Science.gov

Sample records for planning zones epzs

  1. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.

    1990-05-01

    This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A quality assurance plan (QAP) is a documented description or a listing of the controls to be implemented to assure that an operation or activity is accomplished in a consistent manner and in accordance with requirements. Federal, state, and local governments require emergency planning for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of this EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) project is to identify the EPZs where actions could be necessary to protect public health. The RFP EPZ project is developing an interim basis for potential sheltering and evacuation recommendations in the event of an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere from this facility. Also, RFP is developing EPZs for accidental releases of major nonradiological hazardous substances to the atmosphere, and will analyze the impacts of an unplanned surface water release from the facility.

  3. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Smith, M.L.

    1993-10-25

    This Charter provides the basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to conduct Phase III of the ``Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant`` Project. The purpose of this Charter is to define the Project and establish an Oversight Committee management structure together with responsibilities and commitments. This Charter establishes a commitment on the part of the signing agencies to participate in a Phase III EPZ analysis to refine existing EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant. These agencies agree to commit resources to this Project to fulfill their identified roles. The specific types and levels of resources committed by each agency will be determined as part of the Project planning process. This Charter does not commit any agency to any specific level of effort or resources. It does, however, commit these agencies to support the Phase III analysis to completion.

  4. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Zimmerman, G.A.

    1994-03-14

    During Phase 3 of the EPZ project, a sitewide analysis will be performed applying a spectrum-of-accidents approach to both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials release scenarios. This analysis will include the MCA but will be wider in scope and will produce options for the State of Colorado for establishing a bounding EPZ that is intended to more comprehensively update the interim, preliminary EPZ developed in Phase 2. EG&G will propose use of a hazards assessment methodology that is consistent with the DOE Emergency Management Guide for Hazards Assessments and other methods required by DOE orders. This will include hazards, accident, safety, and risk analyses. Using this methodology, EG&G will develop technical analyses for a spectrum of accidents. The analyses will show the potential effects from the spectrum of accidents on the offsite population together with identification of offsite vulnerable zones and areas of concern. These analyses will incorporate state-of-the-art technology for accident analysis, atmospheric plume dispersion modeling, consequence analysis, and the application of these evaluations to the general public population at risk. The analyses will treat both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials and mixtures of both released accidentally to the atmosphere. DOE/RFO will submit these results to the State of Colorado for the State`s use in determining offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. In addition, the results will be used for internal Rocky Flats Plant emergency planning.

  5. Emergency Preparedness in the 10-Mile Emergency Planning Zone Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adalja, Amesh A.; Sell, Tara Kirk; Ravi, Sanjana J.; Minton, Katie; Morhard, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Each of the nuclear power plants in the US is encircled by an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). Within each EPZ, government officials, utility professionals, emergency managers, and public health practitioners collectively conduct extensive planning, exercises, and outreach to better protect their communities in the event of a nuclear accident. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional study of off-site public health preparedness within EPZs to better understand the dynamics of nuclear preparedness and uncover lessons for all-hazards preparedness. Methods Using a qualitative, interview-based method, we consulted 120 county emergency managers, state health preparedness officers, state radiation health officials, and industry officials from 17 EPZs in ten different states. Results Interviewees reflected that EPZ emergency preparedness is generally robust, results from strong public-private partnership between nuclear plants and emergency management agencies, and enhances all-hazard preparedness. However, there exist a few areas which merit further study and improvement. These areas include cross-state coordination, digital public communication, and optimizing the level of public education within EPZs. Conclusions This first-of-its-kind study provides a cross-sectional snapshot of emergency preparedness in the 10-mile EPZ surrounding nuclear power plants. PMID:26692825

  6. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones project

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Armstrong, C.E. . Rocky Flats Plant); McKinney, J.M.; Verholek, M.G.; Fraser, P.J.; Dalfonso, P.H. )

    1991-07-18

    The Rocky Flats Plant maintains and uses significant nonradioactive chemically hazardous material (HAZMAT) inventories. Some of these materials are used in sufficient quantities to represent a credible risk to the offsite public in the event of an emergency at the facility. In Phase 2 of this project, the EG G Rocky Flats, Inc. and TENERA, L.P. Task Team (Task Team) produced an initial screening-level modeling analysis study and an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) encompassing the Vulnerable Zones (VZs) for hazardous materials stored at the facility. The screening-level analysis will be supplemented with more refined evaluations during subsequent phases of the project. The existence of these chemicals in the Rocky Flats Plant Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) chemical inventory database was verified. All liquid and gaseous chemicals were considered as potential hazardous material source terms for further screening analysis. Hazards associated with solid substances were not considered in this phase of the project. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. OPPORTUNITIES IN SMR EMERGENCY PLANNING

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Wayne

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the results of a cost/benefit-oriented assessment related to sizing of the emergency planning zones (EPZs) for advanced, small modular reactors (SMRs). An appropriately sized EPZ could result in significant cost savings for SMR licensees. Papers published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other organizations discuss the applicability of current emergency preparedness regulatory requirements to SMRs, including determining an appropriate EPZ size. Both the NRC and the industry recognize that a methodology should be developed for determining appropriate EPZ sizing for SMRs. Relative costs for smaller EPZs envisioned for SMRs have been assessed qualitatively as discussed in this paper. Building off the foundation provided in the earlier papers, this paper provides a quantitative cost/benefit-oriented assessment of offsite emergency planning costs for EPZ sizes that may be justified for SMRs as compared to costs typically incurred for the current fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants. This assessment determined that a licensee utilizing a smaller EPZ could realize significant savings in offsite emergency planning costs over the nominal 40-year lifetime for an SMR. This cost/benefit-oriented assessment suggests that a reduction of the plume exposure pathway EPZ from 10 miles to the site boundary could reduce offsite emergency planning related costs by more than 90% over the 40 year life of a typical single unit nuclear power plant.

  8. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Inger, J.R. ); Brown-Strattan, M.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance program was to ensure the quality and technical adequacy of Phase 2 of the Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant project. Quality assurance was accomplished by managing and controlling the processes in the development of the product. The quality assurance task team conducted audits, reviews, and surveillances of project and related activities. This process contributed to identifying areas where the quality assurance plan was not fully implemented, areas needing improvement, and/or corrective actions resulting in a improved product. During the reviews and audits, several key areas were identified where quality assurance plan implementation needed to be improved. These areas included maintaining adequate documentation, reviewing technical results, making inputs traceable to technical results, and understanding that all personnel are responsible for quality.

  9. Assessing emergency planning zone for new nuclear power plant considering risk of extreme external events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzbutas, Robertas

    2015-04-01

    In general, the Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) are defined as well as plant site and arrangement structures are designed to minimize the potential for natural and manmade hazards external to the plant from affecting the plant safety related functions, which can affect nearby population and environment. This may include consideration of extreme winds, fires, flooding, aircraft crash, seismic activity, etc. Thus the design basis for plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. It has been observed that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodologies to deal with EPZ and extreme external events have not reached the same level of maturity as for severe internal events. The design basis for any plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. As a prime example of an advanced reactor and new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with enhanced safety, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) and Site selection for New NPP in Lithuania had been considered in this work. In the used Safety-by-Design™ approach, the PSA played obviously a key role; therefore a Preliminary IRIS PSA had been developed along with the design. For the design and pre-licensing process of IRIS the external events analysis included both qualitative evaluation and quantitative assessment. As a result of preliminary qualitative analyses, the external events that were chosen for more detailed quantitative scoping evaluation were high winds and tornadoes, aircraft crash, and seismic events. For the site selection in Lithuania a detail site evaluation process was performed and related to the EPZ and risk zoning considerations. In general, applying the quantitative assessment, bounding site characteristics could be used in order to

  10. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    GB CHRONISTER; MJ TRUEX

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Treatability test plan published in 2008 {sm_bullet} Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) {sm_bullet} Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  11. An Independent Assessment of Evacuation Time Estimates for A Peak Population Scenario in the Emergency Planning Zone of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M. P.; Urbanik, II, T.; Mclean, M. A.; Desrosiers, A. E.

    1982-11-01

    This study comprises two major tasks. First, it includes an independent assessment of the methods and assumptions used in calculating evacuation time estimates (ETEs) applicable to the general population for a peak population scenario in the emergency planning zone {EPZ) of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Station. This consists of a review and analysis of previous work by Public Service of New Hampshire {PSNH) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as well as an independent calculation of evacuation times using the CLEAR model for the demographic data reported by PSNH. Secondly, this study includes independent estimations of evacuation time for the peak population scenario developed using demographic data prepared by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). These evacuation time estimates are approximately 60% and 84% greater, respectively, than the estimate provided by PSNH for a simulataneous evacuation of the entire EPZ under peak conditions. The CLEAR model, which was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory {PNL) under the sponsorship of the. NRC, was also used for these latter calculations. The results of this study reveal the importance of the assumptions used for calculating evacuation times. Because traffic routings and management plans have not been prepared for the area, the CLEAR calculations utilized indepdently prepared traffic routings and assumptions. A detailed analysis of the results suggests that the ETEs submitted by PSNH are consistent with the methods and assumptions which provide the bases for PSNH•s evacuation time estimates. Differences among evacuation time estimates stem largely from differences jn the assumed size of the evacuating population and the estimated effectiveness of traffic controls.

