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Sample records for planetary system wasp-18

  1. Searching for a gas cloud surrounding the WASP-18 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Jenkins, J. S.; Bisikalo, D.; Bohlender, D.; Flöer, L.; Kochukhov, O.

    2014-11-01

    Near-UV (NUV) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the extreme hot-Jupiter WASP-12b revealed the presence of diffuse exospheric gas extending beyond the planet's Roche lobe. Furthermore the NUV observations showed a complete lack of the normally bright core emission of the Mg ii h&k resonance lines, in agreement with the measured anomalously low stellar activity index (log R' HK ). Comparisons with other distant and inactive stars, and the analysis of radio and optical measurements of the intervening interstellar medium (ISM), led us to the conclusion that the system is surrounded by a circumstellar gas cloud, likely formed of material lost by the planet. Similar anomalous log R' HK index deficiencies might therefore signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets; we identified five such systems and WASP-18 is one of them. Both radio and optical observations of the region surrounding WASP-18 point towards a negligible ISM absorption along the WASP-18 line of sight. Excluding the unlikely possibility of an intrinsic anomalously low stellar activity, we conclude that the system is probably surrounded by a circumstellar gas cloud, presumably formed of material lost by the planet. Nevertheless only a far-UV spectrum of the star would provide a definite answer. Theoretical modelling suggests WASP-18b undergoes negligible mass loss, in contrast to the probable presence of a circumstellar gas cloud formed of material lost by the planet. The solution might be the presence either of an extra energy source driving mass loss (e.g., the reconnection of the stellar and planetary magnetic fields inside the planet atmosphere) or of an evaporating third body (e.g., moon).

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P.; Glitrup, M.; Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Burgdorf, M.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M.; Finet, F.

    2009-12-10

    We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M {sub b} = 10.43 +- 0.30 +- 0.24 M {sub Jup} and R {sub b} = 1.165 +- 0.055 +- 0.014 R {sub Jup} (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M {sub b} > 3 M {sub Jup}) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

  3. An orbital period of 0.94 days for the hot-Jupiter planet WASP-18b.

    PubMed

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hebb, L; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Horne, K; Irwin, J; Lister, T A; Mayor, M; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

    2009-08-27

    The 'hot Jupiters' that abound in lists of known extrasolar planets are thought to have formed far from their host stars, but migrate inwards through interactions with the proto-planetary disk from which they were born, or by an alternative mechanism such as planet-planet scattering. The hot Jupiters closest to their parent stars, at orbital distances of only approximately 0.02 astronomical units, have strong tidal interactions, and systems such as OGLE-TR-56 have been suggested as tests of tidal dissipation theory. Here we report the discovery of planet WASP-18b with an orbital period of 0.94 days and a mass of ten Jupiter masses (10 M(Jup)), resulting in a tidal interaction an order of magnitude stronger than that of planet OGLE-TR-56b. Under the assumption that the tidal-dissipation parameter Q of the host star is of the order of 10(6), as measured for Solar System bodies and binary stars and as often applied to extrasolar planets, WASP-18b will be spiralling inwards on a timescale less than a thousandth that of the lifetime of its host star. Therefore either WASP-18 is in a rare, exceptionally short-lived state, or the tidal dissipation in this system (and possibly other hot-Jupiter systems) must be much weaker than in the Solar System. PMID:19713926

  4. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    SciTech Connect

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-11-20

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 {mu}m and 5.8 {mu}m bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 {mu}m and 8.0 {mu}m bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% {+-} 0.02%, 0.39% {+-} 0.02%, 0.37% {+-} 0.03%, 0.41% {+-} 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 {+-} 90, 3310 {+-} 130, 3080 {+-} 140, and 3120 {+-} 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered-as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  5. Constraining the Atmospheric Composition of WASP-18b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Robert; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Lewis, Nikole; Apai, Daniel; Jordan, Andres; Espinoza, Nestor; Rackham, Benjamin; Osip, David J.; Fraine, Jonathan D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Rodler, Florian

    2015-01-01

    WASP-18b is one of the hottest and fastest orbiting hot Jupiter exoplanets discovered so far. The goal of this work is to constrain the composition of its atmosphere by comparing the data to theoretical models; and to advance our knowledge of atmospheric processes such as cloud formation. The data consist of optical transmission spectra via multi-object spectroscopy with wide slits, taken using IMACS on the Magellan telescopes at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We are also searching for titanium oxide in the atmosphere of WASP-18b to study hazes & thermal inversions and what causes them. Our result will contribute to comparative studies of exoplanets over a wide range of radii, masses and temperatures and allow us to refine theories about exoplanet atmospheric chemical, radiative and dynamical processes through modelling. This work will take a step towards probing planets around nearby stars in the next few years and studies of potentially habitable planets. Data reduction was done in a pipeline written by the ACCESS collaboration. ACCESS (Arizona-CfA-Católica Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey) is a project to create a comprehensive database of optical exoplanet spectra, using ground based facilities. I present the work done so far on WASP-18b.

  6. The planetary data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Nasa has sponsored the development of the Planetary Data System (PDS) in order to preserve the scientific returns from past and future planeary missions and to make those data readily accessible in a well-documented form. The PDS encompasses all planetary data, but also provides a distributed, discipline-oriented architecture to best serve the needs of the diverse planetary sciences user-community. It is the intention of the PDS to ease and promote the analysis of planetary data through the development and application of data and documentation standards, basic analysis tools, and technology.

  7. Extrasolar planetary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.-S.

    1973-01-01

    The terms 'planet' and 'planet-like objects' are defined. The observational search for extrasolar planetary systems is described, as performable by earthbound optical telescopes, by space probes, by long baseline radio interferometry, and finally by inference from the reception of signals sent by intelligent beings in other worlds. It is shown that any planetary system must be preceded by a rotating disk of gas and dust around a central mass. A brief review of the theories of the formation of the solar system is given, along with a proposed scheme for classification of these theories. The evidence for magnetic activity in the early stages of stellar evolution is presented. The magnetic braking theories of solar and stellar rotation are discussed, and an estimate is made for the frequency of occurrence of planetary systems in the universe.

  8. Forming different planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ji-Lin; Xie, Ji-Wei; Liu, Hui-Gen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yi-Sui

    2012-08-01

    With the increasing number of detected exoplanet samples, the statistical properties of planetary systems have become much clearer. In this review, we summarize the major statistical results that have been revealed mainly by radial velocity and transiting observations, and try to interpret them within the scope of the classical core-accretion scenario of planet formation, especially in the formation of different orbital architectures for planetary systems around main sequence stars. Based on the different possible formation routes for different planet systems, we tentatively classify them into three major catalogs: hot Jupiter systems, standard systems and distant giant planet systems. The standard system can be further categorized into three sub-types under different circumstances: solar-like systems, hot Super-Earth systems, and subgiant planet systems. We also review the theory of planet detection and formation in binary systems as well as planets in star clusters.

  9. Validation of FLAMINGOS-2 for Exoplanet Research: The WASP-18b Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Desert, Jean-Michel; Bean, Jacob; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan; Bergmann, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    Recent surveys have revealed an amazing, yet unexplained, diversity of planets orbiting other stars. Studying the atmospheres of representative exoplanets is the next step in leveraging these detections to further transform our understanding of planet formation and planetary physics. However, revealing the fundamental properties of exoplanet atmospheres to investigate their nature and origins requires high-precision spectroscopy that is sensitive to spectral features from multiple chemical species. Such data can only be obtained with broad-wavelength studies using large telescopes. We propose to use the FLAMINGOS-2 instrument to perform long-slit, spectroscopy observations of the higly-irradiated exoplanet WASP-18b during secondary eclipse to constrain its dayside atmospheric composition, chemistry, and thermal profile. These observations will be sensitive to molecules such as H2O and CH4 and they will definitively constrain the presence of a thermal inversion. This study is the first step in a planned survey of transiting exoplanets using FLAMINGOS-2. A survey is the next logical step to put analyses of individual objects into a broader context and to get at the underlying physics that results in a diverse array of emergent properties.

  10. On the heat redistribution of the hot transiting exoplanet WASP-18b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iro, N.; Maxted, P. F. L.

    2013-11-01

    The energy deposition and redistribution in hot Jupiter atmospheres is not well understood currently, but is a major factor for their evolution and survival. We present a time dependent radiative transfer model for the atmosphere of WASP-18b which is a massive (10MJup) hot Jupiter (Teq ∼ 2400 K) exoplanet orbiting an F6V star with an orbital period of only 0.94 days. Our model includes a simplified parametrisation of the day-to-night energy redistribution by a modulation of the stellar heating mimicking a solid body rotation of the atmosphere. We present the cases with either no rotation at all with respect to the synchronously rotating reference frame or a fast differential rotation. The results of the model are compared to previous observations of secondary eclipses of Nymeyer et al. (Nymeyer, S. et al. [2011]. Astrophys. J. 742, 35) with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Their observed planetary flux suggests that the efficiency of heat distribution from the day-side to the night-side of the planet is extremely inefficient. Our results are consistent with the fact that such large day-side fluxes can be obtained only if there is no rotation of the atmosphere. Additionally, we infer light curves of the planet for a full orbit in the two Warm Spitzer bandpassses for the two cases of rotation and discuss the observational differences.

  11. Survival of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William R.

    1996-06-01

    Recent low frequency results from attempts to detect Jupiter-sized planets around nearby stars have raised a question as to whether such objects are all that common. In the over 200 stars observed so far, the yield has been 3%. And, the close orbit (0.05 AU) of the nearly Jupiter-sized object around Peg 51 places the object in an environment where the current paradigm of planetary formation would not predict planets to form at all. Other newly discovered candidates, such a Vir 70 and HR3522, also have suspiciously small semi-major axes for gas giants. Of course, the low yield may be strongly influenced by selection effects since massive planets close to their primaries are more easily detected. Nevertheless, given the results to date, it is natural to wonder whether a planetary system like ours is such a natural outgrowth of a circumplantary disk. In particular, could there be forces absent from the existing paradigm that tend to destroy a planetary system once formed? We point out that strong gravitational interactions (i.e., disk tides) between a newly formed protoplanet and its precursor disk give rise to a net torque that drains angular momentum from the protoplanet's orbit. As a result, protoplanetary objects suffer orbital decay as the disk attempts to destroy the very system it spawns. Strong interaction (type I) leads to gap formation and co-evolution with the disk; weak inter- action (type II) leads to drift relative to the disk and in some cases, a much more rapid decay. Survival of a planetary system may be a comparatively uncommon outcome. Newly discovered planets such as Peg 51b may be evidence of such large-scale orbit migration due to disk tidal torques (i.e., Lin et al., 1996).

  12. Planetary System Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Contents include a summary of publications followed by their abstracts titeled: 1. On microlensing rates and optical depth toward the Galactic center. 2. Newly discovered brown dwarfs not seen in microlensing timescale frequency distribution? 3. Origin and evolution of the natural satellites. 4. Probing the structure of the galaxy with microlensing. 5. Tides, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 6. The Puzzle of the Titan-Hyperion 4:3 Orbital Resonance. 7. On the Validity of the Coagulation Equation and the Nature of Runaway Growth. 8. Making Hyperion. 9. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: Scientific objectives and implementation. 10. A Survey of Numerical Solutions to the Coagulation. 11. Probability of detecting a planetary companion during a microlensing event. 12. Dynamics and origin of the 2:l orbital resonances of the GJ876 planets. 13. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics. 14. A primordial origin of the Laplace relation among the Galilean Satellites. 15. A procedure for determining the nature of Mercury's core. 16. Secular evolution of hierarchical planetary systems. 17. Tidally induced volcanism. 18. Extrasolar planets and mean motion resonances. 19. Comparison of a ground-based microlensing search for planets with a search from space.

  13. Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The last decade has seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Much of the structure revealed was thoroughly puzzling and fired the imagination of workers in a variety of disciplines. Consequently, we have also seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuitions (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems (refs 1-5). The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems and families of regular satellites are invariably found together, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  14. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  15. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large- enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Another potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  16. Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomaliti, L. V.

    2000-11-01

    The discovery of planetary systems around alien stars is an outstanding achievement of recent years. The idea that the Solar System may be representative of planetary systems in the Galaxy in general develops upon the knowledge, current until the last decade of the 20th century, that it is the only object of its kind. Studies of the known planets gave rise to a certain stereotype in theoretical research. Therefore, the discovery of exoplanets, which are so different from objects of the Solar System, alters our basic notions concerning the physics and very criteria of normal planets. A substantial factor in the history of the Solar System was the formation of Jupiter. Two waves of meteorite bombardment played an important role in that history. Ultimately there arose a stable low-entropy state of the Solar System, in which Jupiter and the other giants in stable orbits protect the inner planets from impacts by dangerous celestial objects, reducing this danger by many orders of magnitude. There are even variants of the anthropic principle maintaining that life on Earth owes its genesis and development to Jupiter. Some 20 companions more or less similar to Jupiter in mass and a few ``infrared dwarfs,'' have been found among the 500 solar-type stars belonging to the main sequence. Approximately half of the exoplanets discovered are of the ``hot-Jupiter'' type. These are giants, sometimes of a mass several times that of Jupiter, in very low orbits and with periods of 3-14 days. All of their parent stars are enriched with heavy elements, [Fe/H] = 0.1-0.2. This may indicate that the process of exoplanet formation depends on the chemical composition of the protoplanetary disk. The very existence of exoplanets of the hot-Jupiter type considered in the context of new theoretical work comes up against the problem of the formation of Jupiter in its real orbit. All the exoplanets in orbits with a semimajor axis of more than 0.15-0.20 astronomical units (AU) have orbital

  17. The fragility of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Jílková, Lucie

    2015-07-01

    We specify the range to which perturbations penetrate a planetesimal system. Such perturbations can originate from massive planets or from encounters with other stars. The latter can have an origin in the star cluster in which the planetary system was born, or from random encounters once the planetary system has escaped its parental cluster. The probability of a random encounter, either in a star cluster or in the Galactic field depends on the local stellar density, the velocity dispersion and the time spend in that environment. By adopting order of magnitude estimates, we argue that the majority of planetary systems born in open clusters will have a Parking zone, in which planetesimals are affected by encounters in their parental star cluster but remain unperturbed after the star has left the cluster. Objects found in this range of semimajor axis and eccentricity preserve the memory of the encounter that last affected their orbits, and they can therefore be used to reconstruct this encounter. Planetary systems born in a denser environment, such as in a globular cluster are unlikely to have a Parking zone. We further argue that some planetary systems may have a Frozen zone, in which orbits are not affected either by the more inner massive planets or by external influences. Objects discovered in this zone will have preserved information about their formation in their orbital parameters.

  18. Stability of inner planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szebehely, V.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of inner planetary systems with arbitrary mass ratios is studied on the basis of the model of the plane restricted three-body problem. A quantitative stability criterion is obtained in terms of the difference between the critical value of the Jacobi constants (at which bifurcation can occur) and the critical value corresponding to a planetary orbit. An orbit is stable if it cannot leave a region that contains only the larger central body (Hill). For small values of the mass parameter, the maximum dimensionless radius of a Hill-stable orbit is 1 minus 2.4 times the cube root of the mass parameter.

  19. Evolution of Planetary Ringmoon Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1995-01-01

    The last few decades have seen an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of these systems as our intuition (and our computers) catch up with the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is an emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system.

  20. Modelling resonant planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, V.

    2012-09-01

    Many discovered multi-planet systems are in meanmotion resonances. The aim of this work is to study dynamical processes leading to the formation of resonant configurations on the basis of a unified model described earlier [1]. The model includes gravitational interactions of planets and migration of planets due to the presence of a gas disc. For the observed systems 24 Sex, HD 37124, HD 73526, HD 82943, HD 128311, HD 160691, Kepler 9, NN Ser with planets moving in the 2:1 resonance, it is shown that the capture in this resonance occurs at very wide ranges of parameters of both type I and type II migration. Conditions of migration leading to the formation of the resonant systems HD 45364 и HD 200964 (3:2 and 4:3, respectively) are obtained. Formation scenarios are studied for the systems HD 102272, HD 108874, HD 181433, HD 202206 with planets in high order resonances. We discuss also how gravitational interactions of planets and planetesimal discs lead to the breakup of resonant configurations and the formation of systems similar to the 47 UMa system.

  1. Planetary Systems Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    This project was initiated in 1993, about one year after the announcement of two planets around PSR B1257+12. Its goal was to investigate planetary systems around neutron stars using high precision timing of radio pulsars as a tool. A microsecond precision of the pulse timing analysis, which is equivalent to a millimeter-per-second radial velocity resolution, makes it possible to detect asteroid-mass bodies in orbit around pulsars and to study the dynamics of pulsar planetary systems. The project originally consisted of two longterm efforts: (i) routine observations and timing analysis of the millisecond pulsar PSR B1257+12 which was found to be orbited by at least two earth-mass bodies (Wolszczan and Frail, Nature, 355, 145) and (ii) a sensitive all-sky search for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of neutron stars with planetary systems. In the third year of the project, it was expanded to include long-term timing observations of slow pulsars in search for planetary systems around these younger neutron stars. The instrumentation used to conduct these investigations included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM-1), the 100-m Effelsberg telescope with the local pulse timing hardware, and the 32-m paraboloid of the Torun Centre for Astronomy in Torun, Poland (TCFA) with the PSPM-2, the second pulsar machine built at Penn State. The PI's collaborators included pulsar groups led by D. Backer (Berkeley), R. Foster (NRL), S. Kulkarni (Caltech), J. Taylor (Princeton) and R. Wielebinski (Bonn). One postdoc (Stuart Anderson), one graduate student (Brian Cadwell) and several undergraduates have been engaged in various aspects of research related to this project.

  2. Ordinary planetary systems - Architecture and formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    Today we believe ordinary planetary systems to be an unremarkable consequence of star formation. The solar system, so far the only confidently known example in the universe of a planetary system, displays a set of striking structural regularities. These structural regularities provide fossil clues about the conditions and mechanisms that gave rise to the planets. The formation of our planetary system, as well as its general characteristics, resulted from the physical environment in the disk-shaped nebula that accompanied the birth of the sun. Observations of contemporary star formation indicate that the very conditions and mechanisms thought to have produced our own planetary system are widely associated with the birth of stars elsewhere. Consequently, it is reasonable to believe that planetary systems occur commonly, at least in association with single, sunlike stars. Moreover, it is reasonable to believe that many planetary systems have gross characteristics resembling those of our own solar system.

  3. Theory of Planetary System Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassen, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.

  4. Resonance Trapping in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, Nader H.

    1998-09-01

    We study dynamics of a planetary system that consists of a star and two planets taking into account dynamical friction. Numerical integrations of a restricted planar circular three body model of this system indicate resonance capture. The main purpose of this paper is to present the results of an extensive numerical experiment performed on this model and also to present analytical arguments for the observed resonance trapping and its consequences. The equations of motion are written in terms of Delaunay variables and the recently developed method of partial averaging near resonance* is employed in order to account for the behavior of the system at resonance. * C.Chicone, B.Mashhoon and D.Retzloff, Ann.Inst.Henri Poincare, Vol.64, no 1, 1996, p.87-125.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports: (12753) Povenmire - Standard Comparison Small Main Belt Asteroid?; Gravitational Frequencies of Extra-Solar Planets; 'Jumping Jupiters' in Binary Star Systems; Hermes, Asteroid 2002 SY50 and the Northern Cetids - No Link Found!; What Kind of Accretion Model is Required for the Solar System; and Use of an Orbital Phase Curve of Extrasolar Planet for Specification of its Mass.

  6. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, and they predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  7. The Birth of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissaur, Jack L.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  8. Planetary system detection by POINTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report and semiannual reports 1, 2, and 3 in response to the study of 'Planetary System Detection by POINTS' is presented. The grant covered the period from 15 Jun. 1988 through 31 Dec. 1989. The work during that period comprised the further development and refinement of the POINTS concept. The status of the POINTS development at the end of the Grant period was described by Reasenberg in a paper given at the JPL Workshop on Space Interferometry, 12-13 Mar. 1990, and distributed as CfA Preprint 3138. That paper, 'POINTS: a Small Astrometric Interferometer,' follows as Appendix-A. Our proposal P2276-7-09, dated July 1990, included a more detailed description of the state of the development of POINTS at the end of the tenure of Grant NAGW-1355. That proposal, which resulted in Grant NAGW-2497, is included by reference.

  9. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries). PMID:20307181

  10. On the Diversity of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed.

  11. Polarimetry of hot-Jupiter systems and radiative transfer models of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bott, Kimberly; Bailey, Jeremy; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Cotton, Daniel; Marshall, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of exoplanets and planet candidates have been detected. The next important step in the contexts of astrobiology, planetary classification and planet formation is to characterise them. My dissertation aims to provide further characterisation to four hot Jupiter exoplanets: the relatively well-characterised HD 189733b, WASP-18b which is nearly large enough to be a brown dwarf, and two minimally characterised non-transiting hot Jupiters: HD 179949b and tau Bootis b.For the transiting planets, this is done through two means. First, published data from previous observations of the secondary eclipse (and transit for HD 189733b) are compared to models created with the Versatile Software for the Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation (VSTAR). Second, new polarimetric observations from the HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument are compared to Lambert-Rayleigh polarised light phase curves. For the non-transiting planets, only the polarimetric measurements are compared to models, but toy radiative transfer models are produced for concept. As an introduction to radiative transfer models, VSTAR is applied to the planet Uranus to measure its D/H isotope ratio. A preliminary value is derived for D/H in one part of the atmosphere.Fitting a single atmospheric model to the transmitted, reflected, and emitted light, I confirm the presence of water on HD 189733b, and present a new temperature profile and cloud profile for the planet. For WASP-18b, I confirm the general shape of the temperature profile. No conclusions can be drawn from the polarimetric measurements for the non-transiting planets. I detect a possible variation with phase for transiting planet WASP-18b but cannot confirm it at this time. Alternative sources to the planet are discussed. For HD 189733b, I detect possible variability in the polarised light at the scale expected for the planet. However, the data are also statistically consistent with no variability and are not matched to the phase of the planet.

  12. Planetary Regolith Delivery Systems for ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, James G.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2012-01-01

    The challenges associated with collecting regolith on a planetary surface and delivering it to an in-situ resource utilization system differ significantly from similar activities conducted on Earth. Since system maintenance on a planetary body can be difficult or impossible to do, high reliability and service life are expected of a regolith delivery system. Mission costs impose upper limits on power and mass. The regolith delivery system must provide a leak-tight interface between the near-vacuum planetary surface and the pressurized ISRU system. Regolith delivery in amounts ranging from a few grams to tens of kilograms may be required. Finally, the spent regolith must be removed from the ISRU chamber and returned to the planetary environment via dust tolerant valves capable of operating and sealing over a large temperature range. This paper will describe pneumatic and auger regolith transfer systems that have already been field tested for ISRU, and discuss other systems that await future field testing.

  13. On the Migratory Behavior of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene

    For centuries, an orderly view of planetary system architectures dominated the discourse on planetary systems. However, there is growing evidence that many planetary systems underwent a period of upheaval, during which giant planets "migrated" from where they formed. This thesis addresses a question key to understanding how planetary systems evolve: is planetary migration typically a smooth, disk-driven process or a violent process involving strong multi-body gravitational interactions? First, we analyze evidence from the dynamical structure of debris disks dynamically sculpted during planets' migration. Based on the orbital properties our own solar systems Kuiper belt, we deduce that Neptune likely underwent both planet-planet scattering and smooth migration caused by interactions with leftover planetesimals. In another planetary system, beta Pictoris, we find that the giant planet discovered there must be responsible for the observed warp of the systems debris belt, reconciling observations that suggested otherwise. Second, we develop two new approaches for characterizing planetary orbits: one for distinguishing the signal of a planets orbit from aliases, spurious signals caused by gaps in the time sampling of the data, and another to measure the eccentricity of a planet's orbit from transit photometry, "the photoeccentric effect." We use the photoeccentric effect to determine whether any of the giant planets discovered by the Kepler Mission are currently undergoing planetary migration on highly elliptical orbits. We find a lack of such "super-eccentric" Jupiters, allowing us to place an upper limit on the fraction of hot Jupiters created by the stellar binary Kozai mechanism. Finally, we find new correlations between the orbital properties of planets and the metallicity of their host stars. Planets orbiting metal-rich stars show signatures of strong planet-planet gravitational interactions, while those orbiting metal-poor stars do not. Taken together, the

  14. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    PubMed Central

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  15. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution.

    PubMed

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  16. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-02-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries.

  17. On the stability of circumbinary planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Shevchenko, I. I.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of circumbinary planetary systems (the systems in which the planets orbit a central binary) with a small binary mass ratio discovered to date is considered. The domains of chaotic motion have been revealed in the "pericentric distance-eccentricity" plane of initial conditions for the planetary orbits through numerical experiments. Based on an analytical criterion for the chaoticity of planetary orbits in binary star systems, we have constructed theoretical curves that describe the global boundary of the chaotic zone around the central binary for each of the systems. In addition, based on Mardling's theory describing the separate resonance "teeth" (corresponding to integer resonances between the orbital periods of a planet and the binary), we have constructed the local boundaries of chaos. Both theoretical models are shown to describe adequately the boundaries of chaos on the numerically constructed stability diagrams, suggesting that these theories are efficient in providing analytical criteria for the chaoticity of planetary orbits.

  18. Migration-induced architectures of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Podlewska-Gaca, Edyta

    2012-06-01

    The recent increase in number of known multi-planet systems gives a unique opportunity to study the processes responsible for planetary formation and evolution. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mean-motion resonances, because they carry important information about the history of the planetary systems. At the early stages of the evolution, when planets are still embedded in a gaseous disc, the tidal interactions between the disc and planets cause the planetary orbital migration. The convergent differential migration of two planets embedded in a gaseous disc may result in the capture into a mean-motion resonance. The orbital migration taking place during the early phases of the planetary system formation may play an important role in shaping stable planetary configurations. An understanding of this stage of the evolution will provide insight on the most frequently formed architectures, which in turn are relevant for determining the planet habitability. The aim of this paper is to present the observational properties of these planetary systems which contain confirmed or suspected resonant configurations. A complete list of known systems with such configurations is given. This list will be kept by us updated from now on and it will be a valuable reference for studying the dynamics of extrasolar systems and testing theoretical predictions concerned with the origin and the evolution of planets, which are the most plausible places for existence and development of life. PMID:22684330

  19. Architectures of Planetary System - Snapshots in Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Michele; Goel, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Architectures of planetary systems are observable snapshots in time, a study of which can aide in our understanding of how planetary systems form and evolve dynamically. For example, if we compare architectures of exoplanetary systems having various stellar host ages with laws that apply to our own Solar System architecture, population, and age, we gain insights into when these laws hold with stellar age and which systems are outliers at various stellar ages. In this work, we study Keplerian motion in confirmed planetary systems as a function of stellar age. Systems eliminated from the study are those with unknown planetary orbital periods, unknown planetary semi-major axis, and/or unknown stellar ages, the latter of which eliminates several Kepler multi-planet systems. As expected, we find Keplerian motion holds for systems that are the age of the Solar System or older, but this result does not seem to hold true for younger systems. In this work we discuss these findings, we identify the outlier systems at various stellar ages from our statistical analysis, and we provide explanations as to why these exo-systems are outliers.

  20. Planetary Data System (PDS) Strategic Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Emily; McNutt, Ralph; Crichton, Daniel J.; Morgan, Tom

    2016-07-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the SMD at NASA Headquarters has directed the PDS to set up a Roadmap team to formulate a PDS Roadmap for the period 2017-2026. The purpose of this activity is to provide a forecast of both the rapidly changing Information Technology (IT) environment and the changing expectations of the planetary science communities with respect to Planetary Data archives including, specifically, increasing assessability to all planetary data. The Roadmap team will also identify potential actions that could increase interoperability with other archive and curation elements within NASA and with the archives of other National Space Agencies. The Roadmap team will assess the current state of the PDS and report their findings to the PSD Director by April 15, 2017. This presentation will give an update of this roadmap activity and serve as an opportunity to engage the planetary community at large to provide input to the Roadmap.

  1. Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Observations confirm that planet formation is a ubiquitous process that produces a diversity of planetary systems. However, a class of solar system analogs has yet to be identified among the thousands of currently known planets and candidates, the overwhelming majority of which are more easily detectable than direct counterparts of the Sun's worlds. To understand whether our solar system's history was unusual and, more generally, to properly characterize the galactic population of extrasolar planets, we must identify how differences in formation environment translate into different planetary system architectures. In this talk, I will consider our solar system in the context of theoretical advances in planet formation driven by the study of extrasolar planets. Along the way, I will discuss several examples of physical processes operating at different stages of planet formation that imprint observable structures on the dynamical and compositional demographics of planetary systems.

  2. In search of other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous recent developments have led to an increasing awareness of and interest in the detection of other planetary systems. A brief review of the modern history of this subject is presented with emphasis on the status of data concerning Barnard's star. A discussion is given of plausible observable effects of other planetary systems with numerical examples to indicate the nature of the detection problem. Possible types of information (in addition to discovery) that observations of these effects might yield (e.g., planetary mass and temperature) are outlined. Also discussed are various candidate detection techniques (e.g., astrometric observations) which might be employed to conduct a search, the current state-of-the art of these techniques in terms of measurement accuracy, and the capability of existing or planned facilities (e.g., space telescope) to perform a search. Finally, consideration is given to possible search strategies and the scope of a comprehensive search program.

  3. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  4. Large-Scale Structures of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2015-12-01

    A class of solar system analogs has yet to be identified among the large crop of planetary systems now observed. However, since most observed worlds are more easily detectable than direct analogs of the Sun's planets, the frequency of systems with structures similar to our own remains unknown. Identifying the range of possible planetary system architectures is complicated by the large number of physical processes that affect the formation and dynamical evolution of planets. I will present two ways of organizing planetary system structures. First, I will suggest that relatively few physical parameters are likely to differentiate the qualitative architectures of different systems. Solid mass in a protoplanetary disk is perhaps the most obvious possible controlling parameter, and I will give predictions for correlations between planetary system properties that we would expect to be present if this is the case. In particular, I will suggest that the solar system's structure is representative of low-metallicity systems that nevertheless host giant planets. Second, the disk structures produced as young stars are fed by their host clouds may play a crucial role. Using the observed distribution of RV giant planets as a function of stellar mass, I will demonstrate that invoking ice lines to determine where gas giants can form requires fine tuning. I will suggest that instead, disk structures built during early accretion have lasting impacts on giant planet distributions, and disk clean-up differentially affects the orbital distributions of giant and lower-mass planets. These two organizational hypotheses have different implications for the solar system's context, and I will suggest observational tests that may allow them to be validated or falsified.

  5. The final fate of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  6. Origin and formation of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Alibert, Y; Broeg, C; Benz, W; Wuchterl, G; Grasset, O; Sotin, C; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the occurrence of terrestrial exoplanets and maximize the chance of finding them, it is crucial to understand the formation of planetary systems in general and that of terrestrial planets in particular. We show that a reliable formation theory should not only explain the formation of the Solar System, with small terrestrial planets within a few AU and gas giants farther out, but also the newly discovered exoplanetary systems with close-in giant planets. Regarding the presently known exoplanets, we stress that our current knowledge is strongly biased by the sensitivity limits of current detection techniques (mainly the radial velocity method). With time and improved detection methods, the diversity of planets and orbits in exoplanetary systems will definitely increase and help to constrain the formation theory further. In this work, we review the latest state of planetary formation in relation to the origin and evolution of habitable terrestrial planets. PMID:20307180

  7. A new inclination instability in planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2015-08-01

    I describe a new instability in Keplerian disks of massive particles on eccentric orbits. Gravitational torques between the orbits align their angles of pericenter and drive exponential growth in orbital inclination. This instability implies specific ratios for Kepler elements of the orbits, similar to what is seen in the inner Oort Cloud of our solar system. I also discuss implications for extra-solar planetary systems and for nuclear star clusters in the centers of galaxies.

  8. The Allegheny Observatory search for planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George D.

    1989-01-01

    The accomplishments of the observatory's search for planetary systems are summarized. Among these were the construction, implementation, and regular use of the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP), and the design, fabrication and use of the second largest refractor objective built since 1950. The MAP parallax and planetary observing programs are described. Various developments concerning alternate solid state photodetectors and telescope instrumentation are summarized. The extreme accuracy of the system is described in relation to a study of the position and velocity of the members of the open cluster Upgren 1. The binary star system stringently tests the theory of stellar evolution since it is composed of an evolved giant F5 III and a subgiant F5 IV star. A study that attempts to measure the luminosities, surface temperatures, and masses of these stars is discussed.

  9. Circumbinary Planetary Systems at Home and Abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Shannon, Andrew B.; Youdin, Andrew; Kenyon, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed a new class of (main-sequence) planetary system: circumbinaries. In these systems, a tight binary is orbited by one or more planets. From a dynamical perspective, these systems are not new, but rather a scaled up version of the Pluto-Charon system. In this talk I will discuss what we can learn from a detailed study of the dynamics of both Pluto-Charon and Kepler circumbinary systems. I will describe how circumbinary planets may be crucial for our understanding of binary star formation, and why these unique systems may be excellent places to search for habitable zone planets.

  10. The Evolution and Disruption of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Planetary systems that encounter passing stars can experience severe orbital disruption, and the efficiency of this process is greatly enhanced when the impinging systems are binary pairs rather than single stars. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we have performed nearly half a million numerical experiments to examine the long term ramifications of planetary scattering on planetary systems. We have concluded that systems which form in dense environments such as Orion's Trapezium cluster have roughly a ten percent chance of being seriously disrupted. We have also used our programs to explore the long-term prospects for our own Solar system. Given the current interstellar environment, we have computed the odds that Earth will find its orbit seriously disrupted prior to the emergence of a runaway greenhouse effect driven by the Sun's increasing luminosity. This estimate includes both direct disruption events and scattering processes that seriously alter the orbits of the Jovian planets, which then force severe changes upon the Earth's orbit. We then explore the consequences of the Earth being thrown into deep space. The surface biosphere would rapidly shut down under conditions of zero insolation, but the Earth's radioactive heat is capable of maintaining life deep underground, and perhaps in hydrothermal vent communities, for some time to come. Although unlikely for the Earth, this scenario may be common throughout the universe, since many environments where liquid water could exist (e.g., Europa and Callisto) must derive their energy from internal (rather than external) heating.

  11. Kepler's Planetary Systems in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    The animation shows an overhead view of the orbital position of the planets in systems with multiple transiting planets discovered by NASA's Kepler mission as of Jan. 2012. All the colored planets ...

  12. Earth As an Evolving Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meert, Joseph G.

    2005-05-01

    ``System'' is an overused buzzword in textbooks covering geological sciences. Describing the Earth as a system of component parts is a reasonable concept, but providing a comprehensive framework for detailing the system is a more formidable task. Kent Condie lays out the systems approach in an easy-to-read introductory chapter in Earth as an Evolving Planetary System. In the book, Condie makes a valiant attempt at taking the mélange of diverse subjects in the solid Earth sciences and weaving them into a coherent tapestry.

  13. Liberating exomoons in white dwarf planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Veras, Dimitri; Holman, Matthew J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that more than a quarter of all white dwarf (WD) atmospheres are polluted by remnant planetary material, with some WDs being observed to accrete the mass of Pluto in 106 yr. The short sinking time-scale for the pollutants indicates that the material must be frequently replenished. Moons may contribute decisively to this pollution process if they are liberated from their parent planets during the post-main-sequence evolution of the planetary systems. Here, we demonstrate that gravitational scattering events amongst planets in WD systems easily trigger moon ejection. Repeated close encounters within tenths of planetary Hill radii are highly destructive to even the most massive, close-in moons. Consequently, scattering increases both the frequency of perturbing agents in WD systems, as well as the available mass of polluting material in those systems, thereby enhancing opportunities for collision and fragmentation and providing more dynamical pathways for smaller bodies to reach the WD. Moreover, during intense scattering, planets themselves have pericentres with respect to the WD of only a fraction of an astronomical unit, causing extreme Hill-sphere contraction, and the liberation of moons into WD-grazing orbits. Many of our results are directly applicable to exomoons orbiting planets around main-sequence stars.

  14. News from the γ Cephei Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2011-03-01

    The γ Cephei planetary system is one of the most interesting systems due to several reasons: 1.) it is the first planet candidate detected by precise radial velocity (RV) measurements that was discussed in the literature (Campbell et al.. 1988) 2.) it is a tight binary system with α~20 AU; and 3.) the planet host star is an evolved K-type star. In Hatzes et al.. (2003) we confirmed the presence of the planetary companion with a minimum mass of 1.7 MJup at 2 AU. In this paper we present additional eight years of precise RV data from the Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m Telescope and its Tull Cóude spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. The 900 d signal, that is interpreted as the presence of the giant planetary companion,is strongly confirmed by adding the new data. We present an updated orbital solution for the planet, which shows that the planet is slightly more massive and the orbit more circular than previous results have suggested. An intensive high-cadence week of RV observations in 2007 revealed that γ Cep A is a multi-periodic pulsator. We discuss this issue within the context of searching for additional planets in this system.

  15. Planetary magnetism in the outer solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review of the salient considerations which apply to the existence of magnetic fields in connection with planetary and subplanetary objects in the outer solar system is given. Consideration is given to internal dynamo fields, fields which might originate from interaction with the solar wind or magnetospheres (externally driven dynamos) and lastly fossil magnetic fields such as have been discovered on the moon. Where possible, connection is made between magnetism, means of detection, and internal body properties.

  16. History of the Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreyer, J. L. E.

    2014-10-01

    Introduction. The earliest cosmological ideas; 1. The early Greek philosophers; 2. The Pythagorean school; 3. Plato; 4. The homocentric spheres of Eudoxus; 5. Aristotle; 6. Herakleides and Aristarchus; 7. The theory of Epicycles; 8. The dimensions of the world; 9. The Ptolemaic system; 10. Medieval cosmology; 11. Oriental astronomers; 12. The revival of astronomy in Europe; 13. Copernicus; 14. Tycho Brahe and his contemporaries; 15. Kepler; 16. Conclusion; Index.

  17. Planetary Habitability of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Abel

    2009-09-01

    Habitability is a qualitative concept generally defined as the suitability of an environment to support life. Although there are many works related to planetary habitability, there is no practical quantitative definition of habitability. The search for habitable environments in the Solar System and beyond requires a method to quantify and compare their significance. Therefore, this study presents a quantitative approach to assess the habitability of Earth and other planetary bodies. A Quantitative Habitability Model (QH Model) was develop and used to model the terrestrial habitability as a standard for comparison. The QH Model provides a simple ecophysiology-based framework that can be used to predict the potential distribution, abundance and productivity of life in planetary bodies from local to global scales. The simplest QH Model calculates habitability from the environment temperature and relative humidity in gas phases (i.e. atmospheres), and from temperature and salinity in liquid phases (i.e. oceans). The model was used to explain the latitudinal gradients of primary producers on Earth and was validated with ground and satellites observations of net primary productivity (NPP). The potential global habitability for prokaryotes of the upper-troposphere of Venus, the subsurface of Mars, Europa, Titan, and Enceladus was compared. Results show that Enceladus has the zone with the highest mean habitability in the Solar System although to deep for direct exploration. Results also show that the current global terrestrial environment of land areas is not optimized for primary producers, but it was during some paleoclimates. The QH Model has applications in ecosystem modeling, global climate studies including paleoclimates and global warming, planetary protection, and astrobiology. It can also be used to quantify the potential for life of any terrestrial-size extrasolar planet as compared to Earth. This study was partially supported by UPR Arecibo and NASA

  18. Orbital Stability of High Mass Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sarah J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-05-01

    In light of the observation of systems like HR 8799 that contain several planets with planet-star mass ratios larger than Jupiter's, we explore the relationships between planet separation, mass, and stability timescale for high mass multi-planet systems detectable via direct imaging. We discuss the role of overlap between 1st and sometimes 2nd order mean motion resonances, and show how trends in stability time vary from previous studies of lower mass multi-planet systems. We show that extrapolating empirically derived relationships between planet mass, separation, and stability timescale derived from lower mass planetary systems misestimate the stability timescales for higher mass planetary systems by more than an order of magnitude at separations near the Hill stability limit. We also address what metrics of planet separation are most useful for estimating a system's dynamical stability. We apply these results to young, gapped, debris disk systems of the ScoCen association in order to place limits on the maximum mass and number of planets that could persist for the lifetimes of the disks. These efforts will provide useful constraints for on-going direct imaging surveys. By setting upper limits on the most easily detectable systems, we can better interpret both new discoveries and non-dectections.

  19. The Planetary Data System Geosciences Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Slavney, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node is to archive and distribute planetary geosciences datasets relevant to the surfaces and interiors of the terrestrial planets and moons. This objective is accomplished through the following efforts. The Node works with planetary missions to help ensure that data of relevance to the geosciences discipline are properly documented and archived. The Node restores and publishes selected geoscience datasets from past missions on CD-ROM for distribution to the planetary science community. Data archived at the Node are distributed on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, CD-WO, or by electronic transfer over the Internet. The Geo-sciences Node provides information and expert assistance on its data holdings. Derived image, geophysics, microwave, spaceborne thermal, and radio science data are archived at the lead node or at one of the subnodes. Currently, the amount of data archived at the Node is on the order of 500 Gbytes stored on a combination of nearly 800 CD-ROMs and CD-WOs. Current archives within the Node include data from the Magellan and Viking missions, the Geological Remote Sensing Field Experiment, and a collection of radar, altimetry, and gravity datasets for Venus, Mercury, Mars, Earth, and the Moon, together with software to analyze the data. The Node maintains on-line catalogs that enable the science community to search through the Geosciences Node archives and to order selected datasets. Access to the Node's catalogs and on-line datasets is available via the Internet using a remote login or via the World Wide Web (WWW).

  20. Mathematical optimization of matter distribution for a planetary system configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Yegor; Bukhtoyarov, Mikhail

    2016-07-01

    Planetary formation is mostly a random process. When the humanity reaches the point when it can transform planetary systems for the purpose of interstellar life expansion, the optimal distribution of matter in a planetary system will determine its population and expansive potential. Maximization of the planetary system carrying capacity and its potential for the interstellar life expansion depends on planetary sizes, orbits, rotation, chemical composition and other vital parameters. The distribution of planetesimals to achieve maximal carrying capacity of the planets during their life cycle, and maximal potential to inhabit other planetary systems must be calculated comprehensively. Moving much material from one planetary system to another is uneconomic because of the high amounts of energy and time required. Terraforming of the particular planets before the whole planetary system is configured might drastically decrease the potential habitability the whole system. Thus a planetary system is the basic unit for calculations to sustain maximal overall population and expand further. The mathematical model of optimization of matter distribution for a planetary system configuration includes the input observed parameters: the map of material orbiting in the planetary system with specified orbits, masses, sizes, and the chemical compound for each, and the optimized output parameters. The optimized output parameters are sizes, masses, the number of planets, their chemical compound, and masses of the satellites required to make tidal forces. Also the magnetic fields and planetary rotations are crucial, but they will be considered in further versions of this model. The optimization criteria is the maximal carrying capacity plus maximal expansive potential of the planetary system. The maximal carrying capacity means the availability of essential life ingredients on the planetary surface, and the maximal expansive potential means availability of uranium and metals to build

  1. The effects of birth environment on planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Melvyn B.

    2015-10-01

    The birth environments of stars and the planetary systems they host are hazardous places. Close encounters may destabilise planetary systems leading to orbit crossings and thus planetary scatterings (leading ultimately to ejections) or planetary collisions. Stellar binary companions may induce similar outcomes via the Kozai mechanism which will put the outer planet of a planetary system on a periodically eccentric orbit. If the natural outcome of the planetary formation process is a stable planetary system with the planets on relatively co-planar, low-eccentricity orbits, then close encounters and the perturbations from stellar binary companions may explain the relatively high eccentricities observed for some exoplanets, and may in part also explain the origin of so-called hot Jupiters.

  2. The Influence of Planetary Mass on the Dynamical Lifetime of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Duncan, M. J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Recent numerical and analytic studies of planetary orbits have demonstrated the importance of resonances and chaos in destabilizing planetary systems. Newton's "clockwork" description of regular, predictable planetary orbits has been replaced by a view in which many systems can have long but finite lifetimes. This new knowledge has altered our perceptions of the later stages of planetary growth and of the stability of planetary systems. Stability criteria are inexact and time dependent. Most previous studies have focused on the effects in initial planetary orbits on the stability of the system. We are conducting an investigation which focuses on the dependence of stability criteria on planetary mass. Synthetic systems are created by increasing the masses of the planets in our Solar System or of the moons of a particular planet; these systems are then integrated until orbit crossing occurs. We have found that over some ranges, the time until orbit crossing varies to a good approximation as a power clothe factor by which the masses of the secondaries arc increased; some scatter occurs as a consequence of vie chaotic nature of orbital evolution. The slope of this power law varies substantially from system to system, and for moons it is mildly dependent on the inclusion of the planet's quadrupole moment in the gravitational potential.

  3. DYNAMICS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS IN STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Spurzem, R.; Giersz, M.; Heggie, D. C.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2009-05-20

    At least 10%-15% of nearby Sunlike stars have known Jupiter-mass planets. In contrast, very few planets are found in mature open and globular clusters such as the Hyades and 47 Tuc. We explore here the possibility that this dichotomy is due to the postformation disruption of planetary systems associated with the stellar encounters in long-lived clusters. One supporting piece of evidence for this scenario is the discovery of freely floating low-mass objects in star forming regions. We use two independent numerical approaches, a hybrid Monte Carlo and a direct N-body method, to simulate the impact of the encounters. We show that the results of numerical simulations are in reasonable agreement with analytical determinations in the adiabatic and impulsive limits. They indicate that distant stellar encounters generally do not significantly modify the compact and nearly circular orbits. However, moderately close stellar encounters, which are likely to occur in dense clusters, can excite planets' orbital eccentricity and induce dynamical instability in systems that are closely packed with multiple planets. The disruption of planetary systems occurs primarily through occasional nearly parabolic, nonadiabatic encounters, though eccentricity of the planets evolves through repeated hyperbolic adiabatic encounters that accumulate small-amplitude changes. The detached planets are generally retained by the potential of their host clusters as free floaters in young stellar clusters such as {sigma} Orionis. We compute effective cross sections for the dissolution of planetary systems and show that, for all initial eccentricities, dissolution occurs on timescales that are longer than the dispersion of small stellar associations, but shorter than the age of typical open and globular clusters. Although it is much more difficult to disrupt short-period planets, close encounters can excite modest eccentricity among them, such that subsequent tidal dissipation leads to orbital decay

  4. Discovery of Planetary Systems With SIM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, Paul R.; Frink, Sabine; Fischer, Debra; Oppenheimer, Ben; Monet, David G.; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    We are witnessing the birth of a new observational science: the discovery and characterization of extrasolar planetary systems. In the past five years, over 70 extrasolar planets have been discovered by precision Doppler surveys, most by members of this SIM team. We are using the data base of information gleaned from our Doppler survey to choose the best targets for a new SIN planet search. In the same way that our Doppler database now serves SIM, our team will return a reconnaissance database to focus Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) into a more productive, efficient mission.

  5. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  6. The HU Aqr planetary system hypothesis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździewski, K.; Słowikowska, A.; Dimitrov, D.; Krzeszowski, K.; Żejmo, M.; Kanbach, G.; Burwitz, V.; Rau, A.; Irawati, P.; Richichi, A.; Gawroński, M.; Nowak, G.; Nasiroglu, I.; Kubicki, D.

    2015-04-01

    We study the mid-egress eclipse timing data gathered for the cataclysmic binary HU Aquarii during the years 1993-2014. The (O-C) residuals were previously attributed to a single ˜7 Jupiter mass companion in ˜5 au orbit or to a stable two-planet system with an unconstrained outermost orbit. We present 22 new observations gathered between 2011 June and 2014 July with four instruments around the world. They reveal a systematic deviation of ˜60-120 s from the older ephemeris. We re-analyse the whole set of the timing data available. Our results provide an erratum to the previous HU Aqr planetary models, indicating that the hypothesis for a third and fourth body in this system is uncertain. The dynamical stability criterion and a particular geometry of orbits rule out coplanar two-planet configurations. A putative HU Aqr planetary system may be more complex, e.g. highly non-coplanar. Indeed, we found examples of three-planet configurations with the middle planet in a retrograde orbit, which are stable for at least 1 Gyr, and consistent with the observations. The (O-C) may be also driven by oscillations of the gravitational quadrupole moment of the secondary, as predicted by the Lanza et al. modification of the Applegate mechanism. Further systematic, long-term monitoring of HU Aqr is required to interpret the (O-C) residuals.

  7. Collisional and Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidenschilling, Stuart J.

    2004-01-01

    Senior Scientst S. J. Weidenschilling presents his final administrative report in the research program entitled "Collisional and Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems," on which he was the Principal Investigator. This research program produced the following publications: 1) "Jumping Jupiters" in binary star systems. F. Marzari, S. J. Weidenschilling, M. Barbieri and V. Granata. Astrophys. J., in press, 2005; 2) Formation of the cores of the outer planets. To appear in "The Outer Planets" (R. Kallenbach, ED), ISSI Conference Proceedings (Space Sci. Rev.), in press, 2005; 3) Accretion dynamics and timescales: Relation to chondrites. S. J. Weidenschilling and J. Cuzzi. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System LI (D. Lauretta et al., Eds.), Univ. of Arizona Press, 2005; 4) Asteroidal heating and thermal stratification of the asteroid belt. A. Ghosh, S. J.Weidenschilling, H. Y. McSween, Jr. and A. Rubin. In Meteorites and the Early Solar System I1 (D. Lauretta et al., Eds.), Univ. of Arizona Press, 2005.

  8. Allegheny Observatory search for planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatewood, George D.

    1991-01-01

    The newly developed Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (MAP) and a rebuilt red light 0.76 meter Thaw refractor are used in an astrometric observational program to detect Jupiter-like planets in orbit about nearby stars. The program includes 15 stars and is obtaining approx. 12 good observations per year of each of them, sufficient to assure an annual normal point precision of 0.001 arcsec (1 mas) per object. The observational program will yield the first astrometric information about planetary systems in general. The astrometric technique is most sensitive to nearby planetary systems and to massive planets that have orbits that place them within the regions around a star where the temperature is sufficiently low to permit the existence of water ice grains. Thus it covers a different search space than that of radial velocity techniques. Currently the only astrometric survey program, it is complementary to other detection programs and some target stars have been included to assure overlap with them. The minimum detectable mass varies with the particular target star from objects almost twice as massive as Neptune to bodies almost twice as massive as Jupiter.

  9. Planetary System Evolution in the Terrestrial Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George

    We propose to characterize the role of major collisional episodes in the terrestrial zones of other planetary systems, using data from WISE (and Spitzer). We will: 1.) identify old stars whose terrestrial zones have recently been shaken up dynamically (e.g., activity similar to the Late Heavy Bombardment); and 2.) look for young stars where major collisions are occurring, signaling a phase analogous to the one when our Moon was formed. These two phases represent critical periods in the evolution of the Solar System. The Late Heavy Bombardment resulted from a destabilization of the Solar System by a mean-motion resonance between Jupiter and Saturn, leading to ejection of most of the planetesimals and an intense period of impacts onto the terrestrial planets. The formation of the Moon occurred in a younger violent phase, extending roughly from 30 to 130 Myr, when dynamical models predict that giant impacts will still occur even though most of the terrestrial planet formation is complete. Both of these phases would have produced copious dust in the terrestrial zone. Similar activity around other stars is detectable through the mid-infrared excesses emitted by such dust when it is warmed by the star (creating warm debris disks). However, previous infrared surveys have lacked the sensitivity, accuracy, or sky coverage to study this process systematically. For the first time, the WISE all-sky survey at 22 microns combines: 1.) a sufficiently large number of stars that these rare events should be seen in reasonable numbers; and 2.) mid-infrared photometry with sufficient accuracy to detect the excesses, even to within < 10% of the stellar photospheres. After extracting candidates from the WISE data, we will weed out false positives due to chance superpositions of sources or stellar mass loss. This will require acquiring ancillary data through a combination of information from the literature and new targeted observations using groundbased facilities. We will determine ages

  10. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  11. Observations of an extreme planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, Stefanie; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Briceno, Cesar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2015-12-01

    Almost 500 planet host stars are already known to be surrounded by more than one planet. Most of them (except HR8799) are old and all planets were found with the same or similar detection method.We present an unique planetary system. For the first time, a close in transiting and a wide directly imaged planet are found to orbit a common host star which is a low mass member of a young open cluster. The inner candidate is the first possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star and was detected in our international monitoring campaign of young stellar clusters. The transit shape is changing between different observations and the transit even disappears and reappears. This unusual transit behaviour can be explained by a precessing planet transiting a gravity-darkened star.The outer candidate was discovered in the course of our direct imaging survey with NACO at ESO/VLT. Both objects are consistent with a <5 Jupiter mass planet. With ~2.4 Myrs it is among the youngest exoplanet systems. Both planets orbit its star in very extreme conditions. The inner planet is very close to its Roche limiting orbital radius while the outer planet is far away from its host star at a distance of ~660 au. The detailed analysis will provide important constraints on planet formation and migration time-scales and their relation to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Furthermore, this system with two planets on such extreme orbits gives us the opportunity to study the possible outcome of planet-planet scattering theories for the first time by observations.I will report on our monitoring and photometric follow-up observations as well as on the direct detection and the integral field spectroscopy of this extreme planetary system.

