamental importance to mankind, and its fulfilment will be philosophically profound. Evaluating the interactions between planetary evolution and life will help to put the evolution of our home planet (even anthropogenic effects) into perspective.

  18. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  19. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper Performance as Applied to Hydrocarbon Exploration. [Ontario, Canada; Cement, Oklahoma; and Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, J. R.; Sheffield, C.; Dykstra, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role data from the first three LANDSAT satellites have in geologic exploration and their current level of acceptance is reviewed and the advantages of LANDSAT 4 TM data over MSS data are discussed. Specially enhanced Thematic Mapper imager can make a very significant contribution to the oil and gas and mineral exploration industries. The TM's increased spatial resolution enables the production of larger scale imagery, which greatly increases the amount of geomorphic and structural information interpretable. TM's greater spectral resolution, combined with the smaller, more homogeneous pixels, should enable a far greater confidence in mapping lithologies and detecting geobotanical anomalies from space. The results from its applications to hydrocarbon and mineral exploration promise to bring the majority of the geologic exploration community into that final stage of acceptance and routine application of the satellite data.

  20. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  1. New structural and stratigraphic insights for northwestern Pakistan from field and Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.; Beck, R.; Gnos, E.; Vincent, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The remote Waziristan region of northwestern Pakistan includes outcrops of the India-Asia suture zone. The excellent exposure of the Waziristan ophiolite and associated sedimentary lithosomes and their inaccessibility made the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data desirable in this study. Landsat TM data were used to create a spectral ratio image of bands 3/4, 5/4, and 7/5, displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively, and a principal component analysis image of bands 4, 5, and 7 (RGB). These images were interpreted in the context of available geologic maps, limited field work, and biostratigraphic, lithostratigraphic, and radiometric data. They were used to create a coherent geologic map of Waziristan and cross section of the area that document five tectonic units in the region and provide a new and more detailed tectonic history for the region. The lowest unit is comprised of Indian shelf sediments that were thrust under the Waziristan ophiolite. The ophiolite has been tectonically shuffled and consists of two separate tectonic units. The top thrust sheet is a nappe comprised of distal Triassic to Lower Cretaceous Neotethyan sediments that were underthrust during the Late Cretaceous by the ophiolite riding on Indian shelf strata. The uppermost unit contains unconformable Tertiary and younger strata. The thrust sheets show that the Waziristan ophiolite was obducted during Late Cretaceous time and imply that the Paleocene and Eocene deformation represents collision of India with the Kabul block and/or Asia.

  2. Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

  3. Data and Information Exchange System for the "Reindeer Mapper" Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy; Yurchak, Boris

    2005-01-01

    During this past year, the Reindeer Mapper Intranet system has been set up on the NASA system, 8 team members have been established, a Reindeer Mapper reference list containing 696 items has been entered, 6 power point presentations have been put on line for review among team members, 304 satellite images have been catalogued (including 16 Landsat images, 288 NDVI 10-day composited images and an anomaly series- May 1998 to December 2002, and 56 SAR CEOS S A R format files), schedules and meeting dates are being shared, students at the Nordic Sami Institute are experimenting with the system for reindeer herder indigenous knowledge sharing, and an "address book" is being developed. Several documents and presentations have been translated and made available in Russian for our Russian colleagues. This has enabled our Russian partners to utilize documents and presentations for use in their research (e.g., SAR imagery comparisons with Russian GIS of specific study areas) and discussion with local colleagues.

  4. An analytic solution for the orbital perturbations of the Venus Radar Mapper due to gravitational harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1984-08-01

    Hill's variational equations are solved analytically for the orbital perturbations of a spacecraft nominally in an elliptic orbit around a non-spherical body. The rotation of the central planet about its spin-axis is not considered in the analysis. The perturbations are restricted to the planetary gravitational harmonics only. An extremely simple algorithm is derived to transform the spherical harmonic potentials to the orbital coordinate system, and the resulting accelerations are shown to be simply trigonometric functions of the true anomaly. With the principal matrix solution for the differential equations of the adjoint system given in closed form, the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions makes it possible to obtain an analytic solution for the non-homogeneous problem, at intervals of 2 pi in true anomaly. The solution for orbital perturbations can be extended over several revolutions by applying well-known results from Floquet's theory. The technique is demonstrated with results presented on the spacecraft periapsis altitude for the forthcoming Venus Radar Mapper Mission.

  5. An analytic solution for the orbital perturbations of the Venus Radar Mapper due to gravitational harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1984-01-01

    Hill's variational equations are solved analytically for the orbital perturbations of a spacecraft nominally in an elliptic orbit around a non-spherical body. The rotation of the central planet about its spin-axis is not considered in the analysis. The perturbations are restricted to the planetary gravitational harmonics only. An extremely simple algorithm is derived to transform the spherical harmonic potentials to the orbital coordinate system, and the resulting accelerations are shown to be simply trigonometric functions of the true anomaly. With the principal matrix solution for the differential equations of the adjoint system given in closed form, the orthogonality of the trigonometric functions makes it possible to obtain an analytic solution for the non-homogeneous problem, at intervals of 2 pi in true anomaly. The solution for orbital perturbations can be extended over several revolutions by applying well-known results from Floquet's theory. The technique is demonstrated with results presented on the spacecraft periapsis altitude for the forthcoming Venus Radar Mapper Mission.

  6. INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

  7. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information

    PubMed Central

    Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Fadeel, Bengt; Grafström, Roland; Hardy, Barry; Hastings, Janna; Hegi, Markus; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Kochev, Nikolay; Kohonen, Pekka; Munteanu, Cristian R; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Smeets, Bart; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Tsiliki, Georgia; Vorgrimmler, David; Willighagen, Egon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs. Results: The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API), and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms. Conclusion: We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the “representational state transfer

  8. LANDSAT D to test thematic mapper, inaugurate operational system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    NASA will launch the Landsat D spacecraft on July 9, 1982 aboard a new, up-rated Delta 3920 expendable launch vehicle. LANDSAT D will incorporate two highly sophisticated sensors; the flight proven multispectral scanner; and a new instrument expected to advance considerably the remote sensing capabilities of Earth resources satellites. The new sensor, the thematic mapper, provides data in seven spectral (light) bands with greatly improved spectral, spatial and radiometric resolution.

  9. Airborne Topographic Mapper Calibration Procedures and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Chreston F.; Krabill, William B.; Manizade, Serdar S.; Russell, Rob L.; Sonntag, John G.; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Description of NASA Airborn Topographic Mapper (ATM) lidar calibration procedures including analysis of the accuracy and consistancy of various ATM instrument parameters and the resulting influence on topographic elevation measurements. The ATM elevations measurements from a nominal operating altitude 500 to 750 m above the ice surface was found to be: Horizontal Accuracy 74 cm, Horizontal Precision 14 cm, Vertical Accuracy 6.6 cm, Vertical Precision 3 cm.

  10. Planetary Landscape Geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  11. Low voltage resist processes developed for MAPPER tool first exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, D.; Constancias, C.; van Nieuwstadt, J.; Vijverberg, J.; Derrough, S.; Icard, B.; Pain, L.

    2010-05-01

    The FP7 European project MAGIC [1] aims at designing a multi electron beam machine. In the frame of this project, LETI evaluates a multibeam tool from MAPPER lithography [2]. Each beam has an acceleration voltage of 5kV. A tool has been installed in LETI premises in July 2009. In order to prepare its evaluation, preliminary work was performed on Gaussian beam tools down to 5kV. It aimed at the determination of a stable and robust resist process allowing high resolution at 5kV. Then those results were used to characterize MAPPER tool performances. Meeting the requirements of high resolution and low roughness at low voltage, Dow Corningmolecular glass HSQ (hydrogen silsesquioxane) and MicroChem PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) were used to test MAPPER tool as negative and positive tone resist references. We did exposures at beam acceleration voltages from 5 kV up to 100 kV. Different post application bake (PAB) temperatures were applied to resist. Several developer concentrations were also tested. The impact of those three parameters on contrast and resolution was checked. Resists chemical characterization was performed with FTIR (Fourier transform infra red) spectroscopy in order to understand the mechanisms leading to the observed variations of contrast and exposure dose as process parameters are changed. The main purpose of this work was to show that high resolution can be achieved at 5kV. First exposures performed with MAPER tool confirmed those results.

  12. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  13. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  14. Planetary maps - Passports for the mind

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The various types of planetary maps are reviewed. Included are basic descriptions of planimetric, topographic, geologic, and digital maps. It is noted that planimetric maps are pictorial representations of a planet's round surface flattened into a plane, such as controlled photomosaic maps and shaded relief maps. Topographic maps, those usually made with data from altimeters and stereoscopic images, have contour lines indicating the shapes and elevations of landforms. Geologic maps carry additional information about landforms, such as rock types, the processes that formed them, and their relative ages. The International Astronomical Union nomenclature system is briefly discussed, pointing out that the Union often assigns themes to areas to be mapped.

  15. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  16. Planetary cartography in the next decade (1984 - 1994)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cartographic products required to support science and planetary exploration during the next 10 years were assessed. Only major map series or first order maps needed to characterize the surface physiography of a planet or satellite were considered. Included in these considerations are maps needed as bases for plotting geologic, geophysical, and atmospheric phenomena and for planning future planetary exploration. These products consist of three types of maps: controlled photomosaics, shaded relief maps, and topographic contour maps.

  17. Smart Rotorcraft Field Assistants for Terrestrial and Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Field science in extreme terrestrial environments is often difficult and sometimes dangerous. Field seasons are also often short in duration. Robotic field assistants, particularly small highly mobile rotary-wing platforms, have the potential to significantly augment a field season's scientific return on investment for geology and astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of sophisticated field tools. Robotic rotorcraft and other vertical lift planetary aerial vehicle also hold promise for supporting planetary science missions.

  18. The planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Nasa has sponsored the development of the Planetary Data System (PDS) in order to preserve the scientific returns from past and future planeary missions and to make those data readily accessible in a well-documented form. The PDS encompasses all planetary data, but also provides a distributed, discipline-oriented architecture to best serve the needs of the diverse planetary sciences user-community. It is the intention of the PDS to ease and promote the analysis of planetary data through the development and application of data and documentation standards, basic analysis tools, and technology.

  19. Cropland measurement using Thematic Mapper data and radiometric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, John G.; Khuwaiter, I. H. S.

    1989-01-01

    To halt erosion and desertification, it is necessary to quantify resources that are affected. Necessary information includes inventory of croplands and desert areas as they change over time. Several studies indicate the value of remote sensor data as input to inventories. In this study, the radiometric modeling of spectral characteristics of soil and vegetation provides the theoretical basis for the remote sensing approach. Use of Landsat Thematic Mapper images allows measurement of croplands in Saudi Arabia, demonstrating the capability of the approach. The inventory techniques and remote sensing approach presented are potentially useful in developing countries.

  20. An Analysis LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Geometric Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gokhman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT Thematic Mapper P-data of Washington, D. C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA are analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known Earth surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry are performed. Intraband and interband correlation and registration are investigated, exclusive of map based ground truth. The magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) are computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration is analyzed. A line to line correlation analysis is included.

  1. Mapper: A distributed object-oriented database application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younger, Herbert; O'Reilly, John; Frogner, Bjorn

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project. The initial application involved decomposition of a large database across multiple processors to improve the speed of processing compound queries. The commercial outcome was a tourist information system with a point-to-point driving direction program called MAPPER. A distributed, object-oriented approach was used for the general design, while a spatial decomposition was used to divide the database into computationally manageable pieces. The resulting system is highly flexible with respect to both modifications and reuse.

  2. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  3. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper multispectral images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A main problem encountered in radiometric calibration of satellite image data is correcting for atmospheric effects. Without this correction, an image digital number (DN) cannot be converted to a surface reflectance value. In this paper the accuracy of a calibration procedure, which includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, is tested. Two simple methods, a stand-alone and an in situ sky radiance measurement technique, were used to derive the HAZE DN values for each of the six reflectance Thematic Mapper (TM) bands. The DNs of two Landsat TM images of Phoenix, Arizona were converted to surface reflectances. -from Author

  4. Evaluation of Thematic Mapper interband registration and noise characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Hlavka, C. A.; Card, D. H.; Buis, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments aboard the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 spacecraft have provided the first digital imagery of the earth's surface with a resolution sufficient to distinguish cultural features easily. The present paper provides a description of the results of studies designed to investigate the band-to-band registration, geodetic registration to a map base, and periodic noise. In the eight TM scenes analyzed, the band-to-band registration accuracy was high even before correction, and the correction for the shift between focal planes brought all bands into registration according to tight specifications.

  5. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

  6. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  7. A prospectus for Thematic Mapper research in the Earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.

  8. Demonstration of angular anisotropy in the output of Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Lindsay, J.; Piwinski, D. J.; Schoch, L. B.

    1984-01-01

    There is a dependence of TM output (proportional to scene radiance in a manner which will be discussed) upon season, upon cover type and upon view angle. The existence of a significant systematic variation across uniform scenes in p-type (radiometrically and geometrically pre-processed) data is demonstrated. Present pre-processing does remove the effects and the problem must be addressed because the effects are large. While this is in no way attributable to any shortcomings in the thematic mapper, it is an effect which is sufficiently important to warrant more study, with a view to developing suitable pre-processing correction algorithms.

  9. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  10. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  11. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  12. A comparative study of the thematic mapper and Landsat spectral bands from field measurement data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Henderson, K. E.

    1982-01-01

    Principal component and factor analysis techniques were applied to the spectral data collected over 27 field plots of various crops under varying agronomic conditions. The spectral data was integrated over the proposed thematic mapper bands and Landsat MSS spectral bands. The results were examined to compare the discrimination power of the thematic mapper. Previously announced in STAR as N81-33549

  13. Environmental Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Richard N.

    1978-01-01

    1977 was a year of continued and expanding efforts in the application of the geosciences to land-use planning, especially as they relate to geologic hazards, and elucidating the role of geology in public policy. The work of environmental geological programs is reviewed. (Author/MA)

  14. Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper lidar surveys for coastal studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Krabill, William B.; Swift, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the basic principles of airborne laser altimetry for surveys of coastal topography, and describes the methods used in the acquisition and processing of NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) surveys that cover much of the conterminous US coastline. This form of remote sensing, also known as "topographic lidar", has undergone extremely rapid development during the last two decades, and has the potential to contribute within a wide range of coastal scientific investigations. Various airborne laser surveying (ALS) applications that are relevant to coastal studies are being pursued by researchers in a range of Earth science disciplines. Examples include the mapping of "bald earth" land surfaces below even moderately dense vegetation in studies of geologic framework and hydrology, and determination of the vegetation canopy structure, a key variable in mapping wildlife habitats. ALS has also proven to be an excellent method for the regional mapping of geomorphic change along barrier island beaches and other sandy coasts due to storms or long-term sedimentary processes. Coastal scientists are adopting ALS as a basic method in the study of an array of additional coastal topics. ALS can provide useful information in the analysis of shoreline change, the prediction and assessment of landslides along seacliffs and headlands, examination of subsidence causing coastal land loss, and in predicting storm surge and tsunami inundation.

  15. Development of landsat-5 thematic mapper internal calibrator gain and offset table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.; Markham, B.L.; Haque, Md. O.

    2008-01-01

    The National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) has been the primary processing system for Landsat data since U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS) started archiving Landsat data. NLAPS converts raw satellite data into radiometrically and geometrically calibrated products. NLAPS has historically used the Internal Calibrator (IC) to calibrate the reflective bands of the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), even though the lamps in the IC were less stable than the TM detectors, as evidenced by vicarious calibration results. In 2003, a major effort was made to model the actual TM gain change and to update NLAPS to use this model rather than the unstable IC data for radiometric calibration. The model coefficients were revised in 2007 to reflect greater understanding of the changes in the TM responsivity. While the calibration updates are important to users with recently processed data, the processing system no longer calculates the original IC gain or offset. For specific applications, it is useful to have a record of the gain and offset actually applied to the older data. Thus, the NLAPS calibration database was used to generate estimated daily values for the radiometric gain and offset that might have been applied to TM data. This paper discusses the need for and generation of the NLAPSIC gain and offset tables. A companion paper covers the application of and errors associated with using these tables.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

  17. Meteorites, the Moon and the History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Ursula B.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the historical events that linked geology with the planetary sciences. Reviews the origins of meteorities as a modern science and highlights the advances made in this area. Discusses lunar related theories and research. (ML)

  18. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  19. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation research, planetary mission performance, penetrator advanced studies, Mercury mission transport requirements, definition of super solar electric propulsion/solar sail mission discriminators, and advanced planning activities.

  20. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  1. AMICA, Astro Mapper for Instrument Check of Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampus, Paolo; Stalio, Roberto; Cortiglioni, Stefano

    2000-01-01

    We present the characteristics of a star mapper, AMICA, which could be used for determining the pointing direction of external payloads mounted on the International Space Station. AMICA, which is complementary to the GPS attitude determination system provided by the ISS, is a stand alone system able to provide both the pointing direction in the inertial reference frame with arc-sec precision at a 1 Hz rate and the angular orientation of the stellar field with slightly lower precision. The star mapper is derived from the pointing system of the UVSTAR telescope that has flown three times on the Shuttle. We present a description of the AMICA optical and electronics architecture and its functionality. We also give a summary of the key pointing/tracking results obtained during the Shuttle missions. Finally we report on simulations performed to determine the instrument expected precision and performances, including the percentage of recognized stellar fields. AMICA is presently considered for flying in support to the ASI mission SPOrt, onboard an ESA EXPA, in the early utilization of the ISS. .