  12. The impact of a major earthquake on the evacuation of the emergency planning zone of a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Rebecca; Weinisch, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    United States regulations require nuclear power plants (NPPs) to estimate the time needed to evacuate the emergency planning zone (EPZ, a circle with an approximate 10-mile radius centered at the NPP). These evacuation time estimate (ETE) studies are to be used by emergency personnel in the event of a radiological emergency. ETE studies are typically done using traffic simulation and evacuation models, based on traffic engineering algorithms that reflect congestion and delay. ETE studies are typically conducted assuming all evacuation routes are traversable. As witnessed in the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011, an earthquake and the ensuing tsunami can cause an incident at a NPP that requires an evacuation of the public. The earthquake and tsunami can also damage many of the available bridges and roadways and, therefore, impede evacuation and put people at risk of radiation exposure. This article presents a procedure, using traffic simulation and evacuation models, to estimate the impact on ETE due to bridge and roadway damage caused by a major earthquake, or similar hazardous event. The results of this analysis are used by emergency personnel to make protective action decisions that will minimize the exposure of radiation to the public. Additionally, the results allow emergency planners to ensure proper equipment and personnel are available for these types of events. Emergency plans are revised to ensure prompt response and recovery action during critical times. PMID:25902296

  13. Novel Oxindole Sulfonamides and Sulfamides: EPZ031686, the First Orally Bioavailable Small Molecule SMYD3 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lorna H; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Smith, Sherri; Thomenius, Michael; Rioux, Nathalie; Munchhof, Michael; Mills, James E; Klaus, Christine; Totman, Jennifer; Riera, Thomas V; Raimondi, Alejandra; Jacques, Suzanne L; West, Kip; Foley, Megan; Waters, Nigel J; Kuntz, Kevin W; Wigle, Tim J; Scott, Margaret Porter; Copeland, Robert A; Smith, Jesse J; Chesworth, Richard

    2016-02-11

    SMYD3 has been implicated in a range of cancers; however, until now no potent selective small molecule inhibitors have been available for target validation studies. A novel oxindole series of SMYD3 inhibitors was identified through screening of the Epizyme proprietary histone methyltransferase-biased library. Potency optimization afforded two tool compounds, sulfonamide EPZ031686 and sulfamide EPZ030456, with cellular potency at a level sufficient to probe the in vitro biology of SMYD3 inhibition. EPZ031686 shows good bioavailability following oral dosing in mice making it a suitable tool for potential in vivo target validation studies. PMID:26985287

  14. Savannah River Reactor Operation: Indices of risk for emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    O'Kula, K.R.; East, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Periodically it is necessary to re-examine the implications of new source terms for neighboring offsite populations as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Severe Accident studies mature, and lead to a better understanding of the progression of hypothetical core melt accidents in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors. In this application multiple-system failure, low-frequency events, and consequently higher radiological source terms than from normal operation or design basis accidents (DBAs) are considered. Measures of consequence such as constant dose vs distance, boundary doses, and health effects to close-in populations are usually examined in this context. A set of source terms developed for the Safety Information Document (SID) for support of the Reactor Operation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) forms the basis for the revised risk evaluation discussed herein. The intent of this review is not to completely substantiate the sufficiency of the current Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). However, the two principal measures (200-rem red-bone marrow dose vs distance and 300-rem thyroid dose vs distance) for setting an EPZ are considered. Additional dose-at-distance calculations and consideration of DBA doses would be needed to complete a re-evaluation of the current EPZ. These subject areas are not addressed in the current document. Also, this report evaluates the sensitivity of individual risk estimates to the extent of offsite evacuation assumed from a K reactor severe accident and compares these risks to the Draft DOE Safety Guidelines. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  16. Area contingency plan southeast Michigan coastal zone. (COTP Detroit)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Southeast Michigan Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Detroit Coastal Zone.

  17. Selected approaches to determining the purpose of emergency planning zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobeš, Pavel; Baudišová, Barbora; Sluka, Vilém; Skřínský, Jan; Danihelka, Pavel; Dlabka, Jakub; Řeháček, Jakub

    2013-04-01

    One of the major accident hazards (hereinafter referred to as "MAH") tools to determine the range of effects of a major accident and consequent protection of the public is the determination of the emergency planning zone (hereinafter referred to as "zone"). In the Czech Republic, the determination of the zone is regulated by the Decree No. 103/2006 Coll. laying down the principles for determination of the emergency planning zone and the extent and manner of elaborating the external emergency plan (hereinafter referred to as "Decree") 3. The Decree is based on the principles of the IAEA-TECDOC-727 method - Manual for the Classification and Prioritization of Risks Due to Major Accidents in Process and Related Industries (hereinafter referred to as "method" and "manual", respectively)3. In the manual, it is pointed out that the method used is not suitable for making emergency plans for special situations (industrial activities in an inhabited area). Nonetheless, its principles and procedures are still used for such purposes in the Czech Republic. The expert scientific community dealing with MAH issues in the Czech Republic, however, realizes that the procedure of the zone boundary delineation should be modified to reflect up-to-date knowledge in protection of the public and its enhancement. Therefore, the OPTIZON Project (Optimization of the Emergency Planning Zone Designation and Elaboration of Emergency Plans Based on Threatening Effects of Dangerous Chemical Substances at Operational Accidents with Respect to Inhabitant Protection Enhancement) was developed and approved for the Program of Security Research of the Czech Republic 2010 - 2015 (BV II/2-VS). One of the main project's objectives is to define clearly the purpose of the zone because at present it is not quite apparent. From the general view, this step may seem insignificant or trivial, but the reverse is true. It represents one of the most important stages in seeking the approach to the zone designation as

  18. The Paradoxes of the Demilitarized Zone. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Elizabeth D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which students become familiar with the history of military, political, and diplomatic efforts to separate countries and the ramifications of isolating regions and their populations by studying the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). Explains that the DMZ was established by the July 27th 1953 armistice. (CMK)

  19. Emergency planning and the acute toxic potency of inhaled ammonia.

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, R A

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia is present in agriculture and commerce in many if not most communities. This report evaluates the toxic potency of ammonia, based on three types of data: anecdotal data, in some cases predating World War 1, reconstructions of contemporary industrial accidents, and animal bioassays. Standards and guidelines for human exposure have been driven largely by the anecdotal data, suggesting that ammonia at 5,000-10,000 parts per million, volume/volume (ppm-v), might be lethal within 5-10 min. However, contemporary accident reconstructions suggest that ammonia lethality requires higher concentrations. For example, 33,737 ppm-v was a 5-min zero-mortality value in a major ammonia release in 1973 in South Africa. Comparisons of secondary reports of ammonia lethality with original sources revealed discrepancies in contemporary sources, apparently resulting from failure to examine old documents or accurately translate foreign documents. The present investigation revealed that contemporary accident reconstructions yield ammonia lethality levels comparable to those in dozens of reports of animal bioassays, after adjustment of concentrations to human equivalent concentrations via U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) procedures. Ammonia levels potentially causing irreversible injury or impairing the ability of exposed people to escape from further exposure or from coincident perils similarly have been biased downwardly in contemporary sources. The EPA has identified ammonia as one of 366 extremely hazardous substances subject to community right-to-know provisions of the Superfund Act and emergency planning provisions of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act defines emergency planning zones (EPZs) around industrial facilities exceeding a threshold quantity of ammonia on-site. This study suggests that EPZ areas around ammonia facilities can be reduced, thereby also reducing emergency planning costs, which will vary roughly with the EPZ radius squared. Images Figure 1

  20. 1999 vadose zone monitoring plan and guidance for subsequent years

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, D.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Last, G.V.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive waste in the US. The majority of the liquid waste was disposed to the soil column where much of it remains today. This document provides the rationale and general framework for vadose zone monitoring at cribs, ditches, trenches and other disposal facilities to detect new sources of contamination and track the movement of existing contamination in the vadose zone for the protection of groundwater. The document provides guidance for subsequent site-specific vadose zone monitoring plans and includes a brief description of past vadose monitoring activities (Chapter 3); the results of the Data Quality Objective process used for this plan (Chapter 4); a prioritization of liquid waste disposal sites for vadose monitoring (Chapter 5 and Appendix B); a general Monitoring and Analysis Plan (Chapter 6); a general Quality Assurance Project Plan (Appendix A), and a description of vadose monitoring activities planned for FY 1999 (Appendix C).

  1. Current practices for risk zoning around nuclear power plants in comparison to other industry sectors.

    PubMed

    Kirchsteiger, Christian

    2006-08-25

    This paper analyses the background and current status of the information basis leading to the definition of risk and emergency zones around nuclear power plants (NPPs) in different countries in Europe and beyond. Although dependable plant-specific probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of level 2 and/or level 3 could in principle provide sufficiently detailed input to define the geographical dimension of a NPP's risk and emergency zones, the analysis of the status in some European and other countries shows that other, "deterministic" approaches using a reference accident are actually used in practice. Regarding use of level 2 PSA for emergency planning, the approach so far has been to use the level 2 PSA information retrospectively to provide the justification for the choice of reference accident(s) used to define the emergency plans and emergency planning zones (EPZs). There are significant differences in the EPZs that are defined in different countries, ranging from a few up to 80km. There is a striking contrast in the extent of using probabilistic information to define emergency zones between the nuclear and other high risk industry sectors, such as the chemical process industry, and the reasons for these differences are not entirely clear, since the risk of chemical industry is similar as that of the nuclear sector. The differences seem to be more related to risk perception than to the actual risk potential. Therefore, there is a strong need to be able to communicate risk information to the Public both before and following an accident. In addition, there is a need to educate the Public so that they can understand risk information in a comparative sense. Finally, based on the consensus discussions at a recent JRC/OECD International Seminar on Risk and Emergency Zoning around NPPs, a set of recommendations is given in the areas of: -a more comprehensive use of the available risk information for risk zoning purposes, -risk communication; -comparative (energy) risk

  2. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-07-27

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities.