  12. Exo-Planetary Phoenix: Rebirth of Planetary Systems Beyond the Main Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, M.

    2014-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that planetary systems may be a common feature of stars that have evolved beyond the main sequence. Warm debris disks around white dwarfs and "pulsar" planets orbiting a neutron star are a strong indication that planetary systems may, at least in same cases, survive the dramatic phenomena leading to stellar death. A close look at these late evolutionary stages, however, suggests that these systems may be more than mere survivors of doomed pre-existing exo-planetary systems. The circumstellar environment of post-main sequence stars bears surprising similarities to the conditions leading to pre-main sequence planetary formation: a metal-rich environment often characterized by the presence of circumstellar or circumbinary disks. Are these conditions conducive to the birth of a second-generation planetary system, like a phoenix rising from the ashes of ancient worlds? In this talk we will discuss how the physical conditions in the winds of dusty giant stars may be favorable for renewed planetary formation, with particular emphasis on the effects of enhanced metallicity, binarity and the timescales available for the formation of a new generation of planets.

  13. Planetary nebula progenitors that swallow binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-01-01

    I propose that some irregular messy planetary nebulae (PNe) owe their morphologies to triple-stellar evolution where tight binary systems evolve inside and/or on the outskirts of the envelope of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In some cases, the tight binary system can survive, in others, it is destroyed. The tight binary system might break up with one star leaving the system. In an alternative evolution, one of the stars of the broken-up tight binary system falls towards the AGB envelope with low specific angular momentum, and drowns in the envelope. In a different type of destruction process, the drag inside the AGB envelope causes the tight binary system to merge. This releases gravitational energy within the AGB envelope, leading to a very asymmetrical envelope ejection, with an irregular and messy PN as a descendant. The evolution of the triple-stellar system can be in a full common envelope evolution or in a grazing envelope evolution. Both before and after destruction (if destruction takes place), the system might launch pairs of opposite jets. One pronounced signature of triple-stellar evolution might be a large departure from axisymmetrical morphology of the descendant PN. I estimate that about one in eight non-spherical PNe is shaped by one of these triple-stellar evolutionary routes.

  14. The Planetary Data System - A solution to data management for the planetary science community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobinson, Elaine R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the first release of the Planetary Data System (PDS) is presented, and some of the challenges encountered during development of the system are described. The principal goals of the PDS are to distribute planetary science data and information about these data to NASA, to provide scientific knowledge to users of these data, and to provide for permanent storage. The current architecture and capabilities of the PDS (Version 1.0) are examined, and some of the special challenges encountered and lessons learned during the application are highlighted. Finally, implications for future versions of the PDS as well as for other science data systems are discussed.

  15. PDS4: Developing the Next Generation Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, D.; Beebe, R.; Hughes, S.; Stein, T.; Grayzeck, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is in the midst of a major upgrade to its system. This upgrade is a critical modernization of the PDS as it prepares to support the future needs of both the mission and scientific community. It entails improvements to the software system and the data standards, capitalizing on newer, data system approaches. The upgrade is important not only for the purpose of capturing results from NASA planetary science missions, but also for improving standards and interoperability among international planetary science data archives. As the demands of the missions and science community increase, PDS is positioning itself to evolve and meet those demands.

  16. The Planetary Data System Distributed Inventory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; McMahon, Susan K.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web (Web) and the ability to easily put data repositories on-line has resulted in a proliferation of digital libraries. The heterogeneity of the underlying systems, the autonomy of the individual sites, and distributed nature of the technology has made both interoperability across the sites and the search for resources within a site major research topics. This article will describe a system that addresses both issues using standard Web protocols and meta-data labels to implement an inventory of on-line resources across a group of sites. The success of this system is strongly dependent on the existence of and adherence to a standards architecture that guides the management of meta-data within participating sites.

  17. The Planetary Data System Web Catalog Interface--Another Use of the Planetary Data System Data Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S.; Bernath, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Data Model consists of a set of standardized descriptions of entities within the Planetary Science Community. These can be real entities in the space exploration domain such as spacecraft, instruments, and targets; conceptual entities such as data sets, archive volumes, and data dictionaries; or the archive data products such as individual images, spectrum, series, and qubes.

  18. The Rocky World of Young Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Panel A of Inset Panel B of Inset Panel C of Inset

    This artist's concept illustrates how planetary systems arise out of massive collisions between rocky bodies. New findings from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope show that these catastrophes continue to occur around stars even after they have developed full-sized planets, when they are as old as one hundred million years. For reference, our own Sun, at 4.5 billion years old, is far past this late stage of planet formation.

    In this image, a young star is shown circled by full-sized planets, and rings of dust beyond. These rings, also called 'debris discs,' arise when embryonic planets smash into each other. One of these collisions is illustrated in the inset of Figure 1.

    Spitzer was able to see the dust generated by these collisions with its powerful infrared vision.

  19. Planetary system formation: The view from Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trilling, D. E.; Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Stansberry, J. A.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Werner, M. W.

    2004-11-01

    In the past year, the Spitzer Space Telescope has returned thermal infrared (24, 70, 160 micron) images of unprecedented sensitivity, allowing searches for debris disks around stars. We will provide a brief overview of results from several ongoing Spitzer debris disk programs, highlighting results from three programs. First, we learn from our survey of more than 250 A stars that there is substantial variety in the intrinsic properties of debris disks, dating from their protoplanetary stages. We further argue that much of the dust we see today is generated from episodic planetesimal collisions. Second, our detailed study of Vega allows us to map a large debris disk and constrain particle size and dust dynamics. We find that very small dust grains are being blown out from the inner part of the Vega system, suggesting a recent dust-producing collision. Third, from a preliminary survey of nearby Sun-like stars, we find that the prevalence of debris disks around extrasolar planet-bearing stars is relatively high, implying the presence of dust-producing bodies (asteroids, comets) in those systems. The overall picture of planetary system formation from planetesimals is supported by all of these results. However, the observational signatures of dust disks (and consequently the late-stage evolution of those disks) may be alluding not to steady-state conditions but to large, individual, dust-producing events. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by JPL/Caltech under NASA contract 1407. Support for this work was provided by NASA through contract number 960785 issued by JPL/Caltech.

  20. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions

  1. NASA and the Search for Planetary Systems: An Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2005-08-01

    Historically the search for planetary systems arose in three successive but overlapping contexts at NASA: 1) the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) in the 1970s; 2) the expansion of planetary science in the 1980s; and 3) studies in the 1990s that coalesced into the program known as the ``Astronomical Search for Origins." What began as workshops and ad hoc discussions in the early 1970s ended a quarter-century later in some of the most complex programs NASA had ever conceived, including detailed designs for real space missions. Under the realm of SETI, planetary detection techniques were discussed in three NASA-sponsored activities in the 1970s: the report of the workshops chaired by Philip Morrison, The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (1977), based on two smaller workshops chaired by Jesse Greenstein; David Black's 1976 Project Orion summer study to design a ground-based optical interferometer; and a 1979 workshop on planetary systems run by Black and William Brunk from NASA Headquarters. In the second area, by the mid-1980s, in the wake of the IRAS findings and the Beta Pictoris phenomenon, NASA's planetary science program was attempting to extend its reach from our solar system to other planetary systems. It did this through its own committees and the advisory capacity of the National Academy's Space Science Board (SSB). The NASA publication Planetary Exploration through the Year 2000: An Augmented Program (1986), the SSB's own study published in 1990, and the study known as Toward Other Planetary Systems (TOPS), were particularly important. By 1996 NASA's new ``Origins" program was announced, including NGST, SIM and TPF. Under the Origins program, the search for planetary systems was an integral part of the NASA space science enterprise guiding principle of cosmic evolution, an essential step in the search for life.

  2. JWST Planetary Observations Within the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan; Hammel, Heidi; Schaller, Emily; Sonneborn, George; Orton, Glenn; Rieke, George; Rieke, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    JWST provides capabilities unmatched by other telescopic facilities in the near to mid infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its combination of broad wavelength range, high sensitivity and near diffraction-limited imaging around two microns wavelength make it a high value facility for a variety of Solar System targets. Beyond Neptune, a class of cold, large bodies that include Pluto, Triton and Eris exhibits surface deposits of nitrogen, methane, and other molecules that are poorly observed from the ground, but for which JWST might provide spectral mapping at high sensitivity and spatial resolution difficult to match with the current generation of ground-based observatories. The observatory will also provide unique sensitivity in a variety of near and mid infrared windows for observing relatively deep into the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune, searching there for minor species. It will examine the Jovian aurora in a wavelength regime where the background atmosphere is dark. Special provision of a subarray observing strategy may allow observation of Jupiter and Saturn over a larger wavelength range despite their large surface brightnesses, allowing for detailed observation of transient phenomena including large scale storms and impact-generation disturbances. JWST's observations of Saturn's moon Titan will overlap with and go beyond the 2017 end-of-mission for Cassini, providing an important extension to the time-series of meteorological studies for much of northern hemisphere summer. It will overlap with a number of other planetary missions to targets for which JWST can make unique types of observations. JWST provides a platform for linking solar system and extrasolar planet studies through its unique observational capabilities in both arenas.

  3. Mission operations systems for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.; Wolff, Donna M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is twofold: (1) to present an overview of the processes comprising planetary mission operations as conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and (2) to present a project-specific and historical context within which this evolving process functions. In order to accomplish these objectives, the generic uplink and downlink functions are described along with their specialization to current flight projects. Also, new multimission capabilities are outlined, including prototyping of advanced-capability software for subsequent incorporation into more automated future operations. Finally, a specific historical ground is provided by listing some major operations software plus a genealogy of planetary missions beginning with Mariner 2 in 1962.

  4. Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric B

    2014-09-01

    Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. Recently, NASA's Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with closely spaced orbits and sizes between that of Earth and Neptune. These systems represent yet another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. Presently, we have limited knowledge about such planetary systems, mostly about their sizes and orbital periods. With the advent of long-term, nearly continuous monitoring by Kepler, the method of transit timing variations (TTVs) has blossomed as a new technique for characterizing the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for hundreds of planets. TTVs can provide precise, but complex, constraints on planetary masses, densities, and orbits, even for planetary systems with faint host stars. In the coming years, astronomers will translate TTV observations into increasingly powerful constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets. Between TTVs, improved Doppler surveys, high-contrast imaging campaigns, and microlensing surveys, astronomers can look forward to a much better understanding of planet formation in the coming decade. PMID:24778212

  5. Architectures of planetary systems and implications for their formation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Eric B.

    2014-01-01

    Doppler planet searches revealed that many giant planets orbit close to their host star or in highly eccentric orbits. These and subsequent observations inspired new theories of planet formation that invoke gravitation interactions in multiple planet systems to explain the excitation of orbital eccentricities and even short-period giant planets. Recently, NASA’s Kepler mission has identified over 300 systems with multiple transiting planet candidates, including many potentially rocky planets. Most of these systems include multiple planets with closely spaced orbits and sizes between that of Earth and Neptune. These systems represent yet another new and unexpected class of planetary systems and provide an opportunity to test the theories developed to explain the properties of giant exoplanets. Presently, we have limited knowledge about such planetary systems, mostly about their sizes and orbital periods. With the advent of long-term, nearly continuous monitoring by Kepler, the method of transit timing variations (TTVs) has blossomed as a new technique for characterizing the gravitational effects of mutual planetary perturbations for hundreds of planets. TTVs can provide precise, but complex, constraints on planetary masses, densities, and orbits, even for planetary systems with faint host stars. In the coming years, astronomers will translate TTV observations into increasingly powerful constraints on the formation and orbital evolution of planetary systems with low-mass planets. Between TTVs, improved Doppler surveys, high-contrast imaging campaigns, and microlensing surveys, astronomers can look forward to a much better understanding of planet formation in the coming decade. PMID:24778212

  6. On-Board Perception System For Planetary Aerobot Balloon Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Scheid, Robert E.; T. Salomon, Phil

    1996-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is implementing the Planetary Aerobot Testbed to develop the technology needed to operate a robotic balloon aero-vehicle (Aerobot). This earth-based system would be the precursor for aerobots designed to explore Venus, Mars, Titan and other gaseous planetary bodies. The on-board perception system allows the aerobot to localize itself and navigate on a planet using information derived from a variety of celestial, inertial, ground-imaging, ranging, and radiometric sensors.

  7. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets. PMID:23292514

  8. Correlation tracking for a Planetary Pointing and Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Planetary Pointing and Tracking System (PPTS) is being developed to provide precision pointing for science platforms on future autonomous planetary spacecraft. The PPTS design approach using a CCD optical sensor for closed-loop control with respect to the target body, a gyro for inertial stabilization, and brushless dc torque motors for smooth and continuous platform articulation is essential for high resolution planetary imaging and automated science execution. An integral part of PPTS is the correlation tracker which has the potential to revolutionize autonomous guidance.

  9. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  10. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  11. A Space Station-based search for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces shaping and maintaining the form of the solar system and disk galaxies are reviewed to define the basis for an observational campaign from the Space Station, to find other planetary systems. The evolution of the distribution of types of matter in the solar system is regarded as typical of the formation of planetary systems around other stars. The observation campaign would cover 100 stars out to 10 pc and last 15-30 yr. Technological challenges which must be met to realize the telescope on the Station are described.

  12. The Jupiter System Observer: Probing the Foundations of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senske, D.; Prockter, L.; Collins, G.; Cooper, J.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, K.; Kivelson, M.; Orton, G.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.; Kwok, J.; Spilker, T.; Tan-Wang, G.

    2007-12-01

    Galileo's observations in the 1600's of the dynamic system of Jupiter and its moons launched a revolution in understanding the way planetary systems operate. Now, some 400 years later, the discovery of extra solar planetary systems with Jupiter-sized bodies has led to a similar revolution in thought regarding how these systems form and evolve. From the time of Galileo, the Jovian system has been viewed as a solar system in miniature, providing a laboratory to study, diverse and dynamic processes in a single place. The icy Galilean satellites provide a window into solar system history by preserving in their cratering records a chronology dating back nearly 4.5 By and extending to the present. The continuously erupting volcanoes of Io may provide insight into the era when magma oceans were common. The discovery of an internally generated magnetic field at Ganymede, one of only three terrestrial bodies to possess such a field, is a place to gain insight as to how dynamos work. The confirmation and characterization of icy satellite subsurface oceans impacts the way habitability is considered. Understanding the composition and volatile inventory of Jupiter can shed light into how planets accrete from the solar nebulae. Finally, like our sun, Jupiter influences its system through its extensive magnetic field. In early 2007, NASA's Science Mission Directorate formed four Science Definition Teams (SDTs) to formulate science goals and objectives in anticipation of the initiation of a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system (Europa, Jupiter system, Titan and Enceladus). The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) mission concept emphasizes overall Jupiter system science: 1) Jupiter and its atmosphere, 2) the geology and geophysics of the Galilean satellites (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto), 3) the magnetosphere environment - both Jupiter's and Ganymede's&pand 4) interactions within the system. Focusing on the unique geology, presence of an internal magnetic field and

  13. Exoplanetary System Dynamics: Planetary Multiplicity and Mass Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoe, Mari; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Turner, Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Recently numerous systems consisting of multiple exoplanets have been discovered. Using a dataset of 375 systems (500 planets) discovered by the radial velocity method and 365 systems (899 planets) containing planet candidates found by the Kepler Mission, we investigate the dependence of the dynamical structure of planetary systems on their multiplicity and the masses of the member planets. We classify the planetary system by three parameters: planetary multiplicity, planetary mass, and the evolutionary stage of the central star. We normalize planetary masses by the mass of the central star and divide the planets into small and large categories by a cut at $10^{-4}$. The central star is classified into main-sequence or giant according to its evolutionary stage. We focus on the angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the systems and the orbital separation between adjacent planets normalized by their Hill radii. We find that in all categories the system AMD decreases with increasing multiplicity. This suggests that in order for multiple systems to be stable, each planet's orbit must be relatively circular. In addition, we find that the distribution of orbital eccentricities of the massive planets and low-mass planets differs. In particular, only high-mass planets have eccentricities larger than 0.4. In the low-mass systems around main sequence stars, we find that the orbital separation decreases with increasing multiplicity. In addition, the orbital separation around main-sequence stars is wider than that around giants. Furthermore, the minimum orbital separation is about 6.4 for non-resonant pairs. This paper presents the statistical properties of the dynamical structure of multiple planetary systems and discusses their formation.

  14. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  15. UNSTABLE PLANETARY SYSTEMS EMERGING OUT OF GAS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  16. Planetary Protection Considerations for Life Support and Habitation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Hogan, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Life support systems for future human missions beyond low Earth orbit may include a combination of existing hardware components and advanced technologies. Discipline areas for technology development include atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, solid waste management, crew accommodations, food production, thermal systems, environmental monitoring, fire protection and radiation protection. Life support systems will be influenced by in situ resource utilization (ISRU), crew mobility and the degree of extravehicular activity. Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that technology developers have generally not considered. Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future exploration missions, including venting and discharge of liquids and solids, ejection of wastes, use of ISRU, requirements for cabin atmospheric trace contaminant concentrations, cabin leakage and restrictions on what materials, organisms, and technologies that may be brought on missions. Compliance with planetary protection requirements may drive development of new capabilities or processes (e.g. in situ sterilization, waste containment, contaminant measurement) and limit or prohibit certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. unfiltered venting). Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development programs. It is expected that planetary protection will have a major impact on technology selection for future missions.

  17. The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, N.

    2014-01-01

    The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system, which since Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) is known as the music of the spheres, is briefly reviewed from the Renaissance up to contemporary research. Copernicus' heliocentric model from 1543 suggested that the planets of our solar system form a kind of mutually ordered and quasi-synchronized system. From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later reformulated in the Titius-Bode rule (1766-1772), which successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus. Following the discovery of the ~ 11 yr sunspot cycle, in 1859 Wolf suggested that the observed solar variability could be approximately synchronized with the orbital movements of Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Modern research has further confirmed that (1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies; (2) the solar system oscillates with a specific set of gravitational frequencies, and many of them (e.g., within the range between 3 yr and 100 yr) can be approximately constructed as harmonics of a base period of ~ 178.38 yr; and (3) solar and climate records are also characterized by planetary harmonics from the monthly to the millennial timescales. This short review concludes with an emphasis on the contribution of the author's research on the empirical evidences and physical modeling of both solar and climate variability based on astronomical harmonics. The general conclusion is that the solar system works as a resonator characterized by a specific harmonic planetary structure that also synchronizes the Sun's activity and the Earth's climate. The special issue Pattern in solar variability, their planetary origin and terrestrial impacts (Mörner et al., 2013) further develops the ideas about the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction with the personal contribution of 10

  18. "Planetary Orbit" Systems Composed of Cycloparaphenylenes.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, Steven M; Zayat, Zeina-Christina

    2016-06-01

    Cycloparaphenylenes (CPP) can serve as both guest and host in a complex. Geometric analysis indicates that optimal binding occurs when the CPP nanohoops differ by five phenyl rings. Employing C-PCM(THF)/ωB97X-D/6-31G(d) computations, we find that the strongest binding does occur when the host and guest differ by five phenyl rings. The guest CPP is modestly inclined relative to the plane of the host CPP except when the host and guest differ by four phenyl rings, when the inclination angle becomes >40°. The distortion/interaction model shows that interaction dominates and is best when the host and guest differ by five phenyl rings. The computed (1)H NMR shifts of the guest CPP are shifted by about 1 ppm upfield relative to their position when unbound. This distinct chemical shift should aid in experimental detection of these CPP planetary orbit complexes. PMID:27163409

  19. Tracing Planetary System Architecture with Debris Disk Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryden, Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    Planetary systems can be imaged indirectly via their debris disks - the remnants left over after planets form. Ongoing destruction of asteroids and comets in these disks creates a continual supply of orbiting dust around most Sun-like stars, including our own. In the Solar System such dust is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye - the Zodiacal light. Far-infrared observations by the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory have identified many nearby stars with even brighter orbiting debris, orders of magnitude more than in the Solar System. Because they are so bright, optical imaging of debris disks is much easier than detecting their embedded planets. Such planets can be inferred from disk structure - the inner warp of beta Pic and the sharply defined eccentric rings of Fomalhaut and HD 202628, for example. Resolving individual belts of debris, meanwhile, infers the location of intermediate planets (as in the HR 8799 planetary system) and allows for comparison with the 2-belt architecture of Solar System. Debris disk imaging is particularly well suited toward exploring the outer regions of planetary systems (>10 AU), where mature (cold) planets cannot otherwise be detected. Overall, images of debris disks probe their underlying planetary systems both generally, by mapping the system architecture, and specifically, by determining the location of individual planets.

  20. Asteroseismology in PLATO. A necessary tool for characterizing planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, J. C.; Garrido, R.; Mas-Hesse, J. M.; Rodríguez, J.

    2015-05-01

    Today, the field of stellar physics is witnessing a significant boost thanks to the progress of asteroseismology from space with satellites like CoRoT and Kepler, which will be exploited to its full power with the PLATO mission now under development. Both the study of stellar interiors and the analysis of exo-planetary systems have mutual benefits since not only they share similar techniques for obtaining the data (analysis of light curves) but also the high precision with which today asteroseismology can provide the global parameters of stars is crucial to accurately and precisely characterize the planetary systems. In this contribution I briefly describe this symbiosis.

  1. Orbital stability constraints on the nature of planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziani, F.; Black, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    A fully self-consistent, N-body computer code is used to study conditions under which model planetary systems, each consisting of a star and two 'planetary' companions, become orbitally unstable as a result of gravitational interactions between the companions. A formula describing a necessary condition for orbital stability is given. It is found that giant gaseous protoplanets of the type postulated by Cameron (1978) to be precursors of the present-day solar system planets could have stable orbits for at least 10,000 years, the time required for significant core formation in a typical giant gaseous protoplanet.

  2. New approaches to planetary exploration - Spacecraft and information systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, A. V.; Neugebauer, M.; Stuart, J.; Miller, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Approaches are recommended for use by the NASA Solar System Exploration Committee (SSEC) in lowering the costs of planetary missions. The inclusion of off-the-shelf hardware, i.e., configurations currently in use for earth orbits and constructed on a nearly assembly-line basis, is suggested. Alterations would be necessary for the thermal control, power supply, telecommunications equipment, and attitude sensing in order to be serviceable as a planetary observer spacecraft. New technology can be developed only when cost reduction for the entire mission would be realized. The employment of lower-cost boost motors, or even integrated boost motors, for the transfer out of earth orbit is indicated, as is the development of instruments that do not redundantly gather the same data as previous planetary missions. Missions under consideration include a Mars geoscience climatology Orbiter, a lunar geoscience Orbiter, a near-earth asteroid rendezvous, a Mars aeronomy Orbiter, and a Venus atmospheric probe.

  3. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  4. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  5. Archiving Mars Mission Data Sets with the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of the Planetary Data System (PDS) to archive the datasets that are received from the Mars Missions. It reviews the lessons learned in the actual archiving process, and presents an overview of the actual archiving process. It also reviews the lessons learned from the perspectives of the projects, the data producers and the data users.

  6. Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S. G. M.

    This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

  7. Long-term evolution and stability of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juric, Mario

    This dissertation studies the dynamical evolution and stability of planetary systems over long time spans (10 8 -10 9 years). I investigated the dynamical evolution of few-planet systems by simulating ensembles of systems consisting of hundreds to thousands of randomly constructed members. I looked at ways to classify the systems according to their dynamical activity, and found the median Hill separation of an ensemble to be a sufficiently good criterion for separation into active (those exhibiting frequent planetary close encounters, collisions or ejections) and inactive ensembles. I examined the evolution of dynamical parameters in active systems. I found that in ensembles of dynamically active (initially unstable) systems the eccentricity distribution evolves towards the same equilibrium form, irrespective of the distribution it began with. Furthermore, this equilibrium distribution is indistinguishable, within observational errors, from the distribution found in extrasolar planets. This is to my knowledge the first successful detailed theoretical reproduction of the form of observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution. I further looked for quantities that can be used as indicators of long-term stability of planetary systems, specifically the angular momentum deficit (AMD) as originally proposed by Laskar. I found that the quantity Q , defined as the ratio of minimum AMD required for a planetary collision to occur in secular theory and the total AMD of the system, may be used to predict the likelihood of decay of a planetary system. Qualitatively, the decay in systems having Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 is highly probable, while systems with Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 were found to be stable. To conduct the above investigations, I developed a new integrator package (VENUS), and the HYBRID/EE integration scheme designed for nearly-symplectic long-term integrations. VENUS implements integration algorithms for few-body planetary system integrations

  8. The dynamical fate of planetary systems in young star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaochen; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Wang, Long

    2015-11-01

    We carry out N-body simulations to examine the effects of dynamical interactions on planetary systems in young open star clusters. We explore how the planetary populations in these star clusters evolve, and how this evolution depends on the initial amount of substructure, the virial ratio, the cluster mass and density, and the initial semi-major axis of the planetary systems. The fraction of planetary systems that remains intact as a cluster member, fBPS, is generally well-described by the functional form fBPS = f0(1 + [a/a0]c)-1, where (1 - f0) is the fraction of stars that escapes from the cluster, a0 the critical semi-major axis for survival, and c a measure for the width of the transition region. The effect of the initial amount of substructure over time t can be quantified as fBPS = A(t) + B(D), where A(t) decreases nearly linearly with time, and B(D) decreases when the clusters are initially more substructured. Provided that the orbital separation of planetary systems is smaller than the critical value a0, those in clusters with a higher initial stellar density (but identical mass) have a larger probability of escaping the cluster intact. These results help us to obtain a better understanding of the difference between the observed fractions of exoplanets-hosting stars in star clusters and in the Galactic field. It also allows us to make predictions about the free-floating planet population over time in different stellar environments.

  9. Possible consequences of absence of "Jupiters" in planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1994-01-01

    The formation of the gas giant planets Jupiter and Saturn probably required the growth of massive approximately 15 Earth-mass cores on a time scale shorter than the approximately 10(7) time scale for removal of nebular gas. Relatively minor variations in nebular parameters could preclude the growth of full-size gas giants even in systems in which the terrestrial planet region is similar to our own. Systems containing "failed Jupiters," resembling Uranus and Neptune in their failure to capture much nebular gas, would be expected to contain more densely populated cometary source regions. They will also eject a smaller number of comets into interstellar space. If systems of this kind were the norm, observation of hyperbolic comets would be unexpected. Monte Carlo calculations of the orbital evolution of region of such systems (the Kuiper belt) indicate that throughout Earth history the cometary impact flux in their terrestrial planet regions would be approximately 1000 times greater than in our Solar System. It may be speculated that this could frustrate the evolution of organisms that observe and seek to understand their planetary system. For this reason our observation of these planets in our Solar System may tell us nothing about the probability of similar gas giants occurring in other planetary systems. This situation can be corrected by observation of an unbiased sample of planetary systems. PMID:11539457

  10. ON THE HABITABLE ZONES OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Hinkel, Natalie R.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the stellar flux on exoplanetary systems is becoming an increasingly important property as more planets are discovered in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler mission has recently uncovered circumbinary planets with relatively complex HZs due to the combined flux from the binary host stars. Here, we derive HZ boundaries for circumbinary systems and show their dependence on the stellar masses, separation, and time while accounting for binary orbital motion and the orbit of the planet. We include stability regimes for planetary orbits in binary systems with respect to the HZ. These methods are applied to several of the known circumbinary planetary systems such as Kepler-16, 34, 35, and 47. We also quantitatively show the circumstances under which single-star approximations break down for HZ calculations.

  11. Completing the Copernican Revolution: The search for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1995-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of how stars form, and there has been an associated increase in our knowledge of conditions and phenomena in the early solar system. These have led to the formulation of a paradigm for the origin of the solar system that is sufficiently complete that its basic elements can be tested directly through observations. A simple, but profound, consequence of the paradigm is that most if not all stars should be accompanied by planetary systems. The accuracy of instruments that can be used in such searches has improved to the point that Jupiter-like companions to a number of nearby stars could be detected. However, the results to date are that no other planetary systems have been detected, and the absence of detection is becoming statistically significant, particularly as it relates to the existence of brown dwarf companions to main-sequence stars.

  12. The Jupiter System Observer: Exploring the Origins of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, Louise; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, C.; Kivelson, M.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) is one of four studies commissioned by NASA's Science Mission Directorate to examine the potential science return from a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system. JSO is a long-duration mission that will study the entire Jupiter system, focusing on both its individual components, including Jupiter's atmosphere, rocky and icy moons, rings, and magnetospheric phenomena, and the interactions between them. The wealth of data to be returned by JSO will enable a fuller understanding of a variety of magnetospheric, atmospheric, and geological processes, and will illuminate the question of how planetary systems form and evolve. The science team has outlined a number of significant science goals that can be accomplished by a spacecraft that tours the Jovian system for several years before ultimately ending up in Ganymede orbit. Ganymede was selected as the final destination for JSO because of its unique place in the Jovian system and the solar system - it is only the third body known to have its own dynamo-generated magnetic field. Ganymede is thought to contain a subsurface ocean and exhibits a surface with a variety of older and younger terrains, making it an excellent target for understanding the formation and evolution of icy satellites. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's atmosphere and rings, Io's volcanism and torus, and high-resolution flyby imaging of Europa, Callisto and Io will enable an unprecedented study of the Jovian system as a solar system analog, and enables cross-cutting scientific objectives in the fields of atmospheres, geology, magnetospheres, and geophysics.

  13. Planetary systems and real planetary nebulae from planet destruction near white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2015-07-01

    We suggest that tidal destruction of Earth-like and icy planets near a white dwarf (WD) might lead to the formation of one or more low-mass - Earth-like and lighter - planets in tight orbits around the WD. The formation of the new WD planetary system starts with a tidal breakup of the parent planet to planetesimals near the tidal radius of about 1 R⊙. Internal stress forces keep the planetesimal from further tidal breakup when their radius is less than about 100 km. We speculate that the planetesimals then bind together to form new sub-Earth daughter-planets at a few solar radii around the WD. More massive planets that contain hydrogen supply the WD with fresh nuclear fuel to reincarnate its stellar-giant phase. Some of the hydrogen will be inflated in a large envelope. The envelope blows a wind to form a nebula that is later (after the entire envelope is lost) ionized by the hot WD. We term this glowing ionized nebula that originated from a planet a real planetary nebula (RPN). This preliminary study of daughter-planets from a planet and the RPN scenarios are of speculative nature. More detailed studies must follow to establish whether the suggested scenarios can indeed take place.

  14. Planetary Dynamics and Habitable Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    How our planet was formed, how life came about, and whether life exists elsewhere in the universe are among some of the long-standing questions in human history. The latter, which has been the main drive behind many decades of searching for planets outside the solar system, is one of the most outstanding problems in planetary science and astrobiology. Although no Earth-like planet has yet been found, the success of observational techniques in identifying now more than 350 extrasolar planets has greatly contributed to addressing this question, and has extended the concept of habitability to billions of miles beyond the boundaries of our solar system. It is now certain that our planetary system is not unique and many terrestrial-size planets may exist throughout the universe.

  15. New Ideas in Orreries and Planetary System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Alan

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Kepler EPO team has created models and simulations of planetary systems (orreries) to use in demonstrating the transit technique of finding exoplanets. The first successful orrery, consisting of a 3-planet orrery with an electric lamp (model star) at the center, and a Vernier light sensor system connected to a laptop computer with real-time graphing software, was first on display at the Kepler booth in a 2006 AAS conference. That system was extended to a 4-planet model (one planet with a moon as well) and has been on display at many astronomy and teacher education conferences in the past few years. Construction of duplicate models costs about $60 for LEGO parts, plus $100 or so for light sensor hardware and software. The LEGO orrery effort stemmed from successful work in creating a large museum-grade orrery that was used in the Planet-Finding portion of the "Alien Earths" exhibit, a collaboration of Space Science Institute, NSF, NASA Kepler mission EPO and other NASA EPO groups. Replication of that model would cost in the neighborhood of $25,000. In recent months, Kepler EPO has worked on design of a more rudimentary, inexpensive orrery made of cardboard, paper plates, wine corks, and rubber bands. Work is also underway on a new plastic-geared orrery for use in classrooms with a Full Option Science System (FOSS) Planetary Science Unit for middle school. This presentation relays results and status of these new developments in planetary model systems.

  16. New Ideas in Orreries and Planetary System Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A.; Koch, D.; Devore, E.; Harman, P.

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Kepler EPO team has created models and simulations of planetary systems (orreries) to use in demonstrating the transit technique of finding exoplanets. The first successful orrery, consisting of a three-planet orrery with an electric lamp (model star) at the center, and a Vernier light sensor system connected to a laptop computer with real-time graphing software, was first on display at the Kepler booth at the 2006 AAS conference. That system was extended to a four-planet model (one planet with a moon as well) and has been on display at many astronomy and teacher education conferences in the past few years. Construction of duplicate models costs about 60 for LEGO parts, plus 100 or so for light sensor hardware and software. The LEGO orrery effort stemmed from successful work in creating a large museum-grade orrery that was used in the Planet-Finding portion of the ``Alien Earths'' exhibit, a collaboration of Space Science Institute, NSF, NASA Kepler mission EPO and other NASA EPO groups. Replication of that model would cost in the neighborhood of $25,000. In recent months, Kepler EPO has worked on design of a more rudimentary, inexpensive orrery made of cardboard, paper plates, wine corks, and rubber bands. Work is also underway on a new plastic-geared orrery for use in classrooms with a Full Option Science System (FOSS) Planetary Science Unit for middle school. This presentation relays results and status of these new developments in planetary model systems.

  17. Dynamics of Populations of Planetary Systems (IAU C197)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    1. Resonances and stability of extra-solar planetary systems C. Beaugé, N. Callegari, S. Ferraz-Mello and T. A. Michtchenko; 2. Formation, migration, and stability of extrasolar planetary systems Fred C. Adams; 3. Dynamical evolution of extrasolar planetary systems Ji-Lin Zhou and Yi-Sui Sun; 4. Dynamics of planetesimals: the role of two-body relaxation Eiichiro Kokubo; 5. Fitting orbits Andrzej J. Maciejewski, Krzysztof Gozdziewski and Szymon Kozlowski; 6. The secular planetary three body problem revisited Jacques Henrard and Anne-Sophie Libert; 7. Dynamics of extrasolar systems at the 5/2 resonance: application to 47 UMa Dionyssia Psychoyos and John D. Hadjidemetriou; 8. Our solar system as model for exosolar planetary systems Rudolf Dvorak, Áron Süli and Florian Freistetter; 9. Planetary motion in double stars: the influence of the secondary Elke Pilat-Lohinger; 10. Planetary orbits in double stars: influence of the binary's orbital eccentricity Daniel Benest and Robert Gonczi; 11. Astrometric observations of 51 Peg and Gliese 623 at Pulkovo observatory with 65 cm refractor N. A. Shakht; 12. Observations of 61 Cyg at Pulkovo Denis L. Gorshanov, N. A. Shakht, A. A. Kisselev and E. V. Poliakow; 13. Formation of the solar system by instability Evgeny Griv and Michael Gedalin; 14. Behaviour of a two-planetary system on a cosmogonic time-scale Konstantin V. Kholshevnikov and Eduard D. Kuznetsov; 15. Boundaries of the habitable zone: unifying dynamics, astrophysics, and astrobiology Milan M. Cirkovic; 16. Asteroid proper elements: recent computational progress Fernando Roig and Cristian Beaugé; 17. Asteroid family classification from very large catalogues Anne Lemaitre; 18. Non-gravitational perturbations and evolution of the asteroid main belt David Vokrouhlicky, M. Broz and W. F. Bottke, D. Nesvorny and A. Morbidelli; 19. Diffusion in the asteroid belt Harry Varvoglis; 20. Accurate model for the Yarkovsky effect David Capek and David Vokrouhlicky; 21. The

  18. Diagrams of stability of circumbinary planetary systems (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.

    2015-08-01

    The stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane of initial data are built and analysed for Kepler-38, Kepler-47, and PH1. This completes a survey of stability of the known up to now circumbinary planetary systems, initiated by Popova and Shevchenko (ApJ, 769, 152, 2013), where the analysis was performed for Kepler-16, 34, and 35. In the diagrams, the planets appear to be "embedded" in the fractal chaos border; however, I make an attempt to measure the "distance" to the chaos border in a physically consistent way. The obtained distances are compared to those given by the widely used numerical-experimental criterion by Holman and Wiegert (1999), who employed smooth polynomial approximations to describe the border. I identify the resonance cells, hosting the planets. Results of this study will appear in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 310 "Complex planetary systems".

  19. Vibration in Planetary Gear Systems with Unequal Planet Stiffnesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frater, J. L.; August, R.; Oswald, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    An algorithm suitable for a minicomputer was developed for finding the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a planetary gear system which has unequal stiffnesses between the Sun/planet and planet/ring gear meshes. Mode shapes are represented in the form of graphical computer output that illustrates the lateral and rotational motion of the three coaxial gears and the planet gears. This procedure permits the analysis of gear trains utilizing nonuniform mesh conditions and user specified masses, stiffnesses, and boundary conditions. Numerical integration of the equations of motion for planetary gear systems indicates that this algorithm offers an efficient means of predicting operating speeds which may result in high dynamic tooth loads.

  20. A Planetary Park system for the Moon and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda

    Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well

  1. The Pluto System in the Context of Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA New Horizons mission will conduct a 6-month long reconnaissance flyby of the Pluto system from January to July 2015. In this presentation, I will set the scientific context for the mission by summarizing the revolution in planetary science brought about by the Kuiper Belt, then summarize the key science objectives of the mission, and the briefly review the payload capabilities aboard New Horizons to carry out these objetives. I will close with an overview of the encoutner timeline.

  2. Adaptive optics for directly imaging planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Vanessa Perry

    In this dissertation I present the results from five papers (including one in preparation) on giant planets, brown dwarfs, and their environments, as well as on the commissioning and optimization of the Adaptive Optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer. The first three Chapters cover direct imaging results on several distantly-orbiting planets and brown dwarf companions. The boundary between giant planets and brown dwarf companions in wide orbits is a blurry one. In Chapter 2, I use 3--5 mum imaging of several brown dwarf companions, combined with mid-infrared photometry for each system to constrain the circum-substellar disks around the brown dwarfs. I then use this information to discuss limits on scattering events versus in situ formation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I present results from an adaptive optics imaging survey for giant planets, where the target stars were selected based on the properties of their circumstellar debris disks. Specifically, we targeted systems with debris disks whose SEDs indicated gaps, clearings, or truncations; these features may possibly be sculpted by planets. I discuss in detail one planet-mass companion discovered as part of this survey, HD 106906 b. At a projected separation of 650 AU and weighing in at 11 Jupiter masses, a companion such as this is not a common outcome of any planet or binary star formation model. In the remaining three Chapters, I discuss pre-commissioning, on-sky results, and planned work on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer Adaptive Optics system. Before construction of the LBT AO system was complete, I tested a prototype of LBTI's pyramid wavefront sensor unit at the MMT with synthetically-generated calibration files. I present the methodology and MMT on-sky tests in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, I present the commissioned performance of LBTIAO. Optical imperfections within LBTI limited the quality of the science images, and I describe a simple method to use the adaptive optics system

  3. The search for extra-solar planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Paresce, F

    1992-01-01

    I review the observational evidence for planetary systems around nearby stars and, using our own solar system as a guide, assess the stringent requirements that new searches need to meet in order to unambiguously establish the presence of another planetary system. Basically, these requirements are: 1 milliarcsecond or better positional accuracy for astrometric techniques, 9 orders of magnitude or better star to planet luminosity ratio discrimination at 0.5 to 1" separation in the optical for direct imaging techniques, 10 meters sec-1 or better radial velocity accuracy for reflex motion techniques and +/-1% or better brightness fluctuation accuracy for planet/star occultation measurements. The astrometric accuracy is in reach of HST, direct imaging will require much larger telescopes and/or a 50 times smoother mirror than HST while the reflex motion and occultation techniques best performed on the ground are just becoming viable and promise exciting new discoveries. On the other band, new indirect evidence on the existence of other planetary systems also comes from the observation of large dusty disks around nearby main sequence stars not too dissimilar from our sun. In one particular case, that of Beta Pictoris, a flattened disk seen nearly edge-on has been imaged in the optical and near IR down to almost 70 AU of the star. It probably represents a young planetary system in its clearing out phase as planetesimals collide, erode and are swept out of the inner system by radiation pressure. The hypothesized Kuiper belt around our solar system may be the analogous structure in a later evolutionary stage. Features of this type have been detected in the far IR and sub-millimeter wavelength regions around 50-100 nearby main sequence and pre-main sequence stars. I discuss a battery of new accurate observations planned in the near future of these objects some of which may actually harbour planets or planetesimals that will certainly dramatically improve our knowledge of

  4. The Imaging Node for the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; LaVoie, Susan K.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1996-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Imaging Node maintains and distributes the archives of planetary image data acquired from NASA's flight projects with the primary goal of enabling the science community to perform image processing and analysis on the data. The Node provides direct and easy access to the digital image archives through wide distribution of the data on CD-ROM media and on-line remote-access tools by way of Internet services. The Node provides digital image processing tools and the expertise and guidance necessary to understand the image collections. The data collections, now approaching one terabyte in volume, provide a foundation for remote sensing studies for virtually all the planetary systems in our solar system (except for Pluto). The Node is responsible for restoring data sets from past missions in danger of being lost. The Node works with active flight projects to assist in the creation of their archive products and to ensure that their products and data catalogs become an integral part of the Node's data collections.

  5. Observational Research on Star and Planetary System Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    1998-01-01

    Institute scientists collaborate with a number of NASA Ames scientists on observational studies of star and planetary system formation to their mutual benefit. As part of this collaboration, SETI scientists have, from 1988 to the present: (1) contributed to the technical studies at NASA Ames of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), an infrared 2.5 meter telescope in a Boeing 747, which will replace the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), a 0.9 meter telescope in a Lockheed C-141. SOFIA will be an important facility for the future exploration of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and the origins of life, and as such will be an important future facility to SETI scientists; (2) worked with the Laboratory Astrophysics Group at Ames, carrying out laboratory studies of the spectroscopic properties of ices and pre-biotic organics, which could be formed in the interstellar or interplanetary media; (3) helped develop a photometric approach for determining the Frequency of Earth-Sized Inner Planets (FRESIP) around solar-like stars, a project (now called Kepler) which complements the current efforts of the SETI Institute to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence; and (4) carried out independent observational research, in particular research on the formation of stars and planetary systems using both ground-based telescopes as well as the KAO.

  6. Observational Research on Star and Planetary System Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    1998-07-01

    Institute scientists collaborate with a number of NASA Ames scientists on observational studies of star and planetary system formation to their mutual benefit. As part of this collaboration, SETI scientists have, from 1988 to the present: (1) contributed to the technical studies at NASA Ames of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), an infrared 2.5 meter telescope in a Boeing 747, which will replace the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), a 0.9 meter telescope in a Lockheed C-141. SOFIA will be an important facility for the future exploration of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and the origins of life, and as such will be an important future facility to SETI scientists; (2) worked with the Laboratory Astrophysics Group at Ames, carrying out laboratory studies of the spectroscopic properties of ices and pre-biotic organics, which could be formed in the interstellar or interplanetary media; (3) helped develop a photometric approach for determining the Frequency of Earth-Sized Inner Planets (FRESIP) around solar-like stars, a project (now called Kepler) which complements the current efforts of the SETI Institute to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence; and (4) carried out independent observational research, in particular research on the formation of stars and planetary systems using both ground-based telescopes as well as the KAO.

  7. The Planetary Data System Information Model for Geometry Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Gordon, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) has recently developed a new set of archiving standards based on a rigorously defined information model. An important part of the new PDS information model is the model for geometry metadata, which includes, for example, attributes of the lighting and viewing angles of observations, position and velocity vectors of a spacecraft relative to Sun and observing body at the time of observation and the location and orientation of an observation on the target. The PDS geometry model is based on requirements gathered from the planetary research community, data producers, and software engineers who build search tools. A key requirement for the model is that it fully supports the breadth of PDS archives that include a wide range of data types from missions and instruments observing many types of solar system bodies such as planets, ring systems, and smaller bodies (moons, comets, and asteroids). Thus, important design aspects of the geometry model are that it standardizes the definition of the geometry attributes and provides consistency of geometry metadata across planetary science disciplines. The model specification also includes parameters so that the context of values can be unambiguously interpreted. For example, the reference frame used for specifying geographic locations on a planetary body is explicitly included with the other geometry metadata parameters. The structure and content of the new PDS geometry model is designed to enable both science analysis and efficient development of search tools. The geometry model is implemented in XML, as is the main PDS information model, and uses XML schema for validation. The initial version of the geometry model is focused on geometry for remote sensing observations conducted by flyby and orbiting spacecraft. Future releases of the PDS geometry model will be expanded to include metadata for landed and rover spacecraft.

  8. Birth of an Unusual Planetary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This artist's animation shows a brown dwarf surrounded by a swirling disc of planet-building dust. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope spotted such a disc around a surprisingly low-mass brown dwarf, or 'failed star.' The brown dwarf, called OTS 44, is only 15 times the size of Jupiter, making it the smallest brown dwarf known to host a planet-forming, or protoplanetary disc.

    Astronomers believe that this unusual system will eventually spawn planets. If so, they speculate that OTS 44's disc has enough mass to make one small gas giant and a few Earth-sized rocky planets.

    OTS 44 is about 2 million years old. At this relatively young age, brown dwarfs are warm and appear reddish in color. With age, they grow cooler and darker.

  9. Oscillations of relative inclination angles in compact extrasolar planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juliette C.; Adams, Fred C.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multitransiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multiplanet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently observed configurations could be due to planet-planet interactions alone. We also provide constraints and predictions for the expected transit duration variations for each planet. In these multiplanet compact Kepler systems, oscillations of their inclination angles are remarkably hard to excite; as a result, they tend to remain continually mutually transiting (CMT-stable). We study this issue further by augmenting the planet masses and determining the enhancement factor required for oscillations to move the systems out of transit. The oscillations of inclination found here inform the recently suggested dichotomy in the sample of Solar systems observed by Kepler.

  10. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported four closely related research programs at The University of Texas at Austin: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) Program, using the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Harlan Smith telescope and its 2dcoude spectrometer, 2) A high-precision radial-velocity survey of Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck telescope and its HIRES spectrograph, 3) A program at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectra of the parent stars of planetary systems at R = 210,000, and 4) the start of high precision radial velocity surveys using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most important results from NASA support of these research programs are described. A list of all papers published under support of this grant is included at the end.

  11. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported four closely related research programs at The University of Texas at Austin: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) Program, using the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Harlan Smith telescope and its 2dcoud6 spectrometer, 2) A high-precision radial-velocity survey of Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck telescope and its HIRES spectrograph, 3) A program at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectra of the parent stars of planetary systems at R = 210,000, and 4) the start of high precision radial velocity surveys using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most important results from NASA support of these research programs are described below. A list of all papers published under support of this grant is included at the end.

  12. PDS4 - Positioning the Planetary Data System for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel J.; Morgan, Tom

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) has just released PDS4, a modernization of the PDS architecture, data standards, and technical infrastructure. This next generation system positions the PDS to meet the demands of the coming decade, including big data, international cooperation, distributed nodes, and multiple ways of analysing and interpreting data. It also addresses three fundamental project goals: providing more efficient data delivery by data providers to the PDS, enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive, and enabling services for the data consumer to find, access, and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. The PDS is an active partner in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), working with space agencies around the world to collaborate and share instruments and scientific data results. The IPDA has had a significant role in developing PDS4 and is promoting the standards and infrastructure toward a world-wide archive. PDS4 is a modern operational system resulting from the application of a lifecycle developed for model-driven software systems for science and is being used to coordinate the science communities. An information model formalizes the system’s information requirements and allows significant but controlled evolution of the system as the science domains and implementation technologies change. PDS4 will provide a scientific research asset that allows current and future users to re-analyse the data within new contexts. PDS4 is being used in the early phases of several missions to ensure they have adequate tools and that the system streamlines the preparation and delivery of data to the PDS. Data services are also under development to help in searching, accessing, and using data in formats and structures that will enhance the ability of researchers to perform analysis in cost-constrained environments. This presentation will cover the PDS4 project, system architecture, and its current status as a

  13. On the HU Aquarii planetary system hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździewski, Krzysztof; Nasiroglu, Ilham; Słowikowska, Aga; Beuermann, Klaus; Kanbach, Gottfried; Gauza, Bartosz; Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Schwarz, Robert; Schwope, Axel D.; Hinse, Tobias C.; Haghighipour, Nader; Burwitz, Vadim; Słonina, Mariusz; Rau, Arne

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the eclipse timing of the polar binary HU Aquarii that has been observed for almost two decades. Recently, Qian et al. attributed large (O-C) deviations between the eclipse ephemeris and observations to a compact system of two massive Jovian companions. We improve the Keplerian, kinematic model of the light travel time effect and re-analyse the whole currently available data set. We add almost 60 new, yet unpublished, mostly precision light curves obtained using the time high-resolution photopolarimeter Optical Timing Analyzer (OPTIMA), as well as photometric observations performed at the Monitoring Network of Telescopes/North, Physics Innovations Robotic Astronomical Telescope Explorer and Carlos Sánchez Telescope. We determine new mid-egress times with a mean uncertainty at the level of 1 s or better. We claim that because the observations that currently exist in the literature are non-homogeneous with respect to spectral windows (ultraviolet, X-ray, visual and polarimetric mode) and the reported mid-egress measurements errors, they may introduce systematics that affect orbital fits. Indeed, we find that the published data, when taken literally, cannot be explained by any unique solution. Many qualitatively different and best-fit two-planet configurations, including self-consistent, Newtonian N-body solutions may be able to explain the data. However, using high-resolution, precision OPTIMA light curves, we find that the (O-C) deviations are best explained by the presence of a single circumbinary companion orbiting at a distance of ˜4.5 au with a small eccentricity and having ˜7 Jupiter masses. This object could be the next circumbinary planet detected from the ground, similar to the announced companions around close binaries HW Vir, NN Ser, UZ For, DP Leo, FS Aur or SZ Her, and planets of this type around Kepler-16, Kepler-34 and Kepler-35.

  14. STABILITY OF SATELLITES IN CLOSELY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew J.; Deck, Katherine M.; Perets, Hagai B.

    2013-10-01

    We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs). We find that the majority of closely spaced stable two-planet systems can stably support satellites across a range of parameter-space which is only slightly decreased compared to that seen for the single-planet case. In particular, circular prograde satellites remain stable out to ∼0.4 R{sub H} (where R{sub H} is the Hill radius) as opposed to 0.5 R{sub H} in the single-planet case. A similarly small restriction in the stable parameter-space for retrograde satellites is observed, where planetary close approaches in the range 2.5-4.5 mutual Hill radii destabilize most satellites orbits only if a ∼ 0.65 R{sub H} . In very close planetary pairs (e.g., the 12:11 resonance) the addition of a satellite frequently destabilizes the entire system, causing extreme close approaches and the loss of satellites over a range of circumplanetary semi-major axes. The majority of systems investigated stably harbored satellites over a wide parameter-space, suggesting that STIPs can generally offer a dynamically stable home for satellites, albeit with a slightly smaller stable parameter-space than the single-planet case. As we demonstrate that multi-planet systems are not a priori poor candidates for hosting satellites, future measurements of satellite occurrence rates in multi-planet systems versus single-planet systems could be used to constrain either satellite formation or past periods of strong dynamical interaction between planets.