  2. Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2001-01-01

    Our efforts have been focused on understanding the physical properties of planetary surfaces using remote sensing techniques. Specific application has been to the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Our approach has been to use thermal-infrared emission and radar reflectance and scattering as a way of exploring the decimeter-scale structure of these surfaces. At this scale, the techniques are sensitive to physical parameters such as the average or effective particle size of surface materials, the degree of induration or physical bonding between individual regolith grains, and the abundance of rocks of different sizes resting on or admixed in to the surface. The results are relevant to understanding the geological processes that have affected the surface and, in the case of Mars, determining site safety and scientific relevance for planning upcoming lander, rover, and sample-return spacecraft missions. Specific results are discussed below, and publications that have resulted are listed at the end.

  3. Structural mapping and analysis of a Madagascar Precambrian shear zone using enhanced Landsat Thematic Mapper Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, D.S.; Duncan, I.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Recently, the west coast of Madagascar has become a frontier region for petroleum exploration. Major structures in the Precambrian shield of Madagascar may have a strong control on the development of sedimentary basins, as has been documented in the Morondava basin. The 2.5-3.0+ Ga shield of Madagascar is an amphibolite- to granulite-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain, intruded by anorthosites and 550-Ma granites and pegmatites. Landsat Thematic Mapper data provides a cost-effective method for regional-scale structural mapping of this poorly known terrain. A five-component linear mixing model has been used to enhance the lithologic information in this six-band data. Lithologic component images thus produced utilize the full geologic spectral range of the data. A preliminary structural geologic map compiled from the component images has greater detail than existing maps at 1:100,000 scale, to which it has been compared. The Ankafotra-Saririaky shear zone has been identified as a north-northeast-trending, 15- to 20-km-wide region of appressed folds, attenuated layering, and subparallel faults on the western side of the shield. Two anorthosite massifs that occur within this shear zone have the structural characteristics of boudins in a ductile matrix. The shear deformed a preexisting terrain of poly-phase folding, characterized by tight folds and complex fold interference structures displayed by basins and domes on a scale of 10 km. Enhanced remote sensing data can be used to characterize the nature and mechanism of shear deformation in such zones.

  4. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  5. Testing geoscience data visualization systems for geological mapping and training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Huffman, J. N.; Forsberg, A. S.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, M. A.; Dickson, J. L.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    desktops (DT), 2) semi-immersive Fishtank VR (FT) (i.e., a conventional desktop with head-tracked stereo and 6DOF input), 3) tiled wall displays (TW), and 4) fully immersive virtual reality (IVR) (e.g., "Cave Automatic Virtual Environment", or Cave system). Formal studies demonstrate that fully immersive Cave environments are superior to desktop systems for many tasks. There is still much to learn and understand, however, about how the varying degrees of immersive displays affect task performance. For example, in using a 1280x1024 desktop monitor to explore an image, the mapper wastes a lot of time in image zooming/panning to balance the analysis-driven need for both detail as well as context. Therefore, we have spent a considerable amount of time exploring higher-resolution media, such as an IBM Bertha display 3840x2400 or a tiled wall with multiple projectors. We have found through over a year of weekly meetings and assessment that they definitely improve the efficiency of analysis and mapping. Here we outline briefly the nature of the major systems and our initial assessment of these in 1:5M Scale NASA-USGS Venus Geological Mapping Program (http://astrogeology.usgs. gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/MapStatus/VenusStatus/V enus_Status.html). 1. Immersive Virtual Reality (Cave): ADVISER System Description: Our Cave system is an 8'x8'x8' cube with four projection surfaces (three walls and the floor). Four linux machines (identical in performance to the desktop machine) provide data for the Cave. Users utilize a handheld 3D tracked input device to navigate. Our 3D input device has a joystick and is simple to use. To navigate, the user simply points in the direction he/she wants to fly and pushes the joystick forward or backward to move relative to that direction. The user can push the joystick to the left and right to rotate his/her position in the virtual world. A collision detection algorithm is used to prevent the user from going underneath the surface. We have developed

  6. Planetary Data Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  7. Planetary data definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    Planetary data include all of those data which have resulted from measurements made by the instruments carried aboard planetary exploration spacecraft, and (for our purposes) exclude observations of Moon and Earth. The working, planetary data base is envisioned to contain not only these data, but also a wide range of supporting measurements such as calibration files, navigation parameters, spacecraft engineering states, and the various Earth-based and laboratory measurements which provide the planetary research scientist with historical and comparative data. No convention exists across the disciplines of the planetary community for defining or naming the various levels through which data pass in the progression from a sensed impulse at the spacecraft to a reduced, calibrated, and/or analyzed element in a planetary data set. Terms such as EDR (experiment data record), RDR (reduced data record), and SEDR (supplementary experiment data record) imply different meanings depending on the data set under consideration. The development of standard terminology for the general levels of planetary data is necessary.

  8. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

  9. In-flight Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the Thematic Mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, D.; Savage, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner system was placed into Earth orbit on July 16, 1982, as part of NASA's LANDSAT 4 payload. To determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system in flight, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere are made simultaneously with TM image acquisitions over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values into an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels at the entrance pupil of the TM in four of the TM spectral bands are determined. These levels are compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. By reference to an adjacent, larger uniform area, the calibration is extended to all 16 detectors in each of the three bands.

  10. Landsat-4 thematic mapper (TM) for cold environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Salomonson, V. V.; Mckim, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Landsat-4 was launched into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit on July 16, 1982. It is the largest and most complex of NASA's earth resources satellites. Landsat-4's instrument payload includes two remote sensors. The Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) is an electro-optical scanning radiometer with four spectral bands in the visible and near infrared, which was also carried aboard Landsats 1, 2, and 3. The second sensor, the Thematic Mapper (TM), represents a more advanced remote sensing instrument than the MSS. It uses a scanning mirror assembly to collect data from a 15.4 deg angle on both forward and reverse scans. It is pointed out that the improved spatial, spectral, and radiometric characteristics of TM have significant implications for satellite remote sensing in cold environments. The expected improvements are discussed, giving attention to snow, ice, water, soil, and land cover.

  11. LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schowengerdt, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A power spectrum (PS) analysis technique was used to compare thematic mapper (TM) A and P-tape data for a Washington, DC scene in two orthogonal directions, along scan and along track. The resulting effective modulation transfer functions (MTF) between the A and P data are repeatable from area to area and consistent with theoretical expectations. The average x-direction (along scan) MTF calculated with the PS technique is compared to the MTF of the cubic convolution resampling function used to create P data from A data. The two curves are nearly identical, indicating that the major factor affecting the image quality of P data relative to A data is the cubic convolution resampling.

  12. Estimating forest productivity with Thematic Mapper and biogeographical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Iverson, Louis R.; Graham, Robin L.

    1989-01-01

    Spectral data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) on three forest exosystems (the southern Illinois, the Great Smoky Mountains regions in Tennessee and North Carolina, and the central Adirondack Mountains in New York) were used in conjunction with ground-collected measures of forest productivity and such information as the area's slope, aspect, elevation, and soil and vegetation types, to develop models of regional forest productivity. It is shown that the models developed may be used to estimate the productivity of a region with a high degree of confidence, but that the reliability of single-pixel estimates is poor. The characteristics of a given ecosystem determine which spectral values are most closely related to forest productivity. Thus, mid-IR, NIR, and visible bands are most significant in Illinois and New York, while the thermal band is relatively more important in the Smokies.

  13. Spectroradiometric calibration of the thematic mapper and multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Philip N.; Palmer, James M.

    1986-01-01

    A list of personnel who have contributed to the program is provided. Sixteen publications and presentations are also listed. A preprint summarizing five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations of the solar reflective bands of the LANDSAT-5 Thematic Mapper is presented. The 23 band calibrations made on the five dates show a 2.5% RMS variation from the mean as a percentage of the mean. A preprint is also presented that discusses the reflectance-based results of the above preprint. It proceeds to analyze and present results of a second, independent calibration method based on radiance measurements from a helicopter. Radiative transfer through the atmosphere, model atmospheres, the calibration methodology used at White Sands and the results of a sensitivity analysis of the reflectance-based approach is also discussed.

  14. Classification of corn and soybeans using multitemporal Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The multitemporal classification approach based on the greenness profile derived from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) spectral bands has proved successful in effectively separating and identifying corn, soybean, and other ground cover classes. Features derived from these profiles have been shown to carry virtually all the information contained in the original data and, in addition, have been shown to be stable over a large geographic area of the United States. The objective of this investigation was to determine if the same features derived from multitemporal Thematic Mapper (TM) data would also prove effective in separating these two crop types, and, in fact, if algorithms developed for MSS could be directly applied to TM. It is shown that this is indeed the case. In addition, because of greater spatial and spectral resolution, the accuracy of TM classifications is better than in MSS.

  15. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric measurements were taken on the morning of the LANDSAT 5 Thematic Mapper overpass. The sky was cloud free and the sites were dry. Barnes multiband radiometer data were collected for a 4 x 4 pixel area and two fractional pixel areas of slightly higher and lower reflectances than the larger area. Helicopter color photography was obtained of all the ground areas. This photography will allow a detailed reflectance map of the 4 x 4 pixel are to be made and registered to the TM imagery to an accuracy of better than half a pixel. Spectropolarimeter data were also collected of the 4 x 4 pixel area from the helicopter. In addition, ground based solar radiometer data were collected to provide spectral extinction optical thickness valves. The radiative transfer theory used in the development of the Herman code which was used in predicting the TM entrance pupil spectral radiances from the ground based measurements is described.

  16. Analysis of conifer forest regeneration using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorella, Maria; Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to evaluate young conifer stands in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Regression and correlation analyses were used to describe the relationships between TM band values and age of young Douglas-fir stands (2 to 35 years old). Spectral data from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands were compared to those of poorly regenerated conifer stands. TM bands 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 were inversely correlated with the age (r greater than or equal to -0.80) of well regenerated Douglas-fir stands. Overall, the 'structural index' (TM 4/5 ratio) had the highest correlation to age of Douglas-fir stands (r = 0.96). Poorly regenerated stands were spectrally distinct from well regenerated Douglas-fir stands after the stands reached an age of approximately 15 years.

  17. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  18. Waveband evaluation of proposed thematic mapper in forest cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latty, R. S.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation of the characteristics of multispectral scanner data relative to forest cover type mapping, using NASA's NS-001 multispectral scanner to simulate the proposed Thematic Mapper (TM). The objectives were to determine: (1) the optimum number of wavebands to utilize in computer classifications of TM data; (2) which channel combinations provide the highest expected classification accuracy; and (3) the relative merit of each channel in the context of the cover classes examined. Transformed divergence was used as a measure of statistical distance between spectral class densities associated with each of twelve cover classes. The maximum overall mean pair-wise transformed divergence was used as the basis for evaluating all possible waveband combinations available for use in computer-assisted forest cover classifications.

  19. Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

  20. Thematic Mapper Image Production in the Engineering Checkout Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.

  1. The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

  2. Thematic Mapper simulator research for forest resource mapping in the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Peterson, D. L.; Spanner, M. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ulliman, J. J.; Brockhaus, J.

    1984-01-01

    Per-pixel maximum likelihood digital classification and photo interpretation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) composited images for a managed conifer forest were used to evaluate both land cover and forest structure characteristics. TMS channels 4, 7, 5 and 3, which were found to be optimal for forest vegetation analysis, used the full range of the Thematic Mapper's spectral capability. Photo interpretation results indicate that a false color composite from TMS channels 4, 7, and 2 provided the highest accuracies; the combination of improved spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution of the Thematic Mapper yielded greater sensitivity to forest structural characteristics.

  3. The Mars mapper science and mission planning tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Mapper Program (MOm) is an interactive tool for science and mission design developed for the Mars Observer Mission (MO). MOm is a function of the Planning and Sequencing Element of the MO Ground Data System. The primary users of MOm are members of the science and mission planning teams. Using MOm, the user can display digital maps of Mars in various projections and resolutions ranging from 1 to 256 pixels per degree squared. The user can overlay the maps with ground tracks of the MO spacecraft (S/C) and footprints and swaths of the various instruments on-board the S/C. Orbital and instrument geometric parameters can be computed on demand and displayed on the digital map or plotted in XY-plots. The parameter data can also be saved into files for other uses. MOm is divided into 3 major processes: Generator, Mapper, Plotter. The Generator Process is the main control which spawns all other processes. The processes communicate via sockets. At any one time, only 1 copy of MOm may operate on the system. However, up to 5 copies of each of the major processes may be invoked from the Generator. MOm is developed on the Sun SPARCStation 2GX with menu driven graphical user interface (GUI). The map window and its overlays are mouse-sensitized to permit on-demand calculations of various parameters along an orbit. The program is currently under testing and will be delivered to the MO Mission System Configuration Management for distribution to the MO community in 3/93.

  4. Lunar & Planetary Science Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of different topics discussed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference are presented to provide updated information to nonplanetologists. Some topics include Venus, isotopes, chondrites, creation science, cosmic dust, cratering, moons and rings, igneous rocks, and lunar soil. (DC)

  5. Physics of planetary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental physical and chemical processes in an idealized planetary ionosphere are considered as a general abstraction, with actual planetary ionospheres representing special cases. After describing the structure of the neutral atmospheres (the barosphere, the thermosphere, and the exosphere) and noting the principal ionizing radiations responsible for the formation of planetary ionospheres, a detailed study is made of the thermal structure of these ionospheres and of the chemical processes and plasma-transport processes occurring in them. The features of equilibrium and realistic models of planetary ionospheres are discussed, and an attempt is made to determine the extent of these ionospheres. Considering the ionosphere as a plasma, a plasma kinetic approach is developed for determining the effects of interactions between individual particles and waves in this plasma. The use of remote-sensing radio techniques and direct measurement or in situ techniques is discussed. Finally, the observed properties of the ionospheres of the Earth, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter are reviewed.

  6. Lunar & Planetary Science, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a summary of each paper presented at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference at the Johnson Space Center, Houston in March 1980. Topics relate to Venus, Jupiter, Mars, asteroids, meteorites, regoliths, achondrites, remote sensing, and cratering studies. (SA)

  7. Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater from MER Spirit Rover and HiRISE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crumpler, L.; Arvidson, R.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Desouza, P.; Farrand, W.; Farmer, J.; Greeley, R.; Hurowitz, J.; Lewis, K.; McCoy, T. J.; McEwen, A. S.; McSween, H.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rice, J. W.; Rice, M.; Ruff, S. W.; Schmidt, M.; Schröder, C.; Squyres, S. W.; Yen, A.; Yingst, A.

    2009-03-01

    This study presents the results of the first field reconnaissance geologic mapping on another planetary surface. We show that geologic units on Mars are complex like their terrestrial counterparts, but can mapped at human and rover scales of observation.

  8. The Planetary Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukol, Robert; Morales, Fabian; Benardini, James Nick; Schubert, Wayne

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project is a Mars rover project now scheduled for a 2011 launch. The MSL flight system consists of a cruise stage; an entry, descent and landing system (EDL); and a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) powered roving science vehicle that will land on the surface and perform geological science. None of the instruments in the Rover payload are life detection experiments for the purposes of planetary protection (PP). Nevertheless, a goal of the mission is to access areas of interest, including possible subsurface special regions, and to obtain and scientifically examine samples. Therefore the project has been categorized by NASA as COSPAR PP Category IVc. The entire flight system is subject to microbial reduction requirements, with additional specific emphasis on the sample acquisition and handling chain. Prior to the final design of the flight system, MSL performed analyses to show that the elements of the flight system will not cause a high probability of inadvertent biological contamination to Mars. The project is using a pinpoint landing system and will land in a non-special region on Mars, agreed to by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer. MSL has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan and a PP Implementation Document. Planetary protection activities have begun with the start of flight system fabrication and assembly. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  10. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  11. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  12. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  13. Resource and environmental surveys from space with the thematic mapper in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of observation of vegetation is the primary optimization objective of the thematic mapper. The following are aspects of plans for the thematic mapper: (1) to include an appropriately modified first generation MSS in the thematic mapper mission; (2) to provide assured coverage for a minimum of six years to give agencies and other users an opportunity to justify the necessary commitment of resources for the transition into a completely valid operational phase; (3) to provide for global, direct data read-out, without the necessity for on-board data storage or dependence on foreign receiving stations; (4) to recognize the operational character of the thematic mapper after successful completion of its experimental evaluation; and (5) to combine future experimental packages with compatible orbits as part of the operational LANDSAT follow-on payloads.

  14. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part C: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Reference lists are provided to acceptance data for each of the major subsystems of the thematic mapper. Configuration reports, lists and copies of all failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  15. INPE LANDSAT-D thematic mapper computer compatible tape format specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Desouza, R. C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The format of the computer compatible tapes (CCT) which contain Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery data acquired from the LANDSAT D and D Prime satellites by the INSTITUTO DE PERSQUISAS ESPACIALS (CNPq-INPE/BRAZIL) is defined.