  3. Field testing plan for unsaturated zone monitoring and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.H.; Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    The University of Arizona, in cooperation with the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, and Stephens and Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed a field testing plan for evaluating subsurface monitoring systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested development of these testing plans for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (LLW) and for monitoring at decommissioned facilities designated under the {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes} (SDMP). The tests are conducted on a 50 m by 50 m plot on the University of Arizona`s Maricopa Agricultural Center. Within the 50 m by 50 m plot one finds: (1) an instrumented buried trench, (2) monitoring islands similar to those proposed for the Ward Valley, California LLW Facility, (3) deep borehole monitoring sites, (4) gaseous transport monitoring, and (5) locations for testing non-invasive geophysical measurement techniques. The various subplot areas are instrumented with commercially available instruments such as neutron probes, time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers, psychrometers, heat dissipation sensors, thermocouples, solution samplers, and cross-hole geophysics electrodes. Measurement depths vary from ground surface to 15 m. The data from the controlled flow and transport experiments, conducted over the plot, will be used to develop an integrated approach to long-term monitoring of the vadose zone at waste disposal sites. The data will also be used to test field-scale flow and transport models. This report describes in detail the design of the experiment and the methodology proposed for evaluating the data.

  4. A/M Area Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kupar, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Jackson, D.G. Jr.; Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    Characterization and monitoring data from implementation and the first two and one half years of vadose zone remediation operations indicate that this activity has substantially improved the performance of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Program. During this period, vadose zone remediation removed approximately 225, 000 lbs (100,000 Kg) of chlorinated solvents (CVOCs) from the subsurface. Further, vadose zone remediation system operation increased the overall CVOC removal rate of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action by 300% to 500% during this period versus the groundwater pump and treat system along. Various support activities have been performed to support operation and documentation of performance of the vadose zone remediation system. These activities address performance of existing systems (contaminant distributions, zone of influence, and process monitoring data), evaluation of suspect sources, evaluation of alternative/enhancement technologies, and initial development of remediation goals. In particular, the most recent A/M vadose zone remediation support activities (described in WSRC-RP-97-109) were completed and the results provide key documentation about system performance.

  5. A suggestion for planning cover crop mixtures: zones of occupancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers may be able to improve the competitiveness of cover crop mixtures by selecting species to occupy zones in the cover crop canopy. This suggestion is based on a study where we compared four cover crop treatments, 1, 3, 6, and 9 species mixtures, for biomass production. Treatments were est...

  6. Project Work Plan Chromium Vadose Zone Characterization and Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-05-23

    The major objectives of the proposed study are to 1) determine the leaching characteristics of Cr(VI) from contaminated sediments collected from 100 area spill sites, 2) elucidate possible Cr(VI) mineral and/or chemical associations that may be responsible for Cr(VI) retention in the Hanford site 100 areas through the use of i) macroscopic solubility studies and ii) microscale characterization of contaminated sediments, and 3) from these data construct a conceptual model of Cr(VI) geochemistry in the Hanford 100 area vadose zone. These objectives are based on locating and obtaining contaminated sediment with depth and at varying Cr(VI) concentrations as we hypothesize that mineral/chemical-Cr(VI) associations should be related to the total Cr concentration and other master geochemical variables (e.g., pH, counter-cation type and concentration, and water content). In addressing these objectives, additional benefits accrued will be (1) a fuller understanding of Cr(VI) entrained in the vadose zone that will that can be utilized in modeling potential Cr(VI) source terms, and 2) accelerating the Columbia River 100 area corridor cleanup by developing remedial action based on a fundamental understanding of Cr(VI) vadose zone geochemistry.

  7. 44 CFR 350.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... means Emergency Planning Zone. (g) Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) is a generic area around a commercial nuclear facility used to assist in offsite emergency planning and the development of a significant... exposure pathway EPZ when any of these entities has specific roles in emergency planning and...

  8. 44 CFR 350.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... means Emergency Planning Zone. (g) Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) is a generic area around a commercial nuclear facility used to assist in offsite emergency planning and the development of a significant... exposure pathway EPZ when any of these entities has specific roles in emergency planning and...

  9. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  10. Sensitivities to source-term parameters of emergency planning zone boundaries for waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper reviews the key parameters comprising airborne radiological and chemical release source terms, discusses the ranges over which values of these parameters occur for plausible but severe waste management facility accidents, and relates the concomitant sensitivities of emergency planning zone boundaries predicted on calculated distances to early severe health effects.

  11. Sequential quadratic programming-based fast path planning algorithm subject to no-fly zone constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Shunjian; Sun, Mingwei; Yi, Haidong; Wang, Zenghui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2016-08-01

    Path planning plays an important role in aircraft guided systems. Multiple no-fly zones in the flight area make path planning a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. It is necessary to obtain a feasible optimal solution in real time. In this article, the flight path is specified to be composed of alternate line segments and circular arcs, in order to reformulate the problem into a static optimization one in terms of the waypoints. For the commonly used circular and polygonal no-fly zones, geometric conditions are established to determine whether or not the path intersects with them, and these can be readily programmed. Then, the original problem is transformed into a form that can be solved by the sequential quadratic programming method. The solution can be obtained quickly using the Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer (SNOPT) package. Mathematical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness and rapidity of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Gephart, Roy E.; Triplett, Mark B.; Johnson, Timothy C.

    2011-02-11

    The Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan was published in October 2010. It summarized the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) state-of-knowledge about the contaminant remediation challenges facing the deep vadose zone (DVZ) beneath the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site and their approach to solving those challenges. Developing an implementation plan is the next step to address the knowledge and capabilities required to solve DVZ challenges when needed. This multi-year plan (FY-11 through FY-20) identifies the short to long-term research, management, and execution plans required to solve those problems facing the DVZ-Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC). The schedule supporting implementation overlies existing activities and milestones from Hanford’s DOE-Environmental Management (EM) end-user projects. Success relies upon multi-project teams focused on coordinated subsurface projects undertaken across the DOE Complex combined with facilitated, problem-focused, research investments implemented through the DVZ-AFRC.

  13. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-11-29

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented.

  14. Treatability Test Plan for Deep Vadose Zone Remediation at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.; Morse, J.G.; Truex, M.J.; Last, G.V.

    2008-07-01

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants - uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented. (authors)

  15. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    SciTech Connect

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    : identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  16. 44 CFR 352.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING § 352.1 Definitions... the Administrator, FEMA or designee. (c) EPZ means Emergency Planning Zone. (d) FEMA means the Federal... ingestion exposure pathway EPZs that have specific roles in emergency planning and preparedness. (h)...

  17. 44 CFR 352.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING § 352.1 Definitions... the Administrator, FEMA or designee. (c) EPZ means Emergency Planning Zone. (d) FEMA means the Federal... ingestion exposure pathway EPZs that have specific roles in emergency planning and preparedness. (h)...

  18. 44 CFR 352.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING § 352.1 Definitions... the Administrator, FEMA or designee. (c) EPZ means Emergency Planning Zone. (d) FEMA means the Federal... ingestion exposure pathway EPZs that have specific roles in emergency planning and preparedness. (h)...

  19. 44 CFR 352.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING § 352.1 Definitions... the Administrator, FEMA or designee. (c) EPZ means Emergency Planning Zone. (d) FEMA means the Federal... ingestion exposure pathway EPZs that have specific roles in emergency planning and preparedness. (h)...

  20. 10 CFR 50.33 - Contents of applications; general information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... permit that, under 10 CFR 52.17(b)(2)(i), proposes major features of the emergency plans describing the... within the plume exposure pathway emergency planning zone (EPZ), 4 as well as the plans of State... plume exposure pathway EPZ for nuclear power reactors shall consist of an area about 10 miles (16 km)...

  1. SO2 emission cap planning for Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone.

    PubMed

    Yi, Peng; Duan, Ning; Chai, Fahe; Xu, Yaxuan; He, Youjiang

    2012-01-01

    The SO2 emission sources of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone were divided into 556 emissions units according to four different categories, which are city, industry, point sources, and area sources. The CALPUFF model was used to calculate the contribution of each unit, and consequently obtain an influence-transferring matrix. To ensure that the SO2 concentrations of 46 cities and counties in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone meet air quality standards, an emission optimization model was developed to calculate optimal emissions of each emission unit under different development scenarios. The result showed the optimal emissions of SO2 by different provinces and industries. To achieve the target of restricting and optimizing development, corresponding planning programs were developed for every district. PMID:22783625

  2. Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-02-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well

  3. A geomorphological approach to sustainable planning and management of the coastal zone of Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Bakri, Dhia

    1996-10-01

    The coastal zone in Kuwait has been under a considerable pressure from conflicting land uses since the early 1960s, as well as from the destruction and oil pollution caused by the Gulf War. To avoid further damage and to protect the coastal heritage it is essential to adopt an environmentally sustainable management process. This paper shows how the study of coastal geomorphology can provide a sound basis for sustainable planning and management. Based on coastal landforms, sediments and processes, the coastline of Kuwait was divided into nine geomorphic zones. These zones were grouped into two main geomorphic provinces. The northern province is marked by extensive muddy intertidal flats and dominated by a depositional and low-energy environment. The southern geomorphic province is characterised by relatively steep beach profiles, rocky/sandy tidal flats and a moderate to high-energy environment. The study has demonstrated that pollution, benthic ecology and other environmental conditions of the coast are a function of coastline geomorphology, sedimentology and related processes. The geomorphological information was used to determine the coastal vulnerability and to assess the environmental impacts of development projects and other human activities. Several strategies were outlined to integrate the geomorphic approach into the management of the coastal resources.