  15. Fractionated robotic architectures for planetary surface mobility systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibay, Farah; Desaraju, Vishnu R.; Duda, Jessica E.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-02-01

    Planetary surface exploration missions are becoming increasingly complex and future missions promise to be even more ambitious than those that have occurred thus far. To deal with this complexity, this paper proposes a fractionated approach to planetary surface exploration. Fractionation involves splitting up large vehicles into several smaller ones that work together in order to achieve the science goals. It is believed that fractionation of rovers can lead to increased value delivery and productivity, as well as helping manage complexity. A science goal-driven methodology for generating a tradespace of multi-vehicle architectures in the early stages of mission design is detailed. A set of carefully designed metrics are then put forward as a way to help compare multi-vehicle architectures to each other and to the single vehicle (monolithic) equivalent. These include science value delivery, productivity, system- and vehicle-level complexity, and mass metrics. Through two Mars-based case studies, the advantages and limitations of fractionation are explored. Fractionation is found to be particularly advantageous when the science goals are broad, when there are competing requirements between goals, and when the exploration environment is particularly treacherous. Additionally, multi-vehicle systems entail simpler vehicles with lower vehicle-level complexity, lower mission risk and higher productivity over the mission duration, as well as being more easily upgradeable. On the other hand, they lead to higher system-level complexity, and can somewhat increase the overall mass of the system. Thus, through this methodology, it was demonstrated that the fractionation of planetary surface exploration systems leads to mass being traded for higher science return and lower risk during the mission, and to complexity being shifted from design complexity to operational complexity. Multi-vehicle systems involve more testing and on-board automation than single vehicles, but they

  16. Introduction - Solar and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Iwan P.

    Over the last decade, there have been many exciting advances in all fields relating to our understanding of planetary systems. There has been a significant increase in our understanding of the general process of star formation, leading to an expectation that matter will be captured in a flattened envelope or nebula surrounding the young Sun. Theoretical models had predicted this for some time, but in the last decade, firm observational evidence of this has become fairly commonplace, with β Pictoris in particular displaying all the characteristics that were expected in systems where planets formed. The discovery of extra-solar planets has also confirmed the view that planetary formation is a normal phenomenon so that our system is no longer regarded as a one off or special. Within the Solar System itself, both space exploration and improved facilities for ground-based observations have increased our knowedge of our own system dramatically. Pluto is now the only planet not to have been visited by a spacecraft, and spacecraft images also exist of asteroids and comets. In addition, it is now known that all the major planets have extensive satellite systems as well as complex ring structures. Finally, two new classes of objects have been discovered: the Centaurs orbiting between the major planets; and the Edgeworth-Kuiper objects beyond Neptune.This book is based on the lectures given at a Pre-Doctoral Summer School held in Ballyvaughn, County Clare, Ireland during 7 - 18 September 1998, supported by the European Astrophysical Doctoral Network (EADN). The aim of the School was to give an authoritative account of these new developments so that a thorough general background in the state of our knowledge would be obtained by all participants. The scientific contents of the School can be divided into a number of broad fields. The areas are: Formation of Planetary Systems; Planets and Satellites; and Small Bodies and Dust. The chapter on Dynamics by Murray spans all of

  17. Exploration Planetary Surface Structural Systems: Design Requirements and Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Project developed system concepts that would be necessary to establish and maintain a permanent human presence on the Lunar surface. A variety of specific system implementations were generated as a part of the scenarios, some level of system definition was completed, and masses estimated for each system. Because the architecture studies generally spawned a large number of system concepts and the studies were executed in a short amount of time, the resulting system definitions had very low design fidelity. This paper describes the development sequence required to field a particular structural system: 1) Define Requirements, 2) Develop the Design and 3) Demonstrate Compliance of the Design to all Requirements. This paper also outlines and describes in detail the information and data that are required to establish structural design requirements and outlines the information that would comprise a planetary surface system Structures Requirements document.

  18. Towards an International Planetary Community Built on Open Source Software: the Evolution of the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crichton, D. J.; Ramirez, P.; Hardman, S.; Hughes, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Access to the worldwide planetary science research results from robotic exploration of the solar system has become a key driver in internationalizing the data standards from the Planetary Data System. The Planetary Data System, through international agency collaborations with the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), has been developing a next generation set of data standards and technical implementation known as PDS4. PDS4 modernizes the PDS towards a world-wide online data system providing data and technical standards for improving access and interoperability among planetary archives. Since 2006, the IPDA has been working with the PDS to ensure that the next generation PDS is capable of allowing agency autonomy in building compatible archives while providing mechanisms to link the archive together. At the 7th International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Meeting in Bangalore, India, the IPDA discussed and passed a resolution paving the way to adopt the PDS4 data standards. While the PDS4 standards have matured, another effort has been underway to move the PDS, a set of distributed discipline oriented science nodes, into a fully, online, service-oriented architecture. In order to accomplish this goal, the PDS has been developing a core set of software components that form the basis for many of the functions needed by a data system. These include the ability to harvest, validate, register, search and distribute the data products defined by the PDS4 data standards. Rather than having each group build their own independent implementations, the intention is to ultimately govern the implementation of this software through an open source community. This will enable not only sharing of software among U.S. planetary science nodes, but also has the potential of improving collaboration not only on core data management software, but also the tools by the international community. This presentation will discuss the progress in developing an open source infrastructure

  19. Gravito-electrodynamics and the structure of planetary ring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent spacecraft observations of the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems have highlighted a plethora of interesting new phenomena associated with those regions containing fine (micron and sub-micron sized) dust. Recognizing that these dust grains, by virtue of being immersed within the planetary magnetospheres, are electrostatically charged to the point that they experience comparable gravitational and electric forces, a new 'gravito-electrodynamic' theory has been developed to describe their dynamics. This theory has been successful in explaining all these phenomena in a systematic way. In this review, the basic model and its range of validity are outlined, and its application to the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems are discussed.

  20. Gravitational microlensing by double stars and planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Shunde; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1991-01-01

    Almost all stars are in binary systems. When the separation between the two components is comparable to the Einstein ring radius corresponding to the combined mass of the binary acting as a gravitational lens, then an extra pair of images can be created, and the light curve of a lensed source becomes complicated. It is estimated that about 10 percent of all lensing episodes of the Galactic bulge stars will strongly display the binary nature of the lens. The effect is strong even if the companion is a planet. A massive search for microlensing of the Galactic bulge stars may lead to a discovery of the first extrasolar planetary systems.

  1. Gravito-electrodynamics and the structure of planetary ring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, D. A.

    1984-08-01

    Recent spacecraft observations of the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems have highlighted a plethora of interesting new phenomena associated with those regions containing fine (micron and sub-micron sized) dust. Recognizing that these dust grains, by virtue of being immersed within the planetary magnetospheres, are electrostatically charged to the point that they experience comparable gravitational and electric forces, a new 'gravito-electrodynamic' theory has been developed to describe their dynamics. This theory has been successful in explaining all these phenomena in a systematic way. In this review, the basic model and its range of validity are outlined, and its application to the Saturnian and Jovian ring systems are discussed.

  2. Planetary spacecraft - SEPS interface design. [Solar Electric Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    The interactions between a spacecraft which would rendezvous with the comet Tempel II, the stage, and the mission design are summarized along with solar electric propulsion system design issues. Attention is given to data communication, the spacecraft pointing control system, spacecraft power, plasma interactions, the release of a probe to study the comet Halley, and thruster usage. It was concluded that for a planetary mission design using a low-thrust stage, the control of the mission should reside in the payload spacecraft and that the power should be provided by the stage; the NASA standard 28 VDC bus is recommended.

  3. Deploying Object Oriented Data Technology to the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, S.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    How do you provide more than 350 scientists and researchers access to data from every instrument in Odyssey when the data is curated across half a dozen institutions and in different formats and is too big to mail on a CD-ROM anymore? The Planetary Data System (PDS) faced this exact question. The solution was to use a metadata-based middleware framework developed by the Object Oriented Data Technology task at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Using OODT, PDS provided - for the first time ever - data from all mission instruments through a single system immediately upon data delivery.

  4. The Planetary Data System--preparing for a New Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; Knopf, William P.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.

    2015-11-01

    In order to improve NASA’s ability to serve the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) has been transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA’s Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. The new institute structure will facilitate our efforts within the PDS to improve both archive searchability and product discoverability. We will continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the community of space faring nations (through the IPDA). PDS science nodes will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented.The Science nodes were selected through a Cooperative Agreement Notice (NNH15ZDA006C) which specifically allowed the community to propose specific archive concepts. The selected nodes are: Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Rings-Moon Systems, Planetary Geosciences, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Atmospheres, and Small Bodies. Other elements of the PDS include an Engineering Node, the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility, and a small project office.The prime role of the PDS is unchanged. We archive and distribute scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research.In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on the new Institute. Near term efforts include developing a PDS Roadmap for the next decade lead by PDS Chief Scientist, Dr

  5. A review of the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary systems appear to be one of the crucial links in the chain leading from simple molecules to living systems, particularly complex (intelligent?) living systems. Although there is currently no observational proof of the existence of any planetary system other than our own, techniques are now being developed which will permit a comprehensive search for other planetary systems. The scientific rationale for and methods used in such a search effort are reviewed here.

  6. Chaotic Diffusion in the Gliese-876 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, J. G.; Cincotta, P. M.; Beaugé, C.

    2016-05-01

    Chaotic diffusion is supposed to be responsible for orbital instabilities in planetary systems after the dissipation of the protoplanetary disk, and a natural consequence of irregular motion. In this paper we show that resonant multi-planetary systems, despite being highly chaotic, not necessarily exhibit significant diffusion in phase space, and may still survive virtually unchanged over timescales comparable to their age.Using the GJ-876 system as an example, we analyze the chaotic diffusion of the outermost (and less massive) planet. We construct a set of stability maps in the surrounding regions of the Laplace resonance. We numerically integrate ensembles of close initial conditions, compute Poincaré maps and estimate the chaotic diffusion present in this system. Our results show that, the Laplace resonance contains two different regions: an inner domain characterized by low chaoticity and slow diffusion, and an outer one displaying larger values of dynamical indicators. In the outer resonant domain, the stochastic borders of the Laplace resonance seem to prevent the complete destruction of the system. We characterize the diffusion for small ensembles along the parameters of the outermost planet. Finally, we perform a stability analysis of the inherent chaotic, albeit stable Laplace resonance, by linking the behavior of the resonant variables of the configurations to the different sub-structures inside the three-body resonance.

  7. Monitoring requested for developing planetary systems dust production study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2015-03-01

    Dr. George Rieke (University of Arizona) and colleagues have requested AAVSO assistance in monitoring four stars with developing planetary systems: RZ Psc, HD 15407A, V488 Per, and HD 23514. This campaign is similar to the one conducted in 2013 (see AAVSO Alert Notice 482). Dr. Rieke writes: "We have obtained 130 hours of time on the Spitzer Space Telescope to continue monitoring planetary debris disks for variability. We are asking for help from AAVSO for this program. Debris disks [are] systems of dust and particles associated with planetary systems...There are about a dozen planetary systems in which there is evidence that massive collisions are occurring right now, collisions that are building planets in much the same way that a large body added most of its mass to that of the Earth and created the Moon as a byproduct when the Solar System was young...A key part of our program is to obtain optical photometry of the same stars that we are observing in the infrared under the Spitzer program. The optical data are needed to verify that any changes we see in the infrared are not just driven by changes in the brightness of the star, but are truly due to changes in the structure or dust content of the debris disk. AAVSO observers provided this support for our previous program, as summarized in a paper [in preparation]; all of those who contributed data are co-authors of the paper. We request AAVSO to take similar observations for the new program...", which begins immediately and runs in two segments, now through May and September through December [target information and satellite schedule in full Alert Notice 511]. Observations in V are requested, with a S/N of about 100 so that the accuracy will be 1-2%. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for schedule and other details.

  8. FOREVER ALONE? TESTING SINGLE ECCENTRIC PLANETARY SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D.; Wang Songhu; Zhou Jilin; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Carter, B. D.

    2013-09-15

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  9. Photochemical hazes in planetary atmospheres: solar system bodies and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanaka, Hiroshi; Cruikshank, Dale P.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2015-11-01

    Recent transit observations of exoplanets have demonstrated the possibility of a wide prevalence of haze/cloud layers at high altitudes. Hydrocarbon photochemical haze could be the candidate for such haze particles on warm sub-Neptunes, but the lack of evidence for methane poses a puzzle for such hydrocarbon photochemical haze. The CH4/CO ratios in planetary atmospheres vary substantially from their temperature and dynamics. An understanding of haze formation rates and plausible optical properties in a wide diversity of planetary atmospheres is required to interpret the current and future observations.Here, we focus on how atmospheric compositions, specifically CH4/CO ratios, affect the haze production rates and their optical properties. We have conducted a series of cold plasma experiments to constrain the haze mass production rates from gas mixtures of various CH4/CO ratios diluted either in H2 or N2 atmosphere. The mass production rates in the N2-CH4-CO system are much greater than those in the H2-CH4-CO system. They are rather insensitive to the CH4/CO ratios larger than at 0.3. Significant formation of solid material is observed both in H2-CO and N2-CO systems without CH4 in the initial gas mixtures. The complex refractive indices were derived for haze samples from N2-CH4, H2-CH4, and H2-CO gas mixtures. These are the model atmospheres for Titan, Saturn, and exoplanets, respectively. The imaginary part of the complex refractive indices in the UV-Vis region are distinct among these samples, which can be utilized for modeling these planetary atmospheres.

  10. Journal Bearing Analysis Suite Released for Planetary Gear System Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, David E.; Clark, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary gear systems are an efficient means of achieving high reduction ratios with minimum space and weight. They are used in helicopter, aerospace, automobile, and many industrial applications. High-speed planetary gear systems will have significant dynamic loading and high heat generation. Hence, they need jet lubrication and associated cooling systems. For units operating in critical applications that necessitate high reliability and long life, that have very large torque loading, and that have downtime costs that are significantly greater than the initial cost, hydrodynamic journal bearings are a must. Computational and analytical tools are needed for sufficiently accurate modeling to facilitate optimal design of these systems. Sufficient physics is needed in the model to facilitate parametric studies of design conditions that enable optimal designs. The first transient journal bearing code to implement the Jacobsson-Floberg-Olsson boundary conditions, using a mass-conserving algorithm devised by Professor Emeritus Harold Elrod of Columbia University, was written by David E. Brewe of the U.S. Army at the NASA Lewis Research Center1 in 1983. Since then, new features and improved modifications have been built into the code by several contributors supported through Army and NASA funding via cooperative agreements with the University of Toledo (Professor Ted Keith, Jr., and Dr. Desikakary Vijayaraghavan) and National Research Council Programs (Dr. Vijayaraghavan). All this was conducted with the close consultation of Professor Elrod and the project management of David Brewe.

  11. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  12. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  13. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, Daniel; Davies, Melvyn B.; Johansen, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces these scatterings may also cause habitable planets in interior orbits to become ejected, destroyed, or be transported out of the habitable zone. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Equal-mass planetary systems are far more destructive than systems with giant planets of unequal masses. We also establish a link with observation; we find that giant planets with present-day eccentricities higher than 0.4 almost never have a habitable interior planet. For a giant planet with an present-day eccentricity of 0.2 and semimajor axis of 5 AU orbiting a Sun-like star, 50% of the orbits in the habitable zone are resilient to the instability. As semimajor axis increases and eccentricity decreases, a higher fraction of habitable planets survive and remain habitable. However, if the habitable planet has rocky siblings, there is a significant risk of rocky planet collisions that would sterilize the planet.

  14. Planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.; Brahic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are the development history of planetary ring research, the view of planetary rings in astronomy and cosmology over the period 1600-1900, the characteristics of the ring systems of Saturn and Uranus, the ethereal rings of Jupiter and Saturn, dust-magnetosphere interactions, the effects of radiation forces on dust particles, the collisional interactions and physical nature of ring particles, transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms, and collision-induced transport processes in planetary rings. Also discussed are planetary ring waves, ring particle dynamics in resonances, the dynamics of narrow rings, the origin and evolution of planetary rings, the solar nebula and planetary disk, future studies of the planetary rings by space probes, ground-based observatories and earth-orbiting satellites, and unsolved problems in planetary ring dynamics.

  15. Unified Planetary Coordinates System: A Searchable Database of Geodetic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, K. J.a; Gaddis, L. R.; Soderblom, L. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Archinal, B. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Anderson, J. A.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; LaVoie, S.; McAuley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, an enormous quantity of orbital remote sensing data has been collected for Mars from many missions and instruments. Unfortunately these datasets currently exist in a wide range of disparate coordinate systems, making it extremely difficult for the scientific community to easily correlate, combine, and compare data from different Mars missions and instruments. As part of our work for the PDS Imaging Node and on behalf of the USGS Astrogeology Team, we are working to solve this problem and to provide the NASA scientific research community with easy access to Mars orbital data in a unified, consistent coordinate system along with a wide variety of other key geometric variables. The Unified Planetary Coordinates (UPC) system is comprised of two main elements: (1) a database containing Mars orbital remote sensing data computed using a uniform coordinate system, and (2) a process by which continual maintainance and updates to the contents of the database are performed.

  16. Miniaturized electronic system for the Planetary Integrated Camera-Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soll, Stanley L.; Graham, Richard; Ramirez, Luis J.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the design, and implementation of a miniaturized electronic system for the Planetary Integrated Camera Spectrometer (PICS). The PICS electronics demonstrate the application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and of analog hybrid technology to space flight multi-spectral systems. A discussion of the electronic system design illustrates how signals from a multi-sensor instrument containing an UV CCD, two visible CCDs, and a near-IR focal plane assembly can be processed through a common set of electronics. Following the system design discussion, the actual electronic design will be presented. Each miniaturized module will be discussed as to functionality and performance. The test setup for bench checkout of a cooled CCD and an IR FPA, including results with breadboard electronics and with the hybrids are also described.

  17. The distribution of period ratios in Kepler planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Hwang, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler's multi-planet systems are a valuable tool to understand the architectures and dynamics of the inner parts of planetary systems. I present an analysis of the distribution of orbital period ratios from candidate systems identified in the Quarter 8 catalog (Burke et al. 2014). This distribution is corrected for the effects of geometric transit probabilities and the completeness of the data reduction pipeline. We find that the distribution of period ratios falls as a power law with exponent -1.26 ± 0.05. We also identify a new, statistically significant feature near a period ratio of 2.2. These observations may provide insights into the formation and evolution of these systems.

  18. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft are presented.

  19. Ancillary Data Services of NASA's Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C.

    1994-01-01

    JPL's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) has primary responsibility for design and implementation of the SPICE ancillary information system, supporting a wide range of space science mission design, observation planning and data analysis functions/activities. NAIF also serves as the geometry and ancillary data node of the Planetary Data System (PDS). As part of the PDS, NAIF archives SPICE and other ancillary data produced by flight projects. NAIF then distributes these data, and associated data access software and high-level tools, to researchers funded by NASA's Office of Space Science. Support for a broader user community is also offered to the extent resources permit. This paper describes the SPICE system and customer support offered by NAIF.

  20. The planetary data system educational CD-ROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Martin, M.; Dueck, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is producing a special educational CD-ROM that contains samples of PDS datasets and is expected to be released in 1993. The CD-ROM will provide university-level instructors with PDS-compatible materials and information that can be used to construct student problem sets using real datasets. The main purposes of the CD-ROM are to facilitate wide use of planetary data and to introduce a large community to the PDS. To meet these objectives the Educational CD-ROM will also contain software to manipulate the data, background discussions about scientific questions that can be addressed with the data, and a suite of exercises that illustrate analysis techniques. Students will also be introduced to the SPICE concept, which is a new way of maintaining geometry and instrument information. The exercises will be presented at the freshman through graduate student levels. With simplification, some of the material should also be of use at the high school level.

  1. Spectral classification of stars likely to have planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Minniti, D.

    Since all the techniques used for the detection of extrasolar planets are indirect, the characterization of the detected planets is not always quite certain. Up to the present, around 150 planets have been discovered orbiting other stars. The estimation of planetary masses and radii depends on the physical parameters of the mother stars. Therefore, the more those star's parameters are defined, the more accurate the estimates of the masses and radii of their related planets will be. It is essential to count on a reliable spectral classification of these stars in order to estimate the main astrophysical parameters of the stars that have orbiting planets. In this work, we determine the spectral type and luminosity class of 52 bright stars which are likely to have planetary systems. The spectral classification was performed by comparing low resolution spectra obtained at CASLEO (Argentina) with template spectra taken from the Silva & Cornell (1992) library. 73% of the observed stars proved to be of G spectral type, whereas 94% turned out to be main sequence stars or very close to main sequence.

  2. Operation of the Planetary Plasma Interactions Node of the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    Five years ago NASA selected the Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) Node at UCLA to help the scientific community locate, access and preserve particles and fields data from planetary missions. We propose to continue to serve for 5 more years. During the first five years we have served the scientific community by providing them with high quality data products. We worked with missions and individual scientists to secure the highest quality data possible and to thoroughly document it. We validated the data, placed it on long lasting media and made sure it was properly archived for future use. So far we have prepared and archived over 10(exp 11) bytes of data from 26 instruments on 4 spacecraft. We have produced 106 CD-ROMs with peer reviewed data. In so doing, we have developed an efficient system to prepare and archive the data and thereby have been able to steadily increase the rate at which the data are produced. Although we produced a substantial archive during the initial five years, we have an even larger amount of work in progress. This includes preparing CD-ROM data sets with all of the Voyager, Pioneer and Ulysses data at Jupiter and Saturn. We will have the Jupiter data ready for the Galileo encounter in December, 1995. We are also completing the Pioneer Venus data restoration. The Galileo Venus archive and radio science data from Magellan will be prepared early in the next period. We are assisting the Small Bodies Node of PDS in the preparation of comet data and will be archiving the asteroid data from Galileo. We will be moving in several new directions as well. We will archive the PPI Node's first Earth based data with data from the International Jupiter Watch and Hubble data taken in support of Ulysses particles and field observations. We will work with the Cassini mission in archive planning efforts. For the inner planets we will begin an archive of Mars data starting with Phobos data and will support the US and Russian Mars missions in the late 1990's

  3. Operation of the Planetary Plasma Interactions Node of the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond J.

    1997-01-01

    Five years ago NASA selected the Planetary Plasma Interactions (PPI) Node at UCLA to help the scientific community locate, access and preserve particles and fields data from planetary missions. We propose to continue to serve for 5 more years. During the first five years we have served the scientific community by providing them with high quality data products. We worked with missions and individual scientists to secure the highest quality data possible and to thoroughly document it. We validated the data, placed it on long lasting media and made sure it was properly archived for future use. So far we have prepared and archived over 1011 bytes of data from 26 instruments on 4 spacecraft. We have produced 106 CD-ROMs with peer reviewed data. In so doing, we have developed an efficient system to prepare and archive the data and thereby have been able to steadily increase the rate at which the data are produced. Although we produced a substantial archive during the initial five years, we have an even larger amount of work in progress. This includes preparing CD-ROM data sets with all of the Voyager, Pioneer and Ulysses data at Jupiter and Saturn. We will have the Jupiter data ready for the Galileo encounter in December, 1995. We are also completing the Pioneer Venus data restoration. The Galileo Venus archive and radio science data from Magellan will be prepared early in the next period. We are assisting the Small Bodies Node of PDS in the preparation of comet data and will be archiving the asteroid data from Galileo. We will be moving in several new directions as well. We will archive the PPI Node's first Earth based data with data from the International Jupiter Watch and Hubble data taken in support of Ulysses particles and field observations. We will work with the Cassini mission in archive planning efforts. For the inner planets we will begin an archive of Mars data starting with Phobos data and will support the US and Russian Mars missions in the late 1990's. We

  4. Planetary Dynamics and Evolution in Evolved Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai; Kratter, K.; Kenyon, S.

    2011-09-01

    Exo-planets typically form in protoplanetary disks left over from the formation of their host star. We discuss additional evolutionary routes which may may exist in old evolved binary systems. Stellar evolution in binaries could lead to the formation of symbiotic stars, where mass is lost from one star and (partially) transferred to its binary companion, forming an accretion disk. Planetary orbits around the mass losing star can expand and destabilize, and may result in chaotic evolution. Possible outcomes include exchange of the planet to the companion star, ejection, collision, or tidal capture by one of the binary components. We show that the conditions in the newly formed accretion disk could be very similar to protoplanetary disks. Planets around the accreting companion may interact with the disk, leading to (re)growth and (re)migration of the planets. The disk may also provide the necessary environment for the formation of a new, second generation of planets in both circumstellar or circumbinary configurations. Pre-existing planets and/or planetesimals may serve as seeds for the formation of the second generation planets. Such systems should be found in white dwarf binary systems, and may show various unique observational signatures. Most notably, second generation planets could form in environments which are unfavorable for first generation planets. The phase space available for these planets could be forbidden (unstable) to first generation planets in the pre-evolved progenitor binaries. Planets may also form in double compact object binaries and in metal poor environments. Observations of exo-planets in such unfavorable regions could possibly serve to uniquely identify their second generation character. Finally, we point out a few observed candidate second generation planetary systems (Gl 86, HD 27442 and observed circumbinary planet candidates). A second generation origin for these systems could explain their unique configurations.

  5. Dynamical Tides and Oscillations in Star and Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Jim

    2015-04-01

    The oscillations of stars and planets are a powerful tool for understanding the structure and evolution of these bodies. In compact white dwarf (WD) binaries, tidally excited waves within the WDs deposit energy and angular momentum within the WDs, producing strong tidal dissipation. The tidal torque spins up the WDs such that they are nearly synchronously rotating by the onset of mass transfer. Tidal heating may make the WDs more luminous by orders of magnitude, and it could even reignite thermonuclear fusion in the WD's hydrogen shell. In various types of star systems observed by Kepler, tidally excited oscillations are detectable and provide direct constraints on tidal dissipation rates in these systems. Finally, in the planet Saturn, planetary oscillation modes have been detected via their gravitational influence on the rings. The frequencies of the modes allow for the first seismic constraints on a planet other than the Earth, and they provide evidence for non-conventional structures within Saturn.

  6. Debris Disks as Tracers of Nearby Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Many main-sequence stars possess tenuous circumstellar dust clouds believed to trace extrasolar analogs of the Sun's asteroid and Kuiper Belts. While most of these "debris disks" are known only from far-infrared photometry, dozens are now spatially resolved. In this talk, I'll review the observed structural properties of debris disks as revealed by imaging with the Hubble, Spitzer, and Herschel Space Telescopes. I will show how modeling of the far-infrared spectral energy distributions of resolved disks can be used to constrain their dust particle sizes and albedos. I will review cases of disks whose substructures suggest planetary perturbations, including a newly-discovered eccentric ring system. I'll conclude with thoughts on the potential of upcoming and proposed facilities to resolve similar structures around a greatly expanded sample of nearby debris systems.

  7. The Inner Debris Structure in the Fomalhaut Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Defrére, Denis; Wang, Kuo-Song; Lai, Shih-Ping; Wilner, David J.; van Lieshout, Rik; Lee, Chin-Fei

    2016-02-01

    Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice line, accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 μm (345 GHz) observations targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.″45 × 0.″37 (˜3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and an rms of 26 μJy beam-1. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3σ are detected in the central 15 AU × 15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range of ˜8-15 AU. This is consistent with the location where ice sublimates in Fomalhaut, i.e., an asteroid-belt analog. The 3σ upper limit for such a belt is <1.3 mJy at 870 μm. We also interpret the 2 and 8-13 μm interferometric measurements to reveal the structure in the inner 10 AU region as dust naturally connected to this proposed asteroid belt by Poynting-Robertson drag, dust sublimation, and magnetically trapped nanograins. Fomalhaut is a triple system; here we refer to the Fomalhaut planetary system as the one around the primary star Fomalhaut A.

  8. β Pictoris, a young planetary system? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Madjar, A.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Ferlet, R.

    1998-02-01

    β Pictoris is a bright southern hemisphere star observed in 1983 by the IRAS satellite as presenting a large and unexpected IR excess. This excess was called the Vega-like phenomenon and quickly identified as due to circumstellar dust. Subsequently in 1984, using stellar coronography, dust was also directly seen as an edge-on disk extended to several hundreds of AUs. Since then, β Pictoris has been continuously observed. We present here a review of our present understanding of the β Pictoris circumstellar environment which still appears unique in the solar neighborhood. The circumstellar dust disk is predominantly made of relatively large particles (one micron or more) extending outward to more than 1000 AU and presenting a clearer (dust free) central region away to about 35 AU from the star. The gas is detected through stable and variable spectroscopic signatures revealing a permanent gas disk with sporadic inflows and also a few outflows. These are partially interpreted in terms of evaporation of kilometer-sized bodies very close to the star. Evaporation or destruction through collisions of kilometer-sized bodies seems to be needed also to explain both the dust as well as the very presence of the CO molecule detected in the circumstellar gas. Several indirect arguments along with the observation of a very peculiar photometric variation of the star suggests that even giant planets may have already formed in the β Pictoris system. β Pictoris is thus possibly the missing link between young stellar objects presenting proto-planetary circumstellar disks and much more evolved systems in which planets (at least giant ones) are already formed. β Pictoris is probably a unique place where we may now observe planetary formation as well as other phenomena that have taken place in the first 10 8 years of a young stellar system.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session 'Outer Solar System" inlcuded:Monte Carlo Modeling of [O I] 630 nm Auroral Emission on Io; The Detection of Iron Sulfide on Io; Io and Loki in 2003 as Seen from the Infrared Telescope Facility Using Mutual Satellite and Jupiter Occultations; Mapping of the Zamama-Thor Region of Io; First Solar System Results of the Spitzer Space Telescope; Mapping the Surface of Pluto with the Hubble Space Telescope; Experimental Study on Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis in the Circum-Saturnian Subnebula; New High-Pressure Phases of Ammonia Dihydrate; Gas Hydrate Stability at Low Temperatures and High Pressures with Applications to Mars and Europa; Laboratory UV Photolysis of Planetary Ice Analogs Containing H2O + CO2 (1:1); The OH Stretch Infrared Band of Water Ice and Its Temperature and Radiation Dependence; Band Position Variations in Reflectance Spectra of the Jovian Satellite Ganymede; Comparison of Porosity and Radar Models for Europa s Near Surface; Combined Effects of Diurnal and Nonsynchronous Surface Stresses on Europa; Europa s Northern Trailing Hemisphere: Lineament Stratigraphic Framework; Europa at the Highest Resolution: Implications for Surface Processes and Landing Sites; Comparison of Methods to Determine Furrow System Centers on Ganymede and Callisto; Resurfacing of Ganymede by Liquid-Water Volcanism; Layered Ejecta Craters on Ganymede: Comparisons with Martian Analogs; Evaluation of the Possible Presence of CO2-Clathrates in Europa s Icy Shell or Seafloor; Geosciences at Jupiter s Icy Moons: The Midas Touch; Planetary Remote Sensing Science Enabled by MIDAS (Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor); and In Situ Surveying of Saturn s Rings.

  10. PLANETARY MIGRATION AND ECCENTRICITY AND INCLINATION RESONANCES IN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Man Hoi; Thommes, Edward W. E-mail: ethommes@physics.uoguelph.ca

    2009-09-10

    The differential migration of two planets due to planet-disk interaction can result in capture into the 2:1 eccentricity-type mean-motion resonances. Both the sequence of 2:1 eccentricity resonances that the system is driven through by continued migration and the possibility of a subsequent capture into the 4:2 inclination resonances are sensitive to the migration rate within the range expected for type II migration due to planet-disk interaction. If the migration rate is fast, the resonant pair can evolve into a family of 2:1 eccentricity resonances different from those found by Lee. This new family has outer orbital eccentricity e {sub 2} {approx}> 0.4-0.5, asymmetric librations of both eccentricity resonance variables, and orbits that intersect if they are exactly coplanar. Although this family exists for an inner-to-outer planet mass ratio m {sub 1}/m {sub 2} {approx}> 0.2, it is possible to evolve into this family by fast migration only for m {sub 1}/m {sub 2} {approx}> 2. Thommes and Lissauer have found that a capture into the 4:2 inclination resonances is possible only for m {sub 1}/m {sub 2} {approx}< 2. We show that this capture is also possible for m {sub 1}/m {sub 2} {approx}> 2 if the migration rate is slightly slower than that adopted by Thommes and Lissauer. There is significant theoretical uncertainty in both the sign and the magnitude of the net effect of planet-disk interaction on the orbital eccentricity of a planet. If the eccentricity is damped on a timescale comparable to or shorter than the migration timescale, e {sub 2} may not be able to reach the values needed to enter either the new 2:1 eccentricity resonances or the 4:2 inclination resonances. Thus, if future observations of extrasolar planetary systems were to reveal certain combinations of mass ratio and resonant configuration, they would place a constraint on the strength of eccentricity damping during migration, as well as on the rate of the migration itself.

  11. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  12. Constraining Planetary Migration Mechanisms in Systems of Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Johnson, John Asher

    2014-01-01

    It was once widely believed that planets formed peacefully in situ in their proto-planetary disks and subsequently remain in place. Instead, growing evidence suggests that many giant planets undergo dynamical rearrangement that results in planets migrating inward in the disk, far from their birthplaces. However, it remains debated whether this migration is caused by smooth planet-disk interactions or violent multi-body interactions. Both classes of model can produce Jupiter-mass planets orbiting within 0.1 AU of their host stars, also known as hot Jupiters. In the latter class of model, another planet or star in the system perturbs the Jupiter onto a highly eccentric orbit, which tidal dissipation subsequently shrinks and circularizes during close passages to the star. We assess the prevalence of smooth vs. violent migration through two studies. First, motivated by the predictions of Socrates et al. (2012), we search for super-eccentric hot Jupiter progenitors by using the ``photoeccentric effect'' to measure the eccentricities of Kepler giant planet candidates from their transit light curves. We find a significant lack of super- eccentric proto-hot Jupiters compared to the number expected, allowing us to place an upper limit on the fraction of hot Jupiters created by stellar binaries. Second, if both planet-disk and multi-body interactions commonly cause giant planet migration, physical properties of the proto-planetary environment may determine which is triggered. We identify three trends in which giant planets orbiting metal rich stars show signatures of planet-planet interactions: (1) gas giants orbiting within 1 AU of metal-rich stars have a range of eccentricities, whereas those orbiting metal- poor stars are restricted to lower eccentricities; (2) metal-rich stars host most eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization; and (3) the pile-up of short-period giant planets, missing in the Kepler sample, is a feature of metal-rich stars and is

  13. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  14. Probing Nearby Planetary Systems by Debris Disk Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Many main-sequence stars possess tenuous circumstellar dust clouds believed to trace extrasolar analogs of the Sun's asteroidand Kuiper Belts. While most of these "debris disks" are known only from far-infrared photometry, a growing number of them are now spatially resolved. In this talk, I'll review what is currently known about the structure of debris disks. Using images from the Hubble, Spitzer, and Herschel Space Telescopes, I will show how modeling of these resolved systems can place strong constraints on dust particle properties in the disks. Some of the disks show disturbed structures suggestive of planetary perturbations: specific cases will be discussed where directly-imaged exoplanets are clearly affecting debris disk structure. I'll conclude with thoughts on the future of high contrast exoplanet imaging.

  15. Detection of the water reservoir in a forming planetary system.

    PubMed

    Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Bergin, Edwin A; Brinch, Christian; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Fogel, Jeffrey K J; Blake, Geoffrey A; Dominik, Carsten; Lis, Dariusz C; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Panić, Olja; Pearson, John C; Kristensen, Lars; Yildiz, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2011-10-21

    Icy bodies may have delivered the oceans to the early Earth, yet little is known about water in the ice-dominated regions of extrasolar planet-forming disks. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory has detected emission lines from both spin isomers of cold water vapor from the disk around the young star TW Hydrae. This water vapor likely originates from ice-coated solids near the disk surface, hinting at a water ice reservoir equivalent to several thousand Earth oceans in mass. The water's ortho-to-para ratio falls well below that of solar system comets, suggesting that comets contain heterogeneous ice mixtures collected across the entire solar nebula during the early stages of planetary birth. PMID:22021851

  16. TOPS: Toward Other Planetary Systems. A report by the solar system exploration division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a general plan and the pertinent technological requirements for TOPS (Toward Other Planetary Systems), a staged program to ascertain the prevalence and character of other planetary systems and to construct a definitive picture of the formation of stars and their planets. The first stages focus on discovering and studying a significant number of fully formed planetary systems, as well as expanding current studies of protoplanetary systems. As the TOPS Program evolves, emphasis will shift toward intensive study of the discovered systems and of individual planets. Early stages of the TOPS Program can be undertaken with ground-based observations and space missions comparable in scale to those now being performed. In the long term, however, TOPS will become an ambitious program that challenges our capabilities and provides impetus for major space initiatives and new technologies.

  17. Isotopic enrichment of forming planetary systems from supernova pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Tim; Parker, Richard J.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    Heating by short-lived radioisotopes (SLRs) such as 26Al and 60Fe fundamentally shaped the thermal history and interior structure of Solar System planetesimals during the early stages of planetary formation. The subsequent thermo-mechanical evolution, such as internal differentiation or rapid volatile degassing, yields important implications for the final structure, composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. SLR-driven heating in the Solar System is sensitive to the absolute abundance and homogeneity of SLRs within the protoplanetary disk present during the condensation of the first solids. In order to explain the diverse compositions found for extrasolar planets, it is important to understand the distribution of SLRs in active planet formation regions (star clusters) during their first few Myr of evolution. By constraining the range of possible effects, we show how the imprint of SLRs can be extrapolated to exoplanetary systems and derive statistical predictions for the distribution of 26Al and 60Fe based on N-body simulations of typical to large clusters (103-104 stars) with a range of initial conditions. We quantify the pollution of protoplanetary disks by supernova ejecta and show that the likelihood of enrichment levels similar to or higher than the Solar System can vary considerably, depending on the cluster morphology. Furthermore, many enriched systems show an excess in radiogenic heating compared to Solar System levels, which implies that the formation and evolution of planetesimals could vary significantly depending on the birth environment of their host stars.

  18. Revised planetary protection policy for solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devincenzi, D. L.; Stabekis, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    In order to control contamination of planets by terrestrial microorganisms and organic constituents, U.S. planetary missions have been governed by a planetary protection (or planetary quarantine) policy which has changed little since 1972. This policy has recently been reviewed in light of new information obtained from planetary exploration during the past decade and because of changes to, or uncertainties in, some parameters used in the existing quantitative approach. On the basis of this analysis, a revised planetary protection policy with the following key features is proposed: deemphasizing the use of mathematical models and quantitative analyses; establishing requirements for target planet/mission type (i.e., Orbiter, Lander, etc.) combinations; considering sample return missions a separate category; simplifying documentation; and imposing implementing procedures (i.e., trajectory biasing, cleanroom assembly, spacecraft sterilization, etc.) by exception, i.e., only if the planet/mission combination warrants such controls.

  19. Chaotic diffusion in the Gliese-876 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, J. G.; Cincotta, P. M.; Beaugé, C.

    2016-07-01

    Chaotic diffusion is supposed to be responsible for orbital instabilities in planetary systems after the dissipation of the protoplanetary disc, and a natural consequence of irregular motion. In this paper, we show that resonant multiplanetary systems, despite being highly chaotic, not necessarily exhibit significant diffusion in phase space, and may still survive virtually unchanged over time-scales comparable to their age. Using the GJ-876 system as an example, we analyse the chaotic diffusion of the outermost (and less massive) planet. We construct a set of stability maps in the surrounding regions of the Laplace resonance. We numerically integrate ensembles of close initial conditions, compute Poincaré maps and estimate the chaotic diffusion present in this system. Our results show that, the Laplace resonance contains two different regions: an inner domain characterized by low chaoticity and slow diffusion, and an outer one displaying larger values of dynamical indicators. In the outer resonant domain, the stochastic borders of the Laplace resonance seem to prevent the complete destruction of the system. We characterize the diffusion for small ensembles along the parameters of the outermost planet. Finally, we perform a stability analysis of the inherent chaotic, albeit stable Laplace resonance, by linking the behaviour of the resonant variables of the configurations to the different sub-structures inside the three-body resonance.

  20. Planetary Systems Associated with Main-Sequence Stars.

    PubMed

    Brown, H

    1964-09-11

    The luminosity function is used to estimate the number of invisible planet-like objects in the neighborhood of the sun, taking into account the likely chemical composition of planets in relation to the composition of main-sequence stars. There may be about 60 objects more massive than Mars for every visible star. An attempt is made to estimate the distribution of these planet-like cold bodies in relation to stars. It is suggested that stars, together with cold objects, were formed in clusters of bodies of random size distribution. Clusters averaging about 50 bodies each account for the observed distribution of frequencies of double and triple star systems relative to single stars. On this basis, virtually every star should have a planetary system associated with it. As a corollary, systems of cold bodies in which there are no luminous stars should be abundant. The possible distribution of planets around such stars has been studied, making use of the observed orbital characteristics of double star systems. It is concluded that favorable conditions for life processes may be far more abundant than has generally been thought possible. PMID:17743661

  1. Natural fracture systems on planetary surfaces: Genetic classification and pattern randomness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, Lisa A.

    1987-01-01

    One method for classifying natural fracture systems is by fracture genesis. This approach involves the physics of the formation process, and it has been used most frequently in attempts to predict subsurface fractures and petroleum reservoir productivity. This classification system can also be applied to larger fracture systems on any planetary surface. One problem in applying this classification system to planetary surfaces is that it was developed for ralatively small-scale fractures that would influence porosity, particularly as observed in a core sample. Planetary studies also require consideration of large-scale fractures. Nevertheless, this system offers some valuable perspectives on fracture systems of any size.

  2. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  3. On the Dynamical State of the HD 82943 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xianyu; Lee, M. H.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Wright, J. T.

    2012-05-01

    We present new results from an analysis of radial velocity data of the HD 82943 planetary system based on 10 years of measurements obtained with the Keck telescope. Previous study has shown that the HD 82943 system has two planets that are likely in 2:1 mean-motion resonance (MMR), with the orbital periods about 220 and 440 days (Lee et al. 2006). However, alternative fits that are qualitatively different have also been suggested, with the two planets in 1:1 resonance or the addition of a third planet possibly in a Laplace 4:2:1 resonance with the other two (Gozdziewski & Konacki 2006; Beague et al. 2008). Here we use the chi-square minimization method combined with parameter grid search to investigate the orbital parameters and dynamical states of the qualitatively different types of fits. Our results tend to support the 2:1 MMR configuration for this system. The fits of coplanar 2:1 MMR show a chi-square minimum at 20 degree inclination that is dynamically stable with both resonant angles librating around 0 degree. The fits of 1:1 resonance and 3-planet Laplace resonance are ruled out according to chi-square statistic and dynamical instability. This work is supported in part by Hong Kong RGC grant HKU 7034/09P.

  4. PLANETARY PHASE VARIATIONS OF THE 55 CANCRI SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ciardi, David R.; Dragomir, Diana; Von Braun, Kaspar

    2011-10-20

    Characterization of the composition, surface properties, and atmospheric conditions of exoplanets is a rapidly progressing field as the data to study such aspects become more accessible. Bright targets, such as the multi-planet 55 Cancri system, allow an opportunity to achieve high signal-to-noise for the detection of photometric phase variations to constrain the planetary albedos. The recent discovery that innermost planet, 55 Cancri e, transits the host star introduces new prospects for studying this system. Here we calculate photometric phase curves at optical wavelengths for the system with varying assumptions for the surface and atmospheric properties of 55 Cancri e. We show that the large differences in geometric albedo allows one to distinguish between various surface models, that the scattering phase function cannot be constrained with foreseeable data, and that planet b will contribute significantly to the phase variation, depending upon the surface of planet e. We discuss detection limits and how these models may be used with future instrumentation to further characterize these planets and distinguish between various assumptions regarding surface conditions.

  5. On the formation age of the first planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, T.; Kunitomo, S.; Shigeyasu, M.; Kajiura, D.

    2008-05-01

    Recently, it has been observed the extreme metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, which must be formed just after Pop III objects. On the other hand, the first gas clouds of mass 106 M are supposed to be formed at z 10, 20, and 30 for the 1σ, 2σ and 3σ, where the density perturbations are assumed of the standard ΛCDM cosmology. Usually it is approximated that the distribution of the density perturbation amplitudes is gaussian where σ means the standard deviation. If we could apply this gaussian distribution to the extreme small probability, the gas clouds would be formed at z 40, 60, and 80 for the 4σ, 6σ, and 8σ where the probabilities are approximately 3 × 10-5, 10-9, and 10-15. Within our universe, there are almost 1016 ( 1022M/106M) clouds of mass 106M. Then the first gas clouds must be formed around z 80, where the time is 20 Myr ( 13.7/(1 + z)3/2 Gyr). Even within our galaxy, there are 105 ( 1011M/106M) clouds, then the first gas clouds within our galaxy must be formed around z 40, where the time is 54 Myr ( 13.7/(1+z)3/2Gyr). The evolution time for massive star ( 102 M) is 3 Myr and the explosion of the massive supernova distributes the metal within a cloud. The damping time of the supernova shock wave in the adiabatic and isothermal era is several Myr and stars of the second generation (Pop II) are formed within a free fall time 20 Myr. Even if the gas cloud is metal poor, there is a lot of possibility to form the planets around such stars. The first planetary systems could be formed within 6 × 107 years after the Big Bang in the universe. Even in our galaxies, the first planetary systems could be formed within 1.7 × 108 years. If the abundance of heavy elements such as Fe is small compared to the elements of C, N, O, the planets must be the one where the rock fraction is small. It is interesting to wait the observations of planets around metal-poor stars. For the panspermia theory, the origin of life could be expected in such systems.

  6. THERMAL INFRARED MMTAO OBSERVATIONS OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Meyer, Michael R.; Heinze, Aren N.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-06-10

    We present direct imaging observations at wavelengths of 3.3, 3.8 (L' band), and 4.8 (M band) {mu}m, for the planetary system surrounding HR 8799. All three planets are detected at L' . The c and d components are detected at 3.3 {mu}m, and upper limits are derived from the M-band observations. These observations provide useful constraints on warm giant planet atmospheres. We discuss the current age constraints on the HR 8799 system and show that several potential co-eval objects can be excluded from being co-moving with the star. Comparison of the photometry is made to models for giant planet atmospheres. Models that include non-equilibrium chemistry provide a reasonable match to the colors of c and d. From the observed colors in the thermal infrared, we estimate T {sub eff} < 960 K for b and T {sub eff} = 1300 and 1170 K for c and d, respectively. This provides an independent check on the effective temperatures and thus masses of the objects from the Marois et al. results.

  7. Thermal Infrared MMTAO Observations of the HR 8799 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy J.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Heinze, Aren N.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2010-06-01

    We present direct imaging observations at wavelengths of 3.3, 3.8 (L' band), and 4.8 (M band) μm, for the planetary system surrounding HR 8799. All three planets are detected at L' . The c and d components are detected at 3.3 μm, and upper limits are derived from the M-band observations. These observations provide useful constraints on warm giant planet atmospheres. We discuss the current age constraints on the HR 8799 system and show that several potential co-eval objects can be excluded from being co-moving with the star. Comparison of the photometry is made to models for giant planet atmospheres. Models that include non-equilibrium chemistry provide a reasonable match to the colors of c and d. From the observed colors in the thermal infrared, we estimate T eff < 960 K for b and T eff = 1300 and 1170 K for c and d, respectively. This provides an independent check on the effective temperatures and thus masses of the objects from the Marois et al. results. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Formation of Misaligned Planetary Systems: Primordial Spin-Disk Misalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Significant stellar obliquities have been observed in many exoplanetary systems containing hot Jupiters, including some coplanar multiplanet systems. It is traditionally assumed that planet migration in protoplanetary disks leads to aligned planetary orbital axis and stellar spin axis. This may not be the case because the diskitself may be misaligned with the protostar, for several reasons: (1) Since star formation takes place in a turbulent medium, the accreting gas assembled onto a protoplanetary disk may have a varying direction of angular momentum; (2) Magnetic star-disk interaction may produce a misalignment torque between the stellar spin and the disk; (3) Perturbation from a binary companion can change the orientation of the disk. We critically examine these mechanisms for generating primordial spin-disk misalignments. The importance of star-disk-binary interactions and the possibility of secular spin-orbit resonance in producing large stellar obliquities will be emphasized. The effects and uncertainties involving the dynamics of warped disks and star-disk magnetic interactions will be discussed. Possible observational constraints and tests on primordial misalignments will also be discussed, including the observed correlation between the stellar obliquity and effective temperature.

  9. VLA Reveals a Close Pair of Potential Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    in Cambridge, MA. "However, we don't think these solar systems would be able to form outer, icy planets like Uranus and Neptune, because of the small size of the dust disks." The new observations "imply that young protoplanetary disks can contain considerably more mass within (a distance equal to Saturn's orbital radius) than astronomers have been willing to contemplate," wrote Alan P. Boss of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in an accompanying Nature article analyzing the results. If the stars were a few times closer together, the researchers point out, the gravitational effects of both would disrupt the disks and prevent any planets from forming. "If these disks form planetary systems, they would be among the closest possible adjacent sets of planets in the universe," said Rodriguez. Boss suggested that a giant planet formed near the edge of one of the disks might be ejected from the system by the gravitational effect of the companion star. This, he says, might explain the possible "runaway planet" shown in a Hubble Space Telescope image released in May. In that result, a planet appears to have been ejected by a binary-star system similar in size to that seen by the VLA. Further observations are required to confirm that result. In addition to Rodriguez and Wilner, the researchers are Paola D'Alessio, Salvador Curiel, Yolanda Gomez, Susana Lizano, Jorge Canto, and Alejandro C. Raga of the National Autonomous University in Mexico City; Paul Ho of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Jose M. Torrelles of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia in Spain; and Alan Pedlar of the Jodrell Bank observatory in Britain. The observations of the double-star system were made at a radio wavelength of 7 millimeters, a wavelength at which emission from cosmic dust is readily detected. Astronomers long realized that the VLA had sufficient resolving power - the ability to see fine detail - to make images of the dust disks around young stars that form the building

  10. Formation, Orbital and Internal Evolutions of Young Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruteau, Clément; Bai, Xuening; Mordasini, Christoph; Mollière, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The growing body of observational data on extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks has stimulated intense research on planet formation and evolution in the past few years. The extremely diverse, sometimes unexpected physical and orbital characteristics of exoplanets lead to frequent updates on the mainstream scenarios for planet formation and evolution, but also to the exploration of alternative avenues. The aim of this review is to bring together classical pictures and new ideas on the formation, orbital and internal evolutions of planets, highlighting the key role of the protoplanetary disk in the various parts of the theory. We begin by briefly reviewing the conventional mechanism of core accretion by the growth of planetesimals, and discuss a relatively recent model of core growth through the accretion of pebbles. We review the basic physics of planet-disk interactions, recent progress in this area, and discuss their role in observed planetary systems. We address the most important effects of planets internal evolution, like cooling and contraction, the mass-luminosity relation, and the bulk composition expressed in the mass-radius and mass-mean density relations.

  11. Carrier-less, anti-backlash planetary drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier-less, anti-backlash planetary gear system that has an input sun gear, a force-balancing and planet-alignment 'speeder' gear above the sun gear, a split ring gear that has a fixed lower ring gear coaxial with the sun gear and a rotating upper ring gear also coaxial with the sun gear. A preload bolt is used for securing the split ring gears together. Within the split ring gear is an even number of planet gears between the split ring gear and the sun gear. Each planet gear consists of an upper planet gear, and lower planet gear with the upper and lower planet gears splined together and pushed apart by a spring which causes separation and relative twist between the upper and lower planet gears. The lower planet gear meshes with the input sun gear and the fixed ring gear while the upper planet gear is driven by the lower planet gear and meshes with the rotating ring gear.

  12. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project employs an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn s moon, Titan.

  13. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  14. The diversity of planetary system from formation/composition population synthesis models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Yann; thiabaud, amaury; marboeuf, ulysses; swoboda, david; benz, willy; mezger, klaus; leya, ingo

    2015-12-01

    Extrasolar planetary systems show an extreme diversity in mass and orbital architecture. Explaining this diversity is one of the key challenges for theoretical models and requires understanding the formation, composition and evolution of planetary systems from the stage of the protoplanetary disk up to the full mature planetary system. Such an effort needs the development of end-to-end, necessarily simplified, formation models used in a population synthesis approach. We present in this contribution such planetary system formation and composition models. Our planetary system formation models include the following effects: planetary growth by capture of solids and gas, protoplanetary disk structure and evolution, planet-planet and planet-disk interactions. In addition, we compute the composition of the solids and gas in the protoplanetary disk and their evolution with time. The formation and composition models allow therefore the determination of the composition of planets in terms of refractory elements (Mg, Si, Fe, etc…) as well as volatile compounds (water, CO2, CO, NH3, etc…), in a way that is self-consistent with the formation process of the different members of the planetary system. We will show the results of these formation/composition models, and will compare the diversity of observed and synthetic planetary systems. Considering the solar system, we will show how different formation scenarios translate into different planetary compositions. Finally, we will demonstrate how the simultaneous determination of mass and radius of a statistical number of warm to cold earth to neptune mass bodies at different ages can be used to constrain the composition (in particular the volatile content) of planets, and how the same observations (mass, radius, period) can be used in order to select planets that are best suited for follow-up habitability studies.

  15. Use of a multimission system for cost effective support of planetary science data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William B.

    1994-01-01

    JPL's Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) provides a multimission facility at JPL for processing science instrument data from NASA's planetary missions. This facility, the Multimission Image Processing System (MIPS), is developed and maintained by MOSO to meet requirements that span the NASA family of planetary missions. Although the word 'image' appears in the title, MIPS is used to process instrument data from a variety of science instruments. This paper describes the design of a new system architecture now being implemented within the MIPS to support future planetary mission activities at significantly reduced operations and maintenance cost.

  16. Passage of a ''Nemesis''-like object through the planetary system

    SciTech Connect

    Hills, J.G.