  16. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part G: Miscellaneous system data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Functional and design data from various thematic mapper subsystems are presented. Coarse focus, modulation transfer function, and shim requirements are addressed along with spectral matching and spatial coverage tests.

  17. Volcanology from space - Using Landsat thematic mapper data in the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Mcallister, R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of the Landsat thematic mapper to identify potentially active Andean volcanos and to study the history of individual volcanos is discussed. A thematic mapper image of the 6150-m-high Socompa volcano is presented and it is noted that TM data have played a valuable role in tracking debris streams in the avalanche derived from the different parts of the original volcanic edifice. The consequences of Landsat commercialization are considered.

  18. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  19. Analysis of Micro-Rearrangements in 25 Eukaryotic Species Pairs by SyntenyMapper

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Stefanie; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2014-01-01

    High-quality mapping of genomic regions and genes between two organisms is an indispensable prerequisite for evolutionary analyses and comparative genomics. Existing approaches to this problem focus on either delineating orthologs or finding extended sequence regions of common evolutionary origin (syntenic blocks). We propose SyntenyMapper, a novel tool for refining predefined syntenic regions. SyntenyMapper creates a set of blocks with conserved gene order between two genomes and finds all minor rearrangements that occurred since the evolutionary split of the two species considered. We also present TrackMapper, a SyntenyMapper-based tool that allows users to directly compare genome features, such as histone modifications, between two organisms, and identify genes with highly conserved features. We demonstrate SyntenyMapper's advantages by conducting a large-scale analysis of micro-rearrangements within syntenic regions of 25 eukaryotic species. Unsurprisingly, the number and length of syntenic regions is correlated with evolutionary distance, while the number of micro-rearrangements depends only on the size of the harboring region. On the other hand, the size of rearranged regions remains relatively constant regardless of the evolutionary distance between the organisms, implying a length constraint in the rearrangement process. SyntenyMapper is a useful software tool for both large-scale and gene-centric genome comparisons. PMID:25375783

  20. HGDP and HapMap Analysis by Ancestry Mapper Reveals Local and Global Population Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Tiago R.; Casey, Jillian P.; Conroy, Judith; Regan, Regina; Fitzpatrick, Darren J.; Shah, Naisha; Sobral, João; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of human origins, migrations, and expansions is greatly enhanced by the availability of large datasets of genetic information from different populations and by the development of bioinformatic tools used to analyze the data. We present Ancestry Mapper, which we believe improves on existing methods, for the assignment of genetic ancestry to an individual and to study the relationships between local and global populations. The principle function of the method, named Ancestry Mapper, is to give each individual analyzed a genetic identifier, made up of just 51 genetic coordinates, that corresponds to its relationship to the HGDP reference population. As a consequence, the Ancestry Mapper Id (AMid) has intrinsic biological meaning and provides a tool to measure similarity between world populations. We applied Ancestry Mapper to a dataset comprised of the HGDP and HapMap data. The results show distinctions at the continental level, while simultaneously giving details at the population level. We clustered AMids of HGDP/HapMap and observe a recapitulation of human migrations: for a small number of clusters, individuals are grouped according to continental origins; for a larger number of clusters, regional and population distinctions are evident. Calculating distances between AMids allows us to infer ancestry. The number of coordinates is expandable, increasing the power of Ancestry Mapper. An R package called Ancestry Mapper is available to apply this method to any high density genomic data set. PMID:23189146

  1. Updated radiometric calibration for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper reflective bands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Thome, K.J.; Barsi, J.A.; Chander, G.; Malla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been the workhorse of the Landsat system. Launched in 1984, it continues collecting data through the time frame of this paper. Thus, it provides an invaluable link to the past history of the land features of the Earth's surface, and it becomes imperative to provide an accurate radiometric calibration of the reflective bands to the user community. Previous calibration has been based on information obtained from prelaunch, the onboard calibrator, vicarious calibration attempts, and cross-calibration with Landsat-7. Currently, additional data sources are available to improve this calibration. Specifically, improvements in vicarious calibration methods and development of the use of pseudoinvariant sites for trending provide two additional independent calibration sources. The use of these additional estimates has resulted in a consistent calibration approach that ties together all of the available calibration data sources. Results from this analysis indicate a simple exponential, or a constant model may be used for all bands throughout the lifetime of Landsat-5 TM. Where previously time constants for the exponential models were approximately one year, the updated model has significantly longer time constants in bands 1-3. In contrast, bands 4, 5, and 7 are shown to be best modeled by a constant. The models proposed in this paper indicate calibration knowledge of 5% or better early in life, decreasing to nearly 2% later in life. These models have been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and are the default calibration used for all Landsat TM data now distributed through EROS. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  2. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  3. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  4. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  5. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  6. The GOES-R GeoStationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms (environmental data records), cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications using GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, merged with ground-based sensors, and decision aids augmented by numerical weather prediction model forecasts. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. An international field campaign planned for 2011-2012 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning

  7. Earth As an Evolving Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, Joseph G.

    2005-05-01

    ``System'' is an overused buzzword in textbooks covering geological sciences. Describing the Earth as a system of component parts is a reasonable concept, but providing a comprehensive framework for detailing the system is a more formidable task. Kent Condie lays out the systems approach in an easy-to-read introductory chapter in Earth as an Evolving Planetary System. In the book, Condie makes a valiant attempt at taking the mélange of diverse subjects in the solid Earth sciences and weaving them into a coherent tapestry.

  8. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  9. Principles of Planetary Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.

    2010-12-01

    This book introduces the reader to all the basic physical building blocks of climate needed to understand the present and past climate of Earth, the climates of Solar System planets, and the climates of extrasolar planets. These building blocks include thermodynamics, infrared radiative transfer, scattering, surface heat transfer and various processes governing the evolution of atmospheric composition. Nearly four hundred problems are supplied to help consolidate the reader's understanding, and to lead the reader towards original research on planetary climate. This textbook is invaluable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students in atmospheric science, Earth and planetary science, astrobiology, and physics. It also provides a superb reference text for researchers in these subjects, and is very suitable for academic researchers trained in physics or chemistry who wish to rapidly gain enough background to participate in the excitement of the new research opportunities opening in planetary climate.

  10. Extrasolar planetary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1973-01-01

    The terms 'planet' and 'planet-like objects' are defined. The observational search for extrasolar planetary systems is described, as performable by earthbound optical telescopes, by space probes, by long baseline radio interferometry, and finally by inference from the reception of signals sent by intelligent beings in other worlds. It is shown that any planetary system must be preceded by a rotating disk of gas and dust around a central mass. A brief review of the theories of the formation of the solar system is given, along with a proposed scheme for classification of these theories. The evidence for magnetic activity in the early stages of stellar evolution is presented. The magnetic braking theories of solar and stellar rotation are discussed, and an estimate is made for the frequency of occurrence of planetary systems in the universe.

  11. Planetary evolution and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, T.

    2008-09-01

    Planetary habitability is usually thought to require water on (or near) the surface, a magnetic field to protect life against cosmic radiation, and transport mechanisms for nutrients. A magnetic field also serves to protect an existing atmosphere against erosion by the solar wind and thus helps to stabilize the presence of water and habitability. Magnetic fields are generated in the cores of the terrestrial planets and thus habitability is linked to the evolution of the interior. Moreover, the interior is a potential source and sink for water and CO2 and may interact with the surface and atmosphere reservoirs through volcanic activity and recycling. On the Earth, water is stabilized by complex interactions between the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the crust, and the deep interior. On geological timescales, the anorganic CO2 cycle is most important. The most efficient known mechanism for recycling is plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is known to operate, at present, only on the Earth, although Mars may have had a phase of plate tectonics as may have Venus. Single-plate tectonics associated with stagnant lid convection can transfer water and CO2 from the interior but a simple recycling mechanism is lacking for this tectonic style. Stagnant lid convection will evolve to thicken the lid and increasingly frustrate volcanic activity and degassing. (This can keep the interior from running completely dry.) Plate tectonics supports the generation of magnetic fields by effectively cooling the deep interior. In addition, plate tectonics rejuvenates nutrients on the surface and generates granitic cratons. For Venus it is likely that a present-day magnetic field would require plate tectonics to operate. The chemistry of the Martian core likely precludes the growth of an inner core and thus a present-day dynamo. An early field is possible for both planets even with stagnant lid convection but the dynamos will have operated less than about a billion years on Mars and a

  12. Airships for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing an airship for planetary atmospheric exploration was assessed. The environmental conditions of the planets and moons within our solar system were evaluated to determine their applicability for airship flight. A station-keeping mission of 50 days in length was used as the baseline mission. Airship sizing was performed utilizing both solar power and isotope power to meet the baseline mission goal at the selected planetary location. The results show that an isotope-powered airship is feasible within the lower atmosphere of Venus and Saturn s moon Titan.

  13. Frontiers for geological remote sensing from space; Geosat Workshop, 4th, Flagstaff, AZ, June 12-17, 1983, Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. B. (Editor); Rock, B. N. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Consideration is given to: the applications of near-infrared spectroscopy to geological reconnaissance and exploration from space; imaging systems for identifying the spectral properties of geological materials in the visible and near-infrared; and Thematic Mapper (TM) data analysis. Consideration is also given to descriptions of individual geological remote sensing systems, including: GEO-SPAS; SPOT; the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); and the Shuttle Imaging Radars A and B (SIR-A and SIR-B). Additional topics include: the importance of geobotany in geological remote sensing; achromatic holographic stereograms from Landsat MSS data; and the availability and applications of NOAA's non-Landsat satellite data archive.

  14. Venus Radar Mapper (VRM): Multimode radar system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William T. K.; Edgerton, Alvin T.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of Venus has remained a relative mystery because of the very dense atmosphere that is opaque to visible radiation and, thus, normal photographic techniques used to explore the other terrestrial objects in the solar system are useless. The atmosphere is, however, almost transparent to radar waves and images of the surface have been produced via Earth-based and orbital radars. The technique of obtaining radar images of a surface is variously called side looking radar, imaging radar, or synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The radar requires a moving platform in which the antenna is side looking. High resolution is obtained in the cross-track or range direction by conventional radar pulse encoding. In the along-track or azimuth direction, the resolution would normally be the antenna beam width, but for the SAR case, a much longer antenna (or much sharper beam) is obtained by moving past a surface target as shown, and then combining the echoes from many pulses, by using the Doppler data, to obtain the images. The radar design of the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) is discussed. It will acquire global radar imagery and altimetry data of the surface of Venus.

  15. An analysis of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper geometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.; Gohkman, B.; Friedman, S. Z.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data of Washington, DC, Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine geometric integrity and conformity of the data to known earth surface geometry. Several tests were performed. Intraband correlation and interband registration were investigated. No problems were observed in the intraband analysis, and aside from indications of slight misregistration between bands of the primary versus bands of the secondary focal planes, interband registration was well within the specified tolerances. A substantial number of ground control points were found and used to check the images' conformity to the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) projection of their respective areas. The means of the residual offsets, which included nonprocessing related measurement errors, were close to the one pixel level in the two scenes examined. The Harrisburg scene residual mean was 28.38 m (0.95 pixels) with a standard deviation of 19.82 m (0.66 pixels), while the mean and standard deviation for the Salton Sea scene were 40.46 (1.35 pixels) and 30.57 m (1.02 pixels), respectively. Overall, the data were judged to be a high geometric quality with errors close to those targeted by the TM sensor design specifications.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis was performed to characterize the radiometry of three Thematic Mapper (TM) digital products of a scene of Arkansas. The three digital products examined were the NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product. The frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band were examined on a series of image subsets from the full scene. The results are presented from one 1024 x 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. Bands 1, 2 and 5 of the sample area are presented. The subsets were extracted from the three digital data products to cover the same geographic area. This analysis provides the first step towards a full appraisal of the TM radiometry being performed as part of the ESA/CEC contribution to the NASA/LIDQA program.

  17. Lead Optimization Mapper: Automating free energy calculations for lead optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Wu, Yujie; Lin, Teng; Abel, Robert; Redmann, Jonathan P.; Summa, Christopher M.; Jaber, Vivian R.; Lim, Nathan M.; Mobley, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Alchemical free energy calculations hold increasing promise as an aid to drug discovery efforts. However, applications of these techniques in discovery projects have been relatively few, partly because of the difficulty of planning and setting up calculations. Here, we introduce Lead Optimization Mapper, LOMAP, an automated algorithm to plan efficient relative free energy calculations between potential ligands within a substantial library of perhaps hundreds of compounds. In this approach, ligands are first grouped by structural similarity primarily based on the size of a (loosely defined) maximal common substructure, and then calculations are planned within and between sets of structurally related compounds. An emphasis is placed on ensuring that relative free energies can be obtained between any pair of compounds without combining the results of too many different relative free energy calculations (to avoid accumulation of error) and by providing some redundancy to allow for the possibility of error and consistency checking and provide some insight into when results can be expected to be unreliable. The algorithm is discussed in detail and a Python implementation, based on both Schrödinger's and OpenEye's APIs, has been made available freely under the BSD license. PMID:24072356

  18. Spectroradiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, P. N.; Palmer, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The results of analyses of Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired on July 8 and October 28, 1984, and of a check of the calibration of the 1.22-m integrating sphere at Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC) are described. The results obtained from the in-flight calibration attempts disagree with the pre-flight calibrations for bands 2 and 4. Considerable effort was expended in an attempt to explain the disagreement. The difficult point to explain is that the difference between the radiances predicted by the radiative transfer code (the code radiances) and the radiances predicted by the preflight calibration (the pre-flight radiances) fluctuate with spectral band. Because the spectral quantities measured at White Sands show little change with spectral band, these fluctuations are not anticipated. Analyses of other targets at White Sands such as clouds, cloud shadows, and water surfaces tend to support the pre-flight and internal calibrator calibrations. The source of the disagreement has not been identified. It could be due to: (1) a computational error in the data reduction; (2) an incorrect assumption in the input to the radiative transfer code; or (3) incorrect operation of the field equipment.

  19. The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

  20. The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

  1. Accuracy verification of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR technology is one of the most effective and reliable means of data collection. Given the increasing use of LiDAR data for close range metrology applications such as deformation monitoring and infrastructure inspection, it becomes necessary to test the relative accuracy, boresight calibration of both LiDAR sensors and performance of navigation solution (or absolute accuracy) of any mobile laser scanning system employed for this purpose. Therefore, the paper's primary contribution is a set of tests for the characterization and evaluation of any mobile laser scanning system based on two LiDAR sensors. We present experimental results of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system from Optech Inc. Employing a low-cost calibration standard, we demonstrated sub-cm accuracy of targets at distances up to 10 m. Also, we introduce boresighting results derived from the Lynx system. Moreover, the global system's accuracy is tested with a series of rigorous experiments operated at a maximum scan frequency of 200 Hz, pulse repetition frequency of 500 kHz per sensor and a 360° scanning field of view. Assuring good GPS conditions, we proved a good global performance of the system, which makes it suitable for very accurate applications.

  2. Radiometric calibration of Landsat Thematic Mapper Thermal Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Gibbons, D. E.; Martucci, L. M.; Foote, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of satellite-acquired data is essential for quantitative scientific studies, as well as for a variety of image-processing applications. This paper describes a multiyear, on-orbit radiometric calibration of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Band 6 conducted at DOE's Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Numerous Landsat TM scenes acquired and analyzed included day and night coverages at several geographical locations over several seasons. Concurrent with Landsat overpasses, thermal field and local meteorological (surface and radiosonde) measurements were collected. At-satellite (uncorrected) radiances and temperatures for water and nonwater land cover were compared to ground truth (GT) measurements after making adjustments for atmospheric (using LOWTRAN), mixed-pixel, and emissivity effects. Results indicate that, for both water and nonwater features, TM Band 6 average corrected temperature determinations using local radiosonde data to adjust for atmospheric effects, and using appropriate emissivities, are within 1.0 C of GT temperature values. Temperatures of water pixels derived from uncorrected TM Band 6 data varied roughly between 1 and 3 C of ground truth values for water temperatures ranging between 4 and 24 C. Moreover, corrections using nonlocal and noncoincident radiosonde data resulted in errors as large as 12 C. Corrections using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere gave temperature values within 1 to 2 C of GT. The average uncertainty for field instruments was + or - 0.2 C; average uncertainty for Landsat TM corrected temperature determinations was + or - 0.4 C.

  3. Juno's Earth flyby: the Jupiter infrared auroral mapper preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, Alberto; Mura, Alessandro; Grassi, Davide; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Tosi, Federico; Noschese, Raffaella; Moriconi, Maria Luisa; Filacchione, Gianrico; Sindoni, Giuseppe; Cicchetti, Andrea

    The Juno spacecraft has been launched on August 2011 with the goal of investigating the origin and evolution of Jupiter. JIRAM, the Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper on board the spacecraft, is a spectro-imager whose science objectives are the auroras’ analysis, the atmospheric component gases retrieval in hot spots and the constraining of the Jupiter’s formation environment through the study of the composition and the abundances of the chemical species in the Jovian atmosphere. To achieve these objectives JIRAM is equipped with a IR imager split in two spectral channels: L band, centered at 3.45 mum with a 290 nm bandwidth, and M band, centered at 4.78 mum with a 480 nm bandwidth, and a spectrometer in the 2.0-5.0 mum interval. JIRAM status and capabilities have been tested on 9 October 2013 during the Juno’s Earth flyby. The instrument targeted the Moon for about half an hour. Beyond the scientific value of the observation, this has been so far the first occasion during the cruise phase to verify the execution of the science observing sequences as they will be operated at Jupiter. Here the first elaboration of that series of observations is presented. The imager in M band has been able to capture the Moon region straddling the terminator. Some surface features are recognizable and have been mapped with the support of the geometric information available for JIRAM data. Spectra from the most prominent surface structure visualized, are also shown.