  4. A Comprehensive Monitoring Plan for the Fourmile Branch Riparian Zone at the Savannah River Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, D. L.

    2002-05-01

    Since the late 1960's, numerous environmental investigations have been conducted along the Fourmile Branch riparian zone, which is down-gradient from the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is a complex of nuclear defense facilities consisting of F & H Areas, the Burial Grounds, and the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Because of differences in objectives and sampling designs, some of the resulting historical information has been fragmented, duplicative, and inadequate to comprehensively understand contaminant plume migration, risk to human health and the environment, and effectiveness of remedial action. A new monitoring plan defines a strategy to critically evaluate past and existing sampling approaches and to develop a holistic approach that is comprehensive, cost-effective, and commensurate with the remediation goals set forth in existing permits and agreements with the regulatory agencies. Specifically, the objectives of the monitoring plan are to: (1) review historical sampling programs and identify baseline and operational data bases, (2) consolidate and characterize historic sampling locations, (3) based on the most recent modeling and plume delineations, identify sampling locations that will comprehensively characterize groundwater and surface water plume migrations. The riparian zone of interest will include the wetlands and seeplines down-gradient from the GSA. The media of concern will include the surface waters associated with the seeplines and Fourmile Branch plus the groundwaters of the upper and lower aquifers. Sampling will be conducted using automated surface water samplers and depth-discrete multilevel monitoring wells.

  5. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  6. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L. . Rocky Flats Plant); Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  7. T Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration--Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Strickland, Christopher E.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank in 1973. Many of the contaminants from that leak still reside within the vadose zone beneath the T Tank Farm. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. seeks to minimize movement of this residual contaminant plume by placing an interim barrier on the surface. Such a barrier is expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plume and moving it further. A plan has been prepared to monitor and determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barrier. Soil water content and water pressure will be monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. In fiscal year 2006, two instrument nests were installed. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, four heat-dissipation units, and a drain gauge to measure soil water flux. A meteorological station has been installed outside of the fence. In fiscal year 2007, two additional instrument nests are planned to be installed beneath the proposed barrier.

  8. T-TY Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Demonstration—Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.

    2010-09-27

    The Hanford Site has 149 underground single-shell tanks that store hazardous radioactive waste. Many of these tanks and their associated infrastructure (e.g., pipelines, diversion boxes) have leaked. Some of the leaked waste has entered the groundwater. The largest known leak occurred from the T-106 Tank of the 241-T Tank Farm in 1973. Five tanks are assumed to have leaked in the TY Farm. Many of the contaminants from those leaks still reside within the vadose zone within the T and TY Tank Farms. The Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection seeks to minimize the movement of these contaminant plumes by placing interim barriers on the ground surface. Such barriers are expected to prevent infiltrating water from reaching the plumes and moving them further. The soil water regime is monitored to determine the effectiveness of the interim surface barriers. Soil-water content and water pressure are monitored using off-the-shelf equipment that can be installed by the hydraulic hammer technique. Four instrument nests were installed in the T Farm in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY2007; two nests were installed in the TY Farm in FY2010. Each instrument nest contains a neutron probe access tube, a capacitance probe, and four heat-dissipation units. A meteorological station has been installed at the north side of the fence of the T Farm. This document summarizes the monitoring methods, the instrument calibration and installation, and the vadose zone monitoring plan for interim barriers in T farm and TY Farm.

  9. Exploring drug delivery for the DOT1L inhibitor pinometostat (EPZ-5676): Subcutaneous administration as an alternative to continuous IV infusion, in the pursuit of an epigenetic target.

    PubMed

    Waters, Nigel J; Daigle, Scott R; Rehlaender, Bruce N; Basavapathruni, Aravind; Campbell, Carly T; Jensen, Tyler B; Truitt, Brett F; Olhava, Edward J; Pollock, Roy M; Stickland, Kim A; Dovletoglou, Angelos

    2015-12-28

    Protein methyltransferases are emerging as promising drug targets for therapeutic intervention in human cancers. Pinometostat (EPZ-5676) is a small molecule inhibitor of the DOT1L enzyme, a histone methyltransferase that methylates lysine 79 of histone H3. DOT1L activity is dysregulated in the pathophysiology of rearranged mixed lineage leukemia (MLL-r). Pinometostat is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials in relapsed refractory acute leukemia patients and is administered as a continuous IV infusion (CIV). The studies herein investigated alternatives to CIV administration of pinometostat to improve patient convenience. Various sustained release technologies were considered, and based on the required dose size as well as practical considerations, subcutaneous (SC) bolus administration of a solution formulation was selected for further evaluation in preclinical studies. SC administration offered improved exposure and complete bioavailability of pinometostat relative to CIV and oral administration. These findings warranted further evaluation in rat xenograft models of MLL-r leukemia. SC dosing in xenograft models demonstrated inhibition of MLL-r tumor growth and inhibition of pharmacodynamic markers of DOT1L activity. However, a dosing frequency of thrice daily (t.i.d) was required in these studies to elicit optimal inhibition of DOT1L target genes and tumor growth inhibition. Development of an extended release formulation may prove useful in the further optimization of the SC delivery of pinometostat, moving towards a more convenient dosing paradigm for patients. PMID:26385168

  10. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approval of plans and preparedness. (8) Conduct the formal 44 CFR part 350 review process. (9) Provide technical assistance to States and local governments. (10) Review licensee submissions pursuant to 44 CFR... notification system reviews. (14) Responses to petitions filed under 10 CFR 2.206. (15)...

  11. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... approval of plans and preparedness. (8) Conduct the formal 44 CFR part 350 review process. (9) Provide technical assistance to States and local governments. (10) Review licensee submissions pursuant to 44 CFR... notification system reviews. (14) Responses to petitions filed under 10 CFR 2.206. (15)...

  12. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approval of plans and preparedness. (8) Conduct the formal 44 CFR part 350 review process. (9) Provide technical assistance to States and local governments. (10) Review licensee submissions pursuant to 44 CFR... notification system reviews. (14) Responses to petitions filed under 10 CFR 2.206. (15)...

  13. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approval of plans and preparedness. (8) Conduct the formal 44 CFR part 350 review process. (9) Provide technical assistance to States and local governments. (10) Review licensee submissions pursuant to 44 CFR... notification system reviews. (14) Responses to petitions filed under 10 CFR 2.206. (15)...

  14. 44 CFR 354.5 - Description of site-specific, plume pathway EPZ biennial exercise-related component services and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approval of plans and preparedness. (8) Conduct the formal 44 CFR part 350 review process. (9) Provide technical assistance to States and local governments. (10) Review licensee submissions pursuant to 44 CFR... notification system reviews. (14) Responses to petitions filed under 10 CFR 2.206. (15)...

  15. Fostering Public Engagement in Local Land Use Planning and Zoning Recodification Projects: A Case Study from the University of Wisconsin--Extension, Lincoln County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Thomas K.; Lersch, Arthur D.

    2006-01-01

    This study outlines the processes used by University of Wisconsin--Extension, Lincoln County (UWELC), educators over an eight-year period to facilitate the development of a county land use plan and to guide committees through a review of the new proposed county zoning ordinances based on that plan. As a partner in these projects, UWELC helped…

  16. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  17. Experimental Plan: 300 Area Treatability Test: In Situ Treatment of the Vadose Zone and Smear Zone Uranium Contamination by Polyphosphate Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Oostrom, Mart; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-08-31

    The overall objectives of the treatability test is to evaluate and optimize polyphosphate remediation technology for infiltration either from ground surface, or some depth of excavation, providing direct stabilization of uranium within the deep vadose and capillary fringe above the 300 Area aquifer. Expected result from this experimental plan is a data package that includes: 1) quantification of the retardation of polyphosphate, 2) the rate of degradation and the retardation of degradation products as a function of water content, 3) an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) an understanding of the transformation mechanism, identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and –silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, 5) quantification of the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and capillary fringe, and 6) quantification of reliable equilibrium solubility values for autunite under hydraulically unsaturated conditions allowing accurate prediction of the long-term stability of autunite. Moreover, results of intermediate scale testing will quantify the transport of polyphosphate and degradation products, and yield degradation rates, at a scale that is bridging the gap between the small-scale UFA studies and the field scale. These results will be used to test and verify a site-specific, variable saturation, reactive transport model and to aid in the design of a pilot-scale field test of this technology. In particular, the infiltration approach and monitoring strategy of the pilot test would be primarily based on results from intermediate-scale testing. Results from this

  18. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. Evaluation of radiological materials, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L.; Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  19. Buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios subdivision, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a plan for water quality monitoring at the Dos Rios subdivision (Units 2, 3, and the Island Unit) that is intended to satisfy the informational needs of residents who live southwest (downgradient) of the former Gunnison processing site. Water quality monitoring activities described in this report are designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of previous uranium milling operations. Requirements presented in this monitoring plan are also included in the water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) for the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The Gunnison WSAP is a site-specific document prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that provides background, guidance, and justification for future ground water sampling and analysis activities for the UMTRA Project Gunnison processing and disposal sites. The WSAP will be updated annually, as additional water quality data are collected and interpreted, to provide ongoing protection for public health and the environment.