    1985-09-01

    The probability that passing stars could have perturbed the hypothetical stellar companion, Nemesis, into an orbit that penetrates the planetary system is about 15%. The planetary orbits crossed by Nemesis would become highly eccentric, and some would even become hyperbolic. If Nemesis ejects Jupiter from the solar system, the semimajor axis of the orbit of Nemesis would shrink down to a few hundred AU. The probability of any object in the inner edge of the Oort cloud at a semimajor axis of 2 x 10/sup 4/ AU having passed inside the orbit of Saturn is about 80%. The apparent lack of damage to the planetary orbits implies a low probability of there being any objects more massive than 0.02 M/sub sun/ in the inner edge of the Oort comet cloud. However, several objects less massive than 0.01 M/sub sun/ or 10 Jupiter masses could pass through the planetary system from the Oort cloud without causing any significant damage to the planetary orbits. The lack of damage to the planetary system also requires that no black dwarf more massive than 0.05 M/sub sun/ has entered the planetary system from interstellar space.

  17. Volcanic water flows could have flooded Ganymede's planetary rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.; Clifford, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Global expansion on Ganymede of only 1 or 2% created a planetary rift system which was resurfaced over a significant period of the planet's history creating bright, grooved terrain. The most reasonable model entails flooding of grabens by water or slush magmas which rose to the surface along normal faults in the rift system. Various models exist for the origin of the water magmas including isostatic rise of freezing ice I or diapirs of unstable ice III. A model considering the heat balance at the surface of an ice-covered water flow is constructed with the simplifying assumption that both laminar flow and a solid ice cover are achieved relatively soon after eruption. The ice cover will thicken until the underlying flowing water is entirely frozen. Energy into the system comes from solar radiation and the latent heat of freezing. Energy lost will be by evaporative and radiative cooling at the ice surface and by conduction into the substratum. Solving the heat balance allows a prediction for the volume of magma that can flood the surface. For example a flow 5 m thick will take tens of days to freeze, so that discharge rates equal to that of average terrestrial basalt flows could flood relatively large areas of the surface before freezing. Volcanic flooding is therefore a physically viable mechanism for the origin of bright terrain. During freezing the water/ice volume increases, lifting and fracturing the ice cover. These fractures may localize continued tectonic forces producing large displacements and creating the present grooved terrain.

  18. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  19. Multiple mean motion resonances in the HR 8799 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździewski, Krzysztof; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2014-06-01

    HR 8799 is a nearby star hosting at least four ˜10 mJup planets in wide orbits up to ˜70 au, detected through the direct, high-contrast infrared imaging. Large companions and debris discs reported interior to ˜10 au, and exterior to ˜100 au indicate massive protoplanetary disc in the past. The dynamical state of the HR 8799 system is not yet fully resolved, due to limited astrometric data covering tiny orbital arcs. We construct a new orbital model of the HR 8799 system, assuming rapid migration of the planets after their formation in wider orbits. We found that the HR 8799 planets are likely involved in double Laplace resonance, 1e:2d:4c:8b MMR. Quasi-circular planetary orbits are coplanar with the stellar equator and inclined by ˜25° to the sky plane. This best-fitting orbital configuration matches astrometry, debris disc models, and mass estimates from cooling models. The multiple mean motion resonance (MMR) is stable for the age of the star ˜160 Myr, for at least 1 Gyr unless significant perturbations to the N-body dynamics are present. We predict four configurations with the fifth hypothetical innermost planet HR 8799f in ˜9.7 au, or ˜7.5 au orbit, extending the MMR chain to triple Laplace resonance 1f:2e:4d:8c:16b MMR or to the 1f:3e:6d:12c:24b MMR, respectively. Our findings may establish strong boundary conditions for the system formation and its early history.

  20. A Pacific Teacher Enhancement Program - Toward Other Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen; Slater, T. F.; Mattei, J. A.; Kadooka, M. A.

    The NSF has funded a 5-year program of Teacher Enhancement based on the theme of ``Toward Other Planetary Systems'' to be held on the big island of Hawaii from 1999-2004. The purpose of the workshop is to help local and US-affiliated Pacific teachers acquire basic astronomy content and gain insight into exciting research activities in contemporary astronomy. Instructional skills will be strengthened by providing the teachers with new materials, evaluation techniques, resources and extensive follow-up. There will also be a vigorous student component to the program where students will be provided an exciting introduction to careers in astronomy, technology, and the sciences. Discussions of how astronomers are using the telescopes on Mauna Kea, around the world, and in space to search for evidence of planet formation in other solar systems - origins - and to search for life elsewhere will open up a new awareness of the forefront of astronomical research in Hawaii and around the world. The first program will be held from June 13-July 1, 1999, and this talk will highlight the program activities. The program is unique in that it combines the modern astronomical exploration in searching for new worlds with an exploration of the ancient polynesian and Hawaiian techniques of astronomical navigation. Cultural astronomy in Hawaii is a relatively new discipline, with remarkable discoveries into the ancienet polynesian navigational / astronomical system being made. This science has exceptional motivational potential for a large fraction of Hawaiian students. This program is a collaboration between the AAVSO, the Montana State University NASA CERES project, the Bishop Museum, the Pacific Regional Educational Lab, the Hawaii Department of Education, the Institute for Astronomy, and the Hawaii Astronomical Association.

  1. An old disk still capable of forming a planetary system.

    PubMed

    Bergin, Edwin A; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Gorti, Uma; Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A; Green, Joel D; Andrews, Sean M; Evans, Neal J; Henning, Thomas; Oberg, Karin; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Qi, Chunhua; Salyk, Colette; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-01-31

    From the masses of the planets orbiting the Sun, and the abundance of elements relative to hydrogen, it is estimated that when the Solar System formed, the circumstellar disk must have had a minimum mass of around 0.01 solar masses within about 100 astronomical units of the star. (One astronomical unit is the Earth-Sun distance.) The main constituent of the disk, gaseous molecular hydrogen, does not efficiently emit radiation from the disk mass reservoir, and so the most common measure of the disk mass is dust thermal emission and lines of gaseous carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide emission generally indicates properties of the disk surface, and the conversion from dust emission to gas mass requires knowledge of the grain properties and the gas-to-dust mass ratio, which probably differ from their interstellar values. As a result, mass estimates vary by orders of magnitude, as exemplified by the relatively old (3-10 million years) star TW Hydrae, for which the range is 0.0005-0.06 solar masses. Here we report the detection of the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen deuteride from the direction of TW Hydrae. Hydrogen deuteride is a good tracer of disk gas because it follows the distribution of molecular hydrogen and its emission is sensitive to the total mass. The detection of hydrogen deuteride, combined with existing observations and detailed models, implies a disk mass of more than 0.05 solar masses, which is enough to form a planetary system like our own. PMID:23364742

  2. Pebble Accretion and the Diversity of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the standard model of planet formation, including pebble accretion, using numerical simulations. Planetary embryos that are large enough to become giant planets do not form beyond the ice line within a typical disk lifetime unless icy pebbles stick at higher speeds than in experiments using rocky pebbles. Systems like the solar system (small inner planets and giant outer planets) can form if icy pebbles are stickier than rocky pebbles, and if the planetesimal formation efficiency increases with pebble size, which prevents the formation of massive terrestrial planets. Growth beyond the ice line is dominated by pebble accretion. Most growth occurs early, when the surface density of the pebbles is high due to inward drift of the pebbles from the outer disk. Growth is much slower after the outer disk is depleted. The outcome is sensitive to the disk radius and turbulence level, which control the lifetime and maximum size of pebbles. The outcome is sensitive to the size of the largest planetesimals because there is a threshold mass for the onset of pebble accretion. The planetesimal formation rate is unimportant, provided that some large planetesimals form while the pebbles remain abundant. Two outcomes are seen, depending on whether pebble accretion begins while the pebbles are still abundant. Either multiple gas-giant planets form beyond the ice line, small planets form close to the star, and a Kuiper-belt-like disk of bodies is scattered outward by the giant planets; or no giants form and the bodies remain an Earth-mass or smaller.

  3. The planetary nebula system and dynamics of NGC 5128. I - Planetary nebulae as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Xiaohui; Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.

    1993-01-01

    We present the result of a planetary nebula (PN) survey of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 performed with CCD cameras at the prime focus of the CTIO 4 m telescope. By comparing CCD images centered on the characteristic emission line forbidden O III 5007 A and on the adjacent continuum, we identify a total of 785 PNs in areas extending 20 kpc along the photometric major axis and covering the whole galaxy to 10 kpc. From these data, we form a complete sample of 224 PNs extending to a dereddened limiting magnitude of m5007 = 24.8, which extends 1.5 mag down the PN luminosity function (PNLF). Adopting a foreground extinction of E(B-V) = 0.1, we derive a distance to the galaxy of 3.5 +/- 0.2 Mpc, in excellent agreement with the surface brightness fluctuation method. No population effect on the bright cutoff of PNLF is observed in the isophotal radius range of 2-16 kpc, but the luminosity specific PN density seems to increase with radius inside of 7 kpc, in agreement with the alpha(2.5)-color relation observed for other galaxies.

  4. Planetary system formation in thermally evolving viscous protoplanetary discs.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Richard P; Hellary, Phil; Fendyke, Stephen M; Coleman, Gavin

    2014-04-28

    Observations of extrasolar planets are providing new opportunities for furthering our understanding of planetary formation processes. In this paper, we review planet formation and migration scenarios and describe some recent simulations that combine planetary accretion and gas-disc-driven migration. While the simulations are successful at forming populations of low- and intermediate-mass planets with short orbital periods, similar to those that are being observed by ground- and space-based surveys, our models fail to form any gas giant planets that survive migration into the central star. The simulation results are contrasted with observations, and areas of future model development are discussed. PMID:24664913

  5. XML-based information system for planetary sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    EuroPlaNet (EPN in the following) has been developed by the planetological community under the "Sixth Framework Programme" (FP6 in the following), the European programme devoted to the improvement of the European research efforts through the creation of an internal market for science and technology. The goal of the EPN programme is the creation of a European network aimed to the diffusion of data produced by space missions dedicated to the study of the Solar System. A special place within the EPN programme is that of I.D.I.S. (Integrated and Distributed Information Service). The main goal of IDIS is to offer to the planetary science community a user-friendly access to the data and information produced by the various types of research activities, i.e. Earth-based observations, space observations, modeling, theory and laboratory experiments. During the FP6 programme IDIS development consisted in the creation of a series of thematic nodes, each of them specialized in a specific scientific domain, and a technical coordination node. The four thematic nodes are the Atmosphere node, the Plasma node, the Interiors & Surfaces node and the Small Bodies & Dust node. The main task of the nodes have been the building up of selected scientific cases related with the scientific domain of each node. The second work done by EPN nodes have been the creation of a catalogue of resources related to their main scientific theme. Both these efforts have been used as the basis for the development of the main IDIS goal, i.e. the integrated distributed service. An XML-based data model have been developed to describe resources using meta-data and to store the meta-data within an XML-based database called eXist. A search engine has been then developed in order to allow users to search resources within the database. Users can select the resource type and can insert one or more values or can choose a value among those present in a list, depending on selected resource. The system searches for all

  6. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.

    1998-01-01

    The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) was designed to search for Jovian-mass planets in orbit around solar-type stars by making high-precision measurements of the Radial Velocity (RV) of a star, to attempt to detect the reflex orbital motion of the star around the star-planet barycenter. In our solar system, the velocity of the Sun around the Sun-Jupiter barycenter averages 12.3 m/ s. The MOPS survey started operation in September 1987, and searches 36 bright, nearby, solar-type dwarfs to 10 m/s precision. The survey was started using telluric O2 absorption lines as the velocity reference metric. Observations use the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m Harlan Smith Telescope coude spectrograph with the six-foot camera. This spectrograph configuration isolates a single order of the echelle grating on a Texas Instruments 800 x 800 CCD. The telluric line method gave us a routine radial velocity precision of about 15 m/s for stars down to about 5-th magnitude. However, the data obtained with this technique suffered from some source of long-term systematic errors, which was probably the intrinsic velocity variability of the terrestrial atmosphere, i.e. winds. In order to eliminate this systematic error and to improve our overall measurement precision, we installed a stabilized I2 gas absorption cell as the velocity metric for the MOPS in October 1990. In use at the telescope, the cell is placed directly in front of the spectrograph entrance slit, with starlight passing through the cell. The use of this sealed stabilized I2 cell removes potential problems with possible long-term drifts in the velocity metric. The survey now includes a sample of 36 nearby F, G, and K type stars of luminosity class V or IV-V.

  7. Planetary volcanism - A study of volcanic activity in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattermole, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The nature of volcanic activity, theoretical models of its role in planetary evolution, and the evidence for volcanism on the planets and planetary satellites are examined in an introductory overview for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Chapters are devoted to volcanism as a planetary process, the generation and evolution of magmas, magma ascent and eruption, the properties and behavior of volcanic flows, volcanic landforms, the distribution of volcanic rocks in the solar system, and volcanic plains and their development. Consideration is given to lunar volcanism, shield volcanoes and paterae, volcanism on Io, volcanism on icy satellites, and the rheological analysis of volcanic flows.

  8. Angular momentum evolution during star and planetary system formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Claire L.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    We focused on analysing the role played by protoplanetary disks in the evolution of angular momentum during star formation. If all the angular momentum contained within collapsing pre-stellar cores was conserved during their formation, proto-stars would reach rotation rates exceeding their break-up velocities before they reached the main sequence (Bodenheimer 1995). In order to avoid this occuring, methods by which proto-stars can lose angular momentum must exist. Angular momentum can be transferred from star to disk via stellar magnetic field lines through a process called magnetic braking (Camenzind 1990; Königl 1991). Alternatively, the stellar angular momentum can be lost from the star-disk system entirely via stellar- or disk-winds (e.g. Pelletier & Pudritz 1992; Matt & Pudritz 2005). The proportion of lost stellar angular momentum retained within the protoplanetary disk is important to studies of planetary system formation. If the bulk motion within the disk remains Keplerian, any increase of angular momentum in the disk causes an outward migration of disk material and an expansion of the disk. Therefore, an increase in disk angular momentum may cause a reduction in the disk surface density, often used to indicate the disk's ability to form planets. We made use of multi-wavelength data available in the literature to directly calculate the stellar and disk angular momenta for two nearby regions of star formation. Namely, these were the densely populated and highly irradiated Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the comparitively sparse Taurus-Auriga region. Due to the limited size of the ONC dataset, we produced an average surface density profile for the region. We modelled the stars as solid body rotators due to their fully convective nature (Krishnamurthi et al. 1997) and assumed the disks are flat and undergo Keplerian rotation about the same rotation axis as the star. We observed the older disks within each of the two star forming regions to be preferentially

  9. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannotti, F.; Pedreschi, D.; Pentland, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Kossmann, D.; Crowley, J.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level. Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across the various social dimensions by data mining, machine learning and social network analysis. Trusted networks and privacy-aware social mining is aimed at creating a new deal around the questions of privacy and data ownership empowering individual persons with full awareness and control on own personal data, so that users may allow access and use of their data for their own good and the common good. The PNS will provide a goal-oriented knowledge discovery framework, made of technology and people, able to configure itself to the aim of answering questions about the pulse of global society. Given an analytical request, the PNS activates a process composed by a variety of interconnected tasks exploiting the social sensing and mining methods within the transparent ecosystem provided by the trusted network. The PNS we foresee is the key tool for individual and collective awareness for the knowledge society. We need such a tool for everyone to become fully aware of how

  10. Saturn's magnetosphere: An example of dynamic planetary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    2011-01-04

    Planetary magnetospheres are prime examples of interacting plasma regimes at different scales. There is the principal interaction with the solar wind that seems to be the main driver of the dynamics at Mercury and Earth. But these inner planet magnetospheres are relatively simple when compared to those of the outer planets which are primarily driven by planetary rotation and include internal plasma sources from various moons and rings, in addition to those from the planetary ionospheres and the solar wind. Io's volcanic source at Jupiter is a prime example, but now Enceladus at Saturn has joined the fray, while Titan is a surprisingly minor player despite its thick nitrogen atmosphere and its continued bombardment by energetic particles. Mass loading of plasma leads to interchange instability in the inner magnetospheres at both Jupiter and Saturn, while ionospheric slippage, among other processes, seems to contribute to a variable rotation period in the spin-aligned dipole field of Saturn, manifested in auroral kilometric radiation (SKR), components of the magnetic field itself, and the plasma periodicities measured at several energies. Through use of the ENA (energetic neutral atom) technique, it is now possible to observe bulk motions of the plasma and their connection to planetary auroral processes. Such imaging at Saturn by Cassini has revealed the location of a region of post-midnight acceleration events that seem to corotate with the planet and coincide with auroral brightening and SKR. Periodic injections of plasma have been identified and repeat at the Kronian rotation period of 10.8 hours. A semi-permanent but asymmetric ring current has also been imaged, located between the orbits of the satellites Rhea ({approx}9 RS) and Titan ({approx}20 R{sub S}), with a maximum at {approx}10{+-} 1R{sub S} and dominated by the hot (>3 keV) plasma component.

  11. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry

    2014-03-01

    Preface: a personal view of planetary rings; 1. Introduction: the allure of the ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2013; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Uranus' rings and moons; 13. Neptune's partial rings; 14. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo and New Horizons; 15. Ring photometry; 16. Dusty rings; 17. Concluding remarks; Afterword; Glossary; References; Index.

  12. Disks around stars and the growth of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Jane S

    2005-01-01

    Circumstellar disks play a vital evolutionary role, providing a way to move gas inward and onto a young star. The outward transfer of angular momentum allows the star to contract without breaking up, and the remnant disk of gas and particles is the reservoir for forming planets. High-resolution spectroscopy is uncovering planetary dynamics and motion within the remnant disk, and imaging at infrared to millimeter wavelengths resolves disk structure over billions of years of evolution. Most stars are born with a disk, and models of planet formation need to form such bodies from the disk material within the disk's 10-million-year life-span. PMID:15637266

  13. Exploring the solar system: the view of planetary surfaces with VIS/IR remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Gabriele E.

    2011-09-01

    The structure of planetary surfaces unveils basic formation processes and evolution lines of different objects in the solar system, and often the view on the top of a planet is the only available information about it. Advanced remote sensing technologies on deep space missions are aimed at accessing a maximum of relevant data to characterize a planetary object holistically. This approach requires concert strategies in planetary and engineering science. In this framework VIS/IR spectroscopic remote sensing methods are key technologies for imaging planetary atmospheres and surfaces, for studying their composition, texture, structure and dynamics. Basing on these analyses it succeeds to observe the single objects in more global geo-scientific content. The paper focuses on main geo-scientific output coming from spectroscopic studies of planetary surfaces in conjunction with their interiors, atmospheres, and the interplanetary space. It summarizes selected results of spectral studies onboard of the ESA deep space missions BepiColombo, Venus Express, Mars Express, and Rosetta. The corresponding spectral instruments are introduced. The complex conflation of special knowledge of the disciplines planetology, optical and IR measuring techniques, and space flight engineering is demonstrated in several examples. Finally, the paper gives an outlook of current developments for spectral studies in planned missions, and sums up some of the driving questions in planetary science.

  14. Torsional vibrations and dynamic loads in a basic planetary gear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    August, R.; Kasuba, R.

    1986-01-01

    An iterative method has been developed for analyzing dynamic loads in a light weight basic planetary gear system. The effects of fixed, semi-floating, and fully-floating sun gear conditions have been emphasized. The load dependent variable gear mesh stiffness were incorporated into a practical torsional dynamic model of a planetary gear system. The dynamic model consists of input and output units, shafts, and a planetary train. In this model, the sun gear has three degrees of freedom; two transverse and one rotational. The planets, ring gear, and the input and output units have one degree of freedom, (rotation) thus giving a total of nine degrees of freedoms for the basic system. The ring gear has a continuous radial support. The results indicate that the fixed sun gear arrangement with accurate or errorless gearing offers in general better performance than the floating sun gear system.

  15. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literary Analysis and Systems Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, James; Conley, Catharine; Siegel, Bette

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literary analysis of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current ‘state of knowledge’. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection. Keywords: planetary protection, human spaceflight requirements, human space exploration, human space operations, systems engineering, literature analysis

  16. Structural and Control Concepts for Variable Geometry Planetary Entry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Davis, Gregory; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The results presented in this paper apply to a generic vehicle entering a planetary atmosphere which makes use of a variable geometry change to modulate the heat, drag, and acceleration loads. Two structural concepts for implementing the cone angle variation, namely a segmented shell and a corrugated shell, are presented. A structural analysis of these proposed structural configuration shows that the stress levels are tolerable during entry. The analytic expressions of the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients are also derived, and guidance laws that track reference heat flux, drag, and aerodynamic acceleration loads are also proposed. These guidance laws have been tested in an integrated simulation environment, and the results indicate that use of variable geometry is feasible to track specific profiles of dynamic load conditions during reentry.

  17. Structural and Trajectory Control of Variable Geometry Planetary Entry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Kwok, Kawai; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    The results presented in this paper apply to a generic vehicle entering a planetary atmosphere which makes use of a variable geometry change to modulate the heat, drag, and acceleration loads. Two structural concepts for implementing the cone angle variation, namely a segmented shell and a corrugated shell, are presented. A structural analysis of these proposed structural configuration shows that the stress levels are tolerable during entry. The analytic expressions of the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients are also derived, and guidance laws that track reference heat flux, drag, and aerodynamic acceleration loads are also proposed. These guidance laws have been tested in an integrated simulation environment, and the results indicate that use of variable geometry is feasible to track specific profiles of dynamic load conditions during reentry.

  18. Application of hybrid propulsion systems to planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Don, J. P.; Phen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility and application of hybrid rocket propulsion to outer-planet orbiter missions is assessed in this study and guidelines regarding future development are provided. A Jupiter Orbiter Mission was selected for evaluation because it is the earliest planetary mission which may require advanced chemical propulsion. Mission and spacecraft characteristics which affect the selection and design of propulsion subsystems are presented. Alternative propulsion subsystems, including space-storable bipropellant liquids, a solid/monopropellant vernier, and a hybrid, are compared on the basis of performance, reliability, and cost. Cost-effectiveness comparisons are made for a range of assumptions including variation in (1) the level of need for spacecraft performance (determined in part by launch vehicle injected mass capability), and (2) achievable reliability at corresponding costs. The results indicated that the hybrid and space-storable bipropellant mechanizations are competitive.

  19. The Planetary System to KIC 11442793: A Compact Analogue to the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlund, Carl; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, S.; Lehman, H.; Dvorak, R.; Gandolfi, D.; Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmueller, P.; Hatzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since exoplanets were first recognized, interpretations have concentrated on dynamics, since the most precise data come from radial velocity (RV) measurements. It is, recently, transit observations, obtained from space (CoRoT and Kepler) that have begun to acquire planetary radii with good precision. Mated to the RV data one can determine the average density of exoplanets and do planetology. We announce the discovery of a planetary system with 7 transiting planets around a Kepler target, a current record for transiting systems. Planets b, c, e and f are reported for the first time by our team (ApJ, accepted) Planets d, g and h were previously reported in the literature, although here we revise their orbital parameters and validate their planetary nature. Planets h and g are gas giants and show strong dynamical interactions. The orbit of planet g is perturbed in such way that its orbital period changes by 25.7h between two consecutive transits during the length of the observations, which is the largest such perturbation found so far. The rest of the planets also show mutual interactions: planets d, e and f are super-Earths close to a mean motion resonance chain (2:3:4), and planets b and c, with sizes below 2 Earth radii, are within 0.5% of the 4:5 mean motion resonance. This complex system presents some similarities to our Solar System, with small planets in inner orbits and gas giants in outer orbits. It is, however, more compact. The outer planet has an orbital distance around 1 AU, and the relative position of the gas giants is opposite to that of Jupiter and Saturn, which is closer to the expected result of planet formation theories. The dynamical interactions between planets are also much richer.

  20. The ExoMars Entry & Descent system: an enabler for European planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebleu, D.; Monier, J.; Marchand, B.; Squillaci, J.-R.; Lubrano, G.; Capus, P.; Laurenti, P.; Poncy, J.; Couzin, P.

    2013-09-01

    After HUYGENS and thanks to the ExoMars Entry and Descent System, Europe will confirm the capacity to land on planetary bodies. This presentation reports the development status of ExoMars EDM Entry & Descent system. All development tests are performed, and the subsystems flight models manufacturing are in progress.

  1. The Prospects for Earth-Like Planets within Known Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, Curtis S.; Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory

    1996-11-01

    We consider the possible existence of habitable Earth-like planets in four recently discovered extrasolar planetary systems. Such prospective planets must have orbits that are (1) dynamically stable, and (2) allow for surface temperatures compatible with liquid water. We find that three of the four new systems (51 Peg, rho^1 Cnc, and 47 UMa) are easily capable of supporting habitable planets. The fourth (70 Vir) is capable of having a habitable planet only under rather extreme circumstances. To obtain these results, we develop a probabilistic formulation for the coupled problem of orbital stability and planetary habitability. (SECTION: Extrasolar Planets)

  2. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N . I. A multiple planetary system around the red giant star TYC 1422-614-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Adamów, M.; Kowalik, K.; Maciejewski, G.; Nowak, G.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Deka, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stars that have evolved off the main sequence are crucial for expanding the frontiers of knowledge on exoplanets toward higher stellar masses and for constraining star-planet interaction mechanisms. These stars have an intrinsic activity, however, which complicates the interpretation of precise radial velocity (RV) measurements, and therefore they are often avoided in planet searches. Over the past ten years, we have monitored about 1000 evolved stars for RV variations in search for low-mass companions under the Penn State - Toruń Centre for Astronomy Planet Search program with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Selected prospective candidates that required higher RV precision measurements have been followed with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars, to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: We obtained 69 epochs of precise RV measurements for TYC 1422-614-1 collected over 3651 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, and 17 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 408 days. We complemented these RV data with photometric time-series from the All Sky Automatic Survey archive. Results: We report the discovery of a multiple planetary system around the evolved K2 giant star TYC 1422-614-1. The system orbiting the 1.15 M⊙ star is composed of a planet with mass msini = 2.5 MJ in a 0.69 AU orbit, and a planet or brown dwarf with msini = 10 MJ in an orbit of 1.37 AU. The multiple planetary system orbiting TYC 1422-614-1 is the first finding of the TAPAS project, a HARPS-N monitoring of evolved planetary systems identified with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University

  3. The planetary system to KIC 11442793: A compact analogue to the solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmüller, Ph.; Lehmann, H.; Hatzes, A.; Dvorak, R.; Gandolfi, D.

    2014-01-20

    We announce the discovery of a planetary system with seven transiting planets around a Kepler target, a current record for transiting systems. Planets b, c, e, and f are reported for the first time in this work. Planets d, g, and h were previously reported in the literature, although here we revise their orbital parameters and validate their planetary nature. Planets h and g are gas giants and show strong dynamical interactions. The orbit of planet g is perturbed in such a way that its orbital period changes by 25.7 hr between two consecutive transits during the length of the observations, which is the largest such perturbation found so far. The rest of the planets also show mutual interactions: planets d, e, and f are super-Earths close to a mean motion resonance chain (2:3:4), and planets b and c, with sizes below 2 Earth radii, are within 0.5% of the 4:5 mean motion resonance. This complex system presents some similarities to our solar system, with small planets in inner orbits and gas giants in outer orbits. It is, however, more compact. The outer planet has an orbital distance around 1 AU, and the relative position of the gas giants is opposite to that of Jupiter and Saturn, which is closer to the expected result of planet formation theories. The dynamical interactions between planets are also much richer.

  4. The Planetary System to KIC 11442793: A Compact Analogue to the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Lehmann, H.; Dvorak, R.; Gandolfi, D.; Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmüller, Ph.; Hatzes, A.

    2014-01-01

    We announce the discovery of a planetary system with seven transiting planets around a Kepler target, a current record for transiting systems. Planets b, c, e, and f are reported for the first time in this work. Planets d, g, and h were previously reported in the literature, although here we revise their orbital parameters and validate their planetary nature. Planets h and g are gas giants and show strong dynamical interactions. The orbit of planet g is perturbed in such a way that its orbital period changes by 25.7 hr between two consecutive transits during the length of the observations, which is the largest such perturbation found so far. The rest of the planets also show mutual interactions: planets d, e, and f are super-Earths close to a mean motion resonance chain (2:3:4), and planets b and c, with sizes below 2 Earth radii, are within 0.5% of the 4:5 mean motion resonance. This complex system presents some similarities to our solar system, with small planets in inner orbits and gas giants in outer orbits. It is, however, more compact. The outer planet has an orbital distance around 1 AU, and the relative position of the gas giants is opposite to that of Jupiter and Saturn, which is closer to the expected result of planet formation theories. The dynamical interactions between planets are also much richer.

  5. ARE PLANETARY SYSTEMS FILLED TO CAPACITY? A STUDY BASED ON KEPLER RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2013-04-20

    We used a sample of Kepler candidate planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii (R{sub Circled-Plus }) to determine the typical dynamical spacing of neighboring planets. To derive the intrinsic (i.e., free of observational bias) dynamical spacing of neighboring planets, we generated populations of planetary systems following various dynamical spacing distributions, subjected them to synthetic observations by the Kepler spacecraft, and compared the properties of observed planets in our simulations with actual Kepler detections. We found that, on average, neighboring planets are spaced 21.7 mutual Hill radii apart with a standard deviation of 9.5. This dynamical spacing distribution is consistent with that of adjacent planets in the solar system. To test the packed planetary systems hypothesis, the idea that all planetary systems are dynamically packed or filled to capacity, we determined the fraction of systems that are dynamically packed by performing long-term (10{sup 8} years) numerical simulations. In each simulation, we integrated a system with planets spaced according to our best-fit dynamical spacing distribution but containing an additional planet on an intermediate orbit. The fraction of simulations exhibiting signs of instability provides an approximate lower bound on the fraction of systems that are dynamically packed; we found that {>=}31%, {>=}35%, and {>=}45% of two-planet, three-planet, and four-planet systems are dynamically packed, respectively. Such sizeable fractions suggest that many planetary systems are indeed filled to capacity. This feature of planetary systems is another profound constraint that formation and evolution models must satisfy.

  6. Exploring Links Between Orbital Dynamics and Atmospheres in Kepler M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The Solar System furnishes the most familiar planetary architecture: many planets, orbiting nearly coplanar to one another. However, the most common planetary systems in the Milky Way orbit much smaller M dwarf stars, and these may present a very different blueprint. The Kepler data set has furnished more than 100 exoplanets orbiting stars half the mass of the sun and smaller. Half of these planets reside in systems with at least one additional planet. The data much prefer a model with two distinct modes of planet formation around M dwarfs, which occur in roughly equal measure. One mode is one very similar to the Solar System in terms of multiplicity and coplanarity, and the other is very dissimilar. Given this so-called "Kepler Dichotomy," we examine the broadband transmission spectra (with data from Kepler and hundreds of hours of Spitzer observations) of dozens of M dwarf planets: half of which reside in one type of planetary system, and half in the other. Although the data set is too small and the observational uncertainty too large to characterize any one system alone, we examine ensemble trends between planetary dynamics and atmospheric content.

  7. Theoretical models of planetary system formation. II. Post-formation evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfyffer, S.; Alibert, Y.; Benz, W.; Swoboda, D.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We extend the results of planetary formation synthesis by computing the long-term evolution of synthetic systems from the clearing of the gas disk into the dynamical evolution phase. Methods: We use the symplectic integrator SyMBA to numerically integrate the orbits of planets for 100 Myr, using populations from previous studies as initial conditions. Results: We show that within the populations studied, mass and semimajor axis distributions experience only minor changes from post-formation evolution. We also show that, depending upon their initial distribution, planetary eccentricities can statistically increase or decrease as a result of gravitational interactions. We find that planetary masses and orbital spacings provided by planet formation models do not result in eccentricity distributions comparable to observed exoplanet eccentricities, requiring other phenomena, such as stellar fly-bys, to account for observed eccentricities.

  8. Surface Telerobotics: Development and Testing of a Crew Controlled Planetary Rover System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria G.; Fong, Terrence; Allan, Mark; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar; Kobayashi, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In planning for future exploration missions, architecture and study teams have made numerous assumptions about how crew can be telepresent on a planetary surface by remotely operating surface robots from space (i.e. from a flight vehicle or deep space habitat). These assumptions include estimates of technology maturity, existing technology gaps, and operational risks. These assumptions, however, have not been grounded by experimental data. Moreover, to date, no crew-controlled surface telerobot has been fully tested in a high-fidelity manner. To address these issues, we developed the "Surface Telerobotics" tests to do three things: 1) Demonstrate interactive crew control of a mobile surface telerobot in the presence of short communications delay. 2) Characterize a concept of operations for a single astronaut remotely operating a planetary rover with limited support from ground control. 3) Characterize system utilization and operator work-load for a single astronaut remotely operating a planetary rover with limited support from ground control.

  9. Orbital resonances and planetary accretion in the early solar system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbett, M. V.

    1982-03-01

    The solar system, in its early evolution, is thought to have consisted of an accretion disk around a growing central protostar. The accretion disk from which the planets ultimately formed can play a significant role in the processes of planetary and solar formation. As well as leading, by thermalization of orbital motions in the disk, to bipolar flows in the T Tauri stage of stellar evolution, the disk can influence the course of planetary accumulation. By virtue of its essentially solar composition, Jupiter was formed before the accretion disk was removed. This first formed planet then gravitationally imposed a harmonic structure on the planetesimal swarm through its commensurability resonances. Accelerated growth of planetesimals in orbital resonance with Jupiter resulted in runaway growth producing planetary embryos. These embryos accelerated growth at their own resonances in a process that propagation inward and outward forming a resonant configuration of embryos.

  10. Analysis of Sel-Gravitating Planetary Satellites in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasenev, S. O.

    As of today there have been more than 180 planetary satellites discovered in the Solar system, and the number of outer moons found continues to grow. Most of those natural satellites have insufficient mass and are able to retain their shape only due to the strength of the electromagnetic force. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moons' physical properties. The analysis of planetary satellites as self-gravitating bodies, i.e. celestial bodies which rely on the weight of their own mass and resulting gravitational force to maintain their shape and tend to bring it closer to the hydrostatic equilibrium, was performed.

  11. A study of the selection of microcomputer architectures to automate planetary spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauda, A.

    1982-01-01

    Performance and reliability models of alternate microcomputer architectures as a methodology for optimizing system design were examined. A methodology for selecting an optimum microcomputer architecture for autonomous operation of planetary spacecraft power systems was developed. Various microcomputer system architectures are analyzed to determine their application to spacecraft power systems. It is suggested that no standardization formula or common set of guidelines exists which provides an optimum configuration for a given set of specifications.

  12. Inferring the Architectures of Planetary Systems from Kepler Results with SysSim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Eric

    NASA's Kepler Mission is designed to gather statistical information about planets around other stars (exoplanets). Due to its unprecedented precision, Kepler has revolutionized the exoplanet community providing by far the largest homogeneous exoplanet dataset, with over 2300 planet candidates already identified in the first 19 months of data (Batalha et al. 2012, hereafter B12). Even more exciting is Kepler's new discovery of "multi-transiting systems" or stars with more than one transiting planet. B12 identified over 350 multi-transiting systems containing nearly 900 high-probability candidate planets (Lissauer et al. 2012). These multi-transiting systems are the most information-rich planetary systems outside our own solar system because they offer both the detailed physical characterization uniquely available from transiting planets (Winn 2010) and the ability to apply the tools of multi- planetary orbital dynamics (Ragozzine & Holman 2010, Lissauer, Ragozzine et al. 2011, hereafter LR+11). Within the funding period, publicly-available Kepler observations will triple in duration, yielding hundreds of new planets in multi-transiting systems and providing first insights into the frequency of Earth-size planets and solar system analogs. As with all astronomical surveys, Kepler data must be debiased in order to understand the true properties of the underlying population. Several studies have addressed the geometrical and detection biases to perform statistical analyses of Kepler results on a planet-by-planet basis (e.g., Borucki et al. 2011, Howard et al. 2011, Youdin 2011, Catanzarite & Shao 2011, Traub 2011). Other authors have analyzed specific multi- transiting systems to measure physical and orbital properties that will inform planet formation theories (e.g., Lissauer et al. 2011a, Migaszewski et al. 2012). However, there is a critical gap between these two techniques: a method for debiasing the Kepler planet data while accounting for multi-planet systems

  13. On possible circumbinary configurations of the planetary systems of α Centauri and EZ Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Shevchenko, I. I.

    2016-04-01

    Possible configurations of the planetary systems of the binary stars α Cen A-BandEZAqr A-C are analyzed. The P-type orbits—circumbinary ones, i.e., the orbits around both stars of the binary, are studied. The choice of these systems is dictated by the fact that α Cen is closest to us in the Galaxy, while EZ Aqr is the closest system whose circumbinary planets, as it turns out, may reside in the "habitability zone." The analysis has been performed within the framework of the planar restricted three-body problem. The stability diagrams of circumbinary motion have been constructed: on representative sets of initial data (in the pericentric distance-eccentricity plane), we have computed the Lyapunov spectra of planetary motion and identified the domains of regular and chaotic motion through their statistical analysis. Based on present views of the dynamics and architecture of circumbinary planetary systems, we have determined the most probable planetary orbits to be at the centers of the main resonance cells, at the boundary of the dynamical chaos domain around the parent binary star, which allows the semimajor axes of the orbits to be predicted. In the case of EZ Aqr, the orbit of the circumbinary planet is near the habitability zone and, given that the boundary of this zone is uncertain, may belong to it.

  14. Long-term stability of the HR 8799 planetary system without resonant lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götberg, Ylva; Davies, Melvyn B.; Mustill, Alexander J.; Johansen, Anders; Church, Ross P.

    2016-08-01

    HR 8799 is a star accompanied by four massive planets on wide orbits. The observed planetary configuration has been shown to be unstable on a timescale much shorter than the estimated age of the system (~30 Myr) unless the planets are locked into mean motion resonances. This condition is characterised by small-amplitude libration of one or more resonant angles that stabilise the system by preventing close encounters. We simulate planetary systems similar to the HR 8799 planetary system, exploring the parameter space in separation between the orbits, planetary masses and distance from the Sun to the star. We find systems that look like HR 8799 and remain stable for longer than the estimated age of HR 8799. None of our systems are forced into resonances. We find, with nominal masses (Mb = 5 MJup and Mc,d,e = 7 MJup) and in a narrow range of orbit separations, that 5 of 100 systems match the observations and lifetime. Considering a broad range of orbit separations, we find 12 of 900 similar systems. The systems survive significantly longer because of their slightly increased initial orbit separations compared to assuming circular orbits from the observed positions. A small increase in separation leads to a significant increase in survival time. The low eccentricity the orbits develop from gravitational interaction is enough for the planets to match the observations. With lower masses, but still comfortably within the estimated planet mass uncertainty, we find 18 of 100 matching and long-lived systems in a narrow orbital separation range. In the broad separation range, we find 82 of 900 matching systems. Our results imply that the planets in the HR 8799 system do not have to be in strong mean motion resonances. We also investigate the future of wide-orbit planetary systems using our HR 8799 analogues. We find that 80% of the systems have two planets left after strong planet-planet scattering and these are on eccentric orbits with semi-major axes of a1 ~ 10 AU and a2

  15. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, David; Hunten, Donald; Ahearn, Michael F.; Belton, Michael J. S.; Black, David; Brown, Robert A.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cochran, Anita L.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Depater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    The authors profile the field of astronomy, identify some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed during the decade of the 1990's, and recommend several facilities that are critically important for answering these questions. Scientific opportunities for the 1990' are discussed. Areas discussed include protoplanetary disks, an inventory of the solar system, primitive material in the solar system, the dynamics of planetary atmospheres, planetary rings and ring dynamics, the composition and structure of the atmospheres of giant planets, the volcanoes of IO, and the mineralogy of the Martian surface. Critical technology developments, proposed projects and facilities, and recommendations for research and facilities are discussed.

  16. Planetary Systems and the Formation of Habitable Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Maindl, Thomas I.; Burger, Christoph; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2015-09-01

    As part of a national scientific network 'Pathways to Habitability' the formation of planets and the delivery of water onto these planets is a key question as water is essential for the development of life. In the first part of the paper we summarize the state of the art of planet formation - which is still under debate in the astronomical community - before we show our results on this topic. The outcome of our numerical simulations depends a lot on the choice of the initial distribution of planetesimals and planetary embryos after gas disappeared in the protoplanetary disk. We also take into account that some of these planetesimals of sizes in the order of the mass of the Moon already contained water; the quantity depends on the distance from the Sun - close-by bodies are dry, but starting from a distance of about 2 AU they can contain substantial amounts of water. We assume that the gas giants and terrestrial planets are already formed when we check the collisions of the small bodies containing water (in the order of a few percent) with the terrestrial planets. We thus are able to give an estimate of the respective contribution to the actual water content (of some Earth-oceans) in the mantle, in the crust and on the surface of Earth. In the second part we discuss in more detail how the formation of larger bodies after a collision may happen as the outcome depends on parameters like collision velocity, impact angle, and the materials involved. We present results obtained by SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) simulations. We briefly describe this method and show different scenarios with respect to the formed bodies, possible fragmentation and the water content before and after the collision. In an appendix we discuss detection methods for extrasolar planets (close to 2000 such objects have been discovered so far).

  17. Planetary System Formation in the Protoplanetary Disk around HL Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru

    2016-02-01

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images.

  18. Implementation of cartographic symbols for planetary mapping in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nass, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2011-09-01

    The steadily growing international interest in the exploration of planets in our Solar System and many advances in the development of space-sensor technology have led to the launch of a multitude of planetary missions to Mercury, Venus, the Earth's moon, Mars and various Outer-Solar System objects, such as the Jovian and Saturnian satellites. Camera instruments carried along on these missions image surfaces in different wavelength ranges and under different viewing angles, permitting additional data to be derived, such as spectral data or digital terrain models. Such data enable researchers to explore and investigate the development of planetary surfaces by analyzing and interpreting the inventory of surface units and structures. Results of such work are commonly abstracted and represented in thematic, mostly geological and geomorphological, maps. In order to facilitate efficient collaboration among different planetary research disciplines, mapping results need to be prepared, described, managed, archived, and visualized in a uniform way. These tasks have been increasingly carried out by means of computer-based geographic information systems (GIS or GI systems) which have come to be widely employed in the field of planetary research since the last two decades. In this paper we focus on the simplification of mapping processes, putting specific emphasis on a cartographically correct visualization of planetary mapping data using GIS-based environments. We present and discuss the implementation of a set of standardized cartographic symbols for planetary mapping based on the Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization as prepared by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). Furthermore, we discuss various options to integrate this symbol catalog into generic GI systems, and more specifically into the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcGIS environment, and focus on requirements for

  19. COSPAR Workshop on Planetary Protection for Outer Planet Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Rummel, John; Peter, Nicolas

    The COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) held a COSPAR Workshop to consider the planetary protection status of Outer Planet satellites and other small Solar System bodies, and the measures that should be taken (or not) to protect them from Earth-sourced biological and organic contamination. The starting point for the 2009 COSPAR Planetary Protection Workshop at the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) in Vienna was to consider the prob-abilistic approach in place in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy for the protection of Europa. The participants of this Workshop discussed the application of the approach and the associated formulation and parameterization to other Outer Planet satellites and small bodies. This application, as well as other considerations brought forward by the group, resulted in a full consideration of the various Outer Planet satellites and other Small Solar system bodies. The report on this workshop contains recommendations for the categorization of missions that may encounter or closely study the Outer Solar System in the future. Subsequently, the Work-shop also reviewed the consequences of applying these recommendations to the Outer Planets Flagship missions that have been under consideration by ESA, NASA, and their cooperating partners. A further workshop, concentrating on the specifics of Titan and Ganymede missions, was proposed by the group.

  20. Review of methodology and technology available for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J. C.; Black, D. C.; Billingham, J.

    1986-01-01

    Anyone undertaking an interstellar voyage might wish to be assured of the existence of a safe planetary harbor at the other end! Aside from the obvious interest of the participants in this Symposium, astronomers and astrophysicists are also eager to detect and study other planetary systems in order to better understand the formation of our own Solar System. Scientists involved in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence argue that planets suitable for the evolution of life may abound elsewhere within our own Milky Way Galaxy. On theoretical grounds, they are probably correct, but they lack any observational support. For in spite of decades of claimed astrometric detections of planetary companions and the recent exciting and tantalizing observations from the IRAS satellite and the IR speckle observations of Van Biesbroeck 8 and other cool stars, there is no unambiguous proof for the existence of another planetary system beyond our own. In this paper we review the various methods for detecting extrasolar planets and briefly describe the Earth and space based technology currently available and discuss the near-term plans to implement these different search techniques. In each case an attempt is made to identify the limiting source of systematic error inherent to the methodology and to assess the potential for technological improvements.

  1. On the formation of compact planetary systems via concurrent core accretion and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Gavin A. L.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of planet formation N-body simulations based on a comprehensive physical model that includes planetary mass growth through mutual embryo collisions and planetesimal/boulder accretion, viscous disc evolution, planetary migration and gas accretion on to planetary cores. The main aim of this study is to determine which set of model parameters leads to the formation of planetary systems that are similar to the compact low-mass multiplanet systems that have been discovered by radial velocity surveys and the Kepler mission. We vary the initial disc mass, solids-to-gas ratio and the sizes of the boulders/planetesimals, and for a restricted volume of the parameter space we find that compact systems containing terrestrial planets, super-Earths and Neptune-like bodies arise as natural outcomes of the simulations. Disc models with low values of the solids-to-gas ratio can only form short-period super-Earths and Neptunes when small planetesimals/boulders provide the main source of accretion, since the mobility of these bodies is required to overcome the local isolation masses for growing embryos. The existence of short-period super-Earths around low-metallicity stars provides strong evidence that small, mobile bodies (planetesimals, boulders or pebbles) played a central role in the formation of the observed planets.

  2. Multiple transiting extrasolar planetary systems - follow-up and Kepler discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, A.; Borkovits, T.; Szakáts, R.

    2011-10-01

    In this work we present a method that can be used as a tool for investigating such planetary systems in the framework of classic regression analysis. The base of the method is the employment of the Lie-integration method [3] that provides the solution of the differential equations (that describe the interacting planetary dynamics) in the form of power series and therefore provides a way to exploit the properties of the integrator for further analytical computations, such as error propagation calculations. This analytical description is rather relevant in the cases of not-so-well constrained orbital elements (for instance, mutual inclination): letting these parameters be varied might yield an unexpectedly high correlation that affects badly the otherwise efficient alternative methods, such as Monte- Carlo estimations. This analytical treatment aids us to perform almost any kind of regression analysis method as simple as it would be in case of well-known and or other well-behaved functions. Based on previously developed methods for similar types of analysis of radial velocity variations in multiple planetary systems [4], we present further possible applications discussing the above mentioned aspects of multiple transiting planetary systems. These applications include creating observation strategies for follow-up of Kepler discoveries after the mission, adaptive observation scheduling focusing on the more effective refinement of selected orbital parameters and of course, precise and accurate estimation of masses, orbital elements and their respective uncertainties.

  3. Science requirements for PRoViScout, a robotics vision system for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Pullan, D.; Griffiths, A.; Paar, G.

    2011-10-01

    The robotic exploration of planetary surfaces, including missions of interest for geobiology (e.g., ExoMars), will be the precursor of human missions within the next few decades. Such exploration will require platforms which are much more self-reliant and capable of exploring long distances with limited ground support in order to advance planetary science objectives in a timely manner. The key to this objective is the development of planetary robotic onboard vision processing systems, which will enable the autonomous on-site selection of scientific and mission-strategic targets, and the access thereto. The EU-funded research project PRoViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout) is designed to develop a unified and generic approach for robotic vision onboard processing, namely the combination of navigation and scientific target selection. Any such system needs to be "trained", i.e. it needs (a) scientific requirements which the system needs to address, and (b) a data base of scientifically representative target scenarios which can be analysed. We present our preliminary list of science requirements, based on previous experience from landed Mars missions.

  4. Planetary Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    1994-01-01

    Just over two decades ago, Jim Pollack made a critical contribution to our understanding of planetary ring particle properties, and resolved a major apparent paradox between radar reflection and radio emission observations. At the time, particle properties were about all there were to study about planetary rings, and the fundamental questions were, why is Saturn the only planet with rings, how big are the particles, and what are they made of? Since then, we have received an avalanche of observations of planetary ring systems, both from spacecraft and from Earth. Meanwhile, we have seen steady progress in our understanding of the myriad ways in which gravity, fluid and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism can combine to shape the distribution of the submicron-to-several-meter size particles which comprise ring systems into the complex webs of structure that we now know them to display. Insights gained from studies of these giant dynamical analogs have carried over into improved understanding of the formation of the planets themselves from particle disks, a subject very close to Jim's heart. The now-complete reconnaissance of the gas giant planets by spacecraft has revealed that ring systems are invariably found in association with families of regular satellites, and there is ark emerging perspective that they are not only physically but causally linked. There is also mounting evidence that many features or aspects of all planetary ring systems, if not the ring systems themselves, are considerably younger than the solar system

  5. Doppler Monitoring of Five K2 Transiting Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fei; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Arriagada, Pamela; Bieryla, Allyson; Butler, R. Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Hirano, Teriyaki; Johnson, John Asher; Kiilerich, Amanda; Latham, David W.; Narita, Norio; Nowak, Grzegorz; Palle, Enric; Ribas, Ignasi; Rogers, Leslie A.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Shectman, Stephen A.; Teske, Johanna K.; Thompson, Ian B.; Van Eylen, Vincent; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Yu, Liang

    2016-06-01

    In an effort to measure the masses of planets discovered by the NASA K2 mission, we have conducted precise Doppler observations of five stars with transiting planets. We present the results of a joint analysis of these new data and previously published Doppler data. The first star, an M dwarf known as K2-3 or EPIC 201367065, has three transiting planets (“b,” with radius 2.1 {R}\\oplus ; “c,” 1.7 {R}\\oplus ; and “d,” 1.5 {R}\\oplus ). Our analysis leads to the mass constraints: {M}b={8.1}-1.9+2.0 {M}\\oplus and M c < 4.2 M ⊕ (95% confidence). The mass of planet d is poorly constrained because its orbital period is close to the stellar rotation period, making it difficult to disentangle the planetary signal from spurious Doppler shifts due to stellar activity. The second star, a G dwarf known as K2-19 or EPIC 201505350, has two planets (“b,” 7.7 R ⊕ and “c,” 4.9 R ⊕) in a 3:2 mean-motion resonance, as well as a shorter-period planet (“d,” 1.1 R ⊕). We find M b = {28.5}-5.0+5.4 {M}\\oplus , M c = {25.6}-7.1+7.1 {M}\\oplus and M d < 14.0 M ⊕ (95% conf.). The third star, a G dwarf known as K2-24 or EPIC 203771098, hosts two transiting planets (“b,” 5.7 R ⊕ and “c,” 7.8 R ⊕) with orbital periods in a nearly 2:1 ratio. We find M b = {19.8}-4.4+4.5 {M}\\oplus and M c = {26.0}-6.1+5.8 {M}\\oplus . The fourth star, a G dwarf known as EPIC 204129699, hosts a hot Jupiter for which we measured the mass to be {1.857}-0.081+0.081 {M}{Jup}. The fifth star, a G dwarf known as EPIC 205071984, contains three transiting planets (“b,” 5.4 R ⊕ “c,” 3.5 R ⊕ and “d,” 3.8 R ⊕), the outer two of which have a nearly 2:1 period ratio. We find M b = {21.1}-5.9+5.9 {M}\\oplus , M c < 8.1 {M}\\oplus (95% conf.) and M d < 35 M ⊕ (95% conf.).

  6. Solar system exploration from the Moon: Synoptic and comparative study of bodies in our Planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruston, P.; Mumma, M. J.

    1994-06-01

    An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.

  7. Solar system exploration from the Moon: Synoptic and comparative study of bodies in our Planetary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruston, P.; Mumma, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    An observational approach to Planetary Sciences and exploration from Earth applies to a quite limited number of targets, but most of these are spatially complex, and exhibit variability and evolution on a number of temporal scales which lie within the scope of possible observations. Advancing our understanding of the underlying physics requires the study of interactions between the various elements of such systems, and also requires study of the comparative response of both a given object to various conditions and of comparable objects to similar conditions. These studies are best conducted in 'campaigns', i.e. comprehensive programs combining simultaneous coherent observations of every interacting piece of the puzzle. The requirements include both imaging and spectroscopy over a wide spectral range, from UV to IR. While temporal simultaneity of operation in various modes is a key feature, these observations are also conducted over extended periods of time. The moon is a prime site offering long unbroken observation times and high positional stability, observations at small angular separation from the sun, comparative studies of planet Earth, and valuable technical advantages. A lunar observatory should become a central piece of any coherent set of planetary missions, supplying in-situ explorations with the synoptic and comparative data necessary for proper advance planning, correlative observations during the active exploratory phase, and follow-up studies of the target body or of related objects.