  4. Systematic and random variations in digital Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duggin, M. J. (Principal Investigator); Sakhavat, H.

    1985-01-01

    Radiance recorded by any remote sensing instrument will contain noise which will consist of both systematic and random variations. Systematic variations may be due to sun-target-sensor geometry, atmospheric conditions, and the interaction of the spectral characteristics of the sensor with those of upwelling radiance. Random variations in the data may be caused by variations in the nature and in the heterogeneity of the ground cover, by variations in atmospheric transmission, and by the interaction of these variations with the sensing device. It is important to be aware of the extent of random and systematic errors in recorded radiance data across ostensibly uniform ground areas in order to assess the impact on quantative image analysis procedures for both the single date and the multidate cases. It is the intention here to examine the systematic and the random variations in digital radiance data recorded in each band by the thematic mapper over crop areas which are ostensibly uniform and which are free from visible cloud.

  5. An Overview of Cassini Radar Mapper Observations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, S.; Elachi, C.; Cassini RADAR Science Team

    2005-08-01

    The CassiniRadar Mapper imaged the surface of TItan in Ku-band (wavelength = 2.17 cm) on February 14, 2005, more than doubling the coverage obtained in October 2004. The new (T3) flyby collected a 420-km long synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) swath, varying in width from 200 to 500km, and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry. Data from both passes show that fluvial, impact and volcanic processes are clearly all at work. Evidence will be presented and discussed for each, including a large (440km) impact basin, a smaller (80km) crater with an ejecta blanket, a volcanic construct with flows, and a set of SAR-bright braided and sinuous drainage channels. Recurring patches of subparallel SAR-dark linear features, dubbed ``cat scratches", are tentatively identified as aeolian. A greater diversity of landforms was observed on the T3 flyby than on the previous (Ta) pass. Based on the small number of impact craters detected, the surface thus far imaged by radar is very young compared with those of other Saturnian satellites. The Cassini Project is a joint endeavor of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). Cassini is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  6. Torus mapper: a code for dynamical models of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James; McMillan, Paul J.

    2016-02-01

    We present a freely downloadable software package for modelling the dynamics of galaxies, which we call the Torus Mapper (TM). The package is based around `torus mapping', which is a non-perturbative technique for creating orbital tori for specified values of the action integrals. Given an orbital torus and a star's position at a reference time, one can compute its position at any other time, no matter how remote. One can also compute the velocities with which the star will pass through any given point and the contribution it will make to the time-averaged density there. A system of angle-action coordinates for the given potential can be created by foliating phase space with orbital tori. Such a foliation is facilitated by the ability of TM to create tori by interpolating on a grid of tori. We summarize the advantages of using TM rather than a standard time-stepper to create orbits, and give segments of code that illustrate applications of TM in several contexts, including setting up initial conditions for an N-body simulation. We examine the precision of the orbital tori created by TM and the behaviour of the code when orbits become trapped by a resonance.

  7. Lynx Mobile Mapper for Surveying City Centers and Highways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conforti, D.; Zampa, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two years the Lynx Mobile Mapper has become the new lidar solution developed for surveying large areas that are impractical with static lidar sensors and require an accuracy and resolution that exceed airborne technologies. The system allows the scanning at a speed up to 100 km/h, obtaining accuracy better than 5 cm with an up to 7 mm resolution. Therefore, this solution proves to be an excellent tool for surveying city centers, highways, railways, thanks also to a very fast, safe and accurate data collection. This paper will present two applications: 1- The survey of the entire ancient city center of Brescia (Italy) with it medieval castle, the narrows streets and the main squares. It also has been run a test to survey with the Lynx the tunnel that go underneath the castle and compare the result with a static laser scanner survey, 2- The survey of the Calatrava Bridge on the A1 highway. The central bridge, which crosses over the high-speed rail line and the A1 motorway is composed as a single symmetrical arch, placed longitudinally, which rises to a height of 46m. During the survey the two A1 motorway carriageways have been scanned and the upper part of the bridge for a complete 3D model of this structure.

  8. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  9. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  10. Planetary quarantine computer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafenstein, M.

    1973-01-01

    The computer programs are identified pertaining to planetary quarantine activities within the Project Engineering Division, both at the Air Force Eastern Test Range and on site at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief description of each program and program inputs are given and typical program outputs are shown.

  11. Asteroidal and planetary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric, spectrophotometric, and radiometric investigations of asteroids and planets are reported. Profiles of the planetary disk were used to study the physical structure of the Uranus atmosphere, and thermal and photographic properties of Saturn rings were theoretically modelled. Ground-based Mars observations were made for long-term comparison with Mariner 9 results.

  12. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Eleven study tasks are described and key results are discussed for the following: advanced planning activity; cost estimation research; planetary missions performance handbooks-revisions; multiple discipline science assessment; asteroid workshop; galilean lander mission strategies; asteroid exploration study; ion drive transport capabilities; Mars strategy study; Venus surface sample return; and ion drive/solar sail assessment study.

  13. CheS-Mapper 2.0 for visual validation of (Q)SAR models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sound statistical validation is important to evaluate and compare the overall performance of (Q)SAR models. However, classical validation does not support the user in better understanding the properties of the model or the underlying data. Even though, a number of visualization tools for analyzing (Q)SAR information in small molecule datasets exist, integrated visualization methods that allow the investigation of model validation results are still lacking. Results We propose visual validation, as an approach for the graphical inspection of (Q)SAR model validation results. The approach applies the 3D viewer CheS-Mapper, an open-source application for the exploration of small molecules in virtual 3D space. The present work describes the new functionalities in CheS-Mapper 2.0, that facilitate the analysis of (Q)SAR information and allows the visual validation of (Q)SAR models. The tool enables the comparison of model predictions to the actual activity in feature space. The approach is generic: It is model-independent and can handle physico-chemical and structural input features as well as quantitative and qualitative endpoints. Conclusions Visual validation with CheS-Mapper enables analyzing (Q)SAR information in the data and indicates how this information is employed by the (Q)SAR model. It reveals, if the endpoint is modeled too specific or too generic and highlights common properties of misclassified compounds. Moreover, the researcher can use CheS-Mapper to inspect how the (Q)SAR model predicts activity cliffs. The CheS-Mapper software is freely available at http://ches-mapper.org. Graphical abstract Comparing actual and predicted activity values with CheS-Mapper.

  14. Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference covered topics on Mars, planetary origins, planetary analog studies, education,chondrite studies, and meteorite composition. Over 1000 reports were presented at the conference in over 100 sessions. Each session, and presentations,was processed separately for the database.

  16. Recent geologic activity on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Z.; Strom, R. G.; Blewett, D. T.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Chabot, N. L.; Banks, M. E.; Chapman, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Since the MESSENGER spacecraft was inserted into orbit about Mercury in March 2011, global and targeted high-resolution image data sets have been acquired. These images support the conclusion that internal geological activity on Mercury did not end early in planetary history, as had generally been previously thought, but continued to geologically recent times. Three lines of evidence point to recent geological activity on Mercury. (1) There are smooth plains with surface areas up to 1.5×105 km2 that postdate young (morphological class 1) craters, indicating probable Kuiperian-aged volcanism. No volcanic vents, fissures, or flow fronts have been identified on these plains, suggesting that they are products of low-viscosity lavas, consistent with komatiite-like compositions of large areas on Mercury indicated by MESSENGER X-Ray Spectrometer observations. (2) Young lobate scarps transect class 1 craters as large as 30 km in diameter, indicating comparably recent crustal contraction. (3) A number of fresh-appearing, high-reflectance, irregularly shaped and rimless shallow depressions interpreted as pyroclastic vents have few superposed craters, suggesting that they have been recently active. Growing evidence from geological and geochemical observations indicates that Mercury's interior contains a higher abundance of volatile materials than was previously appreciated. Together these findings support the inference that Mercury experienced relatively recent volcanism and tectonic deformation, and the possibility that the planet is geologically active today cannot be discounted.

  17. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Vol. 19

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherill, G.W.; Albee, A.L.; Burke, K.C. California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena National Research Council, Washington, DC )

    1991-01-01

    Various review papers on earth and planetary sciences are presented. The individual topics addressed include: tectonics of the New Guinea area, interpretation of ancient Eolian and dunes, seismic tomography of the earth's mantle, shock modification and chemistry and planetary geologic processes, the significance of evaporites, the magnetosphere, untangling the effects of burial alteration and ancient soil formation. Also discussed are: pressure-temperature-time paths, fractals in rock physics, earthquake prediction, rings in the ocean, applications of Be{minus}10 to problems in the earth sciences, measurement of crustal deformation using the GPS, physics and physical mechanisms of nuclear winter, experiemental determination of bed-form stability.

  18. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  19. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Rishikesh; Ramakrishnan, D.; Singh, K. D.

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data for studying compositional variation in the near-, far-side transition zone of the lunar surface. For this purpose, the radiance values of the M3 data were corrected for illumination and emission related effects and converted to apparent reflectance. Dimensionality of the calibrated reflectance image cube was reduced using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and endmembers were extracted by using Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm. The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were used to map the compositional variability within, and outside craters using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Cross validation for certain litho types was attempted using band ratios like Optical Maturity (OMAT), Color Ratio Composite and Integrated Band Depth ratio (IBD). The identified lithologies for highland and basin areas match well with published works and strongly support depth related magmatic differentiation. Prevalence of pigeonite-basalt, pigeonite-norite and pyroxenite in crater peaks and floors are unique to the investigated area and are attributed to local, lateral compositional variability in magma composition due to pressure, temperature, and rate of cooling.

  20. Geological mapping of the Schuppen belt of north-east India using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanaya; Basu, Surajit; Hazra, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    A revised geologic map of the Schuppen belt of northeast India has been prepared based on interpretation of digitally enhanced satellite images. The satellite image interpretation is supported by limited field work and existing geologic maps. Available geological maps of this fold thrust belt are discontinuous and multi-scaled. The authors are of multiple opinions regarding the trajectory of formation boundaries and fault contacts. Digital image processing of satellite images and limited field surveys have been used to reinterpret and modify the existing geological maps of this fold thrust belt. Optical data of Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper and elevation data of ASTER have been used to prepare this revised geological map. The study area extends from Hajadisa in south to Digboi oilfield in north, bounded by Naga thrust in the west and Disang thrust in the east. PCA, Image fusion, Linear Contrast stretch, Histogram Equalization and Painted relief algorithms have been used for the delineation of major geological lineaments like lithological boundary, thrust and strike slip faults. Digital elevation maps have enabled in the discrimination between thrust contacts and lithological boundaries, with the former being located mostly in the valleys. Textural enhancements of PCA, colour composites and Painted relief algorithm have been used to discriminate between different rock types. Few geological concepts about the terrain have been revisited and modified. It is assumed that this revised map should be of practical use as this terrain promises unexploited hydrocarbon reserves.

  1. Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

    2014-05-01

    With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA

  2. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  3. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  4. Simulation of Thematic Mapper performance as a function of sensor scanning parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.; Shah, N. J.; Schmidt, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The investigation and results of the Thematic Mapper Instrument Performance Study are described. The Thematic Mapper is the advanced multispectral scanner initially planned for the Earth Observation Satellite and now planned for LANDSAT D. The use of existing digital airborne scanner data obtained with the Modular Multispectral Scanner (M2S) at Bendix provided an opportunity to simulate the effects of variation of design parameters of the Thematic Mapper. Analysis and processing of this data on the Bendix Multispectral Data Analysis System were used to empirically determine categorization performance on data generated with variations of the sampling period and scan overlap parameters of the Thematic Mapper. The Bendix M2S data, with a 2.5 milliradian instantaneous field of view and a spatial resolution (pixel size) of 10-m from 13,000 ft altitude, allowed a direct simulation of Thematic Mapper data with a 30-m resolution. The flight data chosen were obtained on 30 June 1973 over agricultural test sites in Indiana.

  5. HomozygosityMapper2012--bridging the gap between homozygosity mapping and deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Seelow, Dominik; Schuelke, Markus

    2012-07-01

    Homozygosity mapping is a common method to map recessive traits in consanguineous families. To facilitate these analyses, we have developed HomozygosityMapper, a web-based approach to homozygosity mapping. HomozygosityMapper allows researchers to directly upload the genotype files produced by the major genotyping platforms as well as deep sequencing data. It detects stretches of homozygosity shared by the affected individuals and displays them graphically. Users can interactively inspect the underlying genotypes, manually refine these regions and eventually submit them to our candidate gene search engine GeneDistiller to identify the most promising candidate genes. Here, we present the new version of HomozygosityMapper. The most striking new feature is the support of Next Generation Sequencing *.vcf files as input. Upon users' requests, we have implemented the analysis of common experimental rodents as well as of important farm animals. Furthermore, we have extended the options for single families and loss of heterozygosity studies. Another new feature is the export of *.bed files for targeted enrichment of the potential disease regions for deep sequencing strategies. HomozygosityMapper also generates files for conventional linkage analyses which are already restricted to the possible disease regions, hence superseding CPU-intensive genome-wide analyses. HomozygosityMapper is freely available at http://www.homozygositymapper.org/. PMID:22669902

  6. The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, Ronald J.; Babler, Brian L.; Madsen, Gregory J.; Hill, Alex S.; Barger, Kathleen; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Percival, Jeffrey W.; Chopra, Nitish; Pingel, Nickolas; Reese, Daniel T.; Gostisha, Martin; Wunderlin, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We present the first all-sky, kinematic survey of Hα from the Milky Way, combining survey observations taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) from Kitt Peak (1997-2007) and Cerro Tololo (2009-present). The WHAM Sky Survey (WHAM-SS) reaches sensitivity levels of about 0.1 R (EM ~ 0.2 pc cm^-6) with emission detected toward every direction in the sky. Each pointing of the survey comprises a spatially integrated spectrum from a one-degree beam on the sky covering at least 200 km/s around the Local Standard of Rest with 12 km/s spectral resolution. WHAM was designed primarily to study the pervasive warm ionized medium (WIM) component of the interstellar medium (ISM) but also reveals many large-scale, locally-ionized regions throughout the Galaxy. The WIM is a diffuse but thick component of the ISM that extends several kiloparsecs into the Galactic halo with a kinematic signature that traces the gaseous spiral arms of the Galaxy. In addition to this fairly smooth global emission, the Hα sky contains many individual H II regions and supernova remnants, a few revealed in the WHAM-SS for the first time. Some locations are dominated by complex filamentary network of diffuse ionized gas where the ISM has been shaped by past winds and supernovae and is now powered by a new wave of star formation. At high latitudes, faint emission from intermediate-velocity clouds is also regularly present. The success of WHAM as a fully remote observing facility for nearly two decades is due in no small part to the excellent and responsive support staff at KPNO in Arizona and CTIO in Chile. WHAM has been designed, built, and operated primarily through support of the National Science Foundation. The current research presented here is funded by award AST-1108911.

  7. GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

  8. The Planetary Data System Geosciences Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Slavney, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node is to archive and distribute planetary geosciences datasets relevant to the surfaces and interiors of the terrestrial planets and moons. This objective is accomplished through the following efforts. The Node works with planetary missions to help ensure that data of relevance to the geosciences discipline are properly documented and archived. The Node restores and publishes selected geoscience datasets from past missions on CD-ROM for distribution to the planetary science community. Data archived at the Node are distributed on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, CD-WO, or by electronic transfer over the Internet. The Geo-sciences Node provides information and expert assistance on its data holdings. Derived image, geophysics, microwave, spaceborne thermal, and radio science data are archived at the lead node or at one of the subnodes. Currently, the amount of data archived at the Node is on the order of 500 Gbytes stored on a combination of nearly 800 CD-ROMs and CD-WOs. Current archives within the Node include data from the Magellan and Viking missions, the Geological Remote Sensing Field Experiment, and a collection of radar, altimetry, and gravity datasets for Venus, Mercury, Mars, Earth, and the Moon, together with software to analyze the data. The Node maintains on-line catalogs that enable the science community to search through the Geosciences Node archives and to order selected datasets. Access to the Node's catalogs and on-line datasets is available via the Internet using a remote login or via the World Wide Web (WWW).