  20. Delineating the Groundwater Recharge Zone in the Pingtung Plan , Taiwan with Electrical Resistivity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Chang, P.; Chang, L.; Chen, J.; Huang, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we used the two-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) method, as well as the core records of monitoring wells to help determine the groundwater recharge zone in Pingtung plain in southwestern Taiwan. Pingtung fluvial plain is one of the major groundwater resources in Taiwan which is composed of several alluvial fans deriving from the uplifted mountain area to the east and north of the plain. The thick gravel layer constitutes the main recharge area of the upper alluvial fans and the conductive clay sediments dominate most of the lower fans. With the core records, we found that, the gravel layers have higher resistivity (mostly over 200 Ohm-m) and the resistivities of the clayey layers are low (about 1~10 Ohm-m). Therefore with the resistivity surveys we can have more confidences for determining the boundary of the groundwater recharge area in the area in-between the monitoring wells. In the past two years, we have finished 24 two-dimensional electrical resistivity imaging profile lines from Meinong to Fangliao, the lines are oriented in the east-west direction, and each line was about 400 meters long. With the inverted results, we are able to characterize two major alluvial systems and their recharge zones in the Pingtung fluvial plain. The resistivities we measured almost are consistent to the core records of monitoring wells except for the Wanluan site, which shows thick gravel layer in the drilling records but has low resistivity in the nearby resistivity survey. A reasonable explanation is that the electrical resistivity is sensitive to clayey materials with lower resistivities. The intercalated clay within the gravel layers is not shown in the churn drilling records.

  1. A Long-Term Strategic Plan for Hanford Sediment Physical Property and Vadose Zone Hydraulic Parameter Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-09-30

    Physical property data and unsaturated hydraulic parameters are critical input for analytic and numerical models used to predict transport and fate of contaminants in variably saturated porous media and to assess and execute remediation alternatives. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. Efforts have been initiated to transfer sediment physical property data and vadose zone hydraulic parameters to CHPRC for inclusion in HEIS-Geo, a new instance of the Hanford Environmental Information System database that is being developed for borehole geologic data. This report describes these efforts and a strategic plan for continued updating and improvement of these datasets.

  2. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  3. Riparian buffer zones on selected rivers in Lower Silesia - an important conservation practice and the management strategy in urban planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamska, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    Buffer zones are narrow strips of land lying along the surface water, covered with appropriately selected vegetation. They separate aquatic ecosystems from the direct impact of agricultural land and reduce the movement of nutrients in the environment. In 2008 the European Commission established requirements for the implementation of buffer strips along water courses. Poland committed to the enforcement of these requirements until 1 January 2012. This was one of the reasons of this study. The subject of the analysis included the following rivers in Lower Silesia: Smortawa, Krynka, Czarna Woda and the selected transects of Ślęza and Nysa Łużycka. Detailed studies were designed to estimate the buffer zones occurring on these watercourses and assess these zones’ structure. This will be used to develop clear criteria for the selection of the width of these zones based on land use land management. It can be used in the implementation of executive acts at different levels of space management. Field research consisted of inventory the extent of riparian buffer strips on selected water courses and photographic documentation. Species composition of the vegetation forming a buffer zone was identified by using Braun-Blanquet method. There was lack of continuity of the riparian buffer zones on investigated rivers. Buffer zones should have carefully formulated definition and width because they are element of the significant ecological value, they perform important environmental protective functions and they are also the subject of Community law.

  4. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Eliane S M; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2014-11-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in

  5. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Eliane S. M.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2014-04-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in

  6. 10 CFR 50.33 - Contents of applications; general information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permit that, under 10 CFR 52.17(b)(2)(i), proposes major features of the emergency plans describing the... zones (EPZs) are discussed in NUREG-0396, EPA 520/1-78-016, “Planning Basis for the Development of...

  7. Procedures for analyzing the effectiveness of siren systems for alerting the public

    SciTech Connect

    Keast, D.N.; Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    NUREG-0654, Revision 1 (Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants), Appendix 3, discusses requirements of the licensees to implement a prompt notification system within the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding a nuclear facility. Sirens are being installed for use as part of or as the entire notification system by many licensees. This report describes a procedure for predicting siren system effectiveness under defined conditions within the EPZ's. The procedure requires a good topographical map and knowledge of the meteorology, demographics, and human activity patterns within the EPZ. The procedure is intended to be applied to systems of sirens and to obtain average results for a large number (30 or more) of listener locations.

  8. 77 FR 65700 - Notice of Request for Comments on the Scope of Future Revisions to “Criteria for Preparation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Register on March 24, 2005 (70 FR 15086). Do not submit comments that include trade secrets, confidential... meetings on August 22, 2012 and ] September 13, 2012. (77 FR 46766, August 6, 2012). The purpose of these... communication), social media, expanding emergency planning zones (EPZs). Health Physics: protective...

  9. RURAL ZONING--PEOPLE, PROPERTY, AND PUBLIC POLICY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOCK, WILLIAM J.

    WHILE COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING IS MANDATORY PRIOR TO PASSAGE OF ANY ZONING ORDINANCES, ZONING IN RURAL AREAS IS RELATIVELY NEW. ALTHOUGH MANY CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES ARISE DURING PLANNING, THE FACT REMAINS THAT THE BENEFITS ARE GREATER WHEN ZONING IS PROPERLY PLANNED AND EXECUTED. PROPERTY OWNERS OBJECT IN MANY INSTANCES TO PROBLEMS THAT MAY ARISE,…

  10. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed. PMID:14748317

  11. Remediation of Uranium in the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Gas-Transported Reactants: Laboratory Scale Experiments in Support of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Williams, Mark D.; Resch, Charles T.; McKinley, James P.

    2010-01-04

    This laboratory-scale investigation is focused on decreasing mobility of uranium in subsurface contaminated sediments in the vadose zone by in situ geochemical manipulation at low water content. This geochemical manipulation of the sediment surface phases included reduction, pH change (acidic and alkaline), and additions of chemicals (phosphate, ferric iron) to form specific precipitates. Reactants were advected into 1-D columns packed with Hanford 200 area U-contaminated sediment as a reactive gas (for CO2, NH3, H2S, SO2), with a 0.1% water content mist (for NaOH, Fe(III), HCl, PO4) and with a 1% water content foam (for PO4). Uranium is present in the sediment in multiple phases that include (in decreasing mobility): aqueous U(VI) complexes, adsorbed U, reduced U(IV) precipitates, rind-carbonates, total carbonates, oxides, silicates, phosphates, and in vanadate minerals. Geochemical changes were evaluated in the ability to change the mixture of surface U phases to less mobile forms, as defined by a series of liquid extractions that dissolve progressively less soluble phases. Although liquid extractions provide some useful information as to the generalized uranium surface phases (and are considered operational definitions of extracted phases), positive identification (by x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, other techniques) was also used to positively identify U phases and effects of treatment. Some of the changes in U mobility directly involve U phases, whereas other changes result in precipitate coatings on U surface phases. The long-term implication of the U surface phase changes to alter U mass mobility in the vadose zone was then investigated using simulations of 1-D infiltration and downward migration of six U phases to the water table. In terms of the short-term decrease in U mobility (in decreasing order), NH3, NaOH mist, CO2, HCl mist, and Fe(III) mist showed 20% to 35% change in U surface phases. Phosphate addition (mist or foam advected) showed

  12. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: an approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Mary T; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-06-15

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire. PMID:18078713

  13. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  14. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  15. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones. (a... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  16. 43 CFR 3931.100 - Boundary pillars and buffer zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Boundary pillars and buffer zones. 3931... EXPLORATION AND LEASES Plans of Development and Exploration Plans § 3931.100 Boundary pillars and buffer zones... prior written consent or on the BLM's order. For in-situ operations, a 50-foot buffer zone from...

  17. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone... security zones around critical infrastructure in the Chicago area, the Captain of the Port Sector...

  18. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  19. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  20. Status of coastal zone management techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    Remote panchromatic imagery was applied to develop a coastal zone management atlas that provides for land cover or vegetation surveys as well as land use stereographic mapping for regional planning purposes.

  1. Evaluation of the prompt alerting systems at four nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Keast, D.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents evaluations of the prompt notification siren systems at the following four US nuclear power facilities: Trojan, Three Mile Island, Indian Point, and Zion. The objective of these evaluations was to provide examples of an analytical procedure for predicting siren-system effectiveness under specific conditions in the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding nuclear power plants. This analytical procedure is discussed in report No. PNL-4227.

  2. 77 FR 25375 - Emergency Planning Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... organization founded in 1978, which serves as a ``national information and networking center for people... trumps the computer modeling of SOARCA in any case and has presented the world--and the NRC--with...

  3. Family Day Care Zoning. Local Officials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Abby; And Others

    This guide discusses city planning issues related to family day care zoning. The guide is divided into five sections. The first section discusses child care as a planning issue and focuses on changes in working patterns of families and in residential neighborhoods. The second section describes components of the child care delivery system, which…

  4. 78 FR 34395 - Announcement of Foreign-Trade Zones Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Announcement of Foreign-Trade Zones Test AGENCY: U.S. Customs... announces U.S. Customs and Border Protection's (``CBP's'') plan to conduct a voluntary general test regarding certain foreign-trade zone (``FTZ'' or ``zone'') activities. Pursuant to the FTZ test,...