  8. Disk-planet interactions: Implications for planetary systems formation and evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Wm. R.

    2000-10-01

    The coherent wavelike response of disk systems to perturbations from nearby or embedded gravitating objects is a subject of vigorous study. The internal disk forces accounting for the organized behavior can be either pressure (resulting in acoustic or short waves) or self-gravity (producing gravity or long waves). In addition to their well-known applications to stellar and planetary ring systems, wave phenomena have relevance to protoplanet interactions with their precursor gaseous nebula and with any residual planetesimal disk. The disk exchanges angular momentum with a perturber via resonant torques. In the absence of collective behavior, only a thin annulus of disk material at each resonance participates in the exchange and can saturate quickly, driving the torque to zero. However, a key trait of waves is their ability to transport angular momentum. Wave action can prevent saturation by transporting angular momentum away from the resonance zone to more distant parts of the disk; this results in a sustained torque that can significantly modify the perturber's orbit. This talk will review recent changes in the cosmogonic paradigm brought about by ongoing efforts to incorporate disk-planet interactions into models of planetary formation. One dramatic development has been the realization that massive, planet-sized bodies may exhibit a substantial degree of mobility in the presence of their precursor nebula. Not only does this relate to accretion timescales and the provenance of planetary material, but it also has important implications for the origin of close stellar companions and the ultimate survival of planetary systems. Wave action can also manifest itself in the planetesimal disk, even after the dissipation of the nebula. The long-term evolution of residual populations such as the Kuiper and asteroid belts may have been strongly influence by this mechanism. We will outline some of the outstanding problems that have yet to be explored concerning this important

  9. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-09-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets' orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations. PMID:24367108

  10. Overview of a Proposed Flight Validation of Aerocapture System Technology for Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Oh, David; Munk, Michelle M.

    2006-01-01

    Aerocapture System Technology for Planetary Missions is being proposed to NASA's New Millennium Program for flight aboard the Space Technology 9 (ST9) flight opportunity. The proposed ST9 aerocapture mission is a system-level flight validation of the aerocapture maneuver as performed by an instrumented, high-fidelity flight vehicle within a true in-space and atmospheric environment. Successful validation of the aerocapture maneuver will be enabled through the flight validation of an advanced guidance, navigation, and control system as developed by Ball Aerospace and two advanced Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials, Silicon Refined Ablative Material-20 (SRAM-20) and SRAM-14, as developed by Applied Research Associates (ARA) Ablatives Laboratory. The ST9 aerocapture flight validation will be sufficient for immediate infusion of these technologies into NASA science missions being proposed for flight to a variety of Solar System destinations possessing a significant planetary atmosphere.

  11. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets’ orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations. PMID:24367108

  12. Building massive, tightly packed planetary systems by in-situ accretion of pebbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, John; Fischer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of mass in planetary systems is one of the most important constraints available for understanding the process of planet formation. One particularly interesting observation is the large number of super-Earth sized planets in short period orbits and tightly packed systems. The amount of mass in these systems is about ten times what would be expected if they had surface density disributions similar to the solar system (i.e. the minimum mass solar nebula) extrapolated inwards of half an AU. This observation raises the question: how and when did all that mass get there? In this work we explore the idea that the radial drift and eventual accretion of small, centimeter sized pebbles leads to massive inner planetary systems.

  13. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  14. Planetary magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io.

  15. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2011-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction: the allure of ringed planets; 2. Studies of planetary rings 1610-2004; 3. Diversity of planetary rings; 4. Individual ring particles and their collisions; 5. Large-scale ring evolution; 6. Moons confine and sculpt rings; 7. Explaining ring phenomena; 8. N-Body simulations; 9. Stochastic models; 10. Age and evolution of rings; 11. Saturn's mysterious F ring; 12. Neptune's partial rings; 13. Jupiter's ring-moon system after Galileo; 14. Ring photometry; 15. Dusty rings; 16. Cassini observations; 17. Summary: the big questions; Glossary; References; Index.

  16. A secular model for efficient exploration of mutually-inclined planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical studies of exoplanets largely assume coplanarity because of the lack of inclination information in many cases. However, the multiplanet system Upsilon Andromedae has orbital planes inclined by 30 degrees, models of planet-planet scattering predict large mutual inclinations, and astrometry missions such as Gaia have the power to reveal the 3 dimensional architecture of planetary systems. As the dynamics of systems with non-planar orbits will be key to understanding origins, and ultimately habitability where applicable, we present a computationally efficient model for the orbital evolution of planetary systems with modest inclinations and eccentricities which are not in a mean motion resonance. Specifically, our model is based on the disturbing function and extends to 4th order in eccentricity and inclination. We present comparisons to N-body models for known systems, such as the Solar System and Upsilon Andromedae, and hypothetical systems with a range of orbital configurations. We describe the eccentricity and inclination conditions under which the model is valid. We further calculate the rotational evolution of planets based on the orbital evolution and the stellar torque and find a wide range of obliquity evolution is possible. As obliquity is a key driver of planetary climate, Earth-like planets in non-planar systems may have climates dominated by their orbital evolution.

  17. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  18. GG Tau: the ringworld and beyond. Mass accretion and planetary formation in young multiple stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrey, Anne; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Beck, Tracy; Guilloteau, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In binary stellar systems, exoplanet searches have revealed planetary mass companions orbiting both in circumstellar and in circumbinary orbits. Modelling studies suggest increased dynamical complexity around the young stars that form such systems. Circumstellar and circumbinary disks likely exhibit different physical conditions for planet formation, which also depends on the stellar separation. Although binaries and higher order multiple stars are relatively common in nearby star-forming regions, surprisingly few systems with circumbinary distributions of proto-planetary material have been found. With its spectacular ring of dust and gas encircling the central triple star, one such system, GG Tau A, has become a unique laboratory for investigating the physics of circumsystem gas and dust evolution. We review here its physical properties.

  19. Probing the terrestrial regions of planetary systems: warm debris disks with emission features

    SciTech Connect

    Ballering, Nicholas P.; Rieke, George H.; Gáspár, András

    2014-09-20

    Observations of debris disks allow for the study of planetary systems, even where planets have not been detected. However, debris disks are often only characterized by unresolved infrared excesses that resemble featureless blackbodies, and the location of the emitting dust is uncertain due to a degeneracy with the dust grain properties. Here, we characterize the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 22 debris disks exhibiting 10 μm silicate emission features. Such features arise from small warm dust grains, and their presence can significantly constrain the orbital location of the emitting debris. We find that these features can be explained by the presence of an additional dust component in the terrestrial zones of the planetary systems, i.e., an exozodiacal belt. Aside from possessing exozodiacal dust, these debris disks are not particularly unique; their minimum grain sizes are consistent with the blowout sizes of their systems, and their brightnesses are comparable to those of featureless warm debris disks. These disks are in systems of a range of ages, though the older systems with features are found only around A-type stars. The features in young systems may be signatures of terrestrial planet formation. Analyzing the spectra of unresolved debris disks with emission features may be one of the simplest and most accessible ways to study the terrestrial regions of planetary systems.

  20. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap NRC Progress Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob; Schmitt, Harrison H.; Graves, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Capability Roadmap Team. Capability Description, Scope and Capability Breakdown Structure. Benefits of the HPLS. Roadmap Process and Approach. Current State-of-the-Art, Assumptions and Key Requirements. Top Level HPLS Roadmap. Capability Presentations by Leads. Mission Drivers Requirements. "AEDL" System Engineering. Communication & Navigation Systems. Hypersonic Systems. Super to Subsonic Decelerator Systems. Terminal Descent and Landing Systems. A Priori In-Situ Mars Observations. AEDL Analysis, Test and Validation Infrastructure. Capability Technical Challenges. Capability Connection Points to other Roadmaps/Crosswalks. Summary of Top Level Capability. Forward Work.

  1. SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community

  2. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression are reported which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft. In addition to presenting new and potentially significant system considerations, this report attempts to fill a need for a comprehensive tutorial which makes much of this very subject accessible to readers whose disciplines lie outside of communication theory.

  3. Combined Gamma-Ray Spectrometer and Pulsed Neutron Generator System for In-Situ Planetary Geochemical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Akkurt, Hatice; Floyd, H.; Wraight, P.; Ziegler, W.; Schweitzer, J.

    2007-01-01

    A combined pulsed neutron/gamma-ray system can be used on planetary surfaces to provide valuable geochemical analysis of surface materials to depths of {approx}1 m. We describe experimental results that demonstrate the capabilities of such a system.

  4. The Search for Young Planetary Systems And the Evolution of Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Boden, Andrew; Ghez, Andrea; Hartman, Lee W.; Hillenbrand, Lynn; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Simon, Michael J.; Stauffer, John R.; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The Space Interferometer Mission (SIM) will provide a census of planetary systems by con- ducting a broad survey of 2,000 stars that will be sensitive to the presence of planets with masses as small as approx. 15 Earth masses (1 Uranus mass) and a deep survey of approx. 250 of the nearest, stars with a mass limit of approx.3 Earth masses. The broad survey will include stars spanning a wide range of ages, spectral types, metallicity, and other important parameters. Within this larger context, the Young Stars and Planets Key Project will study approx. 200 stars with ages from 1 Myr to 100 Myr to understand the formation and dynamical evolution of gas giant planets. The SIM Young Stars and Planets Project will investigate both the frequency of giant planet formation and the early dynamical history of planetary systems. We will gain insight into how common the basic architecture of our solar system is compared with recently discovered systems with close-in giant planets by examining 200 of the nearest (less than 150 pc) and youngest (1-100 Myr) solar-type stars for planets. The sensitivity of the survey for stars located 140 pc away is shown in the planet mass-separation plane. We expect to find anywhere from 10 (assuming that only the presently known fraction of stars. 5-7%, has planets) to 200 (all young stars have planets) planetary systems. W-e have set our sensitivity threshold to ensure the detection of Jupiter-mass planets in the critical orbital range of 1 to 5 AU. These observations, when combined with the results of planetary searches of mature stars, will allow us to test theories of planetary formation and early solar system evolution. By searching for planets around pre-main sequence stars carefully selected to span an age range from 1 to 100 Myr, we will learn a t what epoch and with what frequency giant planets are found at the water-ice snowline where they are expected to form. This will provide insight into the physical mechanisms by which planets form

  5. Options for Affordable Planetary Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear fission systems could serve as "workhorse" power plants for the Vision for Space Exploration. In this context, the "workhorse" power plant is defined as a system that could provide power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars, land on the moon using a Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP)-developed lander, and would be a viable, affordable option once power requirements exceed that which can be provided by existing energy systems.

  6. POSSIBLE TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE TrES-3 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Sun Zhao; Ji Jianghui

    2013-03-15

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  7. The development of the human exploration demonstration project (HEDP), a planetary systems testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevers, Edward S.; Korsmeyer, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP) is an ongoing task at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames Research Center to address the advanced technology requirements necessary to implement an integrated working and living environment for a planetary surface habitat. The integrated environment will consist of life support systems, physiological monitoring of project crew, a virtual environment workstation, and centralized data acquisition and habitat systems health monitoring. There will be several robotic systems on a simulated planetary landscape external to the habitat environment to provide representative work loads for the crew. This paper describes the status of the HEDP after one year, the major facilities composing the HEDP, the project's role as an Ames Research Center testbed, and the types of demonstration scenarios that will be run to showcase the technologies.

  8. Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), a project for the whole Italian Community.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poretti, E.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Smareglia, R.; Sozzetti, A.; GAPS Collaboration

    The GAPS project is running since 2012 with the goal to optimize the science return of the HARPS-N instrument mounted at Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. A large number of astronomers is working together to allow the Italian community to gain an international position adequate to the HARPS-N capabilities in the exoplanetary researches. Relevant scientific results are being obtained on both the main guidelines of the collaboration, i.e., the discovery surveys and the characterization studies. The planetary system discovered around the southern component of the binary XO-2 and its characterization together with that of the system orbiting the northern component are a good example of the completeness of the topics matched by the GAPS project. The dynamics of some planetary systems are investigated by studying the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, while host stars are characterized by means of asteroseismology and star-planet interaction.

  9. Evolving the Technical Infrastructure of the Planetary Data System for the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, S.; Grayzeck, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) was established in 1989 as a distributed system to assure scientific oversight. Initially the PDS followed guidelines recommended by the National Academies Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC, 1982) and placed emphasis on archiving validated datasets. But overtime user demands, supported by increased computing capabilities and communication methods, have placed increasing demands on the PDS. The PDS must add additional services to better enable scientific analysis within distributed environments and to ensure that those services integrate with existing systems and data. To face these challenges the Planetary Data System (PDS) must modernize its architecture and technical implementation. The PDS 2010 project addresses these challenges. As part of this project, the PDS has three fundamental project goals that include: (1) Providing more efficient client delivery of data by data providers to the PDS (2) Enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive (3) Enabling services for the data consumer to find, access and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. In order to achieve these goals, the PDS 2010 project is upgrading both the technical infrastructure and the data standards to support increased efficiency in data delivery as well as usability of the PDS. Efforts are underway to interface with missions as early as possible and to streamline the preparation and delivery of data to the PDS. Likewise, the PDS is working to define and plan for data services that will help researchers to perform analysis in cost-constrained environments. This presentation will cover the PDS 2010 project including the goals, data standards and technical implementation plans that are underway within the Planetary Data System. It will discuss the plans for moving from the current system, version PDS 3, to version PDS 4.

  10. ANCIENT PLANETARY SYSTEMS ARE ORBITING A LARGE FRACTION OF WHITE DWARF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Melis, C.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.; Koester, D. E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.ed E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.ed

    2010-10-10

    Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around {approx}30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main-sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main-sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval ({approx}200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abundances of a suite of eight elements detected in the little studied star G241-6 that we find to be among the most heavily polluted of all moderately bright white dwarfs.

  11. ARCHITECTURE OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS BASED ON KEPLER DATA: NUMBER OF PLANETS AND COPLANARITY

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-20

    We investigated the underlying architecture of planetary systems by deriving the distribution of planet multiplicity (number of planets) and the distribution of orbital inclinations based on the sample of planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission. The scope of our study included solar-like stars and planets with orbital periods less than 200 days and with radii between 1.5 and 30 Earth radii, and was based on Kepler planet candidates detected during Quarters 1-6. We created models of planetary systems with different distributions of planet multiplicity and inclinations, simulated observations of these systems by Kepler, and compared the properties of the transits of detectable objects to actual Kepler planet detections. Specifically, we compared with both the Kepler sample's transit numbers and normalized transit duration ratios in order to determine each model's goodness of fit. We did not include any constraints from radial velocity surveys. Based on our best-fit models, 75%-80% of planetary systems have one or two planets with orbital periods less than 200 days. In addition, over 85% of planets have orbital inclinations less than 3 Degree-Sign (relative to a common reference plane). This high degree of coplanarity is comparable to that seen in our solar system. These results have implications for planet formation and evolution theories. Low inclinations are consistent with planets forming in a protoplanetary disk, followed by evolution without significant and lasting perturbations from other bodies capable of increasing inclinations.

  12. System control of an autonomous planetary mobile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Zimmerman, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The goal is to suggest the scheduling and control functions necessary for accomplishing mission objectives of a fairly autonomous interplanetary mobile spacecraft, while maximizing reliability. Goals are to provide an extensible, reliable system conservative in its use of on-board resources, while getting full value from subsystem autonomy, and avoiding the lure of ground micromanagement. A functional layout consisting of four basic elements is proposed: GROUND and SYSTEM EXECUTIVE system functions and RESOURCE CONTROL and ACTIVITY MANAGER subsystem functions. The system executive includes six subfunctions: SYSTEM MANAGER, SYSTEM FAULT PROTECTION, PLANNER, SCHEDULE ADAPTER, EVENT MONITOR and RESOURCE MONITOR. The full configuration is needed for autonomous operation on Moon or Mars, whereas a reduced version without the planning, schedule adaption and event monitoring functions could be appropriate for lower-autonomy use on the Moon. An implementation concept is suggested which is conservative in use of system resources and consists of modules combined with a network communications fabric. A language concept termed a scheduling calculus for rapidly performing essential on-board schedule adaption functions is introduced.

  13. Planetary science: How the Solar System didn't form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganis, Kleomenis

    2015-12-01

    Standard planet-formation models have been unable to reconstruct the distributions of the Solar System's small, rocky planets and asteroids in the same simulation. A new analysis suggests that it cannot be done.

  14. Automated management of power systems. [for future planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Bridgeforth, A.

    1979-01-01

    APSM (Automated Power System Management) is a technology readiness program underway to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate various techniques involved in power system monitoring, as well as computational and control functions. The demonstration breadboard consists of the Viking Orbiter '75 power subassembly breadboard modified to incorporate dedicated microprocessors and digital interface circuits, as well as test support equipment for both spacecraft and ground computer simulation, fault simulation, and data acquisition.

  15. Family System of Advanced Charring Ablators for Planetary Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, William M.; Curry, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Ablators Program Objectives: 1) Flight-ready(TRL-6) ablative heat shields for deep-space missions; 2) Diversity of selection from family-system approach; 3) Minimum weight systems with high reliability; 4) Optimized formulations and processing; 5) Fully characterized properties; and 6) Low-cost manufacturing. Definition and integration of candidate lightweight structures. Test and analysis database to support flight-vehicle engineering. Results from production scale-up studies and production-cost analyses.

  16. Dynamical stability of imaged planetary systems in formation: Application to HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Menou, Kristen; Rein, Hanno

    2015-08-01

    A recent ALMA image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses.We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This may present an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, a massive disk would also induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks.For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets' masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments. We will consider the implications for the HL Tau system, and discuss the exciting future of the planetary formation studies in the ALMA era.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section discuss: 1) Mg Isotopic Systematics in Eutectites; 2) Diffusion Kinetics of Cr in Olivine; 3) The W Isotope Composition of Eucrite Metals; 4) U-Pb and Hf-W Chronometry; 5) Fe-60 in Silicate from a Semarkona Chondrule; 6) The Isotope Geochemistry of Nickel in Chondrites and Iron Meteorites; 7) Iron-60 in the Early Solar System; 8) Endemic Mo Isotopic Anomalies in Iron and Carbonaceous Meteorites; 9) Solar System Iron and Tungsten Isotope Abundances; 10) Li and B Isotope Variations in CAI; 11) Short-lived Radionuclides and Early Solar System Irradiation; Ru Endemic Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites; 12) Cl-36 in Ca-Al rich inclusions from a carbonaceous chondrite.

  18. A new evolved planetary system with water-rich debris: the tip of the iceberg?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddi, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The detection of metals in white dwarf atmospheres, with a composition resembling that of Solar system asteroids, is unmistakable evidence for recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. We present the spectral analysis of SDSS J1242+5226, which is one of the most heavily metal-polluted white dwarfs. We detect atmospheric traces of hydrogen and eight metals, notably including oxygen. The chemical signature exhibited by the metal abundances matches the building blocks of formed planets. The excess of oxygen with respect to other trace metals, and the large hydrogen mass that we measure, suggest the likely accretion of water-rich exo-planetary debris, making this star the second of its kind. Accumulation of hydrogen with increasing cooling age, in this and other white dwarfs, exceeds the equivalent content in water-ice and hydrated minerals within the Solar system asteroid Ceres. This evidence suggests that water-rich asteroids may be common around other stars.

  19. On the detection of other planetary systems - Detection of intrinsic thermal radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    There is currently no unambiguous observational evidence for the existence of other planetary systems. One possible way to detect and study such systems is infrared observations of continuum blackbody radiation from planets revolving around other stars. It is shown that the effective temperature of large planets revolving around mid- to late-spectral-type main-sequences stars is set by energy sources internal to the planet rather than by equilibrium with the radiation field of the central star, making them easier to detect than had been previously thought. Consideration is given to the two major observational constraints on detecting planetary companions to nearby stars, namely, angular resolution and sensitivity. A comparison is made between the performance of an ambient (T 200 K), single-aperture telescope and a cooled interferometer. In each case the required aperture (baseline) is large (in the 10-m class), but consistent with Shuttle launch capability.

  20. Planets in Wide Binaries from Kepler: Ages, Stability and Evolution of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenburger, Kolby L.; West, Andrew A.; Janes, Kenneth; Dhital, Saurav

    2014-06-01

    Using the Kepler Input Catalog and the fourth U.S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog, we have identified 1509 common proper motion (CPM) binaries in the Kepler field of view, of which a small subset host planet candidates, or Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs). We have verified the fidelity of the CPM pairs using a Galactic model and follow-up astrometric observations. We present 73 KOIs distributed over 58 CPM pairs and highlight the first wide binary system (separation > 1000 AU) where both stellar components host at least one KOI. Because our binary sample was initially targeted for a gyrochronology analysis, we also present measurements of stellar rotation periods and preliminary estimates of stellar (and planetary) ages. We use these extrapolated planetary ages to investigate longterm planet stability in wide binaries and test potential formation and evolution scenarios of these dynamically complex systems.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Early Solar System Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The following topics were presented in this report: Iron Isotopic Fractionation During Vacuum Evaporation of Molten W?stite and Solar Compositions; Mg Isotope Ratio Zonation in CAIs - New Constraints on CAI Evolution; Sm-Nd Systematics of Chondrites; AMS Measurement of Mg-24(He-3,p)Al-26 Cross Section, Implications for the Al-26 Production in the Early Solar System; On Early Solar System Chronology: Implications of an Initially Heterogeneous Distribution of Short-lived Radionuclides; Revisiting Extraterrestrial U Isotope Ratios; Helium-Shell Nucleosynthesis and Extinct Radioactivities; High Spatial Resolution Ion Microprobe Measurements Refine Chronology of Orgueil Carbonate Formation; and Calibration of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Flux.

  2. PLANETARY SCIENCE: Solar System Scientists Look to Find an Edge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, R A

    2000-10-27

    For several years, ever-improving telescope technology has allowed astronomers to peer farther and farther beyond Neptune to discover a rapidly increasing number of bodies littering the outer reaches of the solar system. Now many researchers agree that an end is in sight, although some remain skeptical. PMID:17780502

  3. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Outer Solar System" included the following reports:New Data About Seasonal Variations of the North-South Asymmetry of Polarized Light of Jupiter; Appearance of Second Harmonic in the Jupiter Spectrum; Dynamics of Confined Liquid Mass, Spreading on Planet Surface; "Cassini" will Discover 116 New Satellites of Saturn!; Jupiter's Light Reflection Law;and Internal Structure Modelling of Europa.

  4. Dynamical Considerations for Life in Multi-habitable Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Li, Gongjie

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the close-proximity pair of planets in the Kepler-36 system, we consider two effects that may have important ramifications for the development of life in similar systems where a pair of planets may reside entirely in the habitable zone of the hosting star. Specifically, we run numerical simulations to determine whether strong, resonant (or non-resonant) planet-planet interactions can cause large variations in planet obliquity—thereby inducing large variations in climate. We also determine whether or not resonant interactions affect the rate of lithopanspermia between the planet pair—which could facilitate the growth and maintenance of life on both planets. We find that first-order resonances do not cause larger obliquity variations when compared with non-resonant cases. We also find that these resonant interactions are not a primary consideration in lithopanspermia. Lithopanspermia is enhanced significantly as the planet orbits come closer together—reaching nearly the same rate as ejected material falling back to the surface of the originating planet (assuming that the ejected material makes it out to the location of our initial conditions). Thus, in both cases our results indicate that close-proximity planet pairs in multi-habitable systems are conducive to life in the system.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Oxygen in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Oxygen in the Solar System" contained the following reports: Oxygen Isotopes in Lunar Metal Grains: A Natural Genesis Experiment; Determining Possible Building Blocks of the Earth and Mars; and Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from Pigeonite/Melt Partitioning of Samarium.

  6. Collisions Between Small Bodies In A Planetary System: Disruption Regime At High Impact Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Benz, W.; Tanga, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    Collisions play a major role in the formation of planetary systems, since planetary growth occurs by collisional accretion of small bodies at low relative velocities. How- ever, once the masses of planetesimals are high enough, their relative velocities in- crease due to their mutual perturbations and eventually, collisions occur at high impact speed. In this regime, the planetary growth is prevented and a disruptive phase begins, like in the current asteroid belt of our Solar System, and probably in other systems. Here, we present new simulations of high speed collisions between small bodies which take into account the production of gravitationally reaccumulated bodies. We have de- velopped a procedure which divides the process into two phases. Using a 3D SPH hydrocode, the fragmentation of the solid target through crack propagation is first computed. Then the simulation of the gravitational evolution and possible reaccumu- lation of the resulting new fragments is performed using the parallel N-body code pkdgrav. Our first simulations succeeded in reproducing fundamental properties of some well-identified asteroid families, showing the reliability of our method. We have now made some improvements by including the possibility of fragments bouncing (in- stead of strictly merging) when collisions occur at high speed during the gravitational phase. We present thus new simulations in three different impact regimes, from highly catastrophic to barely disruptive, and compare them with previous ones in which col- lisions between fragments resulted always in their merger. This comparison shows for each regime that the fundamental outcome properties remain statistically unchanged. We also observe the natural production of satellite systems around some fragments. We plan to continue our investigations using this procedure, and to improve upon the modelling of fundamental physical effects during collisions. We will then also inves- tigate the efficiency of planetary accretion

  7. Support requirements for remote sensor systems on unmanned planetary missions, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the support requirements for remote sensor systems on unmanned planetary flyby and orbiter missions are presented. Sensors and experiment groupings for selected missions are also established. Computer programs were developed to relate measurement requirements to support requirements. Support requirements were determined for sensors capable of performing required measurements at various points along the trajectories of specific selected missions.

  8. Can The Periods of Some Extra-Solar Planetary Systems be Quantized?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Morcos, Abd

    A simple formula was derived before by Morcos (2013 ), to relate the quantum numbers of planetary systems and their periods. This formula is applicable perfectly for the solar system planets, and some extra-solar planets , of stars of approximately the same masses like the Sun. This formula has been used to estimate the periods of some extra-solar planet of known quantum numbers. The used quantum numbers were calculated previously by other authors. A comparison between the observed and estimated periods, from the given formula has been done. The differences between the observed and calculated periods for the extra-solar systems have been calculated and tabulated. It is found that there is an error of the range of 10% The same formula has been also used to find the quantum numbers, of some known periods, exo-planet. Keywords: Quantization; Periods; Extra-Planetary; Extra-Solar Planet REFERENCES [1] Agnese, A. G. and Festa, R. “Discretization on the Cosmic Scale Inspirred from the Old Quantum Mechanics,” 1998. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9807186 [2] Agnese, A. G. and Festa, R. “Discretizing ups-Andro- medae Planetary System,” 1999. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9910534. [3] Barnothy, J. M. “The Stability of the Solar Systemand of Small Stellar Systems,” Proceedings of the IAU Sympo-sium 62, Warsaw, 5-8 September 1973, pp. 23-31. [4] Morcos, A.B. , “Confrontation between Quantized Periods of Some Extra-Solar Planetary Systems and Observations”, International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, 3, 28-32. [5] Nottale, L. “Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics, To-wards a Theory of Scale Relativity,” World Scientific, London, 1994. [6] Nottale , L., “Scale-Relativity and Quantization of Extra- Solar Planetary Systems,” Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 315, 1996, pp. L9-L12 [7] Nottale, L., Schumacher, G. and Gay, J. “Scale-Relativity and Quantization of the Solar Systems,” Astronomy & Astrophysics letters, Vol. 322, 1997, pp. 1018-10 [8

  9. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-03-10

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M{sub +} from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M {approx}> M{sub Sat}), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a {approx}< 3 AU) is consistent with isolated planet-planet scattering. We explain the observed mass dependence-which is in the opposite sense from that predicted by the simplest scattering models-as a consequence of strong correlations between planet masses in the same system. At somewhat larger radii, initial planetary mass correlations and disk effects can yield similar modest changes to the eccentricity distribution. Nonetheless, strong damping of eccentricity for low-mass planets at large radii appears to be a secure signature of the dynamical influence of disks. Radial velocity

  10. Radioisotope power system options for future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockfield, Robert D.

    2001-02-01

    Like previous missions to the outer planets, future spacecraft missions such as Pluto/Kuiper Express, Europa Orbiter, and Solar Probe will require radioisotope power systems for their long voyages away from the Sun. Several candidate advanced power conversion technologies have been proposed that have been proposed that have higher power conversion efficiencies than the traditional thermoelectric generators, with the potential for reduced mass and reduced quantities of nuclear fuel required. Studies conducted by Lockheed Martin under the direction of the Department of Energy have included the development of system conceptual designs utilizing Alkali Metal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and Stirling power conversion. Generator concepts based on these conversion technologies are compared in this paper with an alternative Small RTG, based on the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG). .

  11. A Small Fission Power System for NASA Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Casani, John; Elliott, John; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; MacPherson, Duncan; Nesmith, William; Houts, Michael; Bechtel, Ryan; Werner, James; Kapernick, Rick; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Lipinski, Ron; Radel, Ross; Bailey, Sterling; Weitzberg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    In March 2010, the Decadal Survey Giant Planets Panel (GPP) requested a short-turnaround study to evaluate the feasibility of a small Fission Power System (FPS) for future unspecified National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) science missions. FPS technology was considered a potential option for power levels that might not be achievable with radioisotope power systems. A study plan was generated and a joint NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) study team was formed. The team developed a set of notional requirements that included 1-kW electrical output, 15-year design life, and 2020 launch availability. After completing a short round of concept screening studies, the team selected a single concept for concentrated study and analysis. The selected concept is a solid block uranium-molybdenum reactor core with heat pipe cooling and distributed thermoelectric power converters directly coupled to aluminum radiator fins. This paper presents the preliminary configuration, mass summary, and proposed development program.

  12. Delivery of Volatiles to Habitable Planets in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, John E.; Kress, Monika E.; Bell, K. Robbins; Cash, Michele; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth can support life because: (1) its orbit lies in the Sun's habitable zone', and (2) it contains enough volatile material (e.g. water and organics) for life to flourish. However, it seems likely that the Earth was drier when it formed because it accreted in a part of the Sun's protoplanetary nebula that was too hot for volatiles to condense. If this is correct, water and organics must have been delivered to the habitable zone, after dissipation of the solar nebula, from a 'wet zone' in the asteroid belt or the outer solar system, where the nebula was cool enough for volatiles to condense. Material from the wet zone would have been delivered to the Earth by Jupiter and Saturn. Gravitational perturbations from these giant planets made much of the wet zone unstable, scattering volatile-rich planetesimals and protoplanets across the Solar System. Some of these objects ultimately collided with the inner Planets which themselves lie in a stable part of the Solar System. Giant planets are now being discovered orbiting other sunlike stars. To date, these planets have orbits and masses very different from Jupiter and Saturn, such that few if any of these systems is likely to have terrestrial planets in the star's habitable zone. However, new discoveries are anticipated due to improved detector sensitivity and the increase in the timespan of observations. Here we present numerical experiments examining the range of giant-planet characteristics that: (1) allow stable terrestrial Planets to exist in a star's habitable zone, and (2) make a large part of the star's wet zone weakly unstable, thus delivering volatiles to the terrestrial planets over an extended period of time after the dissipation of the solar nebula.

  13. Planetary migration in protoplanetary discs and outer Solar System architecture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Morbidelli, A.; Tsiganis, K.

    2007-08-01

    Planets form around stars in gaseous protoplanetary discs. Due to tidal effects, they perturb the gas distribution, which in turn affects their motion. If the planet is massive enough (see for instance Crida et al. 2006 for a criterion), it repels the gas efficiently and opens a gap around its orbit ; then, locked into its gap, the planet follows the disc viscous evolution, which generally consists in accretion onto the central star. This process is called type II migration and leads to the orbital decay of the planet on a timescale shorter than the disc lifetime. After a review of these processes, we will focus on the Solar System giant planets. Strong constraints suggest that they did not migrate significantly. Masset and Snellgrove (2001) have shown that the evolution of 2 giants planets in mean motion resonance in a common gap differs from the evolution of a single planet. For what concerns Jupiter and Saturn, we found that in some conditions on the disc parameter, they can avoid significant migration (Morbidelli and Crida 2007). Adding Uranus and Neptune to the system, six stable fully resonant configurations for the four giants in the gas disc appear. Of course, none of them correspond to the present configuration. However, after the gas disc phase, the system was surrounded by a planetesimal disk. Interactions with this debris disk make the planets slowly evolve, until an instability in reached. This destabilises the planetesimal disc and triggers the Late Heavy Bombardment, while the planets reach their actual position, like in the model by Tsiganis et al (2005) and Gomes et al (2005). Our simulations show a very satisfying case, opening the possibility for a dynamically consistent scenario of the outer Solar System evolution, starting from the gas phase.

  14. Radio Search for Water in Exo-Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmovici, C.; Pluchino, S.; Salerno, E.; Montebugnoli, S.; Zoni, L.; Bartolini, M.

    By using a fast multichannel spectrometer coupled to the 32 m radiotelescope at Medicina (Bologna, Italy) we started 1999 the search for the water MASER line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) on exoplanets. Up to now 32 exoplanetary systems have been observed and suspect transient emissions have been identified in some cases. In order to confirm the observations improving the detection limits a new challenging multichannel spectrometer (SPECTRA-1) was developed.

  15. Uranus. [Scientific study of planetary structure, ring systems, and magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstralh, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Observations and theoretical investigations of the Uranus (U) system from the period 1983-1986 are reviewed, with an emphasis on the Voyager 2 encounter with U on January 26, 1986. Topics addressed include the bulk U composition, structure, and heat flux; the U atmospheric composition, structure, and circulation; the U rings; the major and minor U satellites; the U magnetosphere; and the Lyman-alpha 'electroglow' observed on the sunlit hemisphere of U. 191 references.

  16. 55 CANCRI: A COPLANAR PLANETARY SYSTEM THAT IS LIKELY MISALIGNED WITH ITS STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kaib, Nathan A.; Duncan, Martin J.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2011-12-15

    Although the 55 Cnc system contains multiple, closely packed planets that are presumably in a coplanar configuration, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that they are likely to be highly inclined to their parent star's spin axis. Due to perturbations from its distant binary companion, this planetary system precesses like a rigid body about its parent star. Consequently, the parent star's spin axis and the planetary orbit normal likely diverged long ago. Because only the projected separation of the binary is known, we study this effect statistically, assuming an isotropic distribution for wide binary orbits. We find that the most likely projected spin-orbit angle is {approx}50 Degree-Sign , with a {approx}30% chance of a retrograde configuration. Transit observations of the innermost planet-55 Cnc e-may be used to verify these findings via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. 55 Cancri may thus represent a new class of planetary systems with well-ordered, coplanar orbits that are inclined with respect to the stellar equator.

  17. Theoretical models of planetary system formation: mass vs. semi-major axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibert, Y.; Carron, F.; Fortier, A.; Pfyffer, S.; Benz, W.; Mordasini, C.; Swoboda, D.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Planet formation models have been developed during the past years to try to reproduce what has been observed of both the solar system and the extrasolar planets. Some of these models have partially succeeded, but they focus on massive planets and, for the sake of simplicity, exclude planets belonging to planetary systems. However, more and more planets are now found in planetary systems. This tendency, which is a result of radial velocity, transit, and direct imaging surveys, seems to be even more pronounced for low-mass planets. These new observations require improving planet formation models, including new physics, and considering the formation of systems. Aims: In a recent series of papers, we have presented some improvements in the physics of our models, focussing in particular on the internal structure of forming planets, and on the computation of the excitation state of planetesimals and their resulting accretion rate. In this paper, we focus on the concurrent effect of the formation of more than one planet in the same protoplanetary disc and show the effect, in terms of architecture and composition of this multiplicity. Methods: We used an N-body calculation including collision detection to compute the orbital evolution of a planetary system. Moreover, we describe the effect of competition for accretion of gas and solids, as well as the effect of gravitational interactions between planets. Results: We show that the masses and semi-major axes of planets are modified by both the effect of competition and gravitational interactions. We also present the effect of the assumed number of forming planets in the same system (a free parameter of the model), as well as the effect of the inclination and eccentricity damping. We find that the fraction of ejected planets increases from nearly 0 to 8% as we change the number of embryos we seed the system with from 2 to 20 planetary embryos. Moreover, our calculations show that, when considering planets more

  18. Origin scenarios for the Kepler 36 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Bodman, Eva; Moore, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    We explore scenarios for the origin of two different density planets in the Kepler 36 system in adjacent orbits near the 7:6 mean motion resonance. We find that fine tuning is required in the stochastic forcing amplitude, the migration rate and planet eccentricities to allow two convergently migrating planets to bypass mean motion resonances such as the 4:3, 5:4 and 6:5, and yet allow capture into the 7:6 resonance. Stochastic forcing can eject the system from resonance causing a collision between the planets, unless the disc causing migration and stochastic forcing is depleted soon after resonance capture. We explore a scenario with approximately Mars mass embryos originating exterior to the two planets and migrating inwards towards two planets. We find that gravitational interactions with embryos can nudge the system out of resonances. Numerical integrations with about a half dozen embryos can leave the two planets in the 7:6 resonance. Collisions between planets and embryos have a wide distribution of impact angles and velocities ranging from accretionary to disruptive. We find that impacts can occur at sufficiently high impact angle and velocity that the envelope of a planet could have been stripped, leaving behind a dense core. Some of our integrations show the two planets exchanging locations, allowing the outer planet that had experienced multiple collisions with embryos to become the innermost planet. A scenario involving gravitational interactions and collisions with embryos may account for both the proximity of the Kepler 36 planets and their large density contrast.

  19. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  20. Life support system definition study for long duration planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, T.; Meyer, P.; Reysa, R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a mission planners life support systems (LSS) guidebook for providing data on the impact of various LSS on mission parameters such as mass, power, and volume is discussed. The factors utilized to define LSS case study mission drivers, and driver and mission impact parameter definitions are described. An example of a guidebook table for a specific set of LSS drivers is provided. Four approaches for physical/chemical closed-loop LSS are examined. A preliminary LSS guidebook for a lunar base is presented.

  1. The origin of planetary impactors in the inner solar system.

    PubMed

    Strom, Robert G; Malhotra, Renu; Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Fumi; Kring, David A

    2005-09-16

    Insights into the history of the inner solar system can be derived from the impact cratering record of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury and from the size distributions of asteroid populations. Old craters from a unique period of heavy bombardment that ended approximately 3.8 billion years ago were made by asteroids that were dynamically ejected from the main asteroid belt, possibly due to the orbital migration of the giant planets. The impactors of the past approximately 3.8 billion years have a size distribution quite different from that of the main belt asteroids but very similar to that of near-Earth asteroids. PMID:16166515

  2. Human Planetary Landing System (HPLS) Capability Roadmap: Wrap Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Rob

    2005-01-01

    When and how does the full scale system and subsystems need to be qualified & Human-rated for flight? Answer: No later than 29. Full scale AEDL Flight Tests can and should be done at Earth (need to get fast turn around between multiple tests). Do we need a Full Scale Validation Flight Test at Mars? Answer: Not, specifically, but the AEDL community is very uncomfortable with the notion of the very first full scale AEDL being piloted. The full scale unpiloted AEDL advance cargo mission that immediately precedes the human landing could do the trick. What kind of precursor AEDL Flight Tests are needed at Mars? Answer: We need to validate our performance & aerodynamic models by flying a scaled (1/10th?) version of the Full Scale Mission by 22. When and how do we decide on the AEDL system to fly? Answer: No later than 2015 (earlier is harder). We need to do multi-path full scale flight simulations and subscale / component development testing starting ASAP. If we find an AEDL for a landing mass of 40 MT, will this same architecture and technology paradigm extend to landing 80 MT? 120 MT? Is there another break point? Answer: We do not know yet.

  3. On the Dynamical State of the HD 82943 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Man Hoi; Tan, X.; Ford, E. B.; Payne, M. J.; Howard, A. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Johnson, J. A.; Wright, J. T.

    2011-09-01

    Previous analysis of radial velocity data of the star HD 82943 has shown that it hosts a pair of planets that are likely in 2:1 mean-motion resonance, with the orbital periods about 220 and 440 days (Lee et al. 2006). However, alternative fits that are qualitatively different have also been suggested, with the two planets in 1:1 resonance or the addition of a third planet possibly in a Laplace resonance with the other two (Gozdziewski & Konacki 2006; Beaugé et al. 2008). We present a new analysis of the HD 82943 system based on 10 years of radial velocity measurements obtained with the Keck telescope. An efficient and reliable method to explore the parameter space is needed because of the large number of model parameters and the cost of orbital integrations. We compare the results obtained using different approaches: multiple-Keplerian or N-body fitting, combined with the least-squares method on parameter grids or the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. A systematic exploration of the parameter space that combines statistical and dynamical analysis is performed to assess the viability of the different types of fits for the HD 82943 system. This work is supported in part by Hong Kong RGC grant HKU 7034/09P.

  4. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C M; Laskar, Jacques; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-18

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 au (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star. PMID:16710412

  5. ABSORBING GAS AROUND THE WASP-12 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, L.; Floeer, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O. E-mail: lfloeer@astro.uni-bonn.de E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk E-mail: oleg.kochukhov@physics.uu.se

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index ( log R{sup '}{sub HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets.

  6. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Rasky, Daniel; Hintze, Paul; Sibille, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss a new mass-efficient and innovative way of protecting high-mass spacecraft during planetary Entry, Descent & Landing (EDL). Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system (TPS) for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from regolith materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Two regolith processing and manufacturing methods will be discussed: 1) Compression and sintering of the regolith to yield low density materials; 2) Formulations of a High-temperature silicone RTV (Room Temperature Vulcanizing) compound are used to bind regolith particles together. The overall positive results of torch flame impingement tests and plasma arc jet testing on the resulting samples will also be discussed.

  7. The influence of the great inequality on the secular disturbing function of the planetary system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musen, P.

    1971-01-01

    This paper derives the contribution by the great inequality to the secular disturbing function of the principal planets. Andoyer's expansion of the planetary disturbing function and von Zeipel's method of eliminating the periodic terms is employed; thereby, the corrected secular disturbing function for the planetary system is derived. The conclusion is drawn that the canonicity of the equations for the secular variation of the heliocentric elements can be preserved if there be retained, in the secular disturbing function, terms only of the second and fourth order relative to the eccentricity and inclinations. The Krylov-Bogoliubov method is suggested for eliminating periodic terms, if it is desired to include the secular perturbations of the fifth and higher order in the heliocentric elements. The additional part of the secular disturbing function derived in this paper can be included in existing theories of the secular effects of principal planets.

  8. Dynamic Response of a Planetary Gear System Using a Finite Element/Contact Mechanics Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Robert G.; Agashe, Vinayak; Vijayakar, Sandeep M.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of a helicopter planetary gear system is examined over a wide range of operating speeds and torques. The analysis tool is a unique, semianalytical finite element formulation that admits precise representation of the tooth geometry and contact forces that are crucial in gear dynamics. Importantly, no a priori specification of static transmission error excitation or mesh frequency variation is required; the dynamic contact forces are evaluated internally at each time step. The calculated response shows classical resonances when a harmonic of mesh frequency coincides with a natural frequency. However, peculiar behavior occurs where resonances expected to be excited at a given speed are absent. This absence of particular modes is explained by analytical relationships that depend on the planetary configuration and mesh frequency harmonic. The torque sensitivity of the dynamic response is examined and compared to static analyses. Rotation mode response is shown to be more sensitive to input torque than translational mode response.

  9. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Hintze, Paul E.; Sibille, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss a new mass-efficient and innovative way of protecting high-mass spacecraft during planetary Entry, Descent & Landing (EDL). Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system (TPS) for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from regolith materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Three regolith processing and manufacturing methods will be discussed: 1) oxygen & metal extraction ISRU processes produce glassy melts enriched in alumina and titania, processed to obtain variable density, high melting point and heat-resistance; 2) compression and sintering of the regolith yield low density materials; 3) in-situ derived high-temperature polymers are created to bind regolith particles together, with a lower energy budget.

  10. Continued development of the radio science technique as a tool for planetary and solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A possible alternative to a spacecraft monostatic radar system for surface studies of Titan is introduced. The results of a short study of the characteristics of a bistatic radar investigation of Titan's surface, presented in terms of the Voyager 1 flyby and a proposed Galileo orbiter of Saturn are outlined. The critical factors which need to be addressed in order to optimize the radio occultation technique for the study of clouds and cloud regions in planetary atmospheres are outlined. Potential improvements in the techniques for measuring small-scale structures in planetary atmospheres and ionospheres are addressed. The development of a technique for vastly improving the radial resolution from the radio occultation measurements of the rings of Saturn is discussed.

  11. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  12. A high-precision radial-velocity survey for other planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.

    1994-01-01

    The precise measurement of variations in stellar radial velocities provides one of several promising methods of surveying a large sample of nearby solar type stars to detect planetary systems in orbit around them. The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) was started in 1987 September with the goal of detecting other nearby planetary systems. A stabilized I2 gas absorption cell placed in front of the entrance slit to the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m telescope coude spectrograph serves as the velocity metric. With this I2 cell we can achieve radial velocity measurement precision better than 10 m/s in an individual measurement. At this level we can detect a Jupiter-like planet around a solar-type star, and have some hope of detecting Saturn-like planets in a long-term survey. The detectability of planets is ultimately limited by stellar pulsation modes and photospheric motions. Monthly MOPS observing runs allow us to obtain at least 5 independent observations per year of the 33 solar-type (F5-K7) stars on our observing list. We present representative results from the first five years of the survey.

  13. Systemic effects of geoengineering by terrestrial carbon dioxide removal on carbon related planetary boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Vera; Donges, Jonathan; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009) provides guidelines for ecological boundaries, the transgression of which is likely to result in a shift of Earth system functioning away from the relatively stable Holocene state. As the climate change boundary is already close to be transgressed, several geoengineering (GE) methods are discussed, aiming at a reduction of atmospheric carbon concentrations to control the Earth's energy balance. One of the proposed GE methods is carbon extraction from the atmosphere via biological carbon sequestration. In case mitigation efforts fail to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this form of GE could act as potential measure to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We here study the possible influences of human interactions in the Earth system on carbon related planetary boundaries in the form of geoengineering (terrestrial carbon dioxide removal). We use a conceptual model specifically designed to investigate fundamental carbon feedbacks between land, ocean and atmosphere (Anderies et al., 2013) and modify it to include an additional geoengineering component. With that we analyze the existence and stability of a safe operating space for humanity, which is here conceptualized in three of the 9 proposed dimensions, namely climate change, ocean acidification and land-use. References: J. M. Anderies et al., The topology of non-linear global carbon dynamics: from tipping points to planetary boundaries. Environ. Res. Lett., 8(4):044048 (2013) J. Rockström et al., A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461 (7263), 472-475 (2009)

  14. Variability of Elemental Abundances in the Local Neighborhood and its Effect on Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Michael

    As the detection of planets become commonplace around our neighboring stars, scientists can now begin exploring their possible properties and habitability. Using statistical analysis I determine a true range of elemental compositions amongst local stars and how this variation could affect possible planetary systems. Through calculating and analyzing the variation in elemental abundances of nearby stars, the actual range in stellar abundances can be determined using statistical methods. This research emphasizes the diversity of stellar elemental abundances and how that could affect the environment from which planets form. An intrinsic variation has been found to exist for almost all of the elements studied by most abundance-finding groups. Specifically, this research determines abundances for a set of 458 F, G, and K stars from spectroscopic planet hunting surveys for 27 elements, including: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, and Hf. Abundances of the elements in many known exosolar planet host stars are calculated for the purpose investigating new ways to visualize how stellar abundances could affect planetary systems, planetary formation, and mineralogy. I explore the Mg/Si and C/O ratios as well as place these abundances on ternary diagrams with Fe. Lastly, I emphasize the unusual stellar abundance of tau Ceti. tau Ceti is measured to have 5 planets of Super-Earth masses orbiting in near habitable zone distances. Spectroscopic analysis finds that the Mg/Si ratio is extremely high (˜ 2) for this star, which could lead to alterations in planetary properties. tau Ceti's low metallicity and oxygen abundance account for a change in the location of the traditional habitable zone, which helps clarify a new definition of habitable planets.

  15. Variability of Elemental Abundances in the Local Neighborhood and its Effect on Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, Michael D.; Young, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Does a true range of elemental compositions amongst local stars exist? How does this variation effect possible planetary systems around these stars? Through calculating and analyzing the variation in elemental abundances of nearby stars, the actual range in stellar abundances can be determined using statistical methods. This research emphasizes the improvement needed within the field of stellar abundance determination, both by the ease of measuring and by standardization. An intrinsic variation has been found to exist for almost all of the elements studied by most abundance-finding groups. Specifically, this research determines abundances for our own set of F, G, and K stars 400 stars) from spectroscopic planet hunting surveys for 27 elements, including: C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, and Hf, where some elements are not measured in all stars. Abundances of the elements in many known exosolar planet host stars are calculated for the purpose of hypothesizing new ways to visualize how stellar abundances could affect planetary systems, planetary formation, and mineralogy. For example, the emphasis on the unusual stellar abundances of Tau Ceti is being heavily analyzed. Tau Ceti is theorized to have 5 planets of Super-Earth masses orbiting in near habitable zone distances(Tuomi, M. et al. 2013). Spectroscopic analysis finds that the Mg/Si ratio is extremely high 2) for this star, which could lead to alterations in planetary properties. Tau Ceti's low metallicity and Oxygen abundance leads to changes in the location of the traditional habitable zone. In addition, the abundance results of a spectroscopic survey of around 400 stars will be presented. This is completed by observing mineralogical ratios, such as Mg/Si and C/O, as well as constructing other useful ratios for determining the effects of individual stellar abundances.

  16. Coherent uplink arraying techniques for next generation space communications and planetary radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.

    2011-06-01

    For several years, NASA has been pursuing demonstrations and development of coherent uplink arraying techniques for the next generation space communications and planetary radar systems. In addition radio science experiments would benefit with a 1000 times increase in signal to noise over current systems. I shall describe the three methods of uplink arraying NASA has pursued, all successful, and share the vision for going forward from laboratory demonstrations to the proposed implementation and deployment of a dedicated multi-purpose facility to infuse an amalgam of these methods into a system that enhances NASA's missions.

  17. Dynamics of the 3/1 planetary mean-motion resonance: an application to the HD60532 b-c planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A. J.; Michtchenko, T. A.; Tadeu dos Santos, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we use a semi-analytical approach to analyze the global structure of the phase space of the planar planetary 3/1 mean-motion resonance. The case where the outer planet is more massive than its inner companion is considered. We show that the resonant dynamics can be described using two fundamental parameters, the total angular momentum and the spacing parameter. The topology of the Hamiltonian function describing the resonant behaviour is investigated on a large domain of the phase space without time-expensive numerical integrations of the equations of motion, and without any restriction on the magnitude of the planetary eccentricities. The families of the Apsidal Corotation Resonances (ACR) parameterized by the planetary mass ratio are obtained and their stability is analyzed. The main dynamical features in the domains around the ACR are also investigated in detail by means of spectral analysis techniques, which allow us to detect the regions of different regimes of motion of resonant systems. The construction of dynamical maps for various values of the total angular momentum shows the evolution of domains of stable motion with the eccentricities, identifying possible configurations suitable for exoplanetary systems.

  18. Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, M. K.; Araki, S.; Black, G. J.; Bosh, A. S.; Brahic, A.; Brooks, S. M.; Charnoz, S.; Colwell, J. E.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Dones, L.; Durisen, R. H.; Esposito, L. W.; Ferrari, C.; Festou, M.; French, R. G.; Giuliatti-Winter, S. M.; Graps, A. L.; Hamilton, D. P.; Horanyi, M.; Karjalainen, R. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Krueger, H.; Larson, S. M.; Levison, H. F.; Lewis, M. C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Murray, C. D.; Namouni, F.; Nicholson, P. D.; Olkin, C. B.; Poulet, F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Salo, H. J.; Schmidt, J.; Showalter, M. R.; Spahn, F.; Spilker, L. J.; Srama, R.; Stewart, G. R.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.

    2002-08-01

    The past two decades have witnessed dramatic changes in our view and understanding of planetary rings. We now know that each of the giant planets in the Solar System possesses a complex and unique ring system. Recent studies have identified complex gravitational interactions between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto, or collisions between, parent bodies. Yet, as far as we have come, our understanding is far from complete. The fundamental questions confronting ring scientists at the beginning of the twenty-first century are those regarding the origin, age and evolution of the various ring systems, in the broadest context. Understanding the origin and age requires us to know the current ring properties, and to understand the dominant evolutionary processes and how they influence ring properties. Here we discuss a prioritized list of the key questions, the answers to which would provide the greatest improvement in our understanding of planetary rings. We then outline the initiatives, missions, and other supporting activities needed to address those questions, and recommend priorities for the coming decade in planetary ring science.