  9. Forming different planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji-Lin; Xie, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yi-Sui

    2012-08-01

    With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples, the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer. In this review, we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations, and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation, especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars. Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems, we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs: hot Jupiter systems, standard systems and distant giant planet systems. The standard system can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances: solar-like systems, hot Super-Earth systems, and subgiant planet systems. We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

  10. Survival of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William R.

    1996-06-01

    Recent low frequency results from attempts to detect Jupiter-sized planets around nearby stars have raised a question as to whether such objects are all that common. In the over 200 stars observed so far, the yield has been 3%. And, the close orbit (0.05 AU) of the nearly Jupiter-sized object around Peg 51 places the object in an environment where the current paradigm of planetary formation would not predict planets to form at all. Other newly discovered candidates, such a Vir 70 and HR3522, also have suspiciously small semi-major axes for gas giants. Of course, the low yield may be strongly influenced by selection effects since massive planets close to their primaries are more easily detected. Nevertheless, given the results to date, it is natural to wonder whether a planetary system like ours is such a natural outgrowth of a circumplantary disk. In particular, could there be forces absent from the existing paradigm that tend to destroy a planetary system once formed? We point out that strong gravitational interactions (i.e., disk tides) between a newly formed protoplanet and its precursor disk give rise to a net torque that drains angular momentum from the protoplanet's orbit. As a result, protoplanetary objects suffer orbital decay as the disk attempts to destroy the very system it spawns. Strong interaction (type I) leads to gap formation and co-evolution with the disk; weak inter- action (type II) leads to drift relative to the disk and in some cases, a much more rapid decay. Survival of a planetary system may be a comparatively uncommon outcome. Newly discovered planets such as Peg 51b may be evidence of such large-scale orbit migration due to disk tidal torques (i.e., Lin et al., 1996).

  11. Planetary seismology and interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.

    1979-01-01

    This report briefly summarizes knowledge gained in the area of planetary seismology in the period 1969-1979. Attention is given to the seismic instruments, the seismic environment (noise, characteristics of seismic wave propagation, etc.), and the seismicity of the moon and Mars as determined by the Apollo missions and Viking Lander experiments, respectively. The models of internal structures of the terrestrial planets are discussed, with the earth used for reference.

  12. NASA Planetary Rover Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, David; Bedard, Roger J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Planetary Rover Project was initiated in 1989. The emphasis of the work to date has been on development of autonomous navigation technology within the context of a high mobility wheeled vehicle at the JPL and an innovative legged locomotion concept at Carnegie Mellon University. The status and accomplishments of these two efforts are discussed. First, however, background information is given on the three rover types required for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) whose objective is a manned mission to Mars.

  13. Galactic planetary science.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-04-28

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  14. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  15. Galactic planetary science

    PubMed Central

    Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets—mainly radial velocity and transit—or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even ‘just’ in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current ‘understanding’. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy. PMID:24664916

  16. Hazards Control Department use of the Sperry database management system, MAPPER

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.C.

    1987-10-19

    The Hazards Control data files are maintained in MAPPER, a Sperry-developed database management system that has been used for many years by Univac users. In its current version, MAPPER is extremely versatile and is considered one of the best fourth generation programs. It contains, in addition to a database management system, a word processor, office automation program including electronic mail, and color graphics routines. All of these routines are available for the IBM PC user employing the PEP program of Computer Logics Ltd. with proper board configuration. Some of the routines of MAPPER listed above will not be available if the user is employing VTERM through the Sytek net or by direct dial-up.

  17. Planetary geological studies. [MARS crater morphology and ejecta deposit topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  18. Geology Fulbrights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbright grants in geology for 1988-89 remain open. Specific opportunities are available in Egypt, German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Mozambique, Oman, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Turkey, U.S.S.R., West Bank, Yemen, and Zimbabwe. Other countries are also open to applications in any discipline, and geology is among their preferred fields.The grants are available until awarded and are open only to U.S. citizens. In Central and South America and French-speaking Africa, knowledge of host-country language is required. For more information, contact the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), 11 Dupont Circle N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036; tel. 202-939-5401.

  19. Use of calibration targets in the measurement of 2.22-micron mineral absorption features in Thematic Mapper data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    A mineral absorption index (MAI) has been developed to separate leaf water and mineral absorption in the 2.22-micron Thematic Mapper band. The MAI uses three baselines to estimate and subtract the absorption attributable to vegetation. Digital number data from calibration targets devoid of vegetation are used to establish the positions of the baselines in Thematic Mapper data.

  20. Planetary polarization nephelometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D.; Dissly, R.; Mishchenko, M.; Muñoz, O.; Roos-Serote, M.; Stam, D.; Volten, H.

    2004-02-01

    We have proposed to develop a polarization nephelometer for use on future planetary descent probes. It will measure both the scattered intensity and polarization phase functions of the aerosols it encounters descending through an atmosphere. These measurements will be taken at two wavelengths separated by about an octave, with one light source near 500nm and another near 1μm. Adding polarization measurements to the intensity phase functions greatly increases our ability to constrain the size distribution, shape and chemical composition of the sampled particles. There remain important questions about these parameters of the aerosols on Venus, the giant planets and Titan that can only be addressed with a nephelometer like ours. The NRC Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey has identified probe missions to Venus and Jupiter as a priority. On both of these missions, our proposed instrument would be an excellent candidate for flight. We also expect that future probe missions to Saturn, Uranus, Neptune or Titan would employ our instrument. It could also find use in Earth in situ aerosol studies. We will use a technique to simultaneously measure intensity and polarization phase functions that uses polarization modulation of a light source. This technique has been implemented in laboratory settings, but not with considerations to the environment on a planetary descent probe. We have proposed to design and build a flexible breadboard nephelometer to test the components and concepts of our approach. We would then test the device against well defined aerosols, ensuring that it accurately measures their expected intensity and polarization phase functions. With the knowledge gained in this flexible design, we would then design and build a breadboard polarization nephelometer more suited to integration on a planetary descent probe. To include traceability in the technical requirements of our device, we would also conduct an Observing System Simulation Experiment. In this study, we

  1. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  2. Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

  3. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  4. Multispectral scanner data applications evaluation. Volume 2: Sensor system study. [thematic mapper for earth resources application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The optimization of a thematic mapper for earth resources application is discussed in terms of cost versus performance. Performance tradeoffs and the cost impact are analyzed. The instrument design and radiometric performance are also described. The feasibility of a radiative cooler design for a scanning spectral radiometer is evaluated along with the charge coupled multiplex operation. Criteria for balancing the cost and complexity of data acquisition instruments against the requirements of the user, and a pushbroom scanner version of the thematic mapper are presented.

  5. Multiattribute probabilistic prostate elastic registration (MAPPER): Application to fusion of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Rachel; Nicolas Bloch, B.; Feleppa, Ernest; Barratt, Dean; Moses, Daniel; Ponsky, Lee; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, up to 40% of prostate cancer lesions appears isoechoic on TRUS. Hence, TRUS-guided biopsy has a high false negative rate for prostate cancer diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better able to distinguish prostate cancer from benign tissue. However, MRI-guided biopsy requires special equipment and training and a longer procedure time. MRI-TRUS fusion, where MRI is acquired preoperatively and then aligned to TRUS, allows for advantages of both modalities to be leveraged during biopsy. MRI-TRUS-guided biopsy increases the yield of cancer positive biopsies. In this work, the authors present multiattribute probabilistic postate elastic registration (MAPPER) to align prostate MRI and TRUS imagery. Methods: MAPPER involves (1) segmenting the prostate on MRI, (2) calculating a multiattribute probabilistic map of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) maximizing overlap between the prostate segmentation on MRI and the multiattribute probabilistic map on TRUS, thereby driving registration of MRI onto TRUS. MAPPER represents a significant advancement over the current state-of-the-art as it requires no user interaction during the biopsy procedure by leveraging texture and spatial information to determine the prostate location on TRUS. Although MAPPER requires manual interaction to segment the prostate on MRI, this step is performed prior to biopsy and will not substantially increase biopsy procedure time. Results: MAPPER was evaluated on 13 patient studies from two independent datasets—Dataset 1 has 6 studies acquired with a side-firing TRUS probe and a 1.5 T pelvic phased-array coil MRI; Dataset 2 has 7 studies acquired with a volumetric end-firing TRUS probe and a 3.0 T endorectal coil MRI. MAPPER has a root-mean-square error (RMSE) for expert selected fiducials of 3.36 ± 1.10 mm for Dataset 1 and 3.14 ± 0.75 mm for Dataset 2. State

  6. Multiattribute probabilistic prostate elastic registration (MAPPER): Application to fusion of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Rachel Barratt, Dean; Nicolas Bloch, B.; Feleppa, Ernest; Moses, Daniel; Ponsky, Lee; Madabhushi, Anant

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided needle biopsy is the current gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, up to 40% of prostate cancer lesions appears isoechoic on TRUS. Hence, TRUS-guided biopsy has a high false negative rate for prostate cancer diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is better able to distinguish prostate cancer from benign tissue. However, MRI-guided biopsy requires special equipment and training and a longer procedure time. MRI-TRUS fusion, where MRI is acquired preoperatively and then aligned to TRUS, allows for advantages of both modalities to be leveraged during biopsy. MRI-TRUS-guided biopsy increases the yield of cancer positive biopsies. In this work, the authors present multiattribute probabilistic postate elastic registration (MAPPER) to align prostate MRI and TRUS imagery. Methods: MAPPER involves (1) segmenting the prostate on MRI, (2) calculating a multiattribute probabilistic map of prostate location on TRUS, and (3) maximizing overlap between the prostate segmentation on MRI and the multiattribute probabilistic map on TRUS, thereby driving registration of MRI onto TRUS. MAPPER represents a significant advancement over the current state-of-the-art as it requires no user interaction during the biopsy procedure by leveraging texture and spatial information to determine the prostate location on TRUS. Although MAPPER requires manual interaction to segment the prostate on MRI, this step is performed prior to biopsy and will not substantially increase biopsy procedure time. Results: MAPPER was evaluated on 13 patient studies from two independent datasets—Dataset 1 has 6 studies acquired with a side-firing TRUS probe and a 1.5 T pelvic phased-array coil MRI; Dataset 2 has 7 studies acquired with a volumetric end-firing TRUS probe and a 3.0 T endorectal coil MRI. MAPPER has a root-mean-square error (RMSE) for expert selected fiducials of 3.36 ± 1.10 mm for Dataset 1 and 3.14 ± 0.75 mm for Dataset 2. State

  7. The Use of Linear Feature Detection to Investigate Thematic Mapper Data Performance and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    The geometric and radiometric characteristics of thematic mapper data through analysis of linear features in the data are investigated. The particular aspects considered are: (1) thematic mapper ground IFUV; (2) radiometric contrast between linear features and background; (3) precision of system geometric correction; (4) band-to-band registration; and (5) potential utility of TM data for linear feature detection especially as compared to MSS data. It is shown that TM data may be used to estimate TM pixel size illustrate band: band mis-registration.

  8. The distribution and purity of anorthosite across the Orientale basin: New perspectives from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, L. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Whitten, J. L.

    2013-09-01

    The Orientale basin is a multiring impact structure on the western limb of the Moon that provides a clear view of the primary lunar crust exposed during basin formation. Previously, near-infrared reflectance spectra suggested that Orientale's Inner Rook Ring (IRR) is very poor in mafic minerals and may represent anorthosite excavated from the Moon's upper crust. However, detailed assessment of the mineralogy of these anorthosites was prohibited because the available spectroscopic data sets did not identify the diagnostic plagioclase absorption feature near 1250 nm. Recently, however, this absorption has been identified in several spectroscopic data sets, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), enabling the unique identification of a plagioclase-dominated lithology at Orientale for the first time. Here we present the first in-depth characterization of the Orientale anorthosites based on direct measurement of their plagioclase component. In addition, detailed geologic context of the exposures is discussed based on analysis of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Narrow Angle Camera images for selected anorthosite identifications. The results confirm that anorthosite is overwhelmingly concentrated in the IRR. Comparison with nonlinear spectral mixing models suggests that the anorthosite is exceedingly pure, containing >95 vol % plagioclase in most areas and commonly ~99-100 vol %. These new data place important constraints on magma ocean crystallization scenarios, which must produce a zone of highly pure anorthosite spanning the entire lateral extent of the 430 km diameter IRR.

  9. The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, −3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (−2.00 to −5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to −5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

  10. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas; Bailey, Jeffrey; Buechler, Dennis; Carey, Larry; Schultz, Chris; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Stano, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series (GOES-R) is the next block of four satellites to follow the existing GOES constellation currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Advanced spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved cloud and moisture imagery with the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity continuously day and night with near-uniform storm-scale spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 s over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions in the western hemisphere. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low Earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive prelaunch field campaigns. The GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extend their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with preoperational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and

  11. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Buechler, D. E.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; McCaul, E., Jr.; Stano, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series provides the continuity for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. In parallel with the instrument development, an Algorithm Working Group (AWG) Lightning Detection Science and Applications Team developed the Level 2 (stroke and flash) algorithms from the Level 1 lightning event (pixel level) data. Proxy data sets used to develop the GLM operational algorithms as well as cal/val performance monitoring tools were derived from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) instruments in low earth orbit, and from ground-based lightning networks and intensive pre-launch field campaigns. GLM will produce the same or similar lightning flash attributes provided by the LIS and OTD, and thus extends their combined climatology over the western hemisphere into the coming decades. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS forecast offices and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after

  12. Comparison of outgassing models for the landsat thematic mapper sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Micijevic, E.; Chander, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Thematic Mapper (TM) is a multi-spectral electro-optical sensor featured onboard both the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) satellites. TM sensors have seven spectral bands with center wavelengths of approximately 0.49, 0.56, 0.66, 0.83, 1.65, 11.5 and 2.21 ??m, respectively. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) bands are located on the primary focal plane (PFP), and two short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands and the thermal infrared (TIR) band are located on the cold focal plane (CFP). The CFP bands are maintained at cryogenic temperatures of about 91 K, to reduce thermal noise effects. Due to the cold temperature, an ice film accumulates on the CFP dewar window, which introduces oscillations in SWIR and an exponential decay in TIR band responses. This process is usually monitored and characterized by the detector responses to the internal calibrator (IC) lamps and the blackbody. The ice contamination on the dewar window is an effect of the sensor outgassing in a vacuum of the space environment. Outgassing models have been developed, which are based on the thin-film optical interference phenomenon. They provide the coefficients for correction for outgassing effects for the entire mission's lifetime. While the L4 TM ceased imaging in August 1993, the L5 TM continues to operate even after more than 23 years in orbit. The process of outgassing in L5 TM is still occurring, though at a much lower rate than during early years of mission. Although the L4 and L5 TM sensors are essentially identical, they exhibit slightly different responses to the outgassing effects. The work presented in the paper summarizes the results of modeling outgassing effects in each of the sensors and provides a detailed analysis of differences among the estimated modeling parameters. For both sensors, water ice was confirmed as a reasonable candidate for contaminant material, the contaminant growth rate was found to be gradually decreasing with the time since launch, and the indications exist that

  13. The 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and planetary geolgoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Henry J.

    1987-01-01

    In planetary geology, lava flows on the Moon and Mars are commonly treated as relatively simple systems. Some of the complexities of actual lava flows are illustrated using the main flow system of the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The outline, brief narrative, and results given are based on a number of sources. The implications of the results to planetary geology are clear. Volume flow rates during an eruption depend, in part, on the volatile content of the lava. These differ from the volume flow rates calculated from post eruption flow dimensions and the duration of the eruption and from those using models that assume a constant density. Mass flow rates might be more appropriate because the masses of volatiles in lavas are usually small, but variable and sometimes unknown densities impose severe restrictions on mass estimates.

  14. Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

  15. Progress of Interoperability in Planetary Research for Geospatial Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, T. M.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    For nearly a decade there has been a push in the planetary science community to support interoperable methods of accessing and working with geospatial data. Common geospatial data products for planetary research include image mosaics, digital elevation or terrain models, geologic maps, geographic location databases (i.e., craters, volcanoes) or any data that can be tied to the surface of a planetary body (including moons, comets or asteroids). Several U.S. and international cartographic research institutions have converged on mapping standards that embrace standardized image formats that retain geographic information (e.g., GeoTiff, GeoJpeg2000), digital geologic mapping conventions, planetary extensions for symbols that comply with U.S. Federal Geographic Data Committee cartographic and geospatial metadata standards, and notably on-line mapping services as defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The latter includes defined standards such as the OGC Web Mapping Services (simple image maps), Web Feature Services (feature streaming), Web Coverage Services (rich scientific data streaming), and Catalog Services for the Web (data searching and discoverability). While these standards were developed for application to Earth-based data, they have been modified to support the planetary domain. The motivation to support common, interoperable data format and delivery standards is not only to improve access for higher-level products but also to address the increasingly distributed nature of the rapidly growing volumes of data. The strength of using an OGC approach is that it provides consistent access to data that are distributed across many facilities. While data-steaming standards are well-supported by both the more sophisticated tools used in Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing industries, they are also supported by many light-weight browsers which facilitates large and small focused science applications and public use. Here we provide an

  16. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  17. Planetary rover technology development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, Roger J., Jr.; Muirhead, Brian K.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Hirschbein, Murray S.

    1989-01-01

    Planetary surface (including lunar) mobility and sampling capability is required to support proposed future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solar system exploration missions. The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is addressing some of these technology needs in its base research and development program, the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and a new technology initiative entitled Pathfinder. The Pathfinder Planetary Rover (PPR) and Sample Acquisition, Analysis and Preservation (SAAP) programs will develop and validate the technologies needed to enable both robotic and piloted rovers on various planetary surfaces. The technology requirements for a planetary roving vehicle and the development plans of the PPR and SAAP programs are discussed.