  5. 36 CFR 294.44 - Prohibition on linear construction zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... construction zones. 294.44 Section 294.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Colorado Roadless Area Management § 294.44 Prohibition on linear construction zones... applicable land management plan direction; (3) A linear construction zone is no wider than its intended...

  6. 36 CFR 294.44 - Prohibition on linear construction zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... construction zones. 294.44 Section 294.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Colorado Roadless Area Management § 294.44 Prohibition on linear construction zones... applicable land management plan direction; (3) A linear construction zone is no wider than its intended...

  7. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  8. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... zone. This proposed rule adds events not previously published in Coast Guard regulations. These...

  9. 76 FR 18674 - Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Captain of the Port Zone, 75 FR 63714, October 18, 2010. In a rule published March 31, 2011 (FR Doc. 2011... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Sector Southeastern New England...

  10. Energy-Efficient Planning: An Annotated Bibliography. Planning Advisory Service Report No. 315.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Efraim

    The emphasis in this annotated bibliography is on materials related to existing planning practice aimed at energy conservation. It includes sections on: (1) energy related practices in policy planning; (2) land use planning; (3) zoning; (4) subdivision control; (5) transportation planning; (6) site planning and site plan review; (7) regional…

  11. Vadose zone microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Thomas L.; Brockman, Fred J.

    2001-01-17

    The vadose zone is defined as the portion of the terrestrial subsurface that extends from the land surface downward to the water table. As such, it comprises the surface soil (the rooting zone), the underlying subsoil, and the capillary fringe that directly overlies the water table. The unsaturated zone between the rooting zone and the capillary fringe is termed the "intermediate zone" (Chapelle, 1993). The vadose zone has also been defined as the unsaturated zone, since the sediment pores and/or rock fractures are generally not completely water filled, but instead contain both water and air. The latter characteristic results in the term "zone of aeration" to describe the vadose zone. The terms "vadose zone," "unsaturated zone", and "zone of aeration" are nearly synonymous, except that the vadose zone may contain regions of perched water that are actually saturated. The term "subsoil" has also been used for studies of shallow areas of the subsurface immediately below the rooting zone. This review focuses almost exclusively on the unsaturated region beneath the soil layer since there is already an extensive body of literature on surface soil microbial communities and process, e.g., Paul and Clark (1989), Metting (1993), Richter and Markowitz, (1995), and Sylvia et al. (1998); whereas the deeper strata of the unsaturated zone have only recently come under scrutiny for their microbiological properties.

  12. 222-S laboratory complex hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-08-29

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A, Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Operational Emergencies, requires that a facility specific hazards assessment be performed to support Emergency Planning activities. The Hazard Assessment establishes the technical basis for the Emergency Action Levels (EALs) and the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). Emergency Planning activities are provided under contract to DOE through the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document represents the facility specific hazards assessment for the Hanford Site 222-S Laboratories. The primary mission of 222-S is to provide analytic chemistry support to the Waste Management, Chemical Processing, and Environmental programs at the Hanford Site.

  13. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... flow meters. Action plans use symptoms, peak flow readings, or both to help you determine the zone ...

  14. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  15. 44 CFR 354.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a commercial nuclear power plant site once every two years in conformance with 44 CFR part 350. EPZ...-approved exemption to 10 CFR 50.54(q) requirements; (3) An early site permit for a commercial nuclear power... emergency planning and preparedness activities. Plume pathway EPZ means for planning purposes, the...

  16. 44 CFR 354.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a commercial nuclear power plant site once every two years in conformance with 44 CFR part 350. EPZ...-approved exemption to 10 CFR 50.54(q) requirements; (3) An early site permit for a commercial nuclear power... emergency planning and preparedness activities. Plume pathway EPZ means for planning purposes, the...

  17. 44 CFR 354.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a commercial nuclear power plant site once every two years in conformance with 44 CFR part 350. EPZ...-approved exemption to 10 CFR 50.54(q) requirements; (3) An early site permit for a commercial nuclear power... emergency planning and preparedness activities. Plume pathway EPZ means for planning purposes, the...

  18. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. PMID:20576347

  19. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  20. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-07-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  1. 7 CFR 25.202 - Strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strategic plan. 25.202 Section 25.202 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Nomination Procedure § 25.202 Strategic plan. (a) Principles of strategic plan. The strategic plan included in the application must be developed in accordance...

  2. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan, Volume 2 Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-12-31

    Supporting material for the plan includes: QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR NTS AIR; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR WATER ON AND OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR NTS BIOTA; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR DIRECT RADIATION MONITORING; DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES PROCESS; VADOSE ZONE MONITORING PLAN CHECKLIST.

  3. 77 FR 11426 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... from portions of water areas during events that pose a hazard to public safety. The safety zones... 33 CFR Part 165 Harbors, Marine safety, Navigation (water), Reporting and recordkeeping...

  4. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    PubMed

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering. PMID:25500464

  5. Microsurgical anatomy of safe entry zones to the brainstem.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Preul, Mark C; Kalani, M Yashar S; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to enhance the planning and use of microsurgical resection techniques for intrinsic brainstem lesions by better defining anatomical safe entry zones. METHODS Five cadaveric heads were dissected using 10 surgical approaches per head. Stepwise dissections focused on the actual areas of brainstem surface that were exposed through each approach and an analysis of the structures found, as well as which safe entry zones were accessible via each of the 10 surgical windows. RESULTS Thirteen safe entry zones have been reported and validated for approaching lesions in the brainstem, including the anterior mesencephalic zone, lateral mesencephalic sulcus, intercollicular region, peritrigeminal zone, supratrigeminal zone, lateral pontine zone, supracollicularzone, infracollicularzone, median sulcus of the fourth ventricle, anterolateral and posterior median sulci of the medulla, olivary zone, and lateral medullary zone. A discussion of the approaches, anatomy, and limitations of these entry zones is included. CONCLUSIONS A detailed understanding of the anatomy, area of exposure, and safe entry zones for each major approach allows for improved surgical planning and dissemination of the techniques required to successfully resect intrinsic brainstem lesions. PMID:26452114

  6. 76 FR 18669 - Safety Zone, Newport River; Morehead City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... River high rise bridge in Carteret County, NC. This safety zone is necessary to provide for safety...

  7. Fault damage zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Seog; Peacock, David C. P.; Sanderson, David J.

    2004-03-01

    Damage zones show very similar geometries across a wide range of scales and fault types, including strike-slip, normal and thrust faults. We use a geometric classification of damage zones into tip-, wall-, and linking-damage zones, based on their location around faults. These classes can be sub-divided in terms of fault and fracture patterns within the damage zone. A variety of damage zone structures can occur at mode II tips of strike-slip faults, including wing cracks, horsetail fractures, antithetic faults, and synthetic branch faults. Wall damage zones result from the propagation of mode II and mode III fault tips through a rock, or from damage associated with the increase in slip on a fault. Wall damage zone structures include extension fractures, antithetic faults, synthetic faults, and rotated blocks with associated triangular openings. The damage formed at the mode III tips of strike-slip faults (e.g. observed in cliff sections) are classified as wall damage zones, because the damage zone structures are distributed along a fault trace in map view. Mixed-mode tips are likely to show characteristics of both mode II and mode III tips. Linking damage zones are developed at steps between two sub-parallel faults, and the structures developed depend on whether the step is extensional or contractional. Extension fractures and pull-aparts typically develop in extensional steps, whilst solution seams, antithetic faults and synthetic faults commonly develop in contractional steps. Rotated blocks, isolated lenses or strike-slip duplexes may occur in both extensional and contractional steps. Damage zone geometries and structures are strongly controlled by the location around a fault, the slip mode at a fault tip, and by the evolutionary stage of the fault. Although other factors control the nature of damage zones (e.g. lithology, rheology and stress system), the three-dimensional fault geometry and slip mode at each tip must be considered to gain an understanding of

  8. 75 FR 39197 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... is a safety zone: All waters of the Willamette River bounded by the Hawthorne Bridge to the north... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Portland, OR...

  9. 76 FR 23227 - Safety Zone, Newport River; Morehead City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...--Newport River high rise bridge in Carteret County, NC. This safety zone is necessary to provide for safety..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... Fixed bridge, vessel traffic may use alternate waterways to transit safely around the safety zone....

  10. 77 FR 22530 - Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan now to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks, Hudson River, Rhinecliff, NY..., NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and...

  11. 76 FR 36447 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY... a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River Air Expo '11'', which consists of...

  12. 15 CFR 400.24 - Application for zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-use zoning, relationship to flood-plain, infrastructure, utilities, security, and access to... explanation of the plans for providing facilities, physical security, and for satisfying the requirements for... sites; (v) A discussion of the anticipated economic impact, direct and indirect, of the zone...

  13. 15 CFR 400.24 - Application for zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-use zoning, relationship to flood-plain, infrastructure, utilities, security, and access to... explanation of the plans for providing facilities, physical security, and for satisfying the requirements for... sites; (v) A discussion of the anticipated economic impact, direct and indirect, of the zone...

  14. 76 FR 38586 - Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Swim Around Charleston, Charleston, SC... establish a temporary moving safety zone during the Swim Around Charleston, a swimming race occurring...

  15. 75 FR 76328 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    .... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes the establishment of a 500 yard security zone around vessels carrying..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... coming within 500 yards of such vessels while located in Sector Columbia River COTP Zone. In the...