  19. Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems analysis of a planetary entry (SAPE), descent, and landing (EDL) is a multidisciplinary activity in nature. SAPE improves the performance of the systems analysis team by automating and streamlining the process, and this improvement can reduce the errors that stem from manual data transfer among discipline experts. SAPE is a multidisciplinary tool for systems analysis of planetary EDL for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. It performs EDL systems analysis for any planet, operates cross-platform (i.e., Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems), uses existing software components and open-source software to avoid software licensing issues, performs low-fidelity systems analysis in one hour on a computer that is comparable to an average laptop, and keeps discipline experts in the analysis loop. SAPE uses Python, a platform-independent, open-source language, for integration and for the user interface. Development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE currently includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and interface for structural sizing.

  20. NASA's Planetary Data System: Support for the Delivery of Derived Data Sets at the Atmospheres Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Beebe, Reta; Neakrase, Lynn; Huber, Lyle; Rees, Shannon; Hornung, Danae

    2015-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System is charged with archiving electronic data products from NASA planetary missions that are sponsored by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. This archive, currently organized by science disciplines, uses standards for describing and storing data that are designed to enable future scientists who are unfamiliar with the original experiments to analyze the data, and to do this using a variety of computer platforms, with no additional support. These standards address the data structure, description contents, and media design. The new requirement in the NASA ROSES-2015 Research Announcement to include a Data Management Plan will result in an increase in the number of derived data sets that are being delivered to the PDS. These data sets may come from the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration and Tools (PDART) program, other Data Analysis Programs (DAPs) or be volunteered by individuals who are publishing the results of their analysis. In response to this increase, the PDS Atmospheres Node is developing a set of guidelines and user tools to make the process of archiving these derived data products more efficient. Here we provide a description of Atmospheres Node resources, including a letter of support for the proposal stage, a communication schedule for the planned archive effort, product label samples and templates in extensible markup language (XML), documentation templates, and validation tools necessary for producing a PDS4-compliant derived data bundle(s) efficiently and accurately.

  1. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  2. Stability of a terrestrial planet in a planetary system with a Hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, Patrick

    With the discovery of over 200 Extra-solar planetary systems recently, it appears that the existence of a "Hot Jupiter" in a planetary system is a fairly common event. Jupiter size planets and larger have been found at the location of orbits of terrestrial planets in our own solar system. This raises the question, under what conditions could an Earth type planet have a stable orbit in the Habitable Zone of a planetary system if a Hot Jupiter is also a part of the system? In this study I will consider a systems with three and four bodies. The star will be one solar mass. The terrestrial planet will have one earth mass, placed at one AU from the star. The other two bodies will have masses on the order that of Jupiter. One "Jupiter" will be a Hot Jupiter, with an orbit closer to the star than that of the terrestrial planet. The other "Jupiter" will be put at an orbit further out than that of the terrestrial planet. Of particular interest are orbits where the terrestrial planet is in resonance with one or both of the Jupiter size planets, to determine whether certain resonances have an effect on the stability of the Earth type planet's orbit. The stability of the Earth size planet will be explored using a Fourier Analysis of its orbital parameters based on a previously developed method called the Frequency Map Analysis (FMA). Using the FMA, the goal is to determine what are the conditions for a "stable" Earth orbit, stability being one of the keys to the development of life on an Earth type planet.

  3. The Elephant in the Room: Effects of Distant, Massive Companions on Planetary System Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Heather

    2016-06-01

    Over the past two decades ongoing radial velocity and transit surveys have been astoundingly successful in detecting thousands of new planetary systems around nearby stars. These systems include apparently single gas giant planets on short period orbits, closely packed systems of up to 5-6 “super-Earths”, and relatively empty systems with either one or no small planets interior to 0.5 AU. Despite our success in cataloguing the diverse properties of these systems, we are still struggling to develop narratives that can explain their apparently divergent formation and migration histories. This is in large part due to our lack of knowledge about the potential presence of massive outer companions in these systems, which can play a pivotal role in the shaping the final properties of the inner planets. In my talk I will discuss current efforts to complete the census for known planetary systems by searching for outer gas giant planets with long term radial velocity monitoring and wide separation stellar companions with high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. I will then demonstrate how statistical constraints on this population of outer companions can be used to test current theories for planet formation and migration.

  4. The search for other planetary systems - Progress to date and future prospects (The Rudolph Pesek Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The notion is addressed which links the formation of stars and the existence of planets, and the lack of supporting observational data is discussed in relation to a NASA astrometric project. The program cited is called Towards Other Planetary Systems (TOPS) and includes ground-based astrometric and radial-velocity studies for both direct and indirect scrutiny of unknown planets. The TOPS program also envisages space-based astrometric systems that can operate with an accuracy of not less than 10 microarcseconds, and the possibility is mentioned of a moon-based astrometric platform.

  5. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  6. Technology status of a fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The basic technology exists and a system integration program is well underway to allow incorporation of a fluorine-hydrazine propulsion system into future spacecraft required for unmanned planetary missions. These spacecraft would be inserted in earth orbit using the Space Transportation System Shuttle and given its initial sendoff by the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS). The design of a typical propulsion system, assessment of thermal and structural impacts on a selected spacecraft and comparative studies with conventional propulsion systems have been completed. A major part of the current JPL Program involves assembly of a 3650 N thrust demonstration system using titanium tanks, flight weight components and structure. This system will be used to demonstrate the state-of-the-art throughout a representative flight system's qualification.

  7. The issue of development and validation of a planetary balloon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, André

    When we talk of planetary balloon system, everyone think about the free flight of the balloon in the atmosphere of the planet, following the winds and currently being achieving its scientific mission. But before the scientific mission flight, a subsystem, in the descent module, is manda-tory for the set up of the balloon in flight conditions from a folded configuration used during the interplanetary transfer. To develop such a system, the first step is to find or produce material that will enable the manufacture of a balloon capable of withstanding the environment of the planet, and which fulfills the requirements of the scientific mission in terms of flight profile, payload mass and flight duration. The second step consists in the development and validation of the subsystem, in the descent module, which permits the deployment of the aerostat and the inflation of the balloon, during the entry in the atmosphere of the planet, after main parachute stabilization and, of course, before landing on the surface of the planet. An important issue is relative to the strategy for the validations of deployment inflation phase, testing on the Earth, whose characteristics, as atmosphere (pressure temperature profile, composition, heat-ing fluxes) and gravity, are usually quite unlike that the planet. For the system validation, it is necessary to develop models (thermodynamic for flight phase and mechanics kinematic for deployment inflation phase). After the definition of similarity criteria between the planet and the Earth, these models will permit to transpose the test results on Earth to predict and to validate the behavior of the balloon system on the planet. The purpose of this paper is to pro-vide a brief overview of the issues relative to the development and the validation of a planetary balloon system. We have to deal with a lot of technical challenges as long duration folding of the balloon in its container, aerostat deployment and balloon inflation, and separations

  8. Planetary Systems Around Spectroscopic Binary Stars: The Very Dusty, Old, Sun-like BD+20 307

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, Ben M.; Fekel, F. C.; Williamson, M. H.; Henry, G. W.; Muno, M. P.; Melis, C.; Marois, C.

    2009-01-01

    Field star BD+20 307 is the dustiest known main sequence star, based on the fraction of its bolometric luminosity, 4%, emitted at infrared wavelengths (Song et al. 2005; Rhee et al. 2008). The temperature of the particles that carry this large IR luminosity is comparable to that of the Sun's zodiacal dust, and their existence is likely a consequence of a fairly recent collision of large objects such as planets or planetary embryos. BD+20 307 is now known to be a 3.4 day spectroscopic binary composed of two nearly equal solar-mass stars (Weinberger 2008; Zuckerman et al. 2008). Consideration of various age indicators implies that that star is likely to be at least one Gyr old, perhaps many Gyr old. Probably the dust around this close binary star has nothing to do with planet formation and everything to do with some major catastrophic event that recently took place near 1 AU in a mature planetary system. Destabilizing planetary orbits in an old system with a single star at its center appears to be possible, e.g., Mercury (Batygin & Laughlin 2008 and references therein). Destabilization may be easier to achieve in a close binary star system and easier yet in a triple star system. Tokovinin et al. (2006) conclude that, for a spectroscopic binary star with an orbital period of 3.4 days, the probability is 70% that a third star is present. Thus, we have searched for such a tertiary star in the BD+20 307 system using accurate radial velocities measured at Fairborn and Lick observatories and with adaptive optics imaging at Keck observatory. As of the writing of this abstract, no third star is detected. Limits on mass and semimajor axis of any tertiary star will be discussed. This research was supported by a grant from the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  9. A SEARCH FOR WIDE COMPANIONS TO THE EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEM HR 8799

    SciTech Connect

    Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.

    2010-01-20

    The extrasolar planetary system around HR 8799 is the first multiplanet system ever imaged. It is also, by a wide margin, the highest mass system with >27 Jupiters of planetary mass past 25 AU. This is a remarkable system with no analog in any other known planetary system. In the first part of this paper, we investigated the nature of two faint objects imaged near the system. These objects are considerably fainter (H = 20.4 and 21.6 mag) and more distant (projected separations of 612 and 534 AU) than the three known planetary companions b, c, and d (68-24 AU). It is possible that these two objects could be lower mass planets (of mass approx5M{sub Jup} and approx3M{sub Jup}) that have been scattered to wider orbits. We make the first direct comparison of newly reduced archival Gemini adaptive optics images to archival Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS images. With nearly a decade between these epochs, we can accurately assess the proper motion nature of each candidate companion. We find that both objects are unbound to HR 8799 and are background. We estimate that HR 8799 has no companions of H < 22 from approx5'' to 15''. Any scattered giant planets in the HR 8799 system are >600 AU or less than 3 M{sub Jup} in mass. In the second part of this paper, we search for any sign of a 'reverse parallax signature' in the astrometric residuals of HR 8799b. No such signal was found and we conclude, as expected, that HR 8799b has the same parallax as HR 8799A. In the third part of this paper, we carry out a search for wider common proper motion objects. We found one object within 1 deg{sup 2} in the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey-Digitized Sky Survey images with similar (<2sigma) proper motions to HR 8799 at a separation of 4.'0. We conclude that it is not likely a bound companion to HR 8799 based on available photometry.

  10. Dynamics of Convergent Migration and Mean Motion Resonances in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, Jacob A.

    Recent observations of solar systems orbiting other stars show that exoplanets display an enormous range of physical properties and that planetary systems display a diverse set of architectures, which motivate further studies in planetary dynamics. Part of the richness of this dynamical problem arises from the intrinsic complexity of N-body systems, even in the absence of additional forces. The realm of physical behavior experienced by such systems is enormous, and includes mean motion resonances (MMR), secular interactions, and sensitive dependence on the initial conditions (chaos). Additional complications arise from other forces that are often present: During the early stages of evolution, circumstellar disks provide torques that influence orbital elements, and turbulent fluctuations act on young planets. Over longer time scales, solar systems are affected by tidal forces from both stars and planets, and by general relativistic corrections that lead to orbital precession. This thesis addresses a subset of these dynamical problems, including the capture rates of planets into MMR, collision probabilities for migrating rocky planets interacting with Jovian planets, and the exploration of the ``nodding'' phenomenon (where systems move in and out of MMR). This latter effect can have important implications for interpreting transit timing variations (TTV), a method to detect smaller planets due to their interaction with larger transiting bodies.

  11. YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULAE: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G.; Morris, Mark R.

    2011-04-15

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae (PNs), most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of PNs. Unlike previous classification studies, we have focused primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system, such as ansae, indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving, prior wind; a waist is the signature of a strong equatorial concentration of matter, whether it be outflowing or in a bound Keplerian disk, and point symmetry indicates a secular trend, presumably precession, in the orientation of the central driver of a rapid, collimated outflow.

  12. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In-Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASA's Grand Challenges involving entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Heat shields fabricated in-situ can provide a thermal protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. Fabricating the heat shield from extraterrestrial regolith will avoid the costs of launching the heat shield mass from Earth. This project investigated three methods to fabricate heat shield using extraterrestrial regolith and performed preliminary work on mission architectures.

  13. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In-Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASA's Grand Challenges involving entry, descent, and landing (EDL). Heat shields fabricated in-situ can provide a thermal protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. Fabricating the heat shield from extraterrestrial regolith will avoid the costs of launching the heat shield mass from Earth. This project will investigate three methods to fabricate heat shield using extraterrestrial regolith.

  14. DISK-PLANETS INTERACTIONS AND THE DIVERSITY OF PERIOD RATIOS IN KEPLER'S MULTI-PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Baruteau, Clement; Papaloizou, John C. B. E-mail: J.C.B.Papaloizou@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2013-11-20

    The Kepler mission is dramatically increasing the number of planets known in multi-planetary systems. Many adjacent planets have orbital period ratios near resonant values, with a tendency to be larger than required for exact first-order mean-motion resonances. This feature has been shown to be a natural outcome of orbital circularization of resonant planetary pairs due to star-planet tidal interactions. However, this feature holds in multi-planetary systems with periods longer than 10 days, in which tidal circularization is unlikely to provide efficient divergent evolution of the planets' orbits to explain these orbital period ratios. Gravitational interactions between planets and their parent protoplanetary disk may instead provide efficient divergent evolution. For a planet pair embedded in a disk, we show that interactions between a planet and the wake of its companion can reverse convergent migration and significantly increase the period ratio from a near-resonant value. Divergent evolution due to wake-planet interactions is particularly efficient when at least one of the planets opens a partial gap around its orbit. This mechanism could help account for the diversity of period ratios in Kepler's multiple systems from super-Earth to sub-Jovian planets with periods greater than about 10 days. Diversity is also expected for pairs of planets massive enough to merge their gap. The efficiency of wake-planet interactions is then much reduced, but convergent migration may stall with a variety of period ratios depending on the density structure in the common gap. This is illustrated for the Kepler-46 system, for which we reproduce the period ratio of Kepler-46b and c.

  15. The Secular Evolution and Dynamical Architecture of the Neptunian Triplet Planetary System HD 69830

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jianghui; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Liu, Lin; Li, Guangyu

    2007-03-01

    We perform numerical simulations to study the secular orbital evolution and dynamical structure in the HD 69830 planetary system, using the best-fit orbital solutions by Lovis and coworkers. In the simulations, we show that a triplet Neptunian system is stable for at least 2 Gyr and that the stability would not be greatly influenced even if we varied the planetary masses. In addition, we employ Laplace-Lagrange secular theory to investigate the long-term behavior of the system, and the outcomes demonstrate that this theory can well describe and predict the secular orbital evolution for three Neptune-mass planets, where the secular periods and amplitudes of the eccentricities are in good agreement with those from direct numerical integrations. We first reveal that the secular periods of the eccentricity, e1 and e2, are identical. Moreover, we extensively explore the planetary configuration of three Neptune-mass companions with one massive terrestrial planet in 0.07 AU<=a<=1.20 AU, to examine the potential asteroid architecture. We underline that there are stable zones lasting for at least 105 yr for low-mass terrestrial planets located between 0.3 and 0.5 AU and between 0.8 and 1.2 AU. We also find that the secular resonances can excite the eccentricities of the terrestrial bodies and that the accumulation or depletion of the asteroid belt is also shaped by orbital resonances of the outer planets; for example, the asteroidal gaps at the 2:1 and 3:2 mean motion resonances with planet c. In a dynamical sense, the proper candidate regions for the existence of potential terrestrial planets or habitable zones are 0.35 AUsystem.

  16. Resonances Required: Dynamical Analysis of the 24 Sex and HD 200964 Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.

    2012-12-01

    We perform several suites of highly detailed dynamical simulations to investigate the architectures of the 24 Sextantis and HD 200964 planetary systems. The best-fit orbital solution for the two planets in the 24 Sex system places them on orbits with periods that lie very close to 2:1 commensurability, while that for the HD 200964 system places the two planets therein in orbits whose periods lie close to a 4:3 commensurability. In both cases, the proposed best-fit orbits are mutually crossing—a scenario that is only dynamically feasible if the planets are protected from close encounters by the effects of mutual mean-motion resonance (MMR). Our simulations reveal that the best-fit orbits for both systems lie within narrow islands of dynamical stability, and are surrounded by much larger regions of extreme instability. As such, we show that the planets are only feasible if they are currently trapped in mutual MMR—the 2:1 resonance in the case of 24 Sex b and c, and the 4:3 resonance in the case of HD 200964 b and c. In both cases, the region of stability is strongest and most pronounced when the planetary orbits are mutually coplanar. As the inclination of planet c with respect to planet b is increased, the stability of both systems rapidly collapses.

  17. RESONANCES REQUIRED: DYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 24 Sex AND HD 200964 PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.

    2012-12-20

    We perform several suites of highly detailed dynamical simulations to investigate the architectures of the 24 Sextantis and HD 200964 planetary systems. The best-fit orbital solution for the two planets in the 24 Sex system places them on orbits with periods that lie very close to 2:1 commensurability, while that for the HD 200964 system places the two planets therein in orbits whose periods lie close to a 4:3 commensurability. In both cases, the proposed best-fit orbits are mutually crossing-a scenario that is only dynamically feasible if the planets are protected from close encounters by the effects of mutual mean-motion resonance (MMR). Our simulations reveal that the best-fit orbits for both systems lie within narrow islands of dynamical stability, and are surrounded by much larger regions of extreme instability. As such, we show that the planets are only feasible if they are currently trapped in mutual MMR-the 2:1 resonance in the case of 24 Sex b and c, and the 4:3 resonance in the case of HD 200964 b and c. In both cases, the region of stability is strongest and most pronounced when the planetary orbits are mutually coplanar. As the inclination of planet c with respect to planet b is increased, the stability of both systems rapidly collapses.

  18. Insights into Planet Formation from Debris Disks - II. Giant Impacts in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Mark C.; Jackson, Alan P.

    2016-03-01

    Giant impacts refer to collisions between two objects each of which is massive enough to be considered at least a planetary embryo. The putative collision suffered by the proto-Earth that created the Moon is a prime example, though most Solar System bodies bear signatures of such collisions. Current planet formation models predict that an epoch of giant impacts may be inevitable, and observations of debris around other stars are providing mounting evidence that giant impacts feature in the evolution of many planetary systems. This chapter reviews giant impacts, focussing on what we can learn about planet formation by studying debris around other stars. Giant impact debris evolves through mutual collisions and dynamical interactions with planets. General aspects of this evolution are outlined, noting the importance of the collision-point geometry. The detectability of the debris is discussed using the example of the Moon-forming impact. Such debris could be detectable around another star up to 10 Myr post-impact, but model uncertainties could reduce detectability to a few 100 yr window. Nevertheless the 3 % of young stars with debris at levels expected during terrestrial planet formation provide valuable constraints on formation models; implications for super-Earth formation are also discussed. Variability recently observed in some bright disks promises to illuminate the evolution during the earliest phases when vapour condensates may be optically thick and acutely affected by the collision-point geometry. The outer reaches of planetary systems may also exhibit signatures of giant impacts, such as the clumpy debris structures seen around some stars.

  19. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multiband photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Lendl, M.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Brahm, R.; Chen, G.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Galianni, P.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Rabus, M.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bott, K.; Henning, Th.; Jordán, A.; Sozzetti, A.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bajek, D.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Browne, P.; Calchi Novati, S.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Elyiv, A.; Giannini, E.; Gu, S.-H.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Penny, M.; Popovas, A.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Surdej, J.; Vilela, C.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurements of the physical characteristics of a large number of exoplanets are useful to strongly constrain theoretical models of planet formation and evolution, which lead to the large variety of exoplanets and planetary-system configurations that have been observed. We present a study of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46, both composed of a main-sequence star and a close-in hot Jupiter, based on 29 new high-quality light curves of transits events. In particular, one transit of WASP-45 b and four of WASP-46 b were simultaneously observed in four optical filters, while one transit of WASP-46 b was observed with the NTT obtaining a precision of 0.30 mmag with a cadence of roughly 3 min. We also obtained five new spectra of WASP-45 with the FEROS spectrograph. We improved by a factor of 4 the measurement of the radius of the planet WASP-45 b, and found that WASP-46 b is slightly less massive and smaller than previously reported. Both planets now have a more accurate measurement of the density (0.959 ± 0.077 ρJup instead of 0.64 ± 0.30 ρJup for WASP-45 b, and 1.103 ± 0.052 ρJup instead of 0.94 ± 0.11 ρJup for WASP-46 b). We tentatively detected radius variations with wavelength for both planets, in particular in the case of WASP-45 b we found a slightly larger absorption in the redder bands than in the bluer ones. No hints for the presence of an additional planetary companion in the two systems were found either from the photometric or radial velocity measurements.

  20. RESEARCH PAPER: The dynamical architecture and habitable zones of the quintuplet planetary system 55 Cancri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jiang-Hui; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Liu, Lin; Li, Guang-Yu

    2009-06-01

    We perform numerical simulations to study the secular orbital evolution and dynamical structure of the quintuplet planetary system 55 Cancri with the self-consistent orbital solutions by Fischer and coworkers. In the simulations, we show that this system can be stable for at least 108 yr. In addition, we extensively investigate the planetary configuration of four outer companions with one terrestrial planet in the wide region of 0.790 AU <= a <= 5.900 AU to examine the existence of potential asteroid structure and Habitable Zones (HZs). We show that there are unstable regions for orbits about 4:1, 3:1 and 5:2 mean motion resonances (MMRs) of the outermost planet in the system, and several stable orbits can remain at 3:2 and 1:1 MMRs, which resembles the asteroid belt in the solar system. From a dynamical viewpoint, proper HZ candidates for the existence of more potential terrestrial planets reside in the wide area between 1.0 AU and 2.3 AU with relatively low eccentricities.

  1. A remote Raman system for planetary exploration: evaluating remote Raman efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopar, Julie D.; Lucey, Paul G.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Hubble, Hugh W.

    2004-02-01

    Landers and rovers are important to solar system exploration, and we are designing and analyzing a remote Raman system for a planetary mission. Raman spectroscopy is a common and powerful technique for materials analysis. We have developed a system that enables Raman spectroscopic measurements at distances of more than 50 meters. In order to design a flight instrument, we need to quantitatively understand the Raman efficiency of natural surfaces. We define remote Raman efficiency as the ratio of radiant exitance leaving a natural surface to the irradiance of the incident laser. The radiant exitance of a natural surface is the product of the sample radiance (minus background), the projected solid angle in steradians, and the spectral bandwidth of the spectrometer. The laser irradiance is the product of the energy of the laser (mJ/pulse) and the pulse rate (Hz), divided by the area of the laser spot. We have determined the remote Raman efficiency for several minerals and rocks: dolomite marble, dacite, milky quartz, anorthosite, calcite, biotite granite, magnesite, chert, gypsum (selenite), fibrous gypsum, and sandstone. By quantifying the remote Raman efficiency, we will be able to determine the number and quality of spectra that a remote Raman system can acquire on a planetary surface where available power is limited. Studies on hematite indicate that Raman shift (and thus remote Raman efficiency) depends on laser wavelength.

  2. Solar System Planetary Science Decadal Survey and Missions in the Next Decade, 2013-2022

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the National Research Council Space Studies Board established a decadal survey committee to develop a comprehensive science, mission, and technology strategy for planetary science that updates and extends the Board's 2003 Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, "New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy." The scope of the survey encompasses the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars), the Earth's Moon, the giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), the moons of the giant planets, dwarf planets and small bodies, primitive bodies including comets and Kuiper Belt objects, and astrobiology. Over this past year, the decadal survey committee has interacted with the broad solar system science community to determine the current state of knowledge and to identify the most important scientific questions expected to face the community during the interval 2013-2022. The survey has identified candidate missions that address the most important science questions and has conducted, through NASA sponsorship, concept studies to assess the cost of such missions as well as technology needs. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the 2012 Solar System Planetary Science Decadal Survey study approach and missions that were studied for implementation in the upcoming decade. Final results of the decadal survey, including studies that were completed and the specific science, programmatic, and technology recommendations will be disclosed publically in the spring of 2011 and are not the subject of this paper.

  3. Impact delivery and erosion of planetary oceans in the early inner solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The terrestrial planets may have acquired oceans of water (and other surface volatiles) as a late-accreting veneer from impacts of comets and carbonaceous asteroids during the period of heavy bombardment 4.5 to 3.5 Gyr ago. On any given body, the efficiency of this mechanism depended on a competition between impact delivery of new volatiles and impact erosion of those already present. For the larger worlds of the inner Solar System, this competition strongly favored the net accumulation of planetary oceans.

  4. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  5. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  6. Expansion of the Hamiltonian of the planetary problem into the Poisson series in elements of the second Poincare system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perminov, A. S.; Kuznetsov, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Hamiltonian of the N-planetary problem is written in the Jacobi coordinates using the second system of Poincare elements. The Hamiltonian is expanded into the Poisson series for the four-planet system. The computer algebra system Piranha is used for analytical transformations. Obtained expansions provide the Hamiltonian expression accuracy up to the third degree of the small parameter for giant planets of the Solar System and up to the second degree of the small parameter for extrasolar planetary systems. The ratio of sums of masses of the planets to the star mass can be selected as a small parameter.

  7. Planetary engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  8. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  9. Multi-Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) Version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid; Glaab, Louis; Winski, Richard G.; Maddock, Robert W.; Emmett, Anjie L.; Munk, Michelle M.; Agrawal, Parul; Sepka, Steve; Aliaga, Jose; Zarchi, Kerry; Mangini, Nancy; Perino, Scott; Bayandor, Javid; Liles, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This report describes an integrated system for Multi-mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE). The system in its current form is capable of performing system analysis and design for an Earth entry vehicle suitable for sample return missions. The system includes geometry, mass sizing, impact analysis, structural analysis, flight mechanics, TPS, and a web portal for user access. The report includes details of M-SAPE modules and provides sample results. Current M-SAPE vehicle design concept is based on Mars sample return (MSR) Earth entry vehicle design, which is driven by minimizing risk associated with sample containment (no parachute and passive aerodynamic stability). By M-SAPE exploiting a common design concept, any sample return mission, particularly MSR, will benefit from significant risk and development cost reductions. The design provides a platform by which technologies and design elements can be evaluated rapidly prior to any costly investment commitment.

  10. The gravito-electrodynamics of charged dust in planetary ring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendis, D. A.; Hill, J. R.; Northrop, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of micron and submicron sized dust grains moving under the combined influence of planetary gravitation and the electromagnetic forces within the corotating regions of planetary magnetospheres are discussed. Magnetogravitational capture of charged grains in planetary rings is outlined. The adiabatic motion of charged dust is reviewed.

  11. The Astrometric Imaging Telescope: Detection of planetary systems with imaging and astrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, Steven H.; Terrile, Richard J.; Ftaclas, Christ; Gatewood, George D.; Levy, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    The Astrometric Imaging Telescope (AIT) is a proposed spaceborne observatory whose primary goal is the detecton and study of extra-solar planetary systems. It contains two instruments that use complementary techniques to address the goal. The first instrument, the Coronagraphic Imager, takes direct images of nearby stars and Jupiter-size planets. It uses a telescope with scattering-compensated optics and a high-efficiency coronagraph to separate reflected planet light from the central star light. Planet detections take hours; confirmations occur in months. With a program duration of about 2 years, about 50 stars are observed. The second instrument, the Astrometric Photometer, shares the same telescope and focal plane. It uses a Ronchi ruling that is translated across the focal plane to simultaneously measure the positions of each target star and about 25 reference stars with sufficient accuracy to detect Uranus-mass planets around hundreds of stars. Enough stars of several spectral types are observed to obtain a statistically significant measurement of the prevalence of planetary systems. This observing program takes about 10 years to complete. The combination of both instruments in a single telescope system results from a number of innovative solutions that are described in this paper.

  12. A wideband optical monitor for a planetary-rotation coating-system

    SciTech Connect

    Campanelli, M.B.; Smith, D.J.

    1998-12-01

    A substrate-specific, through-planet, wideband optical coating monitor is being developed to increase production yield and the understanding of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings fabricated in the Optical Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. In-situ wideband optical monitoring of planetary rotation systems allows direct monitoring of large, expensive substrates with complex layering schemes. The optical monitor discussed here is under development for coating several large (e.g., 80.7 x 41.7 x 9.0 cm) polarizers for the National Ignition Facility. Wideband optical monitoring of the production substrates is used in concert with an array of crystal monitors for process control, film parameter evaluation, and error detection with associated design reoptimization. The geometry of a planetary rotation system, which produces good uniformity across large substrates, makes optical monitoring more difficult. Triggering and timing techniques for data acquisition become key to the process because the optical coating is available only intermittently for monitoring. Failure to properly consider the effects of the system dynamics during data retrieval and processing may result in significant decreases in the spectral data`s reliability. Improved data accuracy allows better determination of film thicknesses, indices, and inhomogeneities and enables in-situ error detection for design reoptimization.

  13. Biological life support systems for a Mars mission planetary base: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, Ch.

    The study develops approaches to designing biological life support systems for the Mars mission - for the flight conditions and for a planetary base - using experience of the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBP SB RAS) with the Bios-3 system and ESA's experience with the MELISSA program. Variants of a BLSS based on using Chlorella and/or Spirulina and higher plants for the flight period of the Mars mission are analyzed. It is proposed constructing a BLSS with a closed-loop material cycle for gas and water and for part of human waste. A higher-plant-based BLSS with the mass exchange loop closed to various degrees is proposed for a Mars planetary base. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange are considered, depending on the duration of the Mars mission, the diet of the crew, and some other conditions. Special consideration is given to problems of reliability and sustainability of material cycling in BLSS, which are related to production of additional oxygen inside the system. Technologies of constructing BLSS of various configurations are proposed and substantiated. Reasons are given for using physicochemical methods in BLSS as secondary tools both during the flight and the stay on Mars.

  14. THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, John H.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Stark, Christopher

    2012-03-10

    It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

  15. PREDICTING THE CONFIGURATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM: KOI-152 OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Su; Ji Jianghui; Zhou Jilin E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn

    2012-07-10

    The recent Kepler discovery of KOI-152 reveals a system of three hot super-Earth candidates that are in or near a 4:2:1 mean motion resonance. It is unlikely that they formed in situ; the planets probably underwent orbital migration during the formation and evolution process. The small semimajor axes of the three planets suggest that migration stopped at the inner edge of the primordial gas disk. In this paper, we focus on the influence of migration halting mechanisms, including migration 'dead zones', and inner truncation by the stellar magnetic field. We show that the stellar accretion rate, stellar magnetic field, and the speed of migration in the protoplanetary disk are the main factors affecting the final configuration of KOI-152. Our simulations suggest that three planets may be around a star with low star accretion rate or with high magnetic field. On the other hand, slow type I migration, which decreases to one-tenth of the linear analysis results, favors forming the configuration of KOI-152. Under such a formation scenario, the planets in the system are not massive enough to open gaps in the gas disk. The upper limits of the planetary masses are estimated to be about 15, 19, and 24 M{sub Circled-Plus }, respectively. Our results are also indicative of the near Laplacian configurations that are quite common in planetary systems.

  16. DISTINGUISHING CENTRAL PERTURBATIONS BY BINARY STELLAR AND PLANETARY SYSTEMS UNDER THE MODERATELY STRONG FINITE-SOURCE EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2011-11-10

    We investigate high-magnification events caused by wide binary stellar and planetary systems under the moderately strong finite-source effect where the diameter of the source star is comparable with the caustics induced by a binary companion and a planet. From this investigation, we find that a characteristic feature in the central perturbations induced by the binary systems commonly appears in a constant range where the size of the caustic induced by the binary companion is between 1.5 and 1.9 times of the diameter of the source, whereas in the central perturbations induced by the planetary systems the feature commonly appears in a range where the ratio of the size of the caustic induced by the planet to the source diameter changes with the planet/primary mass ratio. High-magnification events caused by the binary and planetary systems with the characteristic feature produce a distinctive short-duration bump in the residuals from the single-lensing light curve, where the bump occurs near the time of peak magnification of the events. Because of a well-known planet/binary degeneracy, we compare binary- and planetary-lensing events with the short-duration bump in the residuals. As a result, we find the features of the binary-lensing events that are discriminated from the planetary-lensing events despite the moderately strong finite-source effect and thus can be used to immediately distinguish between the binary and planetary companions. We also find the feature that appears only in binary-lensing events with a very low mass ratio or planetary-lensing events. This implies that the lens systems with the feature have a very low mass binary companion (such as a brown dwarf) or a planet.

  17. Advanced planetary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Results of planetary advanced studies and planning support provided by Science Applications, Inc. staff members to Earth and Planetary Exploration Division, OSSA/NASA, for the period 1 February 1981 to 30 April 1982 are summarized. The scope of analyses includes cost estimation, planetary missions performance, solar system exploration committee support, Mars program planning, Galilean satellite mission concepts, and advanced propulsion data base. The work covers 80 man-months of research. Study reports and related publications are included in a bibliography section.

  18. Disruption of planetary orbits through evection resonance with an external companion: circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenrui; Lai, Dong

    2016-07-01

    Planets around binary stars and those in multiplanet systems may experience resonant eccentricity excitation and disruption due to perturbations from a distant stellar companion. This `evection resonance' occurs when the apsidal precession frequency of the planet, driven by the quadrupole associated with the inner binary or the other planets, matches the orbital frequency of the external companion. We develop an analytic theory to study the effects of evection resonance on circumbinary planets and multiplanet systems. We derive the general conditions for effective eccentricity excitation or resonance capture of the planet as the system undergoes long-term evolution. Applying to circumbinary planets, we show that inward planet migration may lead to eccentricity growth due to evection resonance with an external perturber, and planets around shrinking binaries may not survive the resonant eccentricity growth. On the other hand, significant eccentricity excitation in multiplanet systems occurs in limited parameter space of planet and binary semimajor axes, and requires the planetary migration to be sufficiently slow.

  19. An Assessment of Ground-Based Techniques for Detecting Other Planetary Systems. Volume 2: Position papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.; Brunk, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    The capabilities of several astronomical interferomenter system concepts are assessed and the effects of the Earth's atmosphere on astrometric precision are examined in detail. Included is an examination of the use of small aperture interferometry to detect planets in binary star systems. It is estimated that, for differential astrometric observation, an amplitude interferometer having two separate telescopes should permit observations of stars as faint as 14th magnitude and a positional accuracy of 0.00005 arc-sec. Instrumental, atmospheric, and photon noise errors that apply to interferometric observation are examined. It is suggested that the effects of atmospheric turbulence may be eliminated with the use of two color refractometer systems. Several sites for future telescopes dedicated to the search for planetary systems are identified.

  20. A Modular, Reusable Latch and Decking System for Securing Payloads During Launch and Planetary Surface Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient handling of payloads destined for a planetary surface, such as the moon or mars, requires robust systems to secure the payloads during transport on the ground, in space and on the planetary surface. In addition, mechanisms to release the payloads need to be reliable to ensure successful transfer from one vehicle to another. An efficient payload handling strategy must also consider the devices available to support payload handling. Cranes used for overhead lifting are common to all phases of payload handling on Earth. Similarly, both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with comparable functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. A first generation test-bed of a new high performance device that provides the capabilities of both a crane and a robotic manipulator, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed, built and field tested and is available for use in evaluating a system to secure payloads to transportation vehicles. A payload handling approach must address all phases of payload management including: ground transportation, launch, planetary transfer and installation in the final system. In addition, storage may be required during any phase of operations. Each of these phases requires the payload to be lifted and secured to a vehicle, transported, released and lifted in preparation for the next transportation or storage phase. A critical component of a successful payload handling approach is a latch and associated carrier system. The latch and carrier system should minimize requirements on the: payload, carrier support structure and payload handling devices as well as be able to accommodate a wide range of payload sizes. In addition, the latch should; be small and lightweight, support a method to apply preload, be reusable, integrate into a minimal set of hard-points and have manual interfaces to actuate the latch should a problem occur. A latching system which meets these requirements has been

  1. A Modular, Reusable Latch and Decking System for Securing Payloads During Launch and Planetary Surface Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient handling of payloads destined for a planetary surface, such as the moon or Mars, requires robust systems to secure the payloads during transport on the ground, in-space and on the planetary surface. In addition, mechanisms to release the payloads need to be reliable to ensure successful transfer from one vehicle to another. An efficient payload handling strategy must also consider the devices available to support payload handling. Cranes used for overhead lifting are common to all phases of payload handling on Earth. Similarly, both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with comparable functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. A first generation test-bed of a new high performance device that provides the capabilities of both a crane and a robotic manipulator, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed, built and field tested and is available for use in evaluating a system to secure payloads to transportation vehicles. National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton Va 23662 A payload handling approach must address all phases of payload management including: ground transportation, launch, planetary transfer and installation in the final system. In addition, storage may be required during any phase of operations. Each of these phases requires the payload to be lifted and secured to a vehicle, transported, released and lifted in preparation for the next transportation or storage phase. A critical component of a successful payload handling approach is a latch and associated carrier system. The latch and carrier system should minimize requirements on the: payload, carrier support structure and payload handling devices as well as be able to accommodate a wide range of payload sizes. In addition, the latch should; be small and lightweight, support a method to apply preload, be reusable, integrate into a minimal set of hard-points and have manual interfaces to actuate the latch should a problem occur. A

  2. Evolution of planetary systems with time-dependent stellar mass-loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Anderson, Kassandra R.; Bloch, Anthony M.

    2013-06-01

    Observations indicate that intermediate-mass stars, binary stars and stellar remnants often host planets; a complete explanation of these systems requires an understanding of how planetary orbits evolve as their central stars lose mass. Motivated by these dynamical systems, this paper generalizes in two directions previous studies of orbital evolution in planetary systems with stellar mass-loss: (1) many previous treatments focus on constant mass-loss rates and much of this work is carried out numerically. Here, we study a class of single planet systems where the stellar mass-loss rate is time dependent. The mass-loss rate can be increasing or decreasing, but the stellar mass always decreases monotonically. For this class of models, we develop analytic approximations to specify the final orbital elements for planets that remain bound after the epoch of mass-loss, and find the conditions required for the planets to become unbound. We also show that for some mass-loss functions, planets become unbound only in the asymptotic limit where the stellar mass vanishes. (2) We consider the chaotic evolution for two planet systems with stellar mass-loss. Here, we focus on a model consisting of analogues of Jupiter, Saturn and the Sun. By monitoring the divergence of initially similar trajectories through time, we calculate the Lyapunov exponents of the system. This analogue Solar system is chaotic in the absence of mass-loss with Lyapunov time τly ≈ 5-10 Myr; we find that the Lyapunov time decreases with increasing stellar mass-loss rate, with a nearly linear relationship between the two time-scales. Taken together, the results of this paper help provide an explanation for a wide range of dynamical evolution that occurs in Solar systems with stellar mass-loss.

  3. THE HYADES CLUSTER: IDENTIFICATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM AND ESCAPING WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Jura, M. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-06-20

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are ''polluted'' by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originate either from the interstellar medium or, less likely, from a gaseous circumstellar disk. If GD 31 was once a Hyades member, then it would be the first identified white dwarf Hyad with a cooling age >340 Myr.

  4. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION OF NEAR-RESONANCE PLANETARY PAIRS: CONFIRMATION OF 12 MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ji-Wei E-mail: jwxie@astro.utoronto.ca

    2013-10-01

    We extract transit timing variation (TTV) signals for 12 pairs of transiting planet candidates that are near first-order mean motion resonances (MMR), using publicly available Kepler light curves (Q0-Q14). These pairs show significant sinusoidal TTVs with theoretically predicted periods, which demonstrate these planet candidates are orbiting and interacting in the same system. Although individual masses cannot be accurately extracted based only on TTVs because of the well-known degeneracy between mass and eccentricity, TTV phases and amplitudes can still place upper limits on the masses of the candidates, confirming their planetary nature. Furthermore, the mass ratios of these planet pairs can be relatively tightly constrained using these TTVs. The planetary pair in KOI 880 seems to have particularly high mass and density ratios, which might indicate very different internal compositions of these two planets. Some of these newly confirmed planets are also near MMR with other candidates in the system, forming unique resonance chains (e.g., KOI 500)

  5. Dynamical stability of imaged planetary systems in formation: Application to HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Menou, Kristen; Rein, Hanno

    2015-05-01

    A recent ALMA image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in disks as massive as estimated for HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, massive disks should also induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks. For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets' masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments.

  6. The Hyades Cluster: Identification of a Planetary System and Escaping White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are "polluted" by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originate either from the interstellar medium or, less likely, from a gaseous circumstellar disk. If GD 31 was once a Hyades member, then it would be the first identified white dwarf Hyad with a cooling age >340 Myr.

  7. The Impact of Stellar Multiplicity on Planetary Systems. I. The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of 382 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry on the Keck II telescope. Among the full sample of 506 candidate binary companions to KOIs, we super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of <5 au, showing that planets might form in these dynamically active environments. However, the full distribution of projected separations for our planet-host sample more broadly reveals a deep paucity of binary companions at solar-system scales. For a field binary population, we should have found 58 binary companions with projected separation ρ < 50 au and mass ratio q > 0.4 we instead only found 23 companions (a 4.6σ deficit), many of which must be wider pairs that are only close in projection. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside {a}{cut}={47}-23+59 au, the planet occurrence rate in binary systems is only {S}{bin}={0.34}-0.15+0.14 times that of wider binaries or single stars. Our results demonstrate that a fifth of all solar-type stars in the Milky Way are disallowed from hosting planetary systems due to the influence of a binary companion.

  8. A detailed analysis of the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Salter, G. S.; Bailey, J.; Wright, D.; Tan, Xianyu; Lee, Man Hoi; Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P.; Carter, B. D.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Crane, J. D.; Schectman, S. A.; Thompson, I.; Minniti, D.; Diaz, M.

    2014-01-10

    We present six years of new radial velocity data from the Anglo-Australian and Magellan Telescopes on the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system. We investigate both Keplerian and dynamical (interacting) fits to these data, yielding four possible configurations for the system. The new data now show that both resonance angles are librating, with amplitudes of 40° and 60°, respectively. We then perform long-term dynamical stability tests to differentiate these solutions, which only differ significantly in the masses of the planets. We show that while there is no clearly preferred system inclination, the dynamical fit with i = 90° provides the best combination of goodness-of-fit and long-term dynamical stability.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  10. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also have tantalising evidence that two other planets may be present, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found. This would make the system similar to our Solar System in terms of the number of planets (seven as compared to the Solar System's eight planets). Furthermore, the team also found evidence that the distances of the planets from their star follow a regular pattern, as also seen in our Solar System. "We have found what is most likely the system with the most planets yet discovered," says Christophe Lovis, lead author of the paper reporting the result. "This remarkable discovery also highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet research: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets. Studies of planetary motions in the new system reveal complex gravitational interactions between the planets and give us insights into the long-term evolution of the system." The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, for a six-year-long study of the Sun-like star HD 10180, located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation of Hydrus (the Male Water Snake). HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled measurement stability and great precision and is the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the tiny back and forth motions of the star caused by the complex gravitational attractions from five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses - between 13 and 25 Earth masses [1] - which orbit the star with periods ranging from about 6 to 600 days. These planets are located between 0.06 and 1.4 times the Earth-Sun distance from their central star. "We also have

  11. Planetary astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Harlan J.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar-based astronomy offers major prospects for solar system research in the coming century. In addition to active advocacy of both ground-based and Lunar-based astronomy, a workshop on the value of asteroids as a resource for man is being organized. The following subject areas are also covered: (1) astrophysics from the Moon (composition and structure of planetary atmospheres); (2) a decade of cost-reduction in Very Large Telescopes (the SST as prototype of special-purpose telescopes); and (3) a plan for development of lunar astronomy.

  12. High-contrast near-infrared studies of planetary systems and their circumstellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy John

    Planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks, leaving behind planetesimals that collide to produce dusty debris disks. Characterizing the architectures of planetary systems, along with the structures and compositions of debris disks, can therefore help answer questions about how planets form. In this thesis, I present the results of five papers (three published, two in preparation) concerning the properties of extrasolar planetary systems and their circumstellar environments. Chapters 2 and 3 are studies of radial velocity (RV) exoplanetary systems. For years astronomers have been puzzled about the large number of RV-detected planets that have eccentric orbits (e > 0.1). In Chapter 2 I show that this problem can partially be explained by showing that two circular-orbit planets can masquerade as a single planet on an eccentric orbit. I use this finding to predict that planets with mildly eccentric orbits are the most likely to have massive companions on wide orbits, potentially detectable by future direct imaging observations. Chapter 3 presents such a direct imaging study of the 14 Her planetary system. I significantly constrain the phase space of the putative candidate 14 Her c and demonstrate the power of direct imaging/RV overlap. Chapters 4 and 5 are high-contrast 2-4 micron imaging studies of the edge-on debris disks around HD 15115 and HD 32297. HD 15115's color is found to be gray, implying large grains 1-10 microns in size reside in stable orbits in the disk. HD 32297's disk color is red from 1-4 microns. Cometary material (carbon, silicates, and porous water ice) are a good match at 1-2 microns but not at L'. Tholins, organic material that is found in outer solar system bodies, or small silicates can explain the disk's red color but not the short wavelength data. Chapter 6 presents a dynamical study of dust grains in the presence of massive planets. I show that the width of a debris disk increases proportionally with the mass of its shepherding

  13. The Year of the Solar System: An E/PO Community's Approach to Sharing Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Boonstra, D.; Shupla, C.; Dalton, H.; Scalice, D.; Planetary Science E/Po Community

    2010-12-01

    YSS offers the opportunity to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students and the public about planetary science activities. The planetary science education and public outreach (E/PO) community is engaging and educating their audiences through ongoing mission and program activities. Based on discussion with partners, the community is presenting its products in the context of monthly thematic topics that are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved; and how did life begin and evolve on Earth, has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system, and what are characteristics that lead to the origins of life? Each month explores different compelling aspects of the solar system - its formation, volcanism, ice, life. Resources, activities, and events are interwoven in thematic context, and presented with ideas through which formal and informal educators can engage their audiences. The month-to-month themes place the big questions in a logical sequence of deepening learning experiences - and highlight mission milestones and viewing events. YSS encourages active participation and communication with its audiences. It includes nation-wide activities, such as a Walk Through the Solar System, held between October 2010 to March 2011, in which museums, libraries, science centers, schools, planetariums, amateur astronomers, and others are kicking off YSS by creating their own scale models of the solar system and sharing their events through online posting of pictures, video, and stories. YSS offers the E/PO community the opportunity to collaborate with each other and partners. The thematic approach leverages existing products, providing a home and allowing a “shelf life” that can outlast individual projects and missions. The broad themes highlight missions and programs multiple times. YSS also leverages existing online resources and social media. Hosted on

  14. Study of the Stability and Planetary Formation in the System HD98800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cássia Domingos, Rita; Winter, O. C.

    2009-09-01

    HD 98800 is a quadruple stellar system, with two close stars pairs A and B of the high inclination and eccentricity. A circumbinary disk around the B component was detected. It extends between 1.5 - 2.0 AU and 5.9 - 6.5 AU. In this work we numerically investigate the possibility of the giant planet formation in this complex dynamical environment. We divide our work into two parts. Firstly, we infer the possible stable regions around the B component where particles can survive for 1 Myr. We considered a range of inclinations and eccentricities for the A component. These results are presented in the (a, e) plane for different values of inclination. The results show that in general particles survive between 3 to 9 AU. Now, in the second part, we are working about the possibility of in situ planetary formation in these stable regions. We are numerically investigating the stage of planetary embryo accretion from planetesimals. Acknowledgements: The authors thank FAPESP and CNPq for the financial support.

  15. A planetary system as the origin of structure in Fomalhaut's dust belt.

    PubMed

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R; Clampin, Mark

    2005-06-23

    The Sun and >15 per cent of nearby stars are surrounded by dusty disks that must be collisionally replenished by asteroids and comets, as the dust would otherwise be depleted on timescales <10(7) years (ref. 1). Theoretical studies show that the structure of a dusty disk can be modified by the gravitational influence of planets, but the observational evidence is incomplete, at least in part because maps of the thermal infrared emission from the disks have low linear resolution (35 au in the best case). Optical images provide higher resolution, but the closest examples (AU Mic and beta Pic) are edge-on, preventing the direct measurement of the azimuthal and radial disk structure that is required for fitting theoretical models of planetary perturbations. Here we report the detection of optical light reflected from the dust grains orbiting Fomalhaut (HD 216956). The system is inclined 24 degrees away from edge-on, enabling the measurement of disk structure around its entire circumference, at a linear resolution of 0.5 au. The dust is distributed in a belt 25 au wide, with a very sharp inner edge at a radial distance of 133 au, and we measure an offset of 15 au between the belt's geometric centre and Fomalhaut. Taken together, the sharp inner edge and offset demonstrate the presence of planetary-mass objects orbiting Fomalhaut. PMID:15973402

  16. New Submillimeter Limits on Dust in the 55 Cancri Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardhana, Ray; Holland, Wayne S.; Kalas, Paul; Greaves, Jane S.; Dent, William R. F.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2002-05-01

    We present new, high-sensitivity submillimeter observations toward 55 Cancri, a nearby G8 star with one, or possibly two, known planetary companion(s). Our 850 μm map, obtained with the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometric Array on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, shows three peaks of emission at the 2.5 mJy level in the vicinity of the star's position. However, the observed peaks are 25"-40" away from the star, and a deep R-band optical image reveals faint point sources that coincide with two of the submillimeter peaks. Thus, we do not find evidence of dust emission spatially associated with 55 Cancri. The excess 60 μm emission detected with the Infrared Space Observatory may originate from one or more of the 850 μm peaks that we attribute to background sources. Our new results, together with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS coronagraphic images in the near-infrared, place stringent limits on the amount of dust in this planetary system and argue against the existence of a detectable circumstellar dust disk around 55 Cnc.

  17. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  18. Planetary atlases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Inge, J. L.; Morgan, H. F.

    1991-01-01

    Two kinds of planetary map atlases are in production. Atlases of the first kind contain reduced-scale versions of maps in hard-bound books with dimensions of 11 x 14 inches. These new atlases are intended to: (1) provide concise but comprehensive references to the geography of the planets needed by planetary scientists and others; and (2) allow inexpensive access to the planetary map dataset without requiring acquisition and examination of tens or hundreds of full-size map sheets. Two such atlases have been published and a third is in press. Work was begun of an Atlas of the Satellite of the Outer Planets. The second kind of atlas is a popular or semi-technical version designed for commercial publication and distribution. The first edition, The Atlas of the Solar System, is nearly ready for publication. New funding and contracting constraints now make it unlikely that the atlas can be published in the format originally planned. Currently, the possibility of publishing the maps through the U.S. Geological Survey as a series of folios in the I-map series is being explored. The maps are global views of each solid-surface body of the Solar System. Each map shows airbrushed relief, albedo, and, where available, topography. A set of simplified geologic maps is also included. All of the maps are on equal-area projections. Scales are 1:40,000,000 for the Earth and Venus; 1:2,000,000 for the Saturnian satellites Mimas and Enceladus and the Uranian satellite Miranda; 1:100,000 for the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos; and 1:10,000,000 for all other bodies.

  19. Chaotic exchange of solid material between planetary systems: implications for lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Belbruno, Edward; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Malhotra, Renu; Savransky, Dmitry

    2012-08-01

    We examined a low-energy mechanism for the transfer of meteoroids between two planetary systems embedded in a star cluster using quasi-parabolic orbits of minimal energy. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the exchange of meteoroids could have been significantly more efficient than previously estimated. Our study is relevant to astrobiology, as it addresses whether life on Earth could have been transferred to other planetary systems in the Solar System's birth cluster and whether life on Earth could have been transferred from beyond the Solar System. In the Solar System, the timescale over which solid material was delivered to the region from where it could be transferred via this mechanism likely extended to several hundred million years (as indicated by the 3.8-4.0 Ga epoch of the Late Heavy Bombardment). This timescale could have overlapped with the lifetime of the Solar birth cluster (∼100-500 Myr). Therefore, we conclude that lithopanspermia is an open possibility if life had an early start. Adopting parameters from the minimum mass solar nebula, considering a range of planetesimal size distributions derived from observations of asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects and theoretical coagulation models, and taking into account Oort Cloud formation models, we discerned that the expected number of bodies with mass>10 kg that could have been transferred between the Sun and its nearest cluster neighbor could be of the order of 10(14) to 3·10(16), with transfer timescales of tens of millions of years. We estimate that of the order of 3·10(8)·l (km) could potentially be life-bearing, where l is the depth of Earth's crust in kilometers that was ejected as the result of the early bombardment. PMID:22897115

  20. Chaotic Exchange of Solid Material Between Planetary Systems: Implications for Lithopanspermia

    PubMed Central

    Belbruno, Edward; Malhotra, Renu; Savransky, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We examined a low-energy mechanism for the transfer of meteoroids between two planetary systems embedded in a star cluster using quasi-parabolic orbits of minimal energy. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the exchange of meteoroids could have been significantly more efficient than previously estimated. Our study is relevant to astrobiology, as it addresses whether life on Earth could have been transferred to other planetary systems in the Solar System's birth cluster and whether life on Earth could have been transferred from beyond the Solar System. In the Solar System, the timescale over which solid material was delivered to the region from where it could be transferred via this mechanism likely extended to several hundred million years (as indicated by the 3.8–4.0 Ga epoch of the Late Heavy Bombardment). This timescale could have overlapped with the lifetime of the Solar birth cluster (∼100–500 Myr). Therefore, we conclude that lithopanspermia is an open possibility if life had an early start. Adopting parameters from the minimum mass solar nebula, considering a range of planetesimal size distributions derived from observations of asteroids and Kuiper Belt objects and theoretical coagulation models, and taking into account Oort Cloud formation models, we discerned that the expected number of bodies with mass>10 kg that could have been transferred between the Sun and its nearest cluster neighbor could be of the order of 1014 to 3·1016, with transfer timescales of tens of millions of years. We estimate that of the order of 3·108·l (km) could potentially be life-bearing, where l is the depth of Earth's crust in kilometers that was ejected as the result of the early bombardment. Key Words: Extrasolar planets—Interplanetary dust—Interstellar meteorites—Lithopanspermia. Astrobiology 12, 754–774. PMID:22897115

  1. The case for planetary sample return missions. I - Origin of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Michael J.; Boynton, William V.; Blanchard, Douglas P.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific aims and proposed scenarios of sample-return missions (SRMs) to Mars, Venus, comets, and asteroids are reviewed. SRMs are currently being evaluated as natural follow-ons to the NASA remote-sensing orbiter missions of the 1990s. The technological advantages of ground laboratory analysis of returned samples are discussed; and it is argued that SRMs to large evolved bodies can provide a record of (1) the composition of the solar system at different heliocentric distances and (2) the nature of the processes that led to the accretion of small objects (preserved as comets and asteroids) into large planetary bodies. Also considered are NASA research and analysis programs needed to support studies of solar-system origin. It is recommended that planning of SRMs be begun immediately, although they may not be feasible before the year 2000.