  18. Planetary cratering mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    To obtain a quantitative understanding of the cratering process over a broad range of conditions, we have numerically computed the evolution of impact induced flow fields and calculated the time histories of the major measures of crater geometry (e.g., depth diameter, lip height ...) for variations in planetary gravity (0 to 10 exp 9 cm/sq seconds), material strength (0 to 140 kbar), thermodynamic properties, and impactor radius (0.05 to 5000 km). These results were fit into the framework of the scaling relations of Holsapple and Schmidt (1987). We describe the impact process in terms of four regimes: (1) penetration; (2) inertial; (3) terminal; and (4) relaxation.

  19. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  20. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  1. Planetary Spatial Analyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keely, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This is a status report for the project entitled Planetary Spatial Analyst (PSA). This report covers activities from the project inception on October 1, 2007 to June 1, 2008. Originally a three year proposal, PSA was awarded funding for one year and required a revised work statement and budget. At the time of this writing the project is well on track both for completion of work as well as budget. The revised project focused on two objectives: build a solid connection with the target community and implement a prototype software application that provides 3D visualization and spatial analysis technologies for that community. Progress has been made for both of these objectives.

  2. Planetary entry experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, Roger A.

    1994-01-01

    The final report summarizes the results from three research areas: (1) window design for the radiometric measurement of the forebody radiative heating experienced by atmospheric entry spaceraft; (2) survey of the current understanding of chemical species on selected solar system bodies and assess the importance of measurements with regard to vehicle environment and with regard to understanding of planetary atmospheres with emphasis on Venus, Mars, and Titan; and (3) measure and analyze the radiation (VUV to near-IR) from the shock heated gas cap of a blunt body in an Ames arc Jet wind-tunnel facility.

  3. Misclassified planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbadin, F.

    1986-08-01

    The classifications of 130 objects as planetary nebulae (PNs) in the catalogs of Kohoutek (1965, 1969, and 1972) are reexamined by analyzing their images on the IR (755-885-nm) and red (610-690-nm) plates of the NIR photographic survey of the Galactic plane of Hoessel et al. (1985). Factors affecting the IR and red brightness of normal stars and emission-line objects are discussed, and it is shown that PNs should be brighter in the red than in the IR. Thirty-six supposed PNs for which this is not the case are identified, and it is suggested that they have been improperly classified.

  4. Dynamics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, S.

    1991-02-01

    The modeling of the dynamics of particle collisions within planetary rings is discussed. Particles in the rings collide with one another because they have small random motions in addition to their orbital velocity. The orbital speed is roughly 10 km/s, while the random motions have an average speed of about a tenth of a millimeter per second. As a result, the particle collisions are very gentle. Numerical analysis and simulation of the ring dynamics, performed with the aid of a supercomputer, is outlined.

  5. Disequilibration by Planetary Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Jutzi, M.

    2010-12-01

    Molten planets equilibrate gravitationally, chemically, and thermally. Large scale collisions (a.k.a. giant impacts, similar-sized collisions) can upset the apple cart by bringing core material, late in the game, into mixture with mantle products, and by shredding stratified planets into strands of mantle and clumps of core (c.g. Asphaug et al. Nature 2006). Atmophiles and volatiles come along for the ride, and can find themselves in disequilibrium mixtures not anticipated by one-dimensional models of planetary evolution, or by planet growth models in which planets stick, merge, and mix perfectly in the aftermath of a collision. We present very high resolution case studies of such collisions.

  6. Digital Geologic Mapping and Integration with the Geoweb: The Death Knell for Exclusively Paper Geologic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    The combination of traditional methods of geologic mapping with rapidly developing web-based geospatial applications ('the geoweb') and the various collaborative opportunities of web 2.0 have the potential to change the nature, value, and relevance of geologic maps and related field studies. Parallel advances in basic GPS technology, digital photography, and related integrative applications provide practicing geologic mappers with greatly enhanced methods for collecting, visualizing, interpreting, and disseminating geologic information. Even a cursory application of available tools can make field and office work more enriching and efficient; whereas more advanced and systematic applications provide new avenues for collaboration, outreach, and public education. Moreover, they ensure a much broader audience among an immense number of internet savvy end-users with very specific expectations for geospatial data availability. Perplexingly, the geologic community as a whole is not fully exploring this opportunity despite the inevitable revolution in portends. The slow acceptance follows a broad generational trend wherein seasoned professionals are lagging behind geology students and recent graduates in their grasp of and interest in the capabilities of the geoweb and web 2.0 types of applications. Possible explanations for this include: fear of the unknown, fear of learning curve, lack of interest, lack of academic/professional incentive, and (hopefully not) reluctance toward open collaboration. Although some aspects of the expanding geoweb are cloaked in arcane computer code, others are extremely simple to understand and use. A particularly obvious and simple application to enhance any field study is photo geotagging, the digital documentation of the locations of key outcrops, illustrative vistas, and particularly complicated geologic field relations. Viewing geotagged photos in their appropriate context on a virtual globe with high-resolution imagery can be an

  7. The geologic mapping of asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Yingst, A.; Garry, B.

    2014-07-01

    As part of NASA's Dawn mission [1,2] we conducted a geologic mapping campaign to provide a systematic, cartography-based initial characterization of the global and regional geology of asteroid Vesta. The goal of geological maps is to place observations of surface features into their stratigraphic context to develop a geologic history of the evolution of planetary surfaces. Geologic mapping reduces the complexity of heterogeneous planetary surfaces into comprehensible portions, defining and characterizing discrete material units based upon physical attributes related to the geologic processes that produced them, and enabling identification of the relative roles of various processes (impact cratering, tectonism, volcanism, erosion and deposition) in shaping planetary surfaces [3,4]. The Dawn Science Team produced cartographic products of Vesta from the Framing Camera images, including global mosaics as well as 15 regional quadrangles [5], which served as bases for the mapping. We oversaw the geologic mapping campaign during the Nominal Mission, including production of a global geologic map at scale 1:500,000 using images from the High Altitude Mapping Orbit [6] and 15 quadrangle geologic maps at scale 1:250,000 using images from the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit [7]. The goal was to support the Dawn Team by providing geologic and stratigraphic context of surface features and supporting the analysis of data from the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) and the Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND). Mapping was done using ArcGIS™ software, in which quadrangle mapping built on interpretations derived from the global geologic map but were updated and modified to take advantage of the highest spatial resolution data. Despite challenges (e.g., Vesta's highly sloped surface [8] deforms impact craters and produces mass movements that buries contacts), we were successfully able to map the whole surface of Vesta and identify a geologic history as represented in our maps and

  8. Interdisciplinary Research Produces Results in the Understanding of Planetary Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn Kay; Bourke, Mary C.

    2010-08-01

    Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs—Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data; Alamosa, Colorado, 18-21 May 2010; Dunes and other eolian bed forms are prominent on several planetary bodies in our solar system. Despite 4 decades of study, many questions remain regarding the composition, age, and origins of these features, as well as the climatic conditions under which they formed. Recently acquired data from orbiters and rovers, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into Martian sand dunes, as well as eolian bed forms on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Titan). As a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, the Desert Research Institute, and the U.S. National Park Service held a workshop in Colorado. The small group setting facilitated intensive discussion of problems and issues associated with eolian processes on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  9. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  10. Software used with the flux mapper at the solar parabolic dish test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyazono, C.

    1984-01-01

    Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.

  11. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part C: Power supply data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The acceptance test data package for the thematic mapper flight model power supply was reviewed and the data compared to the relevant specification. The power supply was found to be within specification. Final test data for outut voltage regulation and ripple, efficiency, over and undervoltage protection, telemetry, impedances, turn-on requirements, and input current limits are presented.

  12. Spectral Angle Mapper Classification of Fluorescence Hyperspectral Image for Aflatoxin Contaminated Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin contamination in corn is a serious problem for both producers and consumers. The present study applied the Spectral Angle Mapper classification technique to classify single corn kernels into contaminated and healthy groups. Fluorescence hyperspectral images were used in the classification....

  13. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part B: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Procedures and results are presented for performance and systems integration tests of flight model-1 thematic mapper. Aspects considered cover electronic module integration, radiometric calibration, spectral matching, spatial coverage, radiometric calibration of the calibrator, coherent noise, dynamic square wave response, band to band registration, geometric accuracy, and self induced vibration. Thermal vacuum tests, EMI/EMS, and mass properties are included. Liens are summarized.

  14. Registration of a synthetic aperture radar image to Thematic Mapper imagery for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S.; Gilbert, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple Thematic Mapper multitemporal acquisitions from Landsat and one synthetic-aperture radar acquisition from Seasat have been precisely registered using Johnson Space Center registration processors. The registered images have been output in the Universal Transverse Mercator projection. The procedure to accomplish such disparate data processing tasks and the registration accuracy evaluation are discussed.

  15. PrimerMapper: high throughput primer design and graphical assembly for PCR and SNP detection.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Primer design represents a widely employed gambit in diverse molecular applications including PCR, sequencing, and probe hybridization. Variations of PCR, including primer walking, allele-specific PCR, and nested PCR provide specialized validation and detection protocols for molecular analyses that often require screening large numbers of DNA fragments. In these cases, automated sequence retrieval and processing become important features, and furthermore, a graphic that provides the user with a visual guide to the distribution of designed primers across targets is most helpful in quickly ascertaining primer coverage. To this end, I describe here, PrimerMapper, which provides a comprehensive graphical user interface that designs robust primers from any number of inputted sequences while providing the user with both, graphical maps of primer distribution for each inputted sequence, and also a global assembled map of all inputted sequences with designed primers. PrimerMapper also enables the visualization of graphical maps within a browser and allows the user to draw new primers directly onto the webpage. Other features of PrimerMapper include allele-specific design features for SNP genotyping, a remote BLAST window to NCBI databases, and remote sequence retrieval from GenBank and dbSNP. PrimerMapper is hosted at GitHub and freely available without restriction. PMID:26853558

  16. Estuary Data Mapper: A virtual portal to coastal data informing environmental management decisions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) is a free, interactive graphical application under development at the US EPA that allows environmental researchers and managers to quickly and easily retrieve, view and save subsets of online US coastal estuary-related data. Accessible data include ...

  17. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  18. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part C: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Failure reports for flight model-1 of the thematic mapper are summarized showing the symptom and cause of failure as well as the corrective action taken. Each report is keyed to the major subsystem against which the failure occurred. Requests for deviation/waiver are listed by number, description, and current status. Copies of engineering proposals are included.

  19. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 3, part A: System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of vibration, acoustical noise, and thermal vacuum are described as well as tests studies of EMI/EMC and mass properties conducted for thematic mapper systems integration. Liens are summarized and the engineering change proposal status is presented. Requests for deviation/waiver are included along with failure and nonforming material reports.

  20. PrimerMapper: high throughput primer design and graphical assembly for PCR and SNP detection

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Damien M.

    2016-01-01

    Primer design represents a widely employed gambit in diverse molecular applications including PCR, sequencing, and probe hybridization. Variations of PCR, including primer walking, allele-specific PCR, and nested PCR provide specialized validation and detection protocols for molecular analyses that often require screening large numbers of DNA fragments. In these cases, automated sequence retrieval and processing become important features, and furthermore, a graphic that provides the user with a visual guide to the distribution of designed primers across targets is most helpful in quickly ascertaining primer coverage. To this end, I describe here, PrimerMapper, which provides a comprehensive graphical user interface that designs robust primers from any number of inputted sequences while providing the user with both, graphical maps of primer distribution for each inputted sequence, and also a global assembled map of all inputted sequences with designed primers. PrimerMapper also enables the visualization of graphical maps within a browser and allows the user to draw new primers directly onto the webpage. Other features of PrimerMapper include allele-specific design features for SNP genotyping, a remote BLAST window to NCBI databases, and remote sequence retrieval from GenBank and dbSNP. PrimerMapper is hosted at GitHub and freely available without restriction. PMID:26853558

  1. Lightning Mapper Sensor Lens Assembly S.O. 5459: Project Management Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Kaiser Electro-Optics, Inc. (KEO) has developed this Project Management Plan for the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) program. KEO has integrated a team of experts in a structured program management organization to meet the needs of the LMS program. The project plan discusses KEO's approach to critical program elements including Program Management, Quality Assurance, Configuration Management, and Schedule.

  2. Validation of a quasi real-time global aberrometer: the EyeMapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedtke, C.; Ehrmann, K.; Falk, D.; Holden, B.

    2012-03-01

    Interest in measuring peripheral refraction rapidly and accurately has been stimulated by increasing evidence that the eye's peripheral refractive state can influence axial growth. In response to this, a new clinical instrument, the EyeMapper, was developed which performs quasi real-time global (central and peripheral) refraction measurements of the human eye. The EyeMapper is an aberrometer comprising a unique deflection system to permit an extremely rapid visual field scan. Refraction measurements are taken from -50° to +50° in 10° steps within 0.45 seconds. Multiple pupil imaging paths through the deflection system provide improved lateral and axial pupil alignment, and by rotating the instrument around its main optical axis, global power maps of the eye can be generated. Using a model eye with a pivoting and translating reflective surface to simulate the peripheral and central retina, the EyeMapper was cross-validated against a conventional aberrometer (COAS-HD, Wavefront Sciences, USA) and an autorefractor (Shin-Nippon NVision K5001, Japan). In addition, the right eyes of ten participants were measured across the horizontal visual field and in one eye, refraction measurements were performed globally. Overall, the EyeMapper showed good agreement and improved repeatability when compared to the other two instruments.

  3. LAND COVER MAPPING IN AN AGRICULTURAL SETTING USING MULTISEASONAL THEMATIC MAPPER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multiseasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data set consisting of five image dates from a single year was used to characterize agricultural and related land cover in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon. Image registration was accomplished using an automated grou...

  4. USE OF SPECTRAL ANGLE MAPPER (SAM) AND HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY FOR YIELD ESTIMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remotely sensed imagery are commonly used to estimate crop yields. Spectral angle mapper (SAM) provides an alternative approach to quantifying the spectral differences among all pixels in imagery and therefore has the potential for mapping yield variability. The...

  5. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 2, part B: Subsystem data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Summarized performance data are presented for the following major subsystems of the thematic mapper: the focal plane assembly, the radiative cooler, the radiative cooler door assembly, the top optical assembly, and the telescope assembly. Reference lists of the configurations status and of nonconforming material reports, failure reports, and requests for deviation/waiver are included.

  6. Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The last decade has seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Much of the structure revealed was thoroughly puzzling and fired the imagination of workers in a variety of disciplines. Consequently, we have also seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuitions (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems (refs 1-5). The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems and families of regular satellites are invariably found together, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  7. Young Planetary disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.

    2007-07-01

    The present review focuses on UV observations of young planetary disks and consequently mostly on the gaseous content of those disks. Few examples are taken to illustrate the capability of the UV observatories to scrutinize in detail the gas content of low density circumstellar disks if they are seen edge-on or nearly edge-on. For instance, in the case of HD100546, FUSE observations re- vealed signatures of outflow and infall in the disk caused by interaction of the stellar magnetosphere with the circumstellar disk. Observations of numerous absorption lines from H2 around young stars give constrains on the gas temper- ature and density, and physical size of the absorbing layer. In the case of T-Tauri stars and one brown dwarf, emissions from exited H2 have been detected. In the case of Beta Pictoris, the observation of CO in the UV and search for H2 with FUSE demonstrated that the evaporation of frozen bodies like comets must produce the CO seen in the disk. Extensive observations of spectral variability of Beta Pictoris are now interpreted by extrasolar comets evaporating in the vicinity of the central star of this young planetary system.

  8. Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

  9. [Spectral Uncertainty of Terrestrial Objects and the Applicability of Spectral Angle Mapper Algorithm].

    PubMed

    Cen, Yi; Zhang, Gen-zhong; Zhang, Li-fu; Lu, Xu-hui; Zhang, Fei-zhou

    2015-10-01

    The spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects causes a certain degree of spectral differences among feature spectra, which affects the accuracy of object recognition and also impacts the object recognition of spectral angle mapper algorithm (SAM). The spectral angle mapper algorithm is based on the overall similarity of the spectral curves, which was widely used in the classification of hyperspectral remotely sensed information. The spectral angle mapper algorithm does not take the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects into account while calculating the spectral angle between the spectral curves, and therefore does not tend to correctly identify the target objects. The applicability of the spectral angle mapper algorithm is studied for the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects and a modified SAM is proposed in this paper. In order to overcome the influence of the spectral uncertainty, the basic idea is to set a spectral difference value for the test spectra and the reference spectra and to calculate the spectral difference value based on derivation method according to the principle of minimum angle between the test spectra and the reference spectra. By considering the impact of the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects, this paper uses five kaolinite mineral spectra of USGS to calculate the spectral angle between the five kalinite mineral spectra by using local band combination and all bands to verify the improved algorithm. The calculation results and the applicability of the spectral angle mapper algorithm were analyzed. The results obtained from the experiments based on USGS mineral spectral data indicate that the modified SAM is not only helpful in characterizing and overcoming the impact of the spectral uncertainty but it can also improve the accuracy of object recognition to certain extent especially for selecting local band combination and has better applicability for the spectral uncertainty of terrestrial objects. PMID:26904829

  10. Fourier spectroscopy and planetary research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) to planetary research is reviewed. The survey includes FTS observations of the sun, all the planets except Uranus and Pluto, the Galilean satellites and Saturn's rings. Instrumentation and scientific results are considered and the prospects and limitations of FTS for planetary research in the forthcoming years are discussed.