  16. 75 FR 33701 - Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Honolulu Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a moving security zone around all U.S. Navy submarines that...

  17. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  18. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  19. Investigating Aquatic Dead Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Jeremy; Gurbisz, Cassie; Murray, Laura; Gray, William; Bosch, Jennifer; Burrell, Chris; Kemp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article features two engaging high school activities that include current scientific information, data, and authentic case studies. The activities address the physical, biological, and chemical processes that are associated with oxygen-depleted areas, or "dead zones," in aquatic systems. Students can explore these dead zones through both…

  20. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  1. Noise zoning around airports in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, F. W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The situation in the Netherlands with respect to noise abatement is dominated by a steadily increasing activity both at the political and the administrative level. A new law with respect to the designation of noise zones around existing and future airports and military airfields was enacted on 1 October 1978. A comprehensive new noise nuisance act was signed by the Queen on 16 February 1979. Both laws were accepted by Parliament unanimously. This article describes the new regulations with respect to noise zoning around airports. To maintain the habitability of the environment around airports, a demarcation will be made between the interest of the people living there and those of aviation. A noise zone will be designated outside which the noise load from aircraft movements may not exceed a fixed maximum. Within this area, where a noise load above the fixed maximum is allowed, planning and building design measures will have to be taken. Although the exclusion of new housing within the noise zone is an essential element, the area will be used for other purposes by exchanging previously intended developments with those from areas outside the zone. The Minister in charge of physical planning will issue directives concerning the contents of local development plans and will indicate how such plans, once amended, should be put into effect. Termination of the use or habitation of existing buildings is possible as well as soundproofing of buildings. The costs of measures taken to prevent undesirable new developments and measures taken to improve the existing state of affairs are borne by the central government. But a charge has to be paid by the users of the airports to defray the costs.

  2. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  3. Zone conditioning in a California foothill house

    SciTech Connect

    Jump, D.; Modera, M.

    1993-12-01

    The principal focus of the reported research is the performance of the installed zoned air distribution system in a house located in the foothills northeast of Sacramento California. The 297 m{sup 2} two story house contained a central air conditioner and an air distribution system with four dampered supply duct legs. The air conditioning system included a two speed fan and two speed compressor, with the air handler placed inside a closet and almost all the ducts located inside the building envelope. The uninsulated sheet metal ducts ran inside a space between stories and in interior walls. The performance parameters examined included: (1) duct leakage, (2) duct conduction, (3) zoning performance and (4) equipment efficiency impacts. In conclusion, two major points were made concerning the test house. The first was that substantial energy benefits were obtained by placing the ducts inside the conditioned space. The second was that the energy benefits from zoning the house were not realized, primarily due to thermal stratification and the open floor plan in the house. Secondary impacts lowering zoning performance were the k& of return duct dampers and leakage and conduction losses in the air distribution system. Utility programs or building standards promoting zoning as a means of conserving energy or reducing peak power demand should be aware of the many potential pitfalls that can arise with zone conditioning, particularly with dampered air distribution systems.

  4. Multi-zone furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Orbeck, G.A.

    1986-05-06

    A multi-zone furnace is described which consists of: a furnace chamber having at least one heat zone and at least one zone adjacent to the heat zone and disposed along the length of the furnace chamber; the heat zone having a hearth at a level different from the hearth level of the adjacent zone; a walking beam conveyor disposed in the furnace chamber and operative in a short stroke mode to convey a product along the hearth of the heat zone, and in a long stroke mode to convey a product from the heat zone to the adjacent zone.

  5. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... soils nearby; this background monitoring must be conducted before or in conjunction with the monitoring... a minimum: (1) Soil monitoring using soil cores, and (2) Soil-pore water monitoring using devices... demonstrate in his unsaturated zone monitoring plan that: (1) The depth at which soil and soil-pore...

  6. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... soils nearby; this background monitoring must be conducted before or in conjunction with the monitoring... a minimum: (1) Soil monitoring using soil cores, and (2) Soil-pore water monitoring using devices... demonstrate in his unsaturated zone monitoring plan that: (1) The depth at which soil and soil-pore...

  7. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... soils nearby; this background monitoring must be conducted before or in conjunction with the monitoring... a minimum: (1) Soil monitoring using soil cores, and (2) Soil-pore water monitoring using devices... demonstrate in his unsaturated zone monitoring plan that: (1) The depth at which soil and soil-pore...

  8. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... soils nearby; this background monitoring must be conducted before or in conjunction with the monitoring... a minimum: (1) Soil monitoring using soil cores, and (2) Soil-pore water monitoring using devices... demonstrate in his unsaturated zone monitoring plan that: (1) The depth at which soil and soil-pore...

  9. 40 CFR 265.278 - Unsaturated zone (zone of aeration) monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... soils nearby; this background monitoring must be conducted before or in conjunction with the monitoring... a minimum: (1) Soil monitoring using soil cores, and (2) Soil-pore water monitoring using devices... demonstrate in his unsaturated zone monitoring plan that: (1) The depth at which soil and soil-pore...

  10. 78 FR 32608 - Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Duluth Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Duluth Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  11. 78 FR 12595 - Safety Zone for Ice Conditions; Baltimore Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone for Ice Conditions; Baltimore Captain of...

  12. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register MOTCO Military Ocean Terminal Concord NPRM..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety...

  13. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public....O. 12777, sec. 2; E.O. 13286, sec. 34, 68 FR 10619; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No... regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones for deepwater liquefied natural gas...

  14. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  15. Theory of zone radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R. C.; Audeh, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    A spectroscopic instrumentation system was developed which was used to measure temperature and concentration distributions in axisymmetric and two dimensional combusting flows. This measurement technique is known as zone radiometry.

  16. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  17. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  18. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Small-scale seal performance test-series F

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment.

  19. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. [Cementitious grout into fractured WIPP rock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment.

  20. 24 CFR 597.201 - Evaluating the strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work and service. The extent to which the plan ensures that no business within a nominated Zone or... activities proposed in the plan are creative, innovative and promising and will promote the civic...

  1. 7 CFR 25.204 - Evaluation of the strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proposed in the plan are creative, innovative and promising and will promote the civic spirit necessary to... service. The extent to which the plan ensures that no business within a nominated zone or community...

  2. 7 CFR 25.204 - Evaluation of the strategic plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... proposed in the plan are creative, innovative and promising and will promote the civic spirit necessary to... service. The extent to which the plan ensures that no business within a nominated zone or community...

  3. Rulison Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The Project Rulison Monitoring Plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management's mission to protect human health and the environment. The purpose of the plan is to monitor fluids from gas wells for radionuclides that would indicate contamination is migrating from the Rulison detonation zone to producing gas wells, allowing action to be taken before the contamination could pose a risk. The Monitoring Plan (1) lists the contaminants present and identifies those that have the greatest potential to migrate from the detonation zone (radionuclide source term), (2) identifies locations that monitor the most likely transport pathways, (3) identifies which fluids will be sampled (gas and liquid) and why, (4) establishes the frequency of sampling, and (5) specifies the most practical analyses and where the analysis results will be reported. The plan does not affect the long-term hydrologic sampling conducted by DOE since 1972, which will continue for the purpose of sampling shallow groundwater and surface water near the site. The Monitoring Plan was developed in anticipation of gas wells being drilled progressively nearer the Rulison site. DOE sampled 10 gas wells in 1997 and 2005 at distances ranging from 2.7 to 7.6 miles from the site to establish background concentrations for radionuclides. In a separate effort, gas industry operators and the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) developed an industry sampling and analysis plan that was implemented in 2007. The industry plan requires the sampling of gas wells within 3 miles of the site, with increased requirements for wells within 1 mile of the site. The DOE plan emphasizes the sampling of wells near the site (Figure 1), specifically those with a bottom-hole location of 1 mile or less from the detonation, depending on the direction relative to the natural fracture trend of the producing formation. Studies indicate that even the most mobile radionuclides

  4. Dike zones on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  5. Fast aurora zone analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booker, Mattie

    1992-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD), of the Goddard Space Flight Center provides acquisition data to tracking stations and orbit and attitude services to scientists and mission support personnel. The following paper explains how a method was determined that found spacecraft entry and exit times of the aurora zone.

  6. Stretching the comfort zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-08-01

    Bruce C. Gibb is organizing a workshop for two groups of scientists that study a similar topic, but rarely get together. The different perspectives they bring and the unusual set up of the meeting will hopefully lead to new ideas, but, as he suggests, they will also lead to the attendees leaving their comfort zones.

  7. Zones of Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children affected by armed violence face a specific set of stressors and challenges which calls for appropriate programming. This Coordinator's Notebook focuses on how to work with children affected by organized violence in order to provide them the best possible early childhood experiences. It is divided into five sections. "Children as Zones of…

  8. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  9. Twin Convergence Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's QuikSCAT satellite has confirmed a 30-year old largely unproven theory that there are two areas near the equator where the winds converge year after year and drive ocean circulation south of the equator. By analyzing winds, QuikSCAT has found a year-round southern and northern Intertropical Convergence Zone. This find is important to climate modelers and weather forecasters because it provides more detail on how the oceans and atmosphere interact near the equator. The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the region that circles the Earth near the equator, where the trade winds of both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres come together. North of the equator, strong sun and warm water of the equator heats the air in the ITCZ, drawing air in from north and south and causing the air to rise. As the air rises it cools, releasing the accumulated moisture in an almost perpetual series of thunderstorms. Satellite data, however, has confirmed that there is an ITCZ north of the equator and a parallel ITCZ south of the equator. Variation in the location of the ITCZ is important to people around the world because it affects the north-south atmospheric circulation, which redistributes energy. It drastically affects rainfall in many equatorial nations, resulting in the wet and dry seasons of the tropics rather than the cold and warm seasons of higher latitudes. Longer term changes in the ITCZ can result in severe droughts or flooding in nearby areas. 'The double ITCZ is usually only identified in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans on a limited and seasonal basis,' said Timothy Liu, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and lead researcher on the project. In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the southern ITCZ is usually seen springtime. In the western Atlantic Ocean, the southern ITCZ was recently clearly identified only in the summertime. However, QuikSCAT's wind data has seen the southern ITCZ in all seasons across the

  10. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  11. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  12. Area contingency plan: Cleveland. (COTP Cleveland)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Cleveland Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Cleveland Coastal Zone.