  2. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  3. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamayo, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Menou, K.; Rein, H.

    2015-06-01

    A recent Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns and numerical simulations of gap opening in such systems. We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This presents an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, massive disks like HL Tau should induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks. For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets’ masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments.

  4. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  5. GENGA: a GPU code for planet formation and planetary system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas Grimm, Simon; Stadel, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    We present GENGA, a GPU code designed and optimised for (exo)planetary formation - and orbital evolution simulations. The use of the parallel computing power of GPUs allows GENGA to achieve a significant speedup compared to other N-body codes. GENGA runs about 30 - 50 times faster than the Mercury code.GENGA can be used with three different computational modes: The main mode permits to integrate a N-body system with up to 8192 fully interacting planetesimals, orbiting a central mass.The test particle mode can include up to 1 million massless bodies in the presence of massive planets or protoplanets. The third mode allows the parallel integration of up to 100000 samples of small exoplanetary systems with different parameters. With this functionality, GENGA can be used in a variety of applications in planetary and exoplanetary science. Possible applications of GENGA are: the late stage of terrestrial planet formation, study core accretion models for gas giants in the presence of planetesimals, simulate the evolution of asteroids and asteroid families, find stable configurations of exoplanetary systems to restrict the detected orbital parameters, and many more.Since such simulations can often take billions of time steps to complete, or require the cover of a very large parameter space, it makes it necessary to use a highly optimised code, running on the today's most efficient hardware. As a bonus, the use of GPUs allows a real time visualisation of the simulations on the screen.In our presentation we will give an overview of the possibilities of the code and discuss the newest results and applications of GENGA. The code is published as open source software under https://bitbucket.org/sigrimm/genga.

  6. PLATO: PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of Stars The exoplanetary system explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catala, Claude

    2010-05-01

    PLATO is a space mission under definition study at ESA, as one of the medium-class candidates of the Cosmic Vision programme. Its objective is to characterize exoplanets and their host stars in the solar neighbourhood. While it builds on the heritage from CoRoT and KEPLER, the major breakthrough will come from its strong focus on bright targets. The PLATO targets will include a large number of very bright and nearby stars. The prime science goals of PLATO are: (i) the detection and characterization of exoplanetary systems of all kinds, including both the planets and their host stars, reaching down to small, terrestrial planets in the habitable zone; (ii) the identification of suitable targets for future, more detailed characterization, including a spectroscopic search for bio-markers in nearby habitable exoplanets. These ambitious goals will be reached by ultra-high precision, long (few years), uninterrupted photometric monitoring in the visible of very large samples of bright stars, which can only be done from space. The resulting high quality light curves will be used on the one hand to detect planetary transits, as well as to measure their characteristics, and on the other hand to provide a seismic analysis of the host stars of the detected planets, from which precise measurements of their radii, masses, and ages will be derived. The PLATO space-based data will be complemented by ground-based follow-up observations, in particular very precise radial velocity monitoring, which will be used to confirm the planetary nature of the detected events and to measure the planet masses. The full set of parameters of exoplanetary systems will thus be measured, including all characteristics of the host stars and the orbits, radii, masses, and ages of the planets, allowing us to derive planet mean densities, and estimate their temperature and radiation environment. Finally, the knowledge of the age of the exoplanetary systems will allow us to put them in an evolutionary

  7. Reviews in Modern Astronomy: Vol. 17: The Sun and Planetary Systems - Paradigms for the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    2004-09-01

    Volume 17 continues the Reviews of Modern Astronomy with fourteen invited reviews and Highlight Contributions which were presented during the International Scientific Conference of the Society on "The Sun and Planetary Systems", held at Freiburg, Germany, September 15 to 20, 2003. The Karl Schwarzschild medal 2003 was awarded to Professor Erika Boehm-Vitense, Seattle, USA. Her lecture with the title "What Hyades F Stars tell us about Heating Mechanisms in Stellar Transition Layers and Coronae" opened the meeting. The talk presented by the Ludwig Biermann-Prize winner 2003, Dr Luis R. Bellot Rubio, Freiburg i. Br., Germany, dealt with the topic "The Structure of Sunspots as Inferred from Spectropolarimetric Measurements". Other contributions to the meeting published in this volume discuss, among other subjects, solar physics, formation of planets and interferometric imaging in astronomy.

  8. ECHOES OF A DECAYING PLANETARY SYSTEM: THE GASEOUS AND DUSTY DISKS SURROUNDING THREE WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, C.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Albert, L.

    2010-10-20

    We have performed a comprehensive ground-based observational program aimed at characterizing the circumstellar material orbiting three single white dwarf stars previously known to possess gaseous disks. Near-infrared imaging unambiguously detects excess infrared emission toward Ton 345 and allows us to refine models for the circumstellar dust around two of the three white dwarf stars. We find that each white dwarf hosts gaseous and dusty disks that are roughly spatially coincident, a result that is consistent with a scenario in which dusty and gaseous material has its origin in remnant parent bodies of the white dwarfs' planetary systems. We briefly describe a new model for the gas disk heating mechanism in which the gaseous material behaves like a 'Z II' region. In this Z II region, gas primarily composed of metals is photoionized by ultraviolet light and cools through optically thick allowed Ca II-line emission.

  9. Dynamical reference frames in the planetary and earth-moon systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M.; Williams, G.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates of the accuracies of the ephemerides are reviewed using data for planetary and lunar systems to determine the efficacy of the inherent dynamical reference frame. The varied observational data are listed and given with special attention given to ephemeris improvements. The importance of ranging data is discussed with respect to the inner four planets and the moon, and the discrepancy of 1 arcsec/century between mean motions determined by optical observations versus ranging data is addressed. The Viking mission data provide inertial mean motions for the earth and Mars of 0.003 arcsec/century which will deteriorate to 0.01 arcsec after about 10 years. Uncertainties for other planets and the moon are found to correspond to approximately the same level of degradation. In general the data measurements and error estimates are improving the ephemerides, although refitting the data cannot account for changes in mean motion.

  10. High-precision radiometric tracking for planetary approach and encounter in the inner solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, C. S.; Thurman, S. W.; Davidson, J. M.; Finger, M. H.; Folkner, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The benefits of improved radiometric tracking data have been studied for planetary approach within the inner Solar System using the Mars Rover Sample Return trajectory as a model. It was found that the benefit of improved data to approach and encounter navigation was highly dependent on the a priori uncertainties assumed for several non-estimated parameters, including those for frame-tie, Earth orientation, troposphere delay, and station locations. With these errors at their current levels, navigational performance was found to be insensitive to enhancements in data accuracy. However, when expected improvements in these errors are modeled, performance with current-accuracy data significantly improves, with substantial further improvements possible with enhancements in data accuracy.

  11. Gian Domenico Cassini in Bologna and his contributions to the assessment of the planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccesi, A.

    1998-10-01

    G. D. Cassini was hired as a professor of astronomy in Bologna in 1649, at the age of only 24, and left for Paris in 1669, when he was 44. We will outline in this Paper his major contributions to astronomy during those year according to the judgement of the scholars : the demonstration of the physical inequality of the Suns motion using the meridian line he had built in the church of S. Petronio and the discovery of Mars and Jupiter rotation. The first result unequivocally dismissed Aristotles celestial mechanics based on uniform circular motions, pointing to the unity of the terrestrial and celestial worlds; the second contributed to renew the debate on whether the dynamical structure of the planetary system was Ptolemaic or Copernican. In this respect, some recently discovered lessons, which Cassini gave in Bologna in the year 1666, appear enlightening. Excerpts are reported and commented upon.

  12. Collision parameters governing water delivery and water loss in early planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maindl, Thomas I.; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of encounter velocities and impact angles describing collisions in the habitable zone of the early planetary system. Here we present a catalogue of collision characteristics for a particular mass ratio of the colliding bodies and seven different planetesimal masses ranging from a tenth of Ceres' mass to 10 times the mass of the Moon. We show that there are virtually no collisions with impact speeds lower than the surface escape velocity and a similar velocity-impact angle distribution for different planetesimal masses if velocities are normalized using the escape velocity. An additional perturbing Jupiter-like object distorts the collision velocity and impact picture in the sense that grazing impacts at higher velocities are promoted if the perturber's orbit is close to the habitable zone whereas a more distant perturber has more the effect of a mere widening of the velocity dispersion.

  13. CONSTRAINING THE PLANETARY SYSTEM OF FOMALHAUT USING HIGH-RESOLUTION ALMA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Payne, M. J.; Ford, E. B.; Shabram, M.; Corder, S.; Dent, W. R. F.

    2012-05-01

    The dynamical evolution of planetary systems leaves observable signatures in debris disks. Optical images trace micron-sized grains, which are strongly affected by stellar radiation and need not coincide with their parent body population. Observations of millimeter-sized grains accurately trace parent bodies, but previous images lack the resolution and sensitivity needed to characterize the ring's morphology. Here we present ALMA 350 GHz observations of the Fomalhaut debris ring. These observations demonstrate that the parent body population is 13-19 AU wide with a sharp inner and outer boundary. We discuss three possible origins for the ring and suggest that debris confined by shepherd planets is the most consistent with the ring's morphology.

  14. HOW ECCENTRIC ORBITAL SOLUTIONS CAN HIDE PLANETARY SYSTEMS IN 2:1 RESONANT ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Chambers, John E.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes E-mail: mercedes@dtm.ciw.ed

    2010-01-20

    The Doppler technique measures the reflex radial motion of a star induced by the presence of companions and is the most successful method to detect exoplanets. If several planets are present, their signals will appear combined in the radial motion of the star, leading to potential misinterpretations of the data. Specifically, two planets in 2:1 resonant orbits can mimic the signal of a single planet in an eccentric orbit. We quantify the implications of this statistical degeneracy for a representative sample of the reported single exoplanets with available data sets, finding that (1) around 35% of the published eccentric one-planet solutions are statistically indistinguishable from planetary systems in 2:1 orbital resonance, (2) another 40% cannot be statistically distinguished from a circular orbital solution, and (3) planets with masses comparable to Earth could be hidden in known orbital solutions of eccentric super-Earths and Neptune mass planets.

  15. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Lunine, J

    2001-01-30

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  16. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    PubMed Central

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the amount and source of the volatiles from which Earth's oceans and the source elements for life were derived. This paper reviews and brings together diverse observational and modeling results to infer the frequency and distribution of giant planets around solar-type stars and to assess implications for the habitability of terrestrial planets. PMID:11158551

  17. Lyapunov Exponent Criterion for Stability of Planetary Orbits in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.; Quarles, B.; Eberle, J.; Cuntz, M.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of planets in stellar binary systems is now well-confirmed by many observations. Stability of planetary orbits in these systems has extensively been studied and some attempts have been made to establish stringent stability criteria for the orbits. In this paper, we contribute to the ongoing work on the stability criteria in binary systems by introducing a Lyapunov exponent criterion. We have computed the Lyapunov exponents, the Lyapunov dimension and the time series spectra for planets in binary system. The obtained results demonstrate when a system becomes unstable by orbital energy criterion and the method of Lyapunov exponents provides a quantitative classification scale to characterize the instability. By applying the maximum Lyapunov exponent to the parameter space, which covers mass and distance ratios for the considered binary systems, we determined regions of stability and used the time series spectra and the Lyapunov dimension to illustrate the reasons behind the stability. Specific applications of the criterion to binary systems with known planets will also be discussed.

  18. Infrared sensor system using robotics technology for inter-planetary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Takano, Yousuke; Sano, Junpei; Iwase, Kaori; Kawakami, Satoko; Otake, Hisashi; Okada, Tatsuaki; Funase, Ryu; Takada, Jun; Masuda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Infrared sensor system is a major concern for inter-planetary missions in order to investigate the nature and the formation processes of planets and asteroids. Since it takes long time for the communication of inter-planetary probes, automatic and autonomous functions are essential for provisioning observation sequence including the setup procedures of peripheral equipment. Robotics technology which has been adopted on HAYABUSA2 asteroid probe provides functions for setting up onboard equipment, sensor signal calibration, and post signal processing. HAYABUSA2 was launched successfully in 2014 for the exploration of C class near-Earth asteroid 162173 (1999JU3). An optical navigation camera with telephoto lens (ONC-T), a thermal-infrared imager (TIR), and a near infrared spectrometer (NIRS3) have been developed for the observation of geology, thermo-physical properties, and organic or hydrated materials on the asteroid. ONC-T and TIR are used for those scientific purposes as well as assessment of landing site selection and safe descent operation onto the asteroid surface for sample acquisition. NIRS3 is used to characterize the mineralogy of the asteroid surface by observing the 3-micron band, where the particular diagnostic absorption features due to hydrated minerals appear. Modifications were required in order to apply robotics technology for the probe due to the difference of operation on satellites from robot operation environment. The major difference is time line consideration, because the standardized robotics operation software development system is based on event driven framework. The consistency between the framework of time line and event driven scheme was established for the automatic and autonomous operation for HAYABUSA2.

  19. Are isolated planetary-mass objects really isolated?. A brown dwarf-exoplanet system candidate in the σ Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J. A.; Martín, E. L.; Dobbie, P. D.; Barrado Y Navascués, D.

    2006-12-01

    Context: .Free-floating planetary-mass objects have masses below the deuterium burning mass limit at about 13 Jupiter masses, and have mostly been found in very young open clusters. Their origin and relationship to stars and brown dwarfs are still a mystery. Aims: .The recent detection by direct imaging of three giant planets at wide separation (50-250 AU) from their primaries has raised the question about the true "isolation" of planetary-mass objects in clusters. Our goal was to test the possibility that some free-floating planetary-mass objects could in fact be part of wide planetary systems. Methods: .We searched in the literature for stellar and brown-dwarf candidates members of the σ Orionis cluster (~3 Ma, ~360 pc) at small angular separations from published candidate planetary-mass objects. We found one candidate planetary system composed of an X-ray source, SE 70, and a planetary-mass object, S Ori 68, separated by only 4.6 arcsec. In order to assess the cluster membership of the X-ray source, we obtained mid-resolution optical spectroscopy using ISIS on the William Herschel Telescope. We also compiled additional data on the target from available astronomical catalogues. Results: .We have found that SE 70 follows the spectrophotometric sequence of the cluster and displays spectroscopic features of youth, such as lithium in absorption and chromospheric Hα emission. The radial velocity is consistent with cluster membership. Hence, SE 70 is very probably a member of the σ Orionis cluster. The projected physical separation between SE 70 and S Ori 68 is 1700~± 300 AU at the distance of the cluster. If a common proper motion is confirmed in the near future, the system would be composed of an M5-6 brown dwarf with an estimated mass of ~45 M_Jup and an L5 ± 2 giant planet with an estimated mass of ~5 M_Jup. It would be the widest and one of the lowest-mass planetary systems known so far.

  20. Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Swayze, G.A.; Livo, K.E.; Kokaly, R.F.; Sutley, S.J.; Dalton, J.B.; McDougal, R.R.; Gent, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    millions of dollars and years in cleanup time. Imaging spectroscopy data and Tetracorder analysis can be used to study both terrestrial and planetary science problems. Imaging spectroscopy can be used to probe planetary systems, including their atmospheres, oceans, and land surfaces. U.S. copyright Published in 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Eclipsing time variations in close binary systems: Planetary hypothesis vs. Applegate mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völschow, M.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Perdelwitz, V.; Banerjee, R.

    2016-03-01

    The observed eclipsing time variations in post-common-envelope binaries (PCEBs) can be interpreted as potential evidence for massive Jupiter-like planets, or as a result of magnetic activity, leading to quasi-periodic changes in the quadrupole moment of the secondary star. The latter is commonly referred to as the Applegate mechanism. We employ an improved version of Applegate's model including the angular momentum exchange between a finite shell and the core of the star. The framework is employed to derive the general conditions under which the Applegate mechanism can work, and is subsequently applied to a sample of 16 close binary systems with potential planets, including eleven PCEBs. Further, we present a detailed derivation and study of analytical models that allow for an straightforward extension to other systems. Using our full numerical framework, we show that the Applegate mechanism can clearly explain the observed eclipsing time variations in four of the systems, while the required energy to produce the quadrupole moment variations is too high in at least eight systems. In the remaining four systems, the required energy is comparable to the available energy produced by the stars, which we consider borderline cases. Therefore, the Applegate mechanism cannot uniquely explain the observed period time variations for this entire population. Even in systems where the required energy is too high, the Applegate mechanism may provide an additional scatter, which needs to be considered in the derivation and analysis of planetary models.

  2. An assessment of ground-based techniques for detecting other planetary systems. Volume 1: An overview. [workshop conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C. (Editor); Brunk, W. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility and limitations of ground-based techniques for detecting other planetary systems are discussed as well as the level of accuracy at which these limitations would occur and the extent to which they can be overcome by new technology and instrumenation. Workshop conclusions and recommendations are summarized and a proposed high priority program is considered.

  3. Planetary Accretion in the Inner Solar System: Dependence on Nebula Surface Density Profile and Giant Planet Eccentricities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, J. E.; Cassen, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present 32 N-body simulations of planetary accretion in the inner Solar System, examining the effect of nebula surface density profile and initial eccentricities of Jupiter and Saturn on the compositions and orbits of the inner planets. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Melting Behavior of the Iron-Sulfur System and Chemical Convection in Iron-rich Planetary Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Chen, B.

    2009-03-01

    We present experimental data on the high-pressure melting behavior of the Fe-S system from a synchrotron x-ray radiography study using the large volume press, with implications for the role of chemical convection in sulfur-bearing planetary cores.

  5. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. IV. A planetary system around XO-2S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; Bonomo, A. S.; Claudi, R. U.; Damasso, M.; Biazzo, K.; Sozzetti, A.; Marzari, F.; Benatti, S.; Gandolfi, D.; Gratton, R.; Lanza, A. F.; Nascimbeni, V.; Andreuzzi, G.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Bignamini, A.; Bonavita, M.; Borsa, F.; Calcidese, P.; Christille, J. M.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Esposito, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Harutyunyan, A.; Latham, D.; Lattanzi, M.; Leto, G.; Lodato, G.; Lovis, C.; Maggio, A.; Malavolta, L.; Mancini, L.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Mordasini, C.; Munari, U.; Pagano, I.; Pedani, M.; Pepe, F.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Ribas, I.; Santos, N. C.; Scandariato, G.; Silvotti, R.; Southworth, J.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.

    2014-07-01

    We performed an intensive radial velocity monitoring of XO-2S, the wide companion of the transiting planet-host XO-2N, using HARPS-N at TNG in the framework of the GAPS programme. The radial velocity measurements indicate the presence of a new planetary system formed by a planet that is slightly more massive than Jupiter at 0.48 au and a Saturn-mass planet at 0.13 au. Both planetary orbits are moderately eccentric and were found to be dynamically stable. There are also indications of a long-term trend in the radial velocities. This is the first confirmed case of a wide binary whose components both host planets, one of which is transiting, which makes the XO-2 system a unique laboratory for understanding the diversity of planetary systems. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC as part of the programme Global Architecture of Planetary Systems (GAPS), and on observations made at Asiago, Serra La Nave, and Valle D'Aosta observatories.Table 2 and Fig. 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. An Assessment of Dust Effects on Planetary Surface Systems to Support Exploration Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Apollo astronauts learned first hand how problems with dust impact lunar surface missions. After three days, lunar dust contamination on EVA suit bearings led to such great difficulty in movement that another EVA would not have been possible. Dust clinging to EVA suits was transported into the Lunar Module. During the return trip to Earth, when micro gravity was reestablished, the dust became airborne and floated through the cabin. Crews inhaled the dust and it irritated their eyes. Some mechanical systems aboard the spacecraft were damaged due to dust contamination. Study results obtained by Robotic Martian missions indicate that Martian surface soil is oxidative and reactive. Exposures to the reactive Martian dust will pose an even greater concern to the crew health and the integrity of the mechanical systems. As NASA embarks on planetary surface missions to support its Exploration Vision, the effects of these extraterrestrial dusts must be well understood and systems must be designed to operate reliably and protect the crew in the dusty environments of the Moon and Mars. The AIM Dust Assessment Team was tasked to identify systems that will be affected by the respective dust, how they will be affected, associated risks of dust exposure, requirements that will need to be developed, identified knowledge gaps, and recommended scientific measurements to obtain information needed to develop requirements, and design and manufacture the surface systems that will support crew habitation in the lunar and Martian outposts.

  7. SIM Lite Detection of Habitable Planets in P-Type Binary-Planetary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  8. SIM-Lite detection of habitable planets in P-type binary-planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaopei; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-07-01

    Close binary stars like spectroscopic binaries create a completely different environment than single stars for the evolution of a protoplanetary disk. Dynamical interactions between one star and protoplanets in such systems provide more challenges for theorists to model giant planet migration and formation of multiple planets. For habitable planets the majority of host stars are in binary star systems. So far only a small amount of Jupiter-size planets have been discovered in binary stars, whose minimum separations are 20 AU and the median value is about 1000 AU (because of difficulties in radial velocity measurements). The SIM Lite mission, a space-based astrometric observatory, has a unique capability to detect habitable planets in binary star systems. This work analyzed responses of the optical system to the field stop for companion stars and demonstrated that SIM Lite can observe exoplanets in visual binaries with small angular separations. In particular we investigated the issues for the search for terrestrial planets in P-type binary-planetary systems, where the planets move around both stars in a relatively distant orbit.

  9. The circumstellar gas surrounding 51 Ophiuchi - A candidate proto-planetary system similar to Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Silvis, J. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Combined archival and recent International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of the star, 51 Oph, reveal the presence of variable, accreting gas with velocities as large as + 100 km/s relative to the system. The electron number density of the circumstellar gas is comparable to that observed around the candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pic. In addition to the cooler gas, absorption from Al III, Si IV, and C IV is present over the velocity range of the accreting gas. The presence of Si IV and C IV in the spectrum of a B9.5 star provides evidence for collisional ionization of the circumstellar gas like that observed in Beta Pic. The combination of H-alpha profiles with double emission peaks to comparable strength, together with detection of transient mass ejection events similar to those observed in other Be stars, suggests that the inclination of the 51 Oph system is within 10-15 deg of the equatorial plane. Collectively these data imply that the 51 Oph system is similar to Beta Pic in both system constituents and orientation, and may be in a similar evolutionary state.

  10. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also have tantalising evidence that two other planets may be present, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found. This would make the system similar to our Solar System in terms of the number of planets (seven as compared to the Solar System's eight planets). Furthermore, the team also found evidence that the distances of the planets from their star follow a regular pattern, as also seen in our Solar System. "We have found what is most likely the system with the most planets yet discovered," says Christophe Lovis, lead author of the paper reporting the result. "This remarkable discovery also highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet research: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets. Studies of planetary motions in the new system reveal complex gravitational interactions between the planets and give us insights into the long-term evolution of the system." The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, for a six-year-long study of the Sun-like star HD 10180, located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation of Hydrus (the Male Water Snake). HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled measurement stability and great precision and is the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the tiny back and forth motions of the star caused by the complex gravitational attractions from five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses - between 13 and 25 Earth masses [1] - which orbit the star with periods ranging from about 6 to 600 days. These planets are located between 0.06 and 1.4 times the Earth-Sun distance from their central star. "We also have

  11. CHEMICAL CLUES ON THE FORMATION OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS: C/O VERSUS Mg/Si FOR HARPS GTO SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado Mena, E.; Israelian, G.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.; Bond, J. C.; Santos, N. C.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.

    2010-12-20

    Theoretical studies suggest that C/O and Mg/Si are the most important elemental ratios in determining the mineralogy of terrestrial planets. The C/O ratio controls the distribution of Si among carbide and oxide species, while Mg/Si gives information about the silicate mineralogy. We present a detailed and uniform study of C, O, Mg, and Si abundances for 61 stars with detected planets and 270 stars without detected planets from the homogeneous high-quality unbiased HARPS GTO sample, together with 39 more planet-host stars from other surveys. We determine these important mineralogical ratios and investigate the nature of the possible terrestrial planets that could have formed in those planetary systems. We find mineralogical ratios quite different from those of the Sun, showing that there is a wide variety of planetary systems which are not similar to our solar system. Many planetary host stars present an Mg/Si value lower than 1, so their planets will have a high Si content to form species such as MgSiO{sub 3}. This type of composition can have important implications for planetary processes such as plate tectonics, atmospheric composition, or volcanism.

  12. Planetary Science Enabled by High Power Ion Propulsion Systems from NASA's Prometheus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    2004-11-01

    NASA's Prometheus program seeks to develop new generations of spacecraft nuclear-power and ion propulsion systems for applications to future planetary missions. The Science Definition Team for the first mission in the Prometheus series, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), has defined science objectives for in-situ orbital exploration of the icy Galilean moons (Europa, Ganymede, Callisto) and the Jovian magnetosphere along with remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and aurorae, the volcanic moon Io, and other elements of the Jovian system. Important to this forum is that JIMO power and propulsion systems will need to be designed to minimize magnetic, radio, neutral gas, and plasma backgrounds that might otherwise interfere with achievement of mission science objectives. Another potential Prometheus mission of high science interest would be an extended tour of primitive bodies in the solar system, including asteroids, Jupiter family comets, Centaurs, and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO). The final landed phase of this mission might include an active keplerian experiment for detectable (via downlink radio doppler shift) acceleration of a small kilometer-size Centaur or KBO object, likely the satellite of a larger object observable from Earth. This would have obvious application to testing of mitigation techniques for Earth impact hazards.

  13. Confrontation Between a Quantized Periods of Some Exo-planetary Systems and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Fady Morcos, Abd

    2012-07-01

    Confrontation Between a Quantized Periods of Some Exo-planetary Systems and Observations A.B. Morcos Corot and Kepler were designed to detect Earth-like extra solar planets. The orbital elements and periods of these planets will contain some uncertainties. Many theoretical treatments depend on the idea of quantization were done aiming to find orbital elements of these exoplenets. In the present work, as an extension of previous works, the periods of some extoplanetary systems are calculated by using a simple derived formula. The orbital velocities of some of them are predicted . A comparison between the calculated and observed data is done References 1-J.M. Barnothy , the stability of the Solar System and of small Stellar Systems . (Y.Kazai edn,IAU,1974). 2-L.Nottale,Fractal Space-Time and Microphysics,Towards a Theory of Scale Relativity,( World Scientific, London,1994). 3-L. Nottale, A&A Lett. 315, L9 (1996). 4-L. Nottale, G. Schumacher and J. Gay, A&A , 322, 1018 , (1997). 5-L. Nottale, A&A , 361, 379 (2000). 6-A.G. Agnese and R.Festa, arXiv:astro-ph/9807186v1, (1998). 7-A.G. Agnese and R.Festa, arXiv:astro-ph/9910534v2. (1999). 8- A.B.Morcos, MG 12 , France (2009). 9- A.B.Morcs, Cospar 38 , Bremen , Germany (2010)

  14. Compact planetary systems perturbed by an inclined companion. I. Vectorial representation of the secular model

    SciTech Connect

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-07-10

    The non-resonant secular dynamics of compact planetary systems are modeled by a perturbing function that is usually expanded in eccentricity and absolute inclination with respect to the invariant plane. Here, the expressions are given in a vectorial form which naturally leads to an expansion in eccentricity and mutual inclination. The two approaches are equivalent in most cases, but the vectorial one is specially designed for those cases where an entire quasi-coplanar system tilts to a large degree. Moreover, the vectorial expressions of the Hamiltonian and of the equations of motion are slightly simpler than those given in terms of the usual elliptical elements. We also provide the secular perturbing function in vectorial form expanded in semi-major axis ratio allowing for arbitrary eccentricities and inclinations. The interaction between the equatorial bulge of a central star and its planets is also provided, as is the relativistic periapse precession of any planet induced by the central star. We illustrate the use of this representation to follow the secular oscillations of the terrestrial planets of the solar system and for Kozai cycles which may take place in exoplanetary systems.

  15. Periastron precession measurements in transiting extrasolar planetary systems at the level of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, András; Kocsis, Bence

    2008-09-01

    Transiting exoplanetary systems are surpassingly important among the planetary systems since they provide the widest spectrum of information for both the planet and the host star. If a transiting planet is on an eccentric orbit, the duration of transits TD is sensitive to the orientation of the orbital ellipse relative to the line of sight. The precession of the orbit results in a systematic variation in both the duration of individual transit events and the observed period between successive transits, Pobs. The periastron of the ellipse slowly precesses due to general relativity and possibly the presence of other planets in the system. This secular precession can be detected through the long-term change in Pobs (transit timing variations, TTV) or in TD (transit duration variations, TDV). We estimate the corresponding precession measurement precision for repeated future observations of the known eccentric transiting exoplanetary systems (XO-3b, HD 147506b, GJ 436b and HD 17156b) using existing or planned space-borne instruments. The TDV measurement improves the precession detection sensitivity by orders of magnitude over the TTV measurement. We find that TDV measurements over a approximately 4yr period can typically detect the precession rate to a precision well exceeding the level predicted by general relativity.

  16. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  17. MODELING PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION WITH N-BODY SIMULATIONS: ROLE OF GAS DISK AND STATISTICS COMPARED TO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Huigen; Zhou Jilin; Wang Su

    2011-05-10

    During the late stage of planet formation, when Mars-sized cores appear, interactions among planetary cores can excite their orbital eccentricities, accelerate their merging, and thus sculpt their final orbital architecture. This study contributes to the final assembling of planetary systems with N-body simulations, including the type I or II migration of planets and gas accretion of massive cores in a viscous disk. Statistics on the final distributions of planetary masses, semimajor axes, and eccentricities are derived and are comparable to those of the observed systems. Our simulations predict some new orbital signatures of planetary systems around solar mass stars: 36% of the surviving planets are giant planets (>10 M{sub +}). Most of the massive giant planets (>30 M{sub +}) are located at 1-10 AU. Terrestrial planets are distributed more or less evenly at <1-2 AU. Planets in inner orbits may accumulate at the inner edges of either the protostellar disk (3-5 days) or its magnetorotational instability dead zone (30-50 days). There is a planet desert in the mass-eccentricity diagram, i.e., a lack of planets with masses 0.005-0.08M{sub J} in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.3-0.4). The average eccentricity ({approx}0.15) of the giant planets (>10 M{sub +}) is greater than that ({approx}0.05) of the terrestrial planets (<10 M{sub +}). A planetary system with more planets tends to have smaller planet masses and orbital eccentricities on average.

  18. The Circumstellar Imager: Direct detection of extra-solar planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ftaclas, Christ; Nonnenmacher, Andreas L.; Terrile, Richard J.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Gatewood, George D.; Levy, Eugene

    1994-01-01

    The Astrometric Imaging Telescope (AIT) is designed to probe the circumstellar environment by both direct imaging and indirect astrometric measurements. The Circumstellar Imager (CI) is a coronagraphic camera and is the direct imaging component of the AIT. The CI is designed to obtain high-sensitivity images of the circumstellar region. It provides crucial non-inferential information relating to the frequency, origin, and evolution of planetary systems and all forms of circumstellar matter. Such imaging is usually limited by the scattered and diffracted light halos of the star itself, which are greatly suppressed in the CI by mating a novel high-efficiency coronagraph with a phase-compensated optical system. For faint point sources in the circumstellar region, the CI will have a sensitivity in excess of 5 magnitudes fainter than the as-designed Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Laboratory data are shown for the coronagraph, which, in a diffraction-limited environment, is capable of suppressing the stellar diffraction sidelobes by several orders of magnitude without significant sacrifice of field of view. In order to realize the high rejection levels inherent in the coronagraph design, it is necessary to limit scatter in the optical systems, imposing a mid-spatial frequency figure error requirement an order of magnitude smaller than that of the HST. Experimental data directed toward meeting this requirement are also shown.

  19. THE HD 192263 SYSTEM: PLANETARY ORBITAL PERIOD AND STELLAR VARIABILITY DISENTANGLED

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Laughlin, Gregory

    2012-07-20

    As part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey, we present new radial velocities and photometry of the HD 192263 system. Our analysis of the already available Keck-HIRES and CORALIE radial velocity measurements together with the five new Keck measurements we report in this paper results in improved orbital parameters for the system. We derive constraints on the size and phase location of the transit window for HD 192263b, a Jupiter-mass planet with a period of 24.3587 {+-} 0.0022 days. We use 10 years of Automated Photoelectric Telescope photometry to analyze the stellar variability and search for planetary transits. We find continuing evidence of spot activity with periods near 23.4 days. The shape of the corresponding photometric variations changes over time, giving rise to not one but several Fourier peaks near this value. However, none of these frequencies coincides with the planet's orbital period and thus we find no evidence of star-planet interactions in the system. We attribute the {approx}23 day variability to stellar rotation. There are also indications of spot variations on longer (8 years) timescales. Finally, we use the photometric data to exclude transits for a planet with the predicted radius of 1.09 R{sub J} , and as small as 0.79 R{sub J} .

  20. A unique basaltic micrometeorite expands the inventory of solar system planetary crusts

    PubMed Central

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Engrand, Cécile; Zolensky, Michael E.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    Micrometeorites with diameter ≈100–200 μm dominate the flux of extraterrestrial matter on Earth. The vast majority of micrometeorites are chemically, mineralogically, and isotopically related to carbonaceous chondrites, which amount to only 2.5% of meteorite falls. Here, we report the discovery of the first basaltic micrometeorite (MM40). This micrometeorite is unlike any other basalt known in the solar system as revealed by isotopic data, mineral chemistry, and trace element abundances. The discovery of a new basaltic asteroidal surface expands the solar system inventory of planetary crusts and underlines the importance of micrometeorites for sampling the asteroids' surfaces in a way complementary to meteorites, mainly because they do not suffer dynamical biases as meteorites do. The parent asteroid of MM40 has undergone extensive metamorphism, which ended no earlier than 7.9 Myr after solar system formation. Numerical simulations of dust transport dynamics suggest that MM40 might originate from one of the recently discovered basaltic asteroids that are not members of the Vesta family. The ability to retrieve such a wealth of information from this tiny (a few micrograms) sample is auspicious some years before the launch of a Mars sample return mission. PMID:19366660

  1. A unique basaltic micrometeorite expands the inventory of solar system planetary crusts.

    PubMed

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Engrand, Cécile; Zolensky, Michael E; McKeegan, Kevin D

    2009-04-28

    Micrometeorites with diameter approximately 100-200 microm dominate the flux of extraterrestrial matter on Earth. The vast majority of micrometeorites are chemically, mineralogically, and isotopically related to carbonaceous chondrites, which amount to only 2.5% of meteorite falls. Here, we report the discovery of the first basaltic micrometeorite (MM40). This micrometeorite is unlike any other basalt known in the solar system as revealed by isotopic data, mineral chemistry, and trace element abundances. The discovery of a new basaltic asteroidal surface expands the solar system inventory of planetary crusts and underlines the importance of micrometeorites for sampling the asteroids' surfaces in a way complementary to meteorites, mainly because they do not suffer dynamical biases as meteorites do. The parent asteroid of MM40 has undergone extensive metamorphism, which ended no earlier than 7.9 Myr after solar system formation. Numerical simulations of dust transport dynamics suggest that MM40 might originate from one of the recently discovered basaltic asteroids that are not members of the Vesta family. The ability to retrieve such a wealth of information from this tiny (a few micrograms) sample is auspicious some years before the launch of a Mars sample return mission. PMID:19366660

  2. An obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Jia, J.; Li, L.

    In this paper we present an implementation of an obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation The fisheye lenses can improve image acquisition efficiency and handle minimal clearance recovery problem because they provide a large field of view However the fisheye lens introduces significant distortion in the image and this will make it much more difficult to find a one-to-one correspondence In addition we have to improve the system accuracy and efficiency for robot navigation To compute dense depth maps accurately in real time the following five key issues are considered 1 using lookup tables for a tradeoff between time and space in fisheye distortion correction and correspondence matching 2 using an improved incremental calculation scheme for algorithmic optimization 3 multimedia instruction set MMX implementation 4 consistency check to remove wrong stereo matching problems suffering from occlusions or mismatches 5 constraints of the recovery space To realize obstacle detection robustly we use the following three steps 1 extracting the ground plane parameters using Randomized Hough Transform 2 filtering the ground and background 3 locating the obstacles by using connected region detection Experimental results show the system can run at 3 2fps in 2 0GHz PC with 640X480 pixels

  3. Mass outflow in the nearby proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Grady, C. A.; Kondo, Yoji

    1991-01-01

    Previous spectral studies of circumstallar dust around the nearby, candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris, has detected only infalling gas. The lack of detectable mass outflow has been critical in the interpretation of the origin of the circumstellar gas and in our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pictoris system. IUE high-dispersion spectra are presented which show, in addition to infall, the presence of mass outflow, with a maximum observed outflow velocity of -60 km/s, and a corresponding instantaneous outflow rate of 1.1 x 10 to the -14th solar mass/yr, or 1.1 x 10 to the -11th Jupiter mass/yr. This mass outflow rate and terminal velocity are comparable to the magnitudes of mass infall rates and terminal velocities observed from late 1986 through early 1988. The implications of these observations on our understanding of the mechanisms producing infall from the surrounding circumstellar disk are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pic system.

  4. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    This NIAC project investigated an innovative approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. Such in situ developed heat shields have been suggested before by Lewis. Prior research efforts have shown that regolith properties can be compatible with very-high temperature resistance. Our project team is highly experienced in regolith processing and thermal protection systems (TPS). Routine access to space and return from any planetary surface requires dealing with heat loads experienced by the spacecraft during reentry. Our team addresses some of the key issues with the EDL of human-scale missions through a highly innovative investigation of heat shields that can be fabricated in space by using local resources on asteroids and moons. Most space missions are one-way trips, dedicated to placing an asset in space for economical or scientific gain. However, for human missions, a very-reliable heat-shield system is necessary to protect the crew from the intense heat experienced at very high entry velocities of approximately 11 km/s at approximately Mach 33 (Apollo). For a human mission to Mars, the return problem is even more difficult, with predicted velocities of up to 14 km/s, at approximately Mach 42 at the Earth-atmosphere entry. In addition to human return, it is very likely that future space-travel architecture will include returning cargo to the Earth, either for scientific purposes or for commercial reasons

  5. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Meuller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This NIAC project investigated an innovative approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. Such in situ developed heat shields have been suggested before by Lewis. Prior research efforts have shown that regolith properties can be compatible with very-high temperature resistance. Our project team is highly experienced in regolith processing and thermal protection systems (TPS). Routine access to space and return from any planetary surface requires dealing with heat loads experienced by the spacecraft during reentry. Our team addresses some of the key issues with the EDL of human-scale missions through a highly innovative investigation of heat shields that can be fabricated in space by using local resources on asteroids and moons. Most space missions are one-way trips, dedicated to placing an asset in space for economical or scientific gain. However, for human missions, a very-reliable heat-shield system is necessary to protect the crew from the intense heat experienced at very high entry velocities of approximately 11 km/s at approximately Mach 33 (Apollo). For a human mission to Mars, the return problem is even more difficult, with predicted velocities of up to 14 km/s, at approximately Mach 42 at the Earth-atmosphere entry. In addition to human return, it is very likely that future space-travel architecture will include returning cargo to the Earth, either for scientific purposes or for commercial reasons

  6. SP-100 planetary mission/system preliminary design study. Final report, technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains a discussion on many aspects of a nuclear electric propulsion planetary science mission and spacecraft using the proposed SP-100 nuclear power subsystem. A review of the science rationale for such missions is included. A summary of eleven nuclear electric propulsion planetary missions is presented. A conceptual science payload, mission design, and spacecraft design is included for the Saturn Ring Rendezvous mission. Spacecraft and mission costs have been estimated for two potential sequences of nuclear electric propulsion planetary missions. The integration issues and requirements on the proposed SP-100 power subsystems are identified.

  7. How do giant planetary cores shape the dust disk?. HL Tauri system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picogna, Giovanni; Kley, Wilhelm

    2015-12-01

    Context. We have been observing, thanks to ALMA, the dust distribution in the region of active planet formation around young stars. This is a powerful tool that can be used to connect observations with theoretical models and improve our understanding of the processes at play. Aims: We want to test how a multiplanetary system shapes its birth disk and to study the influence of the planetary masses and particle sizes on the final dust distribution. Moreover, we apply our model to the HL Tau system in order to obtain some insights on the physical parameters of the planets that are able to create the observed features. Methods: We follow the evolution of a population of dust particles, treated as Lagrangian particles, in two-dimensional locally isothermal disks where two equal-mass planets are present. The planets are kept in fixed orbits and they do not accrete mass. Results: The outer planet plays a major role in removing the dust particles in the co-orbital region of the inner planet and in forming a particle ring which have a steeper density gradient close to the gap edge respect to the single-planet scenario, promoting the development of vortices. The ring and gap width depend strongly on the planetary mass and particle stopping times, and for the more massive cases on the ring clumps in few stable points that are able to collect a high mass fraction. The features observed in the HL Tau system can be explained through the presence of several massive cores that shape the dust disk where the inner planet(s) have a mass of the order of 0.07 MJup and the outer one(s) of the order of 0.35 MJup. These values can be significantly lower if the disk mass turns out to be less than previously estimated. By decreasing the disk mass by a factor of 10, we obtain similar gap widths for planets with a mass of 10 M⊕ and 20 M⊕ for the inner and outer planets, respectively. Although the particle gaps are prominent, the expected gaseous gaps are barely visible.

  8. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  9. The Planetary Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, Louis P.

    2016-06-01

    This poster presentation presents the Planetary Project, a multi-week simulated research experience for college non-science majors. Students work in research teams of three to investigate the properties of a fictitious planetary system (the “Planetary System”) created each semester by the instructor. The students write team and individual papers in which they use the available data to draw conclusions about planets, other objects or general properties of the Planetary System and in which they compare, contrast and explain the similarities between the objects in the Planetary System and comparable objects in the Solar System.Data about the orbital and physical properties of the planets in the Planetary System are released at the start of the project. Each week the teams request data from a changing pool of available data. For example, in week one pictures of the planets are available. Each team picks one planet and the data (pictures) on that planet are released only to that team. Different data are available in subsequent weeks. Occasionally a news release to all groups reports an unusual occurrence - e.g. the appearance of a comet.Each student acts as principal author for one of the group paper which must contain a description of the week’s data, conclusions derived from that data about the Planetary System and a comparison with the Solar System. Each students writes a final, individual paper on a topic of their choice dealing with the Planetary System in which they follow the same data, conclusion, comparison format. Students “publish” their papers on a class-only restricted website and present their discoveries in class talks. Data are released to all on the website as the related papers are “published.” Additional papers commenting on the published work and released data are encouraged.The successes and problems of the method are presented.

  10. Ways that our Solar System helps us understand the formation of other planetary systems and ways that it doesn't

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherill, G. W.

    1996-01-01

    Models of planetary formation can be tested by comparison of their ability to predict features of our Solar System in a consistent way, and then extrapolated to other hypothetical planetary systems by different choice of parameters. When this is done, it is found that the resulting systems are insensitive to direct effects of the mass of the star, but do strongly depend on the properties of the disk, principally its surface density. Major uncertainty results from lack of an adequate theoretical model that predicts the existence, size, and distribution of analogs of our Solar System, particularly the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. Nevertheless, reasons can be found for expecting that planetary systems, including those containing biologically habitable planets similar to Earth, may be abundant in the Galaxy and Universe.

  11. Applicability of Supercritical CO2 Speleogenesis to Exo-Planetary Karst Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, D. D.; Polyak, V. J.; Asmerom, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Supercritical CO2 hypogene speleogenesis and its applications to exo-planetary karst features are discussed. What to look for on the planet's surface to find these types of caves and their possible use is also visited.

  12. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  13. Stellar rotation-planetary orbit period commensurability in the HAT-P-11 system

    SciTech Connect

    Béky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Noyes, Robert W.; Kipping, David M.

    2014-06-10

    A number of planet host stars have been observed to rotate with a period equal to an integer multiple of the orbital period of their close planet. We expand this list by analyzing Kepler data of HAT-P-11 and finding a period ratio of 6:1. In particular, we present evidence for a long-lived spot on the stellar surface that is eclipsed by the planet in the same position four times, every sixth transit. We also identify minima in the out-of-transit light curve and confirm that their phase with respect to the stellar rotation is mostly stationary for the 48 month time frame of the observations, confirming the proposed rotation period. For comparison, we apply our methods to Kepler-17 and confirm the findings of Bonomo and Lanza that the period ratio is not exactly 8:1 in that system. Finally, we provide a hypothesis on how interactions between a star and its planet could possibly result in an observed commensurability for systems where the stellar differential rotation profile happens to include a period at some latitude that is commensurable to the planetary orbit.

  14. Eccentricity Evolution of Extrasolar Multiple Planetary Systems Due to the Depletion of Nascent Protostellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, M.; Lin, D. N. C.; Ida, S.

    2003-04-01

    Most extrasolar planets are observed to have eccentricities much larger than those in the solar system. Some of these planets have sibling planets, with comparable masses, orbiting around the same host stars. In these multiple planetary systems, eccentricity is modulated by the planets' mutual secular interaction as a consequence of angular momentum exchange between them. For mature planets, the eigenfrequencies of this modulation are determined by their mass and semimajor axis ratios. However, prior to the disk depletion, self-gravity of the planets' nascent disks dominates the precession eigenfrequencies. We examine here the initial evolution of young planets' eccentricity due to the apsidal libration or circulation induced by both the secular interaction between them and the self-gravity of their nascent disks. We show that as the latter effect declines adiabatically with disk depletion, the modulation amplitude of the planets' relative phase of periapsis is approximately invariant despite the time-asymmetrical exchange of angular momentum between planets. However, as the young planets' orbits pass through a state of secular resonance, their mean eccentricities undergo systematic quantitative changes. For applications, we analyze the eccentricity evolution of planets around υ Andromedae and HD 168443 during the epoch of protostellar disk depletion. We find that the disk depletion can change the planets' eccentricity ratio. However, the relatively large amplitude of the planets' eccentricity cannot be excited if all the planets had small initial eccentricities.

  15. Imaging Forming Planetary Systems: The HST/STIS Legacy and Prospects for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Bowers, Charles; Weinberger, Alycia; Schneider, Glenn; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first indication that debris and protoplanetary disks associated with other, young planetary systems were sufficiently nearby to image came with the IRAS detection of infrared excesses around $\\beta$ Pic, Vega, Fomalhaut, and $\\epsilon$ Eri. Moving beyond analysis of the infrared excess to optical and near-IR imaging requires access to high Strehl ratio and high contrast imaging techniques, with the ability to efficiently reject the residual scattered and diffracted light from the star to reveal the fainter scattered light and circumstellar emission originating from the vicinity of the star. HST/STIS imaging studies have made use of incomplete Lyot coronagraphic imaging modes to reveal the warped, inner disk of $\\beta$ Pic, provide the highest spatial resolution images of young debris disk systems such as HR 4796A, have revealed the presence of azimuthally symmetric structure in HD 141569 and HD 163296, and have demonstrated that currently active, collimated outflows survive to higher stellar masses than previously expected, and through more of the star's pre-main sequence lifetime than anticipated. The HST/STIS coronagraphic imaging legacy will be discussed, together with the implications for future NIR and optical high contrast imaging capabilities.

  16. Constraints on the Architecture of the HD 95086 Planetary System with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameau, Julien; Nielsen, Eric L.; De Rosa, Robert J.; Blunt, Sarah C.; Patience, Jenny; Doyon, René; Graham, James R.; Lafrenière, David; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Bailey, Vanessa; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Duchene, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas M.; Hung, Li-Wei; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Maire, Jérôme; Marois, Christian; Metchev, Stanimir; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rajan, Abhijith; Savransky, Dmitry; Wang, Jason J.; Ward-Duong, Kimberly; Wolff, Schuyler G.; Ammons, S. Mark; Hibon, Pascale; Ingraham, Patrick; Kalas, Paul; Morzinski, Katie M.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Rantakyearö, Fredrik T.; Thomas, Sandrine

    2016-05-01

    We present astrometric monitoring of the young exoplanet HD 95086 b obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager between 2013 and 2016. A small but significant position angle change is detected at constant separation; the orbital motion is confirmed with literature measurements. Efficient Monte Carlo techniques place preliminary constraints on the orbital parameters of HD 95086 b. With 68% confidence, a semimajor axis of {61.7}-8.4+20.7 au and an inclination of 153\\fdg {0}-13.5+9.7 are favored, with eccentricity less than 0.21. Under the assumption of a coplanar planet–disk system, the periastron of HD 95086 b is beyond 51 au with 68% confidence. Therefore, HD 95086 b cannot carve the entire gap inferred from the measured infrared excess in the SED of HD 95086. We use our sensitivity to additional planets to discuss specific scenarios presented in the literature to explain the geometry of the debris belts. We suggest that either two planets on moderately eccentric orbits or three to four planets with inhomogeneous masses and orbital properties are possible. The sensitivity to additional planetary companions within the observations presented in this study can be used to help further constrain future dynamical simulations of the planet–disk system.

  17. Physical properties and transmission spectrum of the WASP-80 planetary system from multi-colour photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Dominik, M.; Henning, Th.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Lanza, A. F.; Rabus, M.; Snodgrass, C.; Vilela, C.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Calchi Novati, S.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Kains, N.; Korhonen, H.; Popovas, A.; Rahvar, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Street, R.; Surdej, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2014-02-01

    WASP-80 is one of only two systems known to contain a hot Jupiter which transits its M-dwarf host star. We present eight light curves of one transit event, obtained simultaneously using two defocussed telescopes. These data were taken through the Bessell I, Sloan g'r'i'z' and near-infrared JHK passbands. We use our data to search for opacity-induced changes in the planetary radius, but find that all values agree with each other. Our data are therefore consistent with a flat transmission spectrum to within the observational uncertainties. We also measure an activity index of the host star of log R 'HK = -4.495, meaning that WASP-80 A shows strong chromospheric activity. The non-detection of starspots implies that, if they exist, they must be small and symmetrically distributed on the stellar surface. We model all available optical transit light curves and obtain improved physical properties and orbital ephemerides for the system. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A126

  18. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    term (e.g., solar cycle) evolution of space climate. Capable instrumentation on planetary missions can and should be planned to contribute to knowledge of interplanetary space environments. Evolving data system technologies such as virtual observatories should be explored for more interdisciplinary application to the science of planetary surface, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and interplanetary interactions.

  19. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Sittler, E. C.; McGrath, M. A.; Alexander, C. J.; Dalton, J. B.; Pascu, D.; Paranicas, C.; Hibbitts, C.; Hill, M. E.; Cooper, P. D.; Johnson, R. E.; Cassidy, T. A.; Orlando, T. M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Retherford, K. D.; Kaiser, R. I.; Leblanc, F.; Sturner, S. J.; Killen, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    term (e.g., solar cycle) evolution of space climate. Capable instrumentation on planetary missions can and should be planned to contribute to knowledge of interplanetary space environments. Evolving data system technologies such as virtual observatories should be explored for more interdisciplinary application to the science of planetary surface, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and interplanetary interactions.

  20. Planetary science: A lunar perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretative synthesis of current knowledge on the moon and the terrestrial planets is presented, emphasizing the impact of recent lunar research (using Apollo data and samples) on theories of planetary morphology and evolution. Chapters are included on the exploration of the solar system; geology and stratigraphy; meteorite impacts, craters, and multiring basins; planetary surfaces; planetary crusts; basaltic volcanism; planetary interiors; the chemical composition of the planets; the origin and evolution of the moon and planets; and the significance of lunar and planetary exploration. Photographs, drawings, graphs, tables of quantitative data, and a glossary are provided.