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference was held March 17-21, 2003. Topics included planetary exploration, crater research on Mars, Earth, Moon, and other planets or satellites, imaging techniques and image analysis, age determination, albedo studies, petrographic studies, isotope composition studies, instrument design, sampling methods, landform analysis, asteroids, impact analysis, impact melts, and related research.

  12. Reports of planetary astronomy, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection is presented of summaries designed to provide information about scientific research projects conducted in the Planetary Astronomy Program in 1990 and 1991, and to facilitate communication and coordination among concerned scientists and interested persons in universities, government, and industry. Highlights of recent accomplishments in planetary astronomy are included.

  13. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large- enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Another potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  14. Planetary Doppler Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.

    2014-12-01

    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  15. A satellite remote sensing technique for geological structure horizon mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, A.; Huggins, P.; Rees, J.

    1996-08-01

    A Satellite Remote Sensing Technique is demonstrated for generating near surface geological structure data. This technique enables the screening of large areas and targeting of seismic acquisition during hydrocarbon exploration. This is of particular advantage in terrains where surveying is logistically difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data and a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM), are used to identify and map outcropping horizons. These are used to reconstruct the near surface structure. The technique is applied in Central Yemen which is characterised by a {open_quote}layer-cake{close_quote} geological and low dipping terrain. The results are validated using 2D seismic data. The near surface map images faults and structure not apparent in the raw data. Comparison with the structure map generated from a 2D seismic data indicates very good structural and fault correlation. The near surface map successfully highlights areas of potential closure at reservoir depths.

  16. Online Planetary Science Courses at Athabasca University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Martin; Munyikwa, Ken; Bredeson, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Athabasca University offers distance education courses in science, at freshman and higher levels. It has a number of geology and astronomy courses, and recently opened a planetary science course as the first upper division astronomy course after many years of offering freshman astronomy. Astronomy 310, Planetary Science, focuses on process in the Solar System on bodies other than Earth. This process-oriented course uses W. F. Hartmann's "Moons and Planets" as its textbook. It primarily approaches the subject from an astronomy and physics perspective. Geology 415, Earth's Origin and Early Evolution, is based on the same textbook, but explores the evidence for the various processes, events, and materials involved in the formation and evolution of Earth. The course provides an overview of objects in the Solar System, including the Sun, the planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids. Earth's place in the solar system is examined and physical laws that govern the motion of objects in the universe are looked at. Various geochemical tools and techniques used by geologists to reveal and interpret the evidence for the formation and evolution of bodies in the solar system as well as the age of earth are also explored. After looking at lines of evidence used to reconstruct the evolution of the solar system, processes involved in the formation of planets and stars are examined. The course concludes with a look at the origin and nature of Earth's internal structure. GEOL415 is a senior undergraduate course and enrols about 15-30 students annually. The courses are delivered online via Moodle and student evaluation is conducted through assignments and invigilated examinations.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the folowing: Experimental Study of Fe-, Co- and Ni-partitioning Between Forsterite and low-Co Fe,Ni-Alloys: Implications for Formation of Olivine Condensates in Equilibrium with Primitive Metal. Channels and Fan-like Features on Titan Surface Imaged by the Cassini RADAR. The Oxygen Isotope Similarity of the Earth and Moon: Source Region or Formation Process? The Mn-53-Cr-53 System in CAIs: An Update. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: Valence State Partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti, and V Among Crystallographic Sites in Olivine, Pyroxene, and Spinel from Planetary Basalts. CAI Thermal History Constraints from Spinel: Ti Zoning Profiles and Melilite Boundary Clinopyroxenes. Noble Gas Study of New Enstatite SaU 290 with High Solar Gases. A Marine Origin for the Meridiani Planum Landing Site? A Mechanism for the Formation and Evolution of Tharsis as a Consequence of Mantle Overturn: Large Scale Lateral Heterogeneity in a Stably Stratified Mantle. Endolithic Colonization of Fluid Inclusion Trails in Mineral Grains. Microbial Preservation in Sulfates in the Haughton Impact Structure Suggests Target in Search for Life on Mars. Ascraeus Mons Fan-shaped Deposit, Mars: Geological History and Volcano-Ice Interactions of a Cold-based Glacier. Weathering Pits in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: Insolation-induced Heating and Melting, and Applications to Mars. Mineralogy and Petrography of Lunar Mare Regolith Breccia Meteorite MET 01-210. Geological Mapping of Ganymede. A Quantitative Analysis of Plate Motion on Europa: Implications for the Role of Rigid vs. Nonrigid Behavior of the Lithosphere. Comparison of Terrestrial Morphology, Ejecta, and Sediment Transport of Small Craters: Volcanic and Impact Analogs to Mars. An Integrated Study of OMEGA-Identified Mineral Deposits in Eastern Hebes Chasma, Mars. Global Spectral and Compositional Diversity of Mars: A Test of CRISM Global Mapping with Mars Express OMEGA Data. On Origin of Sedna. Processing ISS Images of Titan s

  18. Rheology of planetary ices

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  19. Planetary radio lasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1988-01-01

    Both the Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) and Jupiter's decametric radio S-bursts are attributed to natural radio lasing. Presumably consisting of self-excited, closed-loop wave feedback oscillations between local irregularities of the source plasma density, this radio lasing is comparable to that which occurs in man-made optical lasers, although at radio, rather than optical wavelengths. As a result, it should produce a multiple discrete emission spectrum and intense, coherent beams. Recent observations of the AKR's discreteness and coherence have clearly ruled out the previous open-loop amplifier model for such emissions, and recent observations of the Jovian S-bursts have shown the expected, regularly-spaced, longitudinal laser modes. These new observations thus confirm the proposed planetary cyclotron radio lasing at both planets.

  20. Photochemistry in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Graedel, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    Widely varying paths of evolutionary history, atmospheric processes, solar fluxes, and temperatures have produced vastly different planetary atmospheres. The similarities and differences between the earth atmosphere and those of the terrestrial planets (Venus and Mars) and of the Jovian planets are discussed in detail; consideration is also given to the photochemistry of Saturn, Uranus, Pluto, Neptune, Titan, and Triton. Changes in the earth's ancient atmosphere are described, and problems of interest in the earth's present troposphere are discussed, including the down wind effect, plume interactions, aerosol nucleation and growth, acid rain, and the fate of terpenes. Temperature fluctuations in the four principal layers of the earth's atmosphere, predicted decreases in the ozone concentration as a function of time, and spectra of particles in the earth's upper atmosphere are also presented. Finally, the vertical structure of the Venus cloud system and the thermal structure of the Jovian planets are shown graphically.

  1. Planetary Moon Cycler Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ryan P.; Strange, Nathan J.

    2007-01-01

    Free-return cycler trajectories repeatedly shuttle a spacecraft between two bodies using little or no fuel. Here, the cycler architecture is proposed as a complementary and alternative method for designing planetary moon tours. Previously applied enumerative cycler search and optimization techniques are generalized and specifically implemented in the Jovian and Saturnian moon systems. In addition, the algorithms are tested for general use to find non-Earth heliocentric cyclers. Overall, hundreds of ideal model ballistic cycler geometries are found and several representative cases are documented and discussed. Many of the ideal model solutions are found to remain ballistic in a zero radius sphere of influence patched conic ephemeris model, and preliminary work in a high-fidelity fully integrated model demonstrates near-ballistic cycles for several example cases.

  2. Planetary heat flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Hagermann, Axel

    2005-12-15

    The year 2005 marks the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 13 mission, probably the most successful failure in the history of manned spaceflight. Naturally, Apollo 13's scientific payload is far less known than the spectacular accident and subsequent rescue of its crew. Among other instruments, it carried the first instrument designed to measure the flux of heat on a planetary body other than Earth. The year 2005 also should have marked the launch of the Japanese LUNAR-A mission, and ESA's Rosetta mission is slowly approaching comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Both missions carry penetrators to study the heat flow from their target bodies. What is so interesting about planetary heat flow? What can we learn from it and how do we measure it?Not only the Sun, but all planets in the Solar System are essentially heat engines. Various heat sources or heat reservoirs drive intrinsic and surface processes, causing 'dead balls of rock, ice or gas' to evolve dynamically over time, driving convection that powers tectonic processes and spawns magnetic fields. The heat flow constrains models of the thermal evolution of a planet and also its composition because it provides an upper limit for the bulk abundance of radioactive elements. On Earth, the global variation of heat flow also reflects the tectonic activity: heat flow increases towards the young ocean ridges, whereas it is rather low on the old continental shields. It is not surprising that surface heat flow measurements, or even estimates, where performed, contributed greatly to our understanding of what happens inside the planets. In this article, I will review the results and the methods used in past heat flow measurements and speculate on the targets and design of future experiments. PMID:16286290

  3. Reconnection in Planetary Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    Current sheets in planetary magnetospheres that lie between regions of "oppositely-directed" magnetic field are either magnetopause-like, separating plasmas with different properties, or tail-like, separating plasmas of rather similar properties. The magnetopause current sheets generally have a nearly limitless supply of magnetized plasma that can reconnect, possibly setting up steady-state reconnection. In contrast, the plasma on either side of a tail current sheet is stratified so that, as reconnection occurs, the plasma properties, in particular the Alfven velocity, change. If the density drops and the magnetic field increases markedly perpendicular to the sheet, explosive reconnection can occur. Even though steady state reconnection can take place at magnetopause current sheets, the process often appears to be periodic as if a certain low average rate was demanded by the conditions but only a rapid rate was available. Reconnection of sheared fields has been postulated to create magnetic ropes in the solar corona, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the magnetotail. However, this is not the only way to produce magnetic ropes as the Venus ionosphere shows. The geometry of the reconnecting regions and the plasma conditions both can affect the rate of reconnection. Sorting out the various controlling factors can be assisted through the examination of reconnection in planetary settings. In particular we observe similar small-scale tearing in the magnetopause current layers of the Earth, Saturn. Uranus and Neptune and the magnetodisk current sheet at Jupiter. These sites may be seeds for rapid reconnection if the reconnection site reaches a high Alfven velocity region. In the Jupiter magnetosphere this appears to be achieved with resultant substorm activity. Similar seeds may be present in the Earth's magnetotail with the first one to reach explosive growth dominating the dynamics of the tail.

  4. HUBBLE'S PLANETARY NEBULA GALLERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes

  5. Physics of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2007-08-01

    It is difficult to enumerate all the surprises presented by the planetary rings. The Saturnian rings are stratified into thousands of ringlets and the Uranian rings are compressed into narrow streams, which for some reason or other differ from circular orbits like the wheel of an old bicycle. The edge of the rings is jagged and the rings themselves are pegged down under the gravitational pressure of the satellites, bending like a ship's wake. There are spiral waves, elliptical rings, strange interlacing of narrow ringlets, and to cap it all one has observed in the Neptunian ring system three dense, bright arcs - like bunches of sausages on a transparent string. For celestial mechanics this is a spectacle as unnatural as a bear's tooth in the necklace of the English queen. In the dynamics of planetary rings the physics of collective interaction was supplemented by taking collisions between particles into account. One was led to study a kinetic equation with a rather complex collision integral - because the collisions are inelastic - which later on made it possible, both by using the Chapman-Enskog method and by using the solution of the kinetic equation for a plasma in a magnetic field, to reduce it to a closed set of (hydrodynamical) moment equations [1]. The hydrodynamical instabilities lead to the growth of short-wavelength waves and large-scale structures of the Saturnian rings [1]. We have shown that the formation of the existing dense Uranian rings is connected with the capture of positively drifting ring particles in inner Lindblad resonances which arrest this drift [1]. After the formation of dense rings at the positions of satellite resonances the collective interaction between resonant particles is amplified and the rings can leave the resonance and drift away from the planet and the parent resonance. We can expect in the C ring an appreciable positive ballistic particle drift caused by the erosion of the B ring by micrometeorites. It is therefore natural

  6. Workshop on Geology of the Apollo 17 Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G. (Editor); Schmitt, H. H. (Editor); Spudis, P. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: petrology, lithology, lunar rocks, lunar soil, geochemistry, lunar geology, lunar resources, oxygen production, ilmenite, volcanism, highlands, lunar maria, massifs, impact melts, breccias, lunar crust, Taurus-Littrow, minerals, site selection, regolith, glasses, geomorphology, basalts, tectonics, planetary evolution, anorthosite, titanium oxides, chemical composition, and the Sudbury-Serenitatis analogy.

  7. Monitoring Global Precipitation through UCI CHRS's RainMapper App on Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, P.; Huynh, P.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Water and Development Information for Arid Lands-a Global Network (G-WADI) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks—Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) GeoServer has been developed through a collaboration between the Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and the UNESCO's International Hydrological Program (IHP). G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer provides near real-time high resolution (0.04o, approx 4km) global (60oN - 60oS) satellite precipitation estimated by the PERSIANN-CCS algorithm developed by the scientists at CHRS. The G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer utilizes the open-source MapServer software from the University of Minnesota to provide a user-friendly web-based mapping and visualization of satellite precipitation data. Recent efforts have been made by the scientists at CHRS to provide free on-the-go access to the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data through an application named RainMapper for mobile devices. RainMapper provides visualization of global satellite precipitation of the most recent 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72-hour periods overlaid with various basemaps. RainMapper uses the Google maps application programing interface (API) and embedded global positioning system (GPS) access to better monitor the global precipitation data on mobile devices. Functionalities include using geographical searching with voice recognition technologies make it easy for the user to explore near real-time precipitation in a certain location. RainMapper also allows for conveniently sharing the precipitation information and visualizations with the public through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. RainMapper is available for iOS and Android devices and can be downloaded (free) from the App Store and Google Play. The usefulness of RainMapper was demonstrated through an application in tracking the evolution of the recent Rammasun Typhoon over the

  8. The Automated Planetary Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivie, C. V.; Friedman, L. D.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for a study on mission definition and design to determine broad technology directions and needs for advanced planetary spacecraft and future planetary missions. The discussion covers mission selection, system design, and technology assessment and review for a multicomponent spacecraft exploration facility provided with nuclear power propulsion. As an example, the Automated Planetary Space Station at Jupiter is examined as a generic concept which has the capability of conducting in-depth investigations of different aspects of the entire Jovian system. Mission planning is discussed relative to low-thrust trajectory control, automatic target identification and landing, roving vehicle operation, and automated sample analysis.

  9. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  10. Thematic mapper protoflight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part A: Multiplexer data, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the final performance tests of the thematic mapper flight model multiplexer at ambient temperature are presented. Results cover the power supply, the input buffer, and the A/D threshold for bands 1 through 4.

  11. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part D: Focal plane assembly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The data obtained for the Band 1 thematic mapper flight full band assembly (P/N 50797) are summarized. The data were collected from half band, post amplifier, and full band acceptance test data records.

  12. Planetary GIS and EuroPlanet-RI H2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Manaud, N.; Erard, S.; Marmo, C.

    2015-10-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) practice and applications within Planetary Science became in the last decade a major component for studying solid surfaces of Solar System bodies [e.g. 1,2,3]: from earlier mainly Mars-focused efforts limited to few datasets, the availability of high-quality spatial data grew enormously and its accessibility is also enhanced by the use of OGC web standards. Higher-level, calibrated georeferenced datasets are the prime target for geologic and related thematic mapping [e.g. 4], although the communities potentially benefiting from a GIS-based approach are beyond and they include most closely Atmospheric science, as well as Magnetospheric and Plasma Physics, to quote only few. In the upcoming EuroPlanet-RI H2020 project Planetary GIS efforts are embedded within the VESPA activity [5] and they allow for a tight integration of OGC and VO-based tools and interfaces [6]. Nowadays GIS-based analyses are used for carrying out research tasks and systematic mapping on planetary bodies, but also for a wide range of analyses related [e.g. 7] to landing site selection, ranging from scientific merit to safety [e.g.8] Community building is a key part of VESPA [5], but also independently followed by other actors like ESA PSA [9]. Recently a workshop on Planetary GIS in broad sense and with particular reference to ESA data archives has been organized [10]. Such workshop has been strongly supported by ESA and the broad planetary community, both directly and through its official channel for Planetary Science archive science access and exploitation-related needs, the PSA User Group [11]. Its outcomes, also in terms of use case development, might be instrumental to VESPA GIS/VO future activities

  13. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Research supported by grant NAGW-1928 has addressed a variety of problems related to planetary evolution. One important focus has been on questions related to the role of chemical buoyancy in planetary evolution with application to both Venus and the Moon. We have developed a model for the evolution of the Moon (Hess and Parmentier, 1995) in which dense, highly radioactive, late stage magma ocean cumulates sink forming a core. This core heats the overlying, chemically layered mantle giving rise to a heated, chemically well-mixed layer that thickens with time. This Mixed layer eventually becomes hot enough and thick enough that its top begins to melt at a pressure low enough that melt is buoyant, thus creating mare basalts from a high pressure source of the correct composition and at an appropriate time in lunar evolution. In work completed during the last year, numerical experiments on convection in a chemically stably stratified fluid layer heated from below have been completed. These results show us how to calculate the evolution of a mixed layer in the Moon, depending on the heat production in the ilmenite- cumulate core and the chemical stratification of the overlying mantle. Chemical stratification of the mantle after its initial differentiation is would trap heat in the deep interior and prevent the rapid rise of plumes with accompanying volcanism. This trapping of heat in the interior can explain the thickness of the lunar lithosphere as a function of time as well as the magmatic evolution. We show that heat transported to the base of the lithosphere at a rate determined by current estimates of radioactivity in the Moon would not satisfy constraints on elastic lithosphere thickness from tectonic feature associated with basin loading. Trapping heat at depth by a chemically stratified mantle may also explain the absence of global compressional features on the surface that previous models predict for an initially hot lunar interior. For Venus, we developed a

  14. Planetary Protection Constraints For Planetary Exploration and Exobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, A.; Bonneville, R.; Viso, M.