  1. Surface Telerobotics: Development and Testing of a Crew Controlled Planetary Rover System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terry; Bualat, Maria; Allan, Mark B; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Cohen, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    During Summer 2013, we conducted a series of tests to examine how astronauts in the In- ternational Space Station (ISS) can remotely operate a planetary rover. The tests simulated portions of a proposed mission, in which an astronaut in lunar orbit remotely operates a planetary rover to deploy a radio telescope on the lunar farside. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and preliminary test results.

  2. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imply that X-ray super-flares torched the young Solar System. Such flares likely affected the planet-forming disk around the early Sun, and may have enhanced the survival chances of Earth. By focusing on the Orion Nebula almost continuously for 13 days, a team of scientists used Chandra to obtain the deepest X-ray observation ever taken of this or any star cluster. The Orion Nebula is the nearest rich stellar nursery, located just 1,500 light years away. These data provide an unparalleled view of 1400 young stars, 30 of which are prototypes of the early Sun. The scientists discovered that these young suns erupt in enormous flares that dwarf - in energy, size, and frequency -- anything seen from the Sun today. Illustration of Large Flares Illustration of Large Flares "We don't have a time machine to see how the young Sun behaved, but the next best thing is to observe Sun-like stars in Orion," said Scott Wolk of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "We are getting a unique look at stars between one and 10 million years old - a time when planets form." A key result is that the more violent stars produce flares that are a hundred times as energetic as the more docile ones. This difference may specifically affect the fate of planets that are relatively small and rocky, like the Earth. "Big X-ray flares could lead to planetary systems like ours where Earth is a safe distance from the Sun," said Eric Feigelson of Penn State University in University Park, and principal investigator for the international Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. "Stars with smaller flares, on the other hand, might end up with Earth-like planets plummeting into the star." Animation of X-ray Flares from a Young Sun Animation of X-ray Flares from a "Young Sun" According to recent theoretical work, X-ray flares can create turbulence when they strike planet-forming disks, and this affects the position of rocky planets as they

  3. The radial dependence of pebble accretion rates: A source of diversity in planetary systems. I. Analytical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, S.; Guillot, T.; Morbidelli, A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The classical planetesimal accretion scenario for the formation of planets has recently evolved with the idea that pebbles, centimeter- to meter-sized icy grains migrating in protoplanetary disks, can control planetesimal and/or planetary growth. Aims: We investigate how pebble accretion depends on disk properties and affects the formation of planetary systems. Methods: We construct analytical models of pebble accretion onto planetary embryos that consistently account for the mass and orbital evolution of the pebble flow and reflect disk structure. Results: We derive simple formulas for pebble accretion rates in the so-called settling regime for planetary embryos that are more than 100 km in size. For relatively smaller embryos or in outer disk regions, the accretion mode is three-dimensional (3D), meaning that the thickness of the pebble flow must be taken into account, and resulting in an accretion rate that is independent of the embryo mass. For larger embryos or in inner regions, the accretion is in a two-dimensional (2D) mode, i.e., the pebble disk may be considered infinitely thin. We show that the radial dependence of the pebble accretion rate is different (even the sign of the power-law exponent changes) for different disk conditions such as the disk heating source (viscous heating or stellar irradiation), drag law (Stokes or Epstein, and weak or strong coupling), and in the 2D or 3D accretion modes. We also discuss the effect of the sublimation and destruction of icy pebbles inside the snow line. Conclusions: Pebble accretion easily produces a large diversity of planetary systems. In other words, to infer the results of planet formation through pebble accretion correctly, detailed prescriptions of disk evolution and pebble growth, sublimation, destruction and migration are required.

  4. The statistical model of origin and evolution planets of Solar system and planetary satellities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A.

    There are the theories for exploring Solar system formation in accord Titius-Bode's low: electromagnetic theories (Birkeland (1912), Alfven (1942)), gravitational theories (Schmidt (1944), Woolfson (1964), Safronov (1969), Dole (1970)), nebular theories (Weizsaecker (1943), Kuiper (1949), Nakano (1970)) [1]-[3]. In spite of great number of work aimed to exploring formation of the Solar system, however, the mentioned theories were not able to explain all phenomena. In this connection the statistical theory for a cosmological body forming (so-called the spheroidal body model) has been proposed in [4]-[11]. Within the framework of this theory, bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. In the work [6], which is a continuation of the papers [4], [5], it has been investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression of a spheroidal body close to an unstable equilibrium state. In the papers [7],[8]the equation of motion of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body modeled by means of an ideal liquid has been obtained. Using Schwarzschild's and Kerr's metrics a consistency of the proposed statistical model with the general relativity has been shown in [12]. The proposed theory proceeds from the conception for forming a spheroidal body as a protoplanet from planetary nebula; it permits to derive the form of distribution functions for an immovable and rotating spheroidal body [4]-[6],[10]-[13] as well as their density masses (gravitational potentials and strengths) and also to find the distribution function of specific angular momentum of the rotating uniformly spheroidal body [13],[14]. Using the specific angular momentum distribution function this work considers a gas- dust protoplanetary cloud as a rotating and gravitating spheroidal body. Because the specific angular momenta are averaged during conglomeration process the specific angular momenta for a planets of Solar system is found. As a result a

  5. Thermal forces on planetary ring particles: application to the main system of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D.; Dones, L.; Bottke, W. F.

    2007-08-01

    Context: The motion of small particles in planetary rings is affected in the long-term by radiation forces. While the Poynting-Robertson effect has been extensively discussed and applied to the dynamics of micron-sized ring particles, studies of thermal self-acceleration of particles are only in their infancy. Aims: We extend the pioneering work of Rubincam (2006, Icarus 184, 532) by a more thorough analytical formulation of both planetary and solar thermal forces on ring particles. Methods: Within a sparse disk model we analytically compute both seasonal and diurnal variants of the thermal forces and we demonstrate that the diurnal effect components vanish for a sample of rapidly rotating particles with randomly oriented spin axes. For sufficiently slowly rotating ring particles, though, these diurnal components might significantly modify the expected planetocentric secular drift rates of their orbits. We also take into account the orbital effects of Poynting-Robertson drag that begin to dominate the thermal forces for particles with sizes ≤5 mm. Our formulation of the Poynting-Robertson drag is the first to account properly for the influence of the planetary shadow. Results: We critically review the previous suggestion that Saturn's A and B ring boundaries might correlate with radiative null-torque orbits of small particles. Using the best estimates of optical and thermal parameters of Saturn's ring particles, we show that the millimetre to several centimetre size particles mostly drift inward to the planet with a characteristic radial speed ν_r˜ 3× 10-6 cm/s, corresponding to drift across the whole main ring system in ~ (1-5)× 108 years if the effects of inter-particle collisions are neglected. The radial speed is comparable to, or even larger than, the effective radial drift rate of small particles due to redistribution of collisional ejecta from micrometeoroid impacts. Therefore, radiation forces may be important for estimating the evolution timescales

  6. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE υ ANDROMEDAE PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne; McArthur, Barbara; Fritz Benedict, G.

    2015-01-01

    The υ Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the three-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full three-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the three planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer two planets, c and d, are inclined by ∼30°, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable three-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ∼8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict that b's mass is in the range of 2-9 M {sub Jup} and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 25°. Combined with brightness variations in the combined star/planet light curve ({sup p}hase curve{sup )}, our results imply that planet b's radius is ∼1.8 R {sub Jup}, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches >0.1, generating upward of 10{sup 19} W in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation, possibly inflating the radius to an amount consistent with phase curve observations.

  7. Outer-planet scattering can gently tilt an inner planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratia, Pierre; Fabrycky, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Chaotic dynamics are expected during and after planet formation, and a leading mechanism to explain large eccentricities of gas giant exoplanets is planet-planet gravitational scattering. The same scattering has been invoked to explain misalignments of planetary orbital planes with respect to their host star's spin. However, an observational puzzle is presented by Kepler-56, which has two inner planets (b and c) that are nearly coplanar with each other, yet are more than 45 degrees inclined to their star's equator. Thus the spin-orbit misalignment might be primordial. Instead, we further develop the hypothesis in the discovery paper, that planets on wider orbits generated misalignment through scattering, and as a result gently torqued the inner planets away from the equator plane of the star. We integrated the equations of motion for Kepler-56 b and c along with an unstable outer system initialized with either two or three Jupiter-mass planets. We address here whether the violent scattering that generates large mutual inclinations can leave the inner system intact, tilting it gently. In almost all of the cases initially with two outer planets, either the inner planets remain nearly coplanar with each other in the star's equator plane, or they are scattered violently to high mutual inclination and high spin-orbit misalignment. On the contrary, of the systems with three unstable outer planets, a spin-orbit misalignment large enough to explain the observations is generated 28% of the time for coplanar inner planets, which is consistent with the observed frequency of this phenomenon reported so far. We conclude that multiple-planet scattering in the outer parts of the system may account for this new population of coplanar planets hosted by oblique stars.

  8. Fast and reliable symplectic integration for planetary system N-body problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David M.

    2016-06-01

    We apply one of the exactly symplectic integrators, which we call HB15, of Hernandez & Bertschinger, along with the Kepler problem solver of Wisdom & Hernandez, to solve planetary system N-body problems. We compare the method to Wisdom-Holman (WH) methods in the MERCURY software package, the MERCURY switching integrator, and others and find HB15 to be the most efficient method or tied for the most efficient method in many cases. Unlike WH, HB15 solved N-body problems exhibiting close encounters with small, acceptable error, although frequent encounters slowed the code. Switching maps like MERCURY change between two methods and are not exactly symplectic. We carry out careful tests on their properties and suggest that they must be used with caution. We then use different integrators to solve a three-body problem consisting of a binary planet orbiting a star. For all tested tolerances and time steps, MERCURY unbinds the binary after 0 to 25 years. However, in the solutions of HB15, a time-symmetric HERMITE code, and a symplectic Yoshida method, the binary remains bound for >1000 years. The methods' solutions are qualitatively different, despite small errors in the first integrals in most cases. Several checks suggest that the qualitative binary behaviour of HB15's solution is correct. The Bulirsch-Stoer and Radau methods in the MERCURY package also unbind the binary before a time of 50 years, suggesting that this dynamical error is due to a MERCURY bug.

  9. Resonances of low orders in the planetary system of HD37124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2008-12-01

    The full set of published radial velocity data (52 measurements from Keck + 58 ones from ELODIE + 17 ones from CORALIE) for the star HD37124 is analysed. Two families of dynamically stable high-eccentricity orbital solutions for the planetary system are found. In the first one, the outer planets c and d are trapped in the 2/1 mean-motion resonance. The second family of solutions corresponds to the 5/2 mean-motion resonance between these planets. In both families, the planets are locked in (or close to) an apsidal corotation resonance. In the case of the 2/1 MMR, it is an asymmetric apsidal corotation (with the difference between the longitudes of periastra Δ ω ~ 60°), whereas in the case of the 5/2 MMR it is a symmetric antialigned one (Δ ω = 180°). It remains also possible that the two outer planets are not trapped in an orbital resonance. Then their orbital eccentricities should be relatively small (less than, say, 0.15) and the ratio of their orbital periods is unlikely to exceed 2.3 - 2.5.

  10. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  11. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS: PROPERTIES OF DEBRIS DUST AROUND SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John M.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Henning, Thomas; Wolf, Sebastian; Mamajek, Eric E.; Meyer, Michael R.; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Pascucci, Ilaria; Backman, Dana E.; Hollenbach, David; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Silverstone, Murray D.; Stauffer, John R.

    2009-03-15

    We present Spitzer photometric (IRAC and MIPS) and spectroscopic (IRS low resolution) observations for 314 stars in the Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems Legacy program. These data are used to investigate the properties and evolution of circumstellar dust around solar-type stars spanning ages from approximately 3 Myr-3 Gyr. We identify 46 sources that exhibit excess infrared emission above the stellar photosphere at 24 {mu}m, and 21 sources with excesses at 70 {mu}m. Five sources with an infrared excess have characteristics of optically thick primordial disks, while the remaining sources have properties akin to debris systems. The fraction of systems exhibiting a 24 {mu}m excess greater than 10.2% above the photosphere is 15% for ages < 300 Myr and declines to 2.7% for older ages. The upper envelope to the 70 {mu}m fractional luminosity appears to decline over a similar age range. The characteristic temperature of the debris inferred from the IRS spectra range between 60 and 180 K, with evidence for the presence of cooler dust to account for the strength of the 70 {mu}m excess emission. No strong correlation is found between dust temperature and stellar age. Comparison of the observational data with disk models containing a power-law distribution of silicate grains suggests that the typical inner-disk radius is {approx}> 10 AU. Although the interpretation is not unique, the lack of excess emission shortward of 16 {mu}m and the relatively flat distribution of the 24 {mu}m excess for ages {approx}< 300 Myr is consistent with steady-state collisional models.

  12. Swarm-NG: A CUDA library for Parallel n-body Integrations with focus on simulations of planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindar, Saleh; Ford, Eric B.; Juric, Mario; Yeo, Young In; Gao, Jianwei; Boley, Aaron C.; Nelson, Benjamin; Peters, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    We present Swarm-NG, a C++ library for the efficient direct integration of many n-body systems using a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), such as NVIDIA's Tesla T10 and M2070 GPUs. While previous studies have demonstrated the benefit of GPUs for n-body simulations with thousands to millions of bodies, Swarm-NG focuses on many few-body systems, e.g., thousands of systems with 3…15 bodies each, as is typical for the study of planetary systems. Swarm-NG parallelizes the simulation, including both the numerical integration of the equations of motion and the evaluation of forces using NVIDIA's "Compute Unified Device Architecture" (CUDA) on the GPU. Swarm-NG includes optimized implementations of 4th order time-symmetrized Hermite integration and mixed variable symplectic integration, as well as several sample codes for other algorithms to illustrate how non-CUDA-savvy users may themselves introduce customized integrators into the Swarm-NG framework. To optimize performance, we analyze the effect of GPU-specific parameters on performance under double precision. For an ensemble of 131072 planetary systems, each containing three bodies, the NVIDIA Tesla M2070 GPU outperforms a 6-core Intel Xeon X5675 CPU by a factor of ˜2.75. Thus, we conclude that modern GPUs offer an attractive alternative to a cluster of CPUs for the integration of an ensemble of many few-body systems. Applications of Swarm-NG include studying the late stages of planet formation, testing the stability of planetary systems and evaluating the goodness-of-fit between many planetary system models and observations of extrasolar planet host stars (e.g., radial velocity, astrometry, transit timing). While Swarm-NG focuses on the parallel integration of many planetary systems, the underlying integrators could be applied to a wide variety of problems that require repeatedly integrating a set of ordinary differential equations many times using different initial conditions and/or parameter values.

  13. Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  14. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  15. Tidal dissipation in stars and fluid planetary layers and its impact on the evolution of star-planet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auclair-Desrotour, P.; Mathis, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-09-01

    Tidal dissipation in stars and planets is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of planetary systems. It intrinsically depends on the nature of the tidal response of celestial bodies, which is directly linked to their internal structure and friction. Indeed, it is highly resonant in the case of fluids. In this work, we present a local analytical modeling of tidal gravito-inertial waves, which can be excited in stars and fluid planetary layers. This model allows us to understand the properties of their resonant dissipation as a function of the excitation frequencies, the rotation, the stratification, and the viscous and thermal properties of the studied fluid regions. Next, we introduce such a complex tidal dissipation frequency-spectra in a celestial mechanics numerical code to give a qualitative overview of its impact on the evolution of planetary systems. We consider the example of a two-body coplanar system with a punctual perturber orbiting a central fluid body. We demonstrate how the viscous dissipation of tidal waves can lead to a strongly erratic orbital evolution. Finally, we characterize such a non-regular dynamics as a function of the properties of resonances, which have been determined thanks to our local fluid model.

  16. THE DYNAMICS OF STELLAR CORONAE HARBORING HOT JUPITERS. I. A TIME-DEPENDENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE INTERPLANETARY ENVIRONMENT IN THE HD 189733 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, O.; Kashyap, V. L.; Drake, J. J.; Garraffo, C.; Sokolov, I. V.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2011-05-20

    We carry out the first time-dependent numerical magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an extrasolar planetary system to study the interaction of the stellar magnetic field and wind with the planetary magnetosphere and outflow. We base our model on the parameters of the HD 189733 system, which harbors a close-in giant planet. Our simulation reveals a highly structured stellar corona characterized by sectors with different plasma properties. The star-planet interaction (SPI) varies in magnitude and complexity, depending on the planetary phase, planetary magnetic field strength, and the relative orientation of the stellar and planetary fields. It also reveals a long, comet-like tail which is a result of the wrapping of the planetary magnetospheric tail by its fast orbital motion. A reconnection event occurs at a specific orbital phase, causing mass loss from the planetary magnetosphere that can generate a hot spot on the stellar surface. The simulation also shows that the system has sufficient energy to produce hot spots observed in Ca II lines in giant planet hosting stars. However, the short duration of the reconnection event suggests that such SPI cannot be observed persistently.

  17. Microalgae as part of the autotrophic component of life support systems for future planetary bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita

    Research and development of human life support systems incorporating biospheric components performed in the USSR and Russia for over 50 years resulted in a well- structured and rational step-by-step approach to this area of activities. The development of biological life support systems (BLSS) was based on the theory of biocenology advanced by V.N. Sukachev, according to which organic matter turnover is a result of combined activities of plants, animals and microorganisms. Hence, a BLSS with its semi-closed matter turnover needs to incorporate all the components of natural ecosystems, i.e., plants (photoautotrophic organisms), animals, including humans, and microorganisms (heterotrophic organisms). The photoautotrophic component of the BLSS designed to support humans should meet a number of specific requirements, the most important of which are: - high productivity - stability of functional parameters within their normal fluctuation ranges - compatibility with other system components to preclude additional load on them - minimum of un-utilizable compounds in the material balance of the component. The photosynthetic component may consist of lower and higher plants, which may function separately or jointly. In either case, microalgae will play a key role, as they do on Earth, in the production of organic compounds and oxygen as well as in the support of BLSS reliability. The construction of a planetary base begins with the assembly of major engineering facilities whereas the construction of a BLSS starts after the assembly is complete and the base interior is fully separated from the outside environment. At early stages of base operation the autotrophic component of the system will consist of algae alone, which will provide photosynthetic regeneration of air and water. At later stages the autotrophic component will progress from lower to higher plants; when the greenhouses reach adequate sizes, higher plants will occupy the major portion of the autotrophic component

  18. Spectroscopic analyses of the parent stars of extrasolar planetary system candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    1998-06-01

    The stars rho () 1 Cnc, rho CrB, 16 Cyg B, 51 Peg, 47 UMa, 70 Vir, and HD 114762 have recently been proposed to harbor planetary mass companions based on small amplitude radial velocity variations. From spectroscopic analyses we derive the following values of [Fe/H] for these stars: 0.29, -0.29, 0.06, 0.21, 0.01, -0.03, and -0.60 (all with an uncertainty of 0.06 dex), respectively; the [Fe/H] value for 16 Cyg A is 0.11. The four 51 Peg-like systems, upsilon And, tau Boo, rho () 1 Cnc, and 51 Peg, have a mean [Fe/H] value of 0.25. Otherwise, the abundance patterns, expressed as [X/Fe], are approximately solar. We used Fourier analysis, supplemented by line profile synthesis, to derive the following v sin i values: <1.3, 1.4 +/- 0.3, 1.7 +/- 0.4, < 0.5, and < 1.5 km s(-1) for rho () 1 Cnc, 51 Peg, 47 UMa, 70 Vir, and HD 114762, respectively. A similar analysis of the spectrum of rho CrB (with a lower resolving power) yields a value of ~ 1.5 km s() -1. Combining these data with published estimates of v sin i and rotation periods and assuming that the radial velocity variations are due to the presence of planets, we derive the following masses for the companions: >0.66, 2.9(+13.6}_{-1.3) , 0.49+/-0.03, 3.4() +3.1_-1.1, >9.4, and >10.4 cal M_J for rho () 1 Cnc, rho CrB, 51 Peg, 47 UMa, 70 Vir, and HD 114762, respectively; the mass of 16 Cyg B b, calculated using a published estimate for sin i, is 2.0() +1.1_-0.3 cal M_J. The masses of the companions to upsilon And and tau Boo, which were analyzed in a previous paper, are 0.76() +0.19_-0.03 and 5.9() +43.9_-1.8 cal M_J, respectively. We confirm previous claims that rho () 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. However, the theoretical isochrone-derived age is much greater than the age of the universe. At this time we have insufficient data to determine the true nature of rho () 1 Cnc, but we suggest that it may be an unresolved stellar binary viewed nearly pole-on. A search for line profile variations might help to resolve this

  19. Probing Planetary Magnetic Fields During Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jardine, M.; Helling, C.

    2011-10-01

    Recently, Fossati et al. observed that the near-UV transit light curve of the close-in giant planet WASP-12b shows an early ingress as compared to its optical transit. Such observations were interpreted as due to the presence of asymmetries in the exosphere of the planet. In particular, we suggest that this asymmetry could be explained by the presence of a shock formed around the planet's magnetosphere. Bow shocks are formed as a result of the interaction of the planet with the coronal material of the host star, similar to the one formed around the Earth's magnetosphere. According to our model, shock detection through transit observations can be a useful tool to probe and constrain exoplanetary magnetic field. In the case of WASP- 12b, we derive an upper limit for the magnetic field of ∼ 24 G. In addition, we predict that observable shocks should be a common feature in other transiting systems. Promising candidates are: WASP- 19b, WASP-4b, WASP-18b, CoRoT-7b, HAT-P-7b, CoRoT-1b, TrES-3 and WASP-5b.

  20. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  1. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  2. On the Abundance of Water in Extrasolar Planetary Systems as a Function of Stellar Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The discovery, to date, of several hundred confirmed extra solar planets and a statistical analysis of their properties has revealed intriguing patterns in the abundance and types of extrasolar planets. The metallicity of the host star appears to be a driver in determining extrasolar planetary system characteristics, although a mechanistic understanding of these relationships is not currently available. Understanding the broad relationship(s) between the characteristics of extrasolar planets and stellar metallicity thus appears timely.Recent work examining the timescales for water production in protoplanetary disks suggest that ionizing radiation required to drive surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks is insufficient and production timescales too slow to account for a significant amount of water in protoplanetary disks. Here we focus on the timescales for water production in cold molecular clouds and examine the relationship of this timescale as a function of molecular cloud metallicity. To do this, we consider the distribution of surface area concentration (dA/dV) in molecular clouds as a function of their metallicity and various MRN-like dust grain size distributions. We find that molecular cloud metallicity is a significant factor in determining upper-limits to the availability of water in molecular clouds and by extension, protoplanetary disks. The spectral index of the MRN distribution affects the upper-limits to H2O abundance, but the effect is not as significant as metallicity. We find that the ratio of H2O/SiO2 produced in a molecular cloud of solar metallicity can easily account for Earth’s present day ratio , supporting the “wet” hypothesis for the origins of Earth’s water. Future studies will focus on the retention of water on interstellar dust grain surfaces in protoplanetary disk environments inside the water line, the abundance of other volatile species, more detailed estimates of H2O destruction timescales in molecular clouds, and

  3. Can the solar system planetary motion be used to forecast the multidecadal variability of climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, N.

    2008-12-01

    Global warming has been and will be significantly modified by natural decadal-scale climate variability. For example, the pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) has entered a cool phase that is expected to induce a global cooling in the following two decades. A cooling of the global climate, not predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projections, has been observed since 2002. The causes of the natural decadal and multidecadal scale climate fluctuations remain unexplained. This makes particularly problematic the evaluation of the climate models and of their theoretical forecasts for the 21st century. Here I investigate whether multidecadal internal climate variations are extraterrestrially induced. The movement of the Sun relative to the center of mass of the solar system (CMSS) is used as a proxy of the extraterrestrial forcing. I show that large natural climate variations with peak-to-trough amplitude of about 0.1 oC and 0.24 oC and with periods of about 20 and 60 years, respectively, match equivalent oscillations found in the dynamics of the Sun relative to the CMSS. Several other frequency components match as well. Thus, the solar planetary index can be used to forecast multidecadal natural climate oscillations for the 21st century. These projections indicate that climate will stabilize or cool until 2030. An indirect consequence of these findings is that at least 60% of the global warming observed since 1975 has been induced by the combined effect of the above two natural climate oscillations. This suggests that the anthropogenic effect on global warming has been exaggerated by the climate model simulations and projections published by the IPCC.

  4. Lidar Systems for Precision Navigation and Safe Landing on Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Petway, Larry B.; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Currently, NASA is developing novel lidar sensors aimed at needs of future planetary landing missions. These lidar sensors are a 3-Dimensional Imaging Flash Lidar, a Doppler Lidar, and a Laser Altimeter. The Flash Lidar is capable of generating elevation maps of the terrain that indicate hazardous features such as rocks, craters, and steep slopes. The elevation maps collected during the approach phase of a landing vehicle, at about 1 km above the ground, can be used to determine the most suitable safe landing site. The Doppler Lidar provides highly accurate ground relative velocity and distance data allowing for precision navigation to the landing site. Our Doppler lidar utilizes three laser beams pointed to different directions to measure line of sight velocities and ranges to the ground from altitudes of over 2 km. Throughout the landing trajectory starting at altitudes of about 20 km, the Laser Altimeter can provide very accurate ground relative altitude measurements that are used to improve the vehicle position knowledge obtained from the vehicle navigation system. At altitudes from approximately 15 km to 10 km, either the Laser Altimeter or the Flash Lidar can be used to generate contour maps of the terrain, identifying known surface features such as craters, to perform Terrain relative Navigation thus further reducing the vehicle s relative position error. This paper describes the operational capabilities of each lidar sensor and provides a status of their development. Keywords: Laser Remote Sensing, Laser Radar, Doppler Lidar, Flash Lidar, 3-D Imaging, Laser Altimeter, Precession Landing, Hazard Detection

  5. Diversity of planetary systems in low-mass disks. Terrestrial-type planet formation and water delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, M. P.; de Elía, G. C.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Several studies, observational and theoretical, suggest that planetary systems with only rocky planets are the most common in the Universe. Aims: We study the diversity of planetary systems that might form around Sun-like stars in low-mass disks without gas-giant planets. We focus especially on the formation process of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ) and analyze their water contents with the goal to determine systems of astrobiological interest. In addition, we study the formation of planets on wide orbits because they can be detected with the microlensing technique. Methods: N-body simulations of high resolution were developed for a wide range of surface density profiles. A bimodal distribution of planetesimals and planetary embryos with different physical and orbital configurations was used to simulate the planetary accretion process. The surface density profile combines a power law for the inside of the disk of the form r-γ, with an exponential decay to the outside. We performed simulations adopting a disk of 0.03 M⊙ and values of γ = 0.5, 1 and 1.5. Results: All our simulations form planets in the HZ with different masses and final water contents depending on the three different profiles. For γ = 0.5, our simulations produce three planets in the HZ with masses ranging from 0.03 M⊕ to 0.1 M⊕ and water contents between 0.2 and 16 Earth oceans (1 Earth ocean =2.8 × 10-4 M⊕). For γ = 1, three planets form in the HZ with masses between 0.18 M⊕ and 0.52 M⊕ and water contents from 34 to 167 Earth oceans. Finally, for γ = 1.5, we find four planets in the HZ with masses ranging from 0.66 M⊕ to 2.21 M⊕ and water contents between 192 and 2326 Earth oceans. This profile shows distinctive results because it is the only one of those studied here that leads to the formation of water worlds. Conclusions: Since planetary systems with γ = 1 and 1.5 present planets in the HZ with suitable masses to retain a long-lived atmosphere and

  6. Planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieseking, F.

    1983-02-01

    The first planetary nebula (PN) was discovered by Darquier in 1779. In 1981, a compilation of galactic PN listed a total of 1455 objects. Outside the Milky Way Galaxy, PN are currently known in the Magellanic Clouds and in several members of the local group of galaxies. The PN have a rich emission-line spectrum, which makes it possible to recognize them at large distances. A central stellar object can be observed within the nebula. In 1927, spectral lines at 4959 A and 5007 A emitted by the PN could finally be identified as 'forbidden lines' of O(++). The life expectancy of a PN, estimated on the basis of the observed expansion rate, is only about 30,000 years. The PN have a number of interesting characteristics which are partly related to the high effective temperature and luminosity of the central stars, the presence of a particle system under extreme physical conditions, and the stellar material provided by the PN for the interstellar medium. Attention is given to the determination of the distance of PN, the Shklovsky distances, and two mysterious aspects related to the spectrum

  7. HPS: A space fission power system suitable for near-term, low-cost lunar and planetary bases

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Near-term, low-cost space fission power systems can enhance the feasibility and utility of lunar and planetary bases. One such system, the Heatpipe Power System (HPS), is described in this paper. The HPS draws on 40 yr of United States and international experience to enable a system that can be developed in <5 yr at a cost of <$100M. Total HPS mass is <600 kg at 5 kWe and <2000 kg at 50 kWe, assuming that thermoelectric power conversion is used. More advanced power conversion systems could reduce system mass significantly. System mass for planetary surface systems also may be reduced (1) if indigenous material is used for radiation shielding and (2) because of the positive effect of the gravitational field on heatpipe operation. The HPS is virtually non-radioactive at launch and is passively subcritical during all credible launch accidents. Full-system electrically heated testing is possible, and a ground nuclear power test is not needed for flight qualification. Fuel burnup limits are not reached for several decades, thus giving the system long-life potential.

  8. Thermal protection system technology and facility needs for demanding future planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laub, B.; Venkatapathy, E.

    2004-02-01

    NASA has successfully launched numerous science missions to inner and outer planets in our solar system of which the most challenging were to Venus and Jupiter and the knowledge gained from those missions have been invaluable yet incomplete. Future missions will be built on what we have learned from the past missions but they will be more demanding from both the science as well as the mission design and engineering perspectives. The Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey (SSEDS) produced for NASA by the National Research Council identified a broad range of science objectives many of which can only be satisfied with atmospheric entry probes. The SSEDS recommended new probe/lander missions to both Venus and Jupiter. The Pioneer-Venus probe mission was launched in August 1978 and four probes successfully entered the Venusian atmosphere in December 1978. The Galileo mission was launched in October 1989 and one probe successfully entered the Jovian atmosphere in December 1995. The thermal protection system requirements for these two missions were unlike any other planetary probes and required fully dense carbon phenolic for the forebody heat shield. Developing thermal protection systems to accomplish future missions outlined in the Decadal Survey presents a technology challenge since they will be more demanding than these past missions. Unlike Galileo, carbon phenolic may not be an adequate TPS for a future Jupiter multiprobe mission since non-equatorial probes will enter at significantly higher velocity than the Galileo equatorial probe and the entry heating scales approximately with the cube of the entry velocity. At such heating rates the TPS mass fraction for a carbon phenolic heat shield would be prohibitive. A new, robust and efficient TPS is required for such probes. The Giant Planet Facility (GPF), developed and employed during the development of the TPS for the Galileo probe was dismantled after completion of the program. Furthermore, flight data from the

  9. Integrated Software Systems for Crew Management During Extravehicular Activity in Planetary Terrain Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetz, Lawrence; Nguen, Dan; Jones, Jeffrey; Lee, Pascal; Merrell, Ronald; Rafiq, Azhar

    2008-01-01

    Initial planetary explorations with the Apollo program had a veritable ground support army monitoring the safety and health of the 12 astronauts who performed lunar surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). Given the distances involved, this will not be possible on Mars. A spacesuit for Mars must be smart enough to replace that army. The next generation suits can do so using 2 software systems serving as virtual companions, LEGACI (Life support, Exploration Guidance Algorithm and Consumable Interrogator) and VIOLET (Voice Initiated Operator for Life support and Exploration Tracking). The system presented in this study integrates data inputs from a suite of sensors into the MIII suit s communications, avionics and informatics hardware for distribution to remote managers and data analysis. If successful, the system has application not only for Mars but for nearer term missions to the Moon, and the next generation suits used on ISS as well. Field tests are conducted to assess capabilities for next generation spacesuits at Johnson Space Center (JSC) as well as the Mars and Lunar analog (Devon Island, Canada). LEGACI integrates data inputs from a suite of noninvasive biosensors in the suit and the astronaut (heart rate, suit inlet/outlet lcg temperature and flowrate, suit outlet gas and dewpoint temperature, pCO2, suit O2 pressure, state vector (accelerometry) and others). In the Integrated Walkback Suit Tests held at NASA-JSC and the HMP tests at Devon Island, communication and informatics capabilities were tested (including routing by satellite from the suit at Devon Island to JSC in Houston via secure servers at VCU in Richmond, VA). Results. The input from all the sensors enable LEGACI to compute multiple independent assessments of metabolic rate, from which a "best" met rate is chosen based on statistical methods. This rate can compute detailed information about the suit, crew and EVA performance using test-derived algorithms. VIOLET gives LEGACI voice activation

  10. Physical properties of the WASP-67 planetary system from multi-colour photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Henning, Th.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Korhonen, H.; Nikolov, N.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Kains, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R.; Surdej, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Vilela, C.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The extrasolar planet WASP-67 b is the first hot Jupiter definitively known to undergo only partial eclipses. The lack of the second and third contact points in this planetary system makes it difficult to obtain accurate measurements of its physical parameters. Aims: By using new high-precision photometric data, we confirm that WASP-67 b shows grazing eclipses and compute accurate estimates of the physical properties of the planet and its parent star. Methods: We present high-quality, multi-colour, broad-band photometric observations comprising five light curves covering two transit events, obtained using two medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocusing technique. One transit was observed through a Bessel-R filter and the other simultaneously through filters similar to Sloan g'r'i'z'. We modelled these data using jktebop. The physical parameters of the system were obtained from the analysis of these light curves and from published spectroscopic measurements. Results: All five of our light curves satisfy the criterion for being grazing eclipses. We revise the physical parameters of the whole WASP-67 system and, in particular, significantly improve the measurements of the planet's radius (Rb = 1.091 ± 0.046 RJup) and density (ρb = 0.292 ± 0.036 ρJup), as compared to the values in the discovery paper (Rb = 1.4 -0.2+0.3 RJup and ρb = 0.16 ± 0.08 ρJup). The transit ephemeris was also substantially refined. We investigated the variation of the planet's radius as a function of the wavelength, using the simultaneous multi-band data, finding that our measurements are consistent with a flat spectrum to within the experimental uncertainties. Based on data collected with GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope and DFOSC at the Danish 1.54 m telescope.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A127

  11. Accretion of planetary matter and the lithium problem in the 16 Cygni stellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, Morgan; Richard, Olivier; Vauclair, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    Context. The 16 Cygni system is composed of two solar analogues with similar masses and ages. A red dwarf is in orbit around 16 Cygni A, and 16 Cygni B hosts a giant planet. The abundances of heavy elements are similar in the two stars, but lithium is much more depleted in 16 Cygni B than in 16 Cygni A, by a factor of at least 4.7. Aims: The interest of studying the 16 Cygni system is that the two star have the same age and the same initial composition. The differences currently observed must be due to their different evolution, related to the fact that one of them hosts a planet while the other does not. Methods: We computed models of the two stars that precisely fit the observed seismic frequencies. We used the Toulouse Geneva Evolution Code (TGEC), which includes complete atomic diffusion (including radiative accelerations). We compared the predicted surface abundances with the spectroscopic observations and confirm that another mixing process is needed. We then included the effect of accretion-induced fingering convection. Results: The accretion of planetary matter does not change the metal abundances but leads to lithium destruction, which depends upon the accreted mass. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain the lithium surface abundances of 16 Cygni B. We also checked the beryllium abundances. Conclusions: In the case of accretion of heavy matter onto stellar surfaces, the accreted heavy elements do not remain in the outer convective zones, but are mixed downwards by fingering convection induced by the unstable μ-gradient. Depending on the accreted mass, this mixing process may transport lithium down to its nuclear destruction layers and lead to an extra lithium depletion at the surface. A fraction of the Earth's mass is enough to explain a lithium ratio of 4.7 in the 16 Cygni system. In this case beryllium is not destroyed. Such a process may be frequent in planet-hosting stars and should be studied in other cases in the future.

  12. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. In addition, recently released NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reductions in spacecraft structural mass more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems more efficient lighter propulsion systems and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location(s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of

  13. The Planetary Data System — Renewing Our Science Nodes in Order to Better Serve Our Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, T. H.; McLaughlin, S.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Knopf, W.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Crichton, D. J.; New, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve NASA's ability to provide an agile response to the needs of the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) is being transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA's Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. We expect the new PDS will improve both archive searchability and product discoverability, continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the International community of space faring nations (through the International Planetary Data Alliance). PDS will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on these changes. Please visit our User Support Area at the meeting (Booth #446) if you have questions accessing our data sets or providing data to the PDS or about the new PDS structure.

  14. Cosmological Effects in Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H. J.; Wilson, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier discussion of the planetary flyby anomaly, a preliminary assessment of cosmological effects upon planetary orbits exhibiting the flyby anomaly was made. A more comprehensive investigation has since been published, although it was directed at the Pioneer anomaly and possible effects of universal rotation. The general subject of Solar System anomalies will be examined here from the point of view of planetary science.

  15. Reacting to nuclear power systems in space: American public protests over outer planetary probes since the 1980s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2014-03-01

    The United States has pioneered the use of nuclear power systems for outer planetary space probes since the 1970s. These systems have enabled the Viking landings to reach the surface of Mars and both Pioneers 10 and 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2 to travel to the limits of the solar system. Although the American public has long been concerned about safety of these systems, in the 1980s a reaction to nuclear accidents - especially the Soviet Cosmos 954 spacecraft destruction and the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents - heightened awareness about the hazards of nuclear power and every spacecraft launch since that time has been contested by opponents of nuclear energy. This has led to a debate over the appropriateness of the use of nuclear power systems for spacecraft. It has also refocused attention on the need for strict systems of control and rigorous checks and balances to assure safety. This essay describes the history of space radioisotope power systems, the struggles to ensure safe operations, and the political confrontation over whether or not to allow the launch the Galileo and Cassini space probes to the outer planets. Effectively, these efforts have led to the successful flights of 12 deep space planetary probes, two-thirds of them operated since the accidents of Cosmos 954, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl.

  16. Ballistic transport in planetary ring systems due to particle erosion mechanisms. I - Theory, numerical methods, and illustrative examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Murphy, Brian W.; Cramer, Nichael Lynn; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Mullikin, Thomas L.

    1989-01-01

    Ballistic transport, defined as the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid hypersonic-impact ejecta by neighboring planetary ring regions on time-scales orders-of-magnitude shorter than the age of the solar system, is presently considered as a problem in mathematical physics. The preliminary results of a numerical scheme for following the combined effects of ballistic transport and viscous diffusion demonstrate that ballistic transport generates structure near sharp edges already present in the ring-mass distribution; the entire ring system ultimately develops an undulatory structure whose length scale is typically of the order of the radial excursion of the impact ejecta.

  17. Japanese Exploration to Solar System Small Bodies: Rewriting a Planetary Formation Theory with Astromaterial Connection (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, H.

    2013-12-01

    space probe with hybrid propulsion of solar photon sail and ion engine system that will enable Japan to reach out deep interplanetary space beyond the main asteroid belt. Since 2002, Japanese scientists and engineers have been investigating the solar power sail mission to Jupiter Trojans and interdisciplinary cruising science, such as infrared observation of zodiacal light due to cosmic dust, which at the same time hit a large cross section of the solar sail membrane dust detector, concentrating inside the main asteroid belt. Now the mission design has extended from cruising and fly-by only to rendezvous and sample return options from Jupiter Trojan asteroids. Major scientific goal of Jupiter Trojan exploration is to constrain its origin between two competing hypothesis such as remnants of building blocks the Jovian system as the classic model and the second generation captured EKBOs as the planetary migration models, in which several theories are in deep discussion. Also important is to better understand mixing process of material and structure of the early Solar System just beyond snow line. The current plan involves its launch and both solar photon and IES accelerations combined with Earth and Jupiter gravity assists in 2020's, detailed rendezvous investigation of a few 10-km sized D-type asteroid among Jupiter Trojans in early 2030's and an optional sample return of its surface materials to the Earth in late 2030's.

  18. Planetary rover technology development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedard, Roger J., Jr.; Muirhead, Brian K.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Hirschbein, Murray S.

    1989-01-01

    Planetary surface (including lunar) mobility and sampling capability is required to support proposed future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) solar system exploration missions. The NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) is addressing some of these technology needs in its base research and development program, the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) and a new technology initiative entitled Pathfinder. The Pathfinder Planetary Rover (PPR) and Sample Acquisition, Analysis and Preservation (SAAP) programs will develop and validate the technologies needed to enable both robotic and piloted rovers on various planetary surfaces. The technology requirements for a planetary roving vehicle and the development plans of the PPR and SAAP programs are discussed.

  19. A modular gas-cooled cermet reactor system for planetary base power

    SciTech Connect

    Jahshan, S.N.; Borkowski, J.A. )

    1993-01-15

    Fission nuclear power is foreseen as the source for electricity in planetary colonization and exploration. A six module gas-cooled, cermet-fueled reactor is proposed that can meet the design objectives. The highly enriched core is compact and can operate at high temperature for a long life. The helium coolant powers six modular Brayton cycles that compare favorably with the SP-100-based Brayton cycle.

  20. Dynamical Simulations of Extrasolar Planetary Systems with Debris Disks Using a GPU Accelerated N-Body Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alexander

    This thesis begins with a description of a hybrid symplectic integrator named QYMSYM which is capable of planetary system simulations. This integrator has been programmed with the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) language which allows for implementation on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). With the enhanced compute performance made available by this choice, QYMSYM was used to study the effects debris disks have on the dynamics of the extrasolar planetary systems HR 8799 and KOI-730. The four planet system HR 8799 was chosen because it was known to have relatively small regions of stability in orbital phase space. Using this fact, it can be shown that a simulated debris disk of moderate mass around HR 8799 can easily pull this system out of these regions of stability. In other cases it is possible to migrate the system to a region of stability - although this requires significantly more mass and a degree of fine tuning. These findings suggest that previous studies on the stability of HR 8799 which do not include a debris disk may not accurately report on the size and location of the stable orbital phase space available for the planets. This insight also calls into question the practice of using dynamical simulations to help constrain observed planetary orbital data. Next, by studying the stability of another four planet system, KOI-730, whose planets are in an 8:6:4:3 mean motion resonance, we were additionally able to determine mass constraints on debris disks for KOI-730 like Kepler objects. Noting that planet inclinations increase by a couple of degrees when migrating through a Neptune mass debris disk, and that planet candidates discovered by the Kepler Space Telescope are along the line of site, it is concluded that significant planetary migration did not occur among the Kepler objects. This result indicates that Kepler objects like KOI-730 have relatively small or stable debris disks which did not cause migration of their planets - ruling out late

  1. Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex): NASA's Next Human-Rated Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.

    1999-01-01

    As a key component in its ground test bed capability, NASA's Advanced Life Support Program has been developing a large-scale advanced life support test facility capable of supporting long-duration evaluations of integrated bioregenerative life support systems with human test crews. This facility-targeted for evaluation of hypogravity compatible life support systems to be developed for use on planetary surfaces such as Mars or the Moon-is called the Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex (BIO-Plex) and is currently under development at the Johnson Space Center. This test bed is comprised of a set of interconnected chambers with a sealed internal environment which are outfitted with systems capable of supporting test crews of four individuals for periods exceeding one year. The advanced technology systems to be tested will consist of both biological and physicochemical components and will perform all required crew life support functions. This presentation provides a description of the proposed test "missions" to be supported by the BIO-Plex and the planned development strategy for the facility.

  2. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective is to identify those areas of future missions which will be impacted by planetary quarantine (PQ) constraints. The objective of the phase being described was to develop an approach for using decision theory in performing a PQ analysis for a Mariner Jupiter Uranus Mission and to compare it with the traditional approach used for other missions.

  3. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  4. Planetary Geomorphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  5. Planetary quarantine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Developed methodologies and procedures for the reduction of microbial burden on an assembled spacecraft at the time of encapsulation or terminal sterilization are reported. This technology is required for reducing excessive microbial burden on spacecraft components for the purposes of either decreasing planetary contamination probabilities for an orbiter or minimizing the duration of a sterilization process for a lander.

  6. A Balloon-Borne Telescope System for Planetary Atmosphere and Plasma Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kanazawa, T.; Shoji, Y.; Sawakami, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    A telescope floating in the polar stratosphere can continuously monitor planets for more than 24 hours. Thin, clear and stable air of the stratosphere makes it possible to observe planets in a condition free from cloud with fine seeing and high atmospheric transmittance. Moreover, a balloon-borne telescope system is less expensive compared with a huge terrestrial telescope or a direct planetary probe mission. Targets of a balloon-borne telescope system will extend over various atmospheric and plasma phenomena on almost all the planets, i.e., a sodium tail of Mercury, lightning, airglow and aurora in the atmospheres of Venus, Jupiter and Saturn, escaping atmospheres of the Earth-type planets, satellite-induced luminous events in the Jovian atmosphere, etc. The first target is global dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere by detecting cloud motion in UV and NIR imagery. A decoupling mechanism and a pair of control moment gyros (CMGs) are mounted at the top of the gondola. The decoupling mechanism isolates the gondola from a balloon and also transfers an excess angular momentum of the CMGs to the balloon. The attitude of the gondola is stabilized at a constant sun azimuthal angle so that a solar cell panel faces to the sun. A 300 mm F30 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope is installed at the bottom of the gondola. DC/DC converters, a PC, a high voltage power supply for a piezo-electrically moving mirror and digital video recorders are contained in a sealed cell. The azimuthal angle is detected by a sun-sensor. A PC processes sensor output to control DC motors used in the decoupling mechanism and CMGs with an accuracy in azimuthal attitude of about 0.5 deg. The two-axis gimbal mount of the telescope is controlled by the same PC, guiding an object within a field-of-view of a guide telescope. Residual tracking error is detected by a position sensitive photomultiplier tube and corrected by the two-axis moving mirror installed in the optical system. The optical path is divided into

  7. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload. PMID:24432777

  8. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Oshima, T

    1993-08-01

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 x 10(-8) torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively. PMID:11541644

  9. The (Un)Lonely Planet Guide: Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems from a ``Blue Dots'' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M. R.

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution I summarize some recent successes, and focus on remaining challenges, in understanding the formation and evolution of planetary systems in the context of the Blue Dots initiative. Because our understanding is incomplete, we cannot yet articulate a design reference mission engineering matrix suitable for an exploration mission where success is defined as obtaining a spectrum of a potentially habitable world around a nearby star. However, as progress accelerates, we can identify observational programs that would address fundamental scientific questions through hypothesis testing such that the null result is interesting.

  10. A versatile system for biological and soil chemical tests on a planetary landing craft. I - Scientific objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R. J.; Kok, B.; Martin, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    We describe an approach for the remote detection and characterization of life in planetary soil samples. A mass spectrometer is used as the central sensor to monitor changes in the gas phase in eleven test cells filled with soil. Many biological assays, ranging from general 'in situ' assays to specific metabolic processes (such as photosynthesis, respiration, denitrification, etc.) can be performed by appropriate additions to the test cell via attached preloaded injector capsules. The system is also compatible with a number of chemical assays such as the analysis of atmospheric composition (both chemical and isotopic), the status of soil water, and the determination of compounds of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in the soil.

  11. A versatile system for biological and soil chemical tests on a planetary landing craft. II - Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. P.; Kok, B.; Radmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    A system has been under development which is designed to seek remotely for clues to life in planetary soil samples. The basic approach is a set of experiments, all having a common sensor, a gas analysis mass spectrometer which monitors gas composition in the head spaces above sealed, temperature controlled soil samples. Versatility is obtained with up to three preloaded, sealed fluid injector capsules for each of eleven soil test cells. Tests results with an engineering model has demonstrated performance capability of subsystem components such as soil distribution, gas sampling valves, injector mechanisms, temperature control, and test cell seal.

  12. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  13. Planetary boundary layer as an essential component of the earth's climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, Richard; Esau, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Following the traditional engineering approach proposed by Prandtl, the turbulent planetary boundary layers (PBLs) are considered in the climate science as complex, non-linear, essential but nevertheless subordinated components of the earth's climate system. Correspondingly, the temperature variations, dT - a popular and practically important measure of the climate variability, are seen as the system's response to the external heat forcing, Q, e.g. in the energy balance model of the type dT=Q/C (1). The moderation of this response by non-linear feedbacks embedded in the effective heat capacity, C, are to a large degree overlooked. The effective heat capacity is globally determined by the depth of the ocean mixed layer (on multi-decadal and longer time scales) but regionally, over the continents, C is much smaller and determined (on decadal time scales) by the depth, h, of the PBL. The present understanding of the climatological features of turbulent boundary layers is set by the works of Frankignoul & Hasselmann (1976) and Manabe & Stauffer (1980). The former explained how large-scale climate anomalies could be generated in the case of a large C (in the sea surface temperature) by the delta-correlated stochastic forcing (white noise). The latter demonstrated that the climate response to a given forcing is moderated by the depth, h, so that in the shallow PBL the signal should be significantly amplified. At present there are more than 3000 publications (ISI Web of Knowledge) which detail this understanding but the physical mechanisms, which control the boundary layer depth, and statistical relationships between the turbulent and climatological measures remain either unexplored or incorrectly attributed. In order to identify the climatic role of the PBL, the relationships between the PBL depth, h, - as the integral measure of the turbulent processes and micro-circulations due to the surface heterogeneity - and the climatic variability (variations and trends) of

  14. Dynamical habitability in multi-planetary systems resembling the Solar-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Robutel, Philippe; Süli, Aron

    2010-05-01

    The dynamics in our Solar System is certainly dominated by the two giant planets Jupiter and Saturn which are close to the 5:2 MMR (i.e. mean motion resonance). We present a study of different Jupiter-Saturn like configurations - where Saturn's semi-major axis (aS) and mass (mS) was varied: aS between 8 and 11 AU and mS was increased up to 40 times its mass. The selected range of aS scans the region between two important low-order MMRs - the 2:1 and the 3:1 MMRs. Within this range several higher order MMRs characterize the motion. For the different configurations the stability of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone (HZ) was examined. The HZ is a defined area for human life near a Sun-like star. In our solar system the HZ reaches from 0.95 AU to 1.37 AU (according to the work by Kasting et al. 1993). In our study the HZ was extended in order to obtain additional information for the positions of Venus and Mars. We will show that the HZ is visibly influenced by MMRs and secular resonances, which might lead to high eccentric motion so that the terrestrial planet will leave the HZ periodically. Therefore, we are able to exclude configurations, since they do not provide the necessary conditions for dynamical habitability.

  15. Geodesy and cartography methods of exploration of the outer planetary systems: Galilean satellites and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubarev, Anatoliy; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina

    elements of external orientation, provides new image processing of previous missions to outer planetary system. Using Photomod software (http://www.racurs.ru/) we have generated a new control point network in 3-D and orthomosaics for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus. Based on improved orbit data for Galileo we have used larger numbers of images than were available before, resulting in a more rigid network for Ganymede. The obtained results will be used for further processing and improvement of the various parameters: body shape parameters and shape modeling, libration, as well as for studying of the surface interesting geomorphological phenomena, for example, distribution of bright and dark surface materials on Ganymede and their correlations with topography and slopes [6]. Acknowledgments: The Ganymede study was partly supported by ROSKOSMOS and Space Research Institute under agreement № 36/13 “Preliminary assessment of the required coordinate and navigation support for selection of landing sites for lander mission “Laplace” and partly funding by agreement № 11-05-91323 for “Geodesy, cartography and research satellites Phobos and Deimos” References: [1] Nadezhdina et al. Vol. 14, EGU2012-11210, 2012. [2] Zhukov et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [3] Zubarev et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [4] Lazarev et al. Izvestia VUZov. 2012, No 6, pp. 9-11 http://miigaik.ru/journal.miigaik.ru/2012/20130129120215-2593.pdf (in Russian). [5] Kokhanov et al. Current problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space. 2013. Vol. 10. No 4. pp. 136-153. http://d33.infospace.ru/d33_conf/sb2013t4/136-153.pdf (in Russian). [6] Oberst et al., 2013 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space

  16. A general model of resonance capture in planetary systems: first- and second-order resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Wyatt, Mark C.

    2011-05-01

    Mean motion resonances are a common feature of both our own Solar system and of extrasolar planetary systems. Bodies can be trapped in resonance when their orbital semimajor axes change, for instance when they migrate through a protoplanetary disc. We use a Hamiltonian model to thoroughly investigate the capture behaviour for first- and second-order resonances. Using this method, all resonances of the same order can be described by one equation, with applications to specific resonances by appropriate scaling. We focus on the limit wher