    According to the article IX of the OUTER SPACE TREATY (London / Washington January 27., 1967) and in the frame of extraterrestrial missions, it is required to preserve planets and Earth from contamination. For ethical, safety and scientific reasons, the space agencies have to comply with the Outer Space Treaty and to take into account the related planetary protection Cospar recommendations. Planetary protection takes also into account the protection of exobiological science, because the results of life detection experimentations could have impacts on planetary protection regulations. The validation of their results depends strongly of how the samples have been collected, stored and analyzed, and particularly of their biological and organic cleanliness. Any risk of contamination by organic materials, chemical coumpounds and by terrestrial microorganisms must be avoided. A large number of missions is presently scheduled, particularly on Mars, in order to search for life or traces of past life. In the frame of such missions, CNES is building a planetary protection organization in order handle and to take in charge all tasks linked to science and engineering concerned by planetary protection. Taking into account CNES past experience in planetary protection related to the Mars 96 mission, its planned participation in exobiological missions with NASA as well as its works and involvement in Cospar activities, this paper will present the main requirements in order to avoid celestial bodies biological contamination, focussing on Mars and including Earth, and to protect exobiological science.

  15. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  16. Planetary environments and the conditions of life.

    PubMed

    Chang, S

    1988-01-01

    Life arose on Earth within a billion years (1 Ga) after planetary accretion and core formation. The geological record, which begins 3.8 Ga BP, indicates environmental conditions much like today's, except for the absence of oxygen. By 3.5 Ga BP microbial ecosystems were already colonizing shallow marine hydrothermal environments along shorelines of volcanic islands. Although similar environments could have existed more than 3.8 Ga BP, they may not have been the spawning grounds of life. Geophysical models of the first 600 Ma of Earth history following accretion and core formation point to a period of great environmental disequilibrium. In such an environment the passage of energy from Earth's interior and from the Sun through gas-liquid-solid domains and their boundaries with each other generated a dynamically interacting, complex hierarchy of self-organized structures, ranging from bubbles at the sea-air interface to tectonic plates. Nested within this hierarchy were the precursors of living systems. The ability of a planet to produce such a hierarchy is speculated to be a prerequisite for the origin and sustenance of life. Application of this criterion to Mars, which apparently experienced no plate tectonism, argues against the origin of martian life. Because only further geological and biogeochemical exploration of the planet can place these qualitative speculations on firm ground, the search for evidence of extinct life on Mars continues to be of highest scientific priority. PMID:11539065

  17. A New Lunar Globe as Seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Image Coverage Spectral Dimensionality and Statistical Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Sunshine, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Isaacson, P.; Lundeen, S. R.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N. E.; Varanasi, P.; Taylor, L.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity, was launched October 22, 2008 from Shriharikota in India on board the Indian ISRO Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft for a nominal two-year mission in a 100-km polar lunar orbit. M3 is a high-fidelity imaging spectrometer with 260 spectral bands in Target Mode and 85 spectral bands in a reduced-resolution Global Mode. Target Mode pixel sizes are nominally 70 meters and Global pixels (binned 2 by 2) are 140 meters, from the planned 100-km orbit. The mission was cut short, just before halfway, in August, 2009 when the spacecraft ceased operations. Despite the abbreviated mission and numerous technical and scientific challenges during the flight, M3 was able to cover more than 95% of the Moon in Global Mode. These data, presented and analyzed here as a global whole, are revolutionizing our understanding of the Moon. Already, numerous discoveries relating to volatiles and unexpected mineralogy have been published [1], [2], [3]. The rich spectral and spatial information content of the M3 data indicates that many more discoveries and an improved understanding of the mineralogy, geology, photometry, thermal regime and volatile status of our nearest neighbor are forthcoming from these data. Sadly, only minimal high-resolution Target Mode images were acquired, as these were to be the focus of the second half of the mission. This abstract gives the reader a global overview of all the M3 data that were collected and an introduction to their rich spectral character and complexity. We employ a Principal Components statistical method to assess the underlying dimensionality of the Moon as a whole, as seen by M3, and to identify numerous areas that are low-probability targets and thus of potential interest to selenologists.

  18. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data collected over eastern North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the analysis of aircraft-acquired thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data, collected to investigate the utility of thematic mapper data in crop area and land cover estimates, are discussed. Results of the analysis indicate that the seven-channel TMS data are capable of delineating the 13 crop types included in the study to an overall pixel classification accuracy of 80.97% correct, with relative efficiencies for four crop types examined between 1.62 and 26.61. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques were evaluated. The unsupervised methods proved to be inferior (based on analysis of variance) for the majority of crop types considered. Given the ground truth data set used for spectral signature development as well as evaluation of performance, it is possible to demonstrate which signature development technique would produce the highest percent correct classification for each crop type.

  19. LANDSAT-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P.; Bartolucci, L.; Dean, E.; Lozano, F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J.; Valenzuela, C.

    1984-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and supervised classifiers on test data. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes. A temperature-mapping experiment was carried out for a cooling pond to test the quality of thermal-band calibration. Overall TM data quality is very good. The MSS data are noisier than previous LANDSAT results.

  20. Landsat-4 MSS and Thematic Mapper data quality and information content analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Lozano, D. F.; Malaret, E.; Mcgillem, C. D.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data were analyzed to obtain information on data quality and information content. Geometric evaluations were performed to test band-to-band registration accuracy. Thematic Mapper overall system resolution was evaluated using scene objects which demonstrated sharp high contrast edge responses. Radiometric evaluation included detector relative calibration, effects of resampling, and coherent noise effects. Information content evaluation was carried out using clustering, principal components, transformed divergence separability measure, and numerous supervised classifiers on data from Iowa and Illinois. A detailed spectral class analysis (multispectral classification) was carried out on data from the Des Moines, IA area to compare the information content of the MSS and TM for a large number of scene classes.

  1. Detecting air pollution stress in southern California vegetation using Landsat Thematic Mapper band data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and aircraft-borne Thematic Mapper simulator (TMS) data were collected over two areas of natural vegetation in southern California exposed to gradients of pollutant dose, particularly in photochemical oxidants: the coastal sage scrub of the Santa Monica Mountains in the Los Angeles basin, and the yellow pine forests in the southern Sierra Nevada. In both situations, natural variations in canopy closure, with subsequent exposure of understory elements (e.g.,rock or soil, chaparral, grasses, and herbs), were sufficient to cause changes in spectral variation that could obscure differences due to visible foliar injury symptoms observed in the field. TM or TMS data are therefore more likely to be successful in distinguishing pollution injury from background variation when homogeneous communities with closed canopies are subjected to more severe pollution-induced structural and/or compositional change. The present study helps to define the threshold level of vegetative injury detectable by TM data.

  2. The use of linear feature detection to investigate thematic mapper data performance and processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurney, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    The geometric and radiometric characteristics of thematic mapper data through analysis of linear features in the data are investigated. The particular aspects considered are: (1) thematic mapper ground IFOV; (2) radiometric contrast between linear features and background; (3) precision of system geometric correction; (4) band-to-band registration; and (5) potential utility of TM data for linear feature detection especially as compared to MSS data. It is shown that TM data may be used to estimate TM pixel size and to illustrate band-band mis-registration. Further, the geometry and radiometry of the data are sufficiently precise to allow accurate estimation of the widths of linear features. In optimum conditions features one quarter of a pixel in width may be accurately measured. These results have considerable potential for applications for hydrological and topographic mapping.

  3. Planetary Scientist Profile: Noah Petro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a ...

  4. Studies of extended planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunten, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are covered: (1) telescopic observations and analysis of planetary atmospheres (including the Moon and Mars) and the Io torus; (2) occultation observations; and (3) supporting laboratory studies.

  5. Infrared Radiation and Planetary Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.

    2011-11-01

    Infrared radiative transfer theory, one of the most productive physical theories of the past century, has unlocked myriad secrets of the universe including that of planetary temperature and the connection between global warming and greenhouse gases.

  6. Refocusing NASA Planetary Science Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-10-01

    NASA should invest more money in data analysis for its planetary science missions, even if it means delaying or canceling afuture mission, members of the science committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) suggested at a 12 October meeting.

  7. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  8. Geology Before Pluto: Pre-Encounter Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Pluto, its large satellite Charon, and its four known satellites represent the first trans-Neptunian Kuiper Belt objects populating the outer-most solar system beyond the gas giant planets to be studied in detail from a spacecraft (New Horizons). A complete picture of the solar nebula, and solar system formation cannot be confidently formulated until representatives of this group of bodies at the edge of solar space have been examined. The Pluto system is composed of unique lunar- and intermediate-sized objects that can tell us much about how objects with volatile icy compositions evolve. Modeling of the interior suggests that geologic activity may have been to some degree, and observations of frost on the surface could imply the need for a geologic reservoir for the replenishment of these phases. However, the putative indicators of Pluto's geologic history are inconclusive and unspecific. Detailed examination of Pluto's geologic record is the only plausible means of bridging the gap between theory and observations. In this talk I will examine the potential importance of these tentative indications of geologic activity and how specific spacecraft observations have been designed and used to constrain the Pluto system's geologic history. The cameras of New Horizons will provide robust data sets that should be immanently amenable to geological analysis of the Pluto System's landscapes. In this talk, we begin with a brief discussion of the planned observations by New Horizons' cameras that will bear most directly on geological interpretability. Then I will broadly review major geological processes that could potentially operate of the surfaces of Pluto and its moons. I will first survey exogenic processes (i.e., those for which energy for surface modification is supplied externally to the planetary surface): impact cratering, sedimentary processes (including volatile migration) and the work of wind. I will conclude with an assessment of prospects for endogenic activity

  9. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W., III; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    , rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Geologic mapping of Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greeley, Ronald; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Spaun, Nicole A.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Senske, David A.; Tufts, B. Randall; Johnson, Torrence V.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2000-09-01

    , rough inner, and annular massif) and exterior (continuous ejecta) subunits. Structural features and landforms are shown with conventional symbols. Type localities for the units are identified, along with suggestions for portraying the features on geological maps, including colors and letter abbreviations for material units. Implementing these suggestions by the planetary mapping community would facilitate comparisons of maps for different parts of Europa and contribute to an eventual global synthesis of its complex geology. On the basis of initial mapping results, a stratigraphic sequence is suggested in which ridged plains form the oldest unit on Europa, followed by development of band material and individual ridges. Band materials tend to be somewhat older than ridges, but in many areas the two units formed simultaneously. Similarly, the formation of most chaos follows the development of ridged plains; although chaos is among the youngest materials on Europa, some chaos units might have formed contemporaneously with ridged plains. Smooth plains generally embay all other units and are late-stage in the evolution of the surface. C1 craters are superposed on ridged plains but are crosscut by other materials, including bands and ridges. Most c2 craters postdate all other units, but a few c2 craters are cut by ridge material. C3 craters constitute the youngest recognizable material on Europa.

  11. Planetary Seismometers: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer, M.; Akito, A.; Bampasidis, G.; Banerdt, W. B.; Coustenis, A.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Khavroshkin, O.; Kobayashi, N.; Moussas, X.; Pike, W. T.; Seidensticker, K. J.; Solomonidou, A.; Yu, H.; Zakharov, A.

    2012-04-01

    Seismometers were part of lander payloads since the launch of Ranger 3 in early 1962, which was the first attempt to deliver scientific instruments to the surface of another celestial body. Since then, active and passive seismic experiments were conducted with great success on the Moon, and to a lesser extent on Mars and Venus. Proposals have been made or are in preparation for new experiments with single instruments or instrument networks on Venus, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Titan, Europa, and other bodies. One instrument (CASSE, sensitive for acoustic frequencies >= 30Hz) is currently flying to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on board of the Rosetta Mission. We give an overview of seismometers for use in planetary missions, including instruments of past and future missions. The focus is on the current developments as represented by the authors of the presentation. These encompass a Micro-Electromechanic System, several piezoelectric transducers that are able to resist strong decelerations, as well as new developments based on laser-interferometric sensing or hydrodynamic flow of electrolytic liquids.

  12. Extrasolar Planetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Andrew Collier

    An extrasolar planet will transit the visible hemisphere of its host star if its orbital plane lies sufficiently close to the observer's line of sight. The resulting periodic dips in stellar flux reveal key system parameters, including the density of the host star and, if radial-velocity observations are available, the surface gravitational acceleration of the planet. In this chapter I present the essential methodology for modelling the time-dependent flux variation during a transit, and its use in determining the posterior probability distribution for the physical parameters of the system. Large-scale searches for transiting systems are an efficient way of discovering planets whose bulk densities, and hence compositions, can be accessed if their masses can also be determined. I present algorithms for detrending large ensembles of light curves, for searching for transit-like signals among them. I also discuss methods for identifying diluted stellar eclipsing binaries mimicking planetary transit signals, and validation of transit candidates too faint for radial-velocity follow-up. I review the use of time-resolved spectrophotometry and high-resolution spectroscopy during transits to identify the molecular constituents of exoplanetary atmospheres.

  13. Lunar and planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhleman, Duane O.; Goldreich, P.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Westphal, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    This grant supports the core program in planetary astronomy at Caltech. The research includes observations in the IR, sub-mm, mm and cm wavelengths at national and Caltech observatories with a strong emphasis on integrating the observations with spacecraft data and with models of atmospheric structure, dynamics and chemistry. Muhleman's group made extensive observations of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune which are being interpreted in terms of deep atmospheric structures which are obvious in the 2 and 6 cm maps of Saturn and Uranus. The microwave measurements are one of the few sources of information below the 2 bar level. Goldreich is investigating the dynamics of narrow rings with postdoctoral fellow, Pierre-Yves Longaretti. Their work has focused on the role of collisional stresses on the precession of the rings, since the Voyager radio science results imply that the previous model based on the ring's self-gravity is not the entire story. In addition Borderies, Goldreich and Tremaine have completed an investigation of the dynamics of the Encke division in Saturn's A ring.

  14. Planetary Vital Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  15. Planetary upper atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2005-10-01

    Earth and most planets in our solar system are surrounded by permanent atmospheres. Their outermost layers, the thermospheres, ionospheres and exospheres, are regions which couple the atmospheres to space, the Sun and solar wind. Furthermore, most planets possess a magnetosphere, which extends into space considerably further than the atmosphere, but through magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes closely interacts with it. Auroral emissions, found on Earth and other panets, are manifestations of this coupling and a mapping of distant regions in the magnetosphere into the upper atmosphere along magnetic field lines. This article compares planetary upper atmospheres in our solar system and attempts to explain their differences via fundamental properties such as atmospheric gas composition, magnetosphere structure and distance from Sun. Understanding the space environment of Earth and its coupling to the Sun, and attempting to predict its behaviour ("Space Weather") plays an important practical role in protecting satellites, upon which many aspects to todays civilisation rely. By comparing our own space environment to that of other planets we gain a deeper understanding of its physical processes and uniqueness. Increasingly, we apply our knowledge also to atmospheres of extrasolar system planets, which will help assessing the possibility of life-elsewhere in the Universe.

  16. A geological basis for the exploration of the planets: Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Carr, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    The geological aspects of solar-system exploration were considered by first showing how geologic data are related to space science in general, and, second, by discussing the approach used in planetary geology. The origin, evolution, and distribution of matter condensed in the form of planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids were studied. Terrestrial planets, comets, and asteroids, and the solid satellites of the outer planets are discussed. Jupiter and Saturn, in particular, have satellites of prime importance. Geophysics, geochemistry, geodesy, cartography, and other disciplines concerned with the solid planets were all included.

  17. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  18. Kinematics of planetary nebulae. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purgathofer, A.; Perinotto, M.

    1981-08-01

    In a program of study of radial velocities of planetary nebulae, 84 spectra of eight planetary nebulae in the direction of the galactic anticenter have been obtained at the L. Figl Observatory near Vienna with an image tube spectrograph giving a reciprocal dispersion of 26 A/mm. With this material, the kinematical behavior of the objects was studied, and it is shown that most of them deviate significantly from circular motion in the Galaxy.

  19. Migrating microbes and planetary protection.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Wayne L; Schuerger, Andrew C; Race, Margaret S

    2009-09-01

    Since the dawn of the space age, humans have wrestled with concerns about planetary cross-contamination. Spacecraft launched from Earth can transport hitchhiker microbes to new worlds on both robotic and crewed vehicles. As plans proceed for future life detection and human exploration missions, planetary protection considerations are again uppermost on the agendas of mission planners, and microbiologists have an important role to play. PMID:19726193

  20. Planetary Data Workshop, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The community of planetary scientists addresses two general problems regarding planetary science data: (1) important data sets are being permanently lost; and (2) utilization is constrainted by difficulties in locating and accessing science data and supporting information necessary for its use. A means to correct the problems, provide science and functional requirements for a systematic and phased approach, and suggest technologies and standards appropriate to the solution were explored.