  13. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  14. Trojans in habitable zones.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Dvorak, Rudolf; Erdi, Balint; Sándor, Zsolt

    2005-10-01

    With the aid of numerical experiments we examined the dynamical stability of fictitious terrestrial planets in 1:1 mean motion resonance with Jovian-like planets of extrasolar planetary systems. In our stability study of the so-called "Trojan" planets in the habitable zone, we used the restricted three-body problem with different mass ratios of the primary bodies. The application of the three-body problem showed that even massive Trojan planets can be stable in the 1:1 mean motion resonance. From the 117 extrasolar planetary systems only 11 systems were found with one giant planet in the habitable zone. Out of this sample set we chose four planetary systems--HD17051, HD27442, HD28185, and HD108874--for further investigation. To study the orbital behavior of the stable zone in the different systems, we used direct numerical computations (Lie Integration Method) that allowed us to determine the escape times and the maximum eccentricity of the fictitious "Trojan planets." PMID:16225431

  15. Mapping of the coastal zone of Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Lindell, L.

    1997-06-01

    Uppsala University, Sweden in co-operation with Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA), Jamaica have been mapping the coastal zone of Jamaica from remote sources and field inventories for planning and management purposes. All beaches were field-checked and other types of shores classified from Landsat and aerial photos and data evaluated using Excel. The sub-water environment has been classified from Landsat TM, with reference data from echo sounder, GPS and manual observations stored into a computer directly in the field. A comprehensive database was created containing important information for the planners, like coastline types, maps of land and sea-bottom cover. An ARC/INFO structure has been created allowing NRCA to continually improve and update the knowledge of the coastal zone.

  16. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  17. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  18. Planning Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  19. Participatory Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William S.

    1980-01-01

    A synopsis of a Planning Assistance Kit designed by the Council of Educational Facility Planners (CEFP) and Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL) to assist local communities in participatory planning. (MLF)

  20. 76 FR 36438 - Special Local Regulations; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may...; Safety and Security Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast... as well as establish a permanent security zone in the Coast Guard Sector Long Island Sound Captain...

  1. 77 FR 20324 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Sector Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Zones; Marine Events in Captain of the Port Sector Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Port (COTP) Sector Long Island Sound zone for regattas, fireworks displays and swim events. This...

  2. Modelling of the MEA float zone using accelerometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    1993-01-01

    During a floating zone experiment involving the growth of indium on a recent orbiter mission, (STS 32) oscillation of the zone shapes were observed to occur in response to the background acceleration. An understanding of the nature of the response of the zone shape to forced (g-jitter) oscillations and predictions of its impact on future experiments is of great interest not only to the PI's but to other commercial and academic investigators who plan to fly similar experiments in the orbiter and on space station. Motivated by this, a 15 month study was undertaken to analyze the nature of the g-sensitivity of the STS 32 floating zone crystal growth experiment. Numerical models were used to describe the time-dependent free surface motion of the zone as it responds to the spacecraft residual acceleration. Relevant experimental data concerning the acceleration environment was obtained from the Honeywell in Space Accelerometer (HISA) investigators through MSFC's ACAP program and processed and analyzed. For the indium floating zone experiment, a series of calculations were made using time-dependent axial accelerations g(t). The form of g(t) included simple sinusoidal disturbances as well as actual data (subject to appropriate filtering) measured on the STS 32 mission. Focus was on the calculation of the response of the free surface of the zone as well as the internal flows and internal heat transfer. The influence of solidification on the response of the zone shape was also examined but found to be negligible.

  3. Habitable zones and UV habitable zones around host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpo; Zhang, Fenghui; Zhang, Xianfei; Han, Zhanwen

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a double-edged sword to life. If it is too strong, the terrestrial biological systems will be damaged. And if it is too weak, the synthesis of many biochemical compounds cannot go along. We try to obtain the continuous ultraviolet habitable zones, and compare the ultraviolet habitable zones with the habitable zones of host stars. Using the boundary ultraviolet radiation of ultraviolet habitable zone, we calculate the ultraviolet habitable zones of host stars with masses from 0.08 to 4.00 M ⊙. For the host stars with effective temperatures lower than 4,600 K, the ultraviolet habitable zones are closer than the habitable zones. For the host stars with effective temperatures higher than 7,137 K, the ultraviolet habitable zones are farther than the habitable zones. For a hot subdwarf as a host star, the distance of the ultraviolet habitable zone is about ten times more than that of the habitable zone, which is not suitable for the existence of life.

  4. Comprehensive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Victor V.

    Comprehensive planning, defined as the work of those who engage in efforts, within a delimited geographic area, to identify and order the physical, social, and economic relationships of that area, is discussed in the four sections of this paper. Section I, Introduction, describes what "planning" and "comprehensive planning" are. In Section II, Why…

  5. Fire Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  6. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  7. Liquid zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  8. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  9. 76 FR 28312 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Display Kanawha River, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Display Kanawha River, WV AGENCY... protect persons and vessels from the potential safety hazards associated with annual firework...

  10. 75 FR 52463 - Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... life and property on navigable waters while contractors replace steel I-beams. This safety zone is... plans on replacing steel I-beams used to support the Route 130 Bridge spanning the Raccoon Creek in... identified the need to station a barge below the Route 130 Bridge to replace three 17-foot steel I- beams...

  11. 78 FR 35798 - Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston; Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Around Charleston; Charleston,...

  12. Reducing Peak Demand by Time Zone Divisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, A.

    2014-09-01

    For a large country like India, the electrical power demand is also large and the infrastructure cost for power is the largest among all the core sectors of economy. India has an emerging economy which requires high rate of growth of infrastructure in the power generation, transmission and distribution. The current peak demand in the country is approximately 1,50,000 MW which shall have a planned growth of at least 50 % over the next five years (Seventeenth Electric Power Survey of India, Central Electricity Authority, Government of India, March 2007). By implementing the time zone divisions each comprising of an integral number of contiguous states based on their total peak demand and geographical location, the total peak demand of the nation can be significantly cut down by spreading the peak demand of various states over time. The projected reduction in capital expenditure over a plan period of 5 years is substantial. Also, the estimated reduction in operations expenditure cannot be ignored.

  13. 75 FR 5907 - Safety Zone; Dive Platform, Pago Pago Harbor, American Samoa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... diving operations are under way in and around the CHEHALIS wreck. The safety zone is necessary to...

  14. 78 FR 20559 - Safety Zones; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port...

  15. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  16. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  17. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  18. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  19. 15 CFR 923.13 - Energy facility planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy facility planning process. 923... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Uses Subject to Management § 923.13 Energy facility planning process. The management program must contain a planning process for energy...

  20. 77 FR 5747 - Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving Vessels, Puget Sound, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones, Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week Moving... not protected by the Naval Vessel Protection Zone in Seattle's Seafair Fleet Week, while those...

  1. 77 FR 15009 - Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River... in the vicinity of the Sellwood Bridge project; however, the establishment of these safety zones does..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a...

  2. 76 FR 25278 - Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; TriMet Bridge Project, Willamette River... is proposing the establishment of a safety zone during the construction of the TriMet Bridge on the..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a...

  3. 78 FR 71546 - Safety Zone; Belt Parkway Bridge Construction, Gerritsen Inlet, Brooklyn, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Belt Parkway Bridge Construction, Gerritsen... through the safety zone during bridge replacement operations, both planned and unforeseen, that could pose... for the safety of life in the regulated area during the construction of the Bridge. DATES:...

  4. 77 FR 24880 - Safety Zone; Jet Express Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Lakeside, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting, but you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Jet Express Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of Lake Erie in the vicinity of...

  5. 75 FR 33741 - Safety Zone; Tracey/Thompson Wedding, Lake Erie, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may submit a request... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tracey/Thompson Wedding, Lake Erie, Catawba... proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Catawba Island, Ohio. This temporary...

  6. 76 FR 50710 - Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, CA AGENCY... CFR 165.1154, Security Zones; Cruise Ships, San Pedro Bay, California, by providing a...

  7. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St... during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce fireworks display. The safety zone established by...

  8. 75 FR 17106 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit... vessels from portions of the Detroit River during the Red Bull Air Race. This temporary safety zone...

  9. 75 FR 38754 - Safety Zone; IJSBA World Finals; Lower Colorado River, Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; IJSBA World Finals; Lower Colorado River... River in support of the IJSBA World Finals. This temporary safety zone is necessary to provide for...

  10. 77 FR 1431 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Camp Lejeune, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Camp... proposes establishing a safety zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW) adjacent to Marine...

  11. Australian and Chinese Scientists Discuss Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Xu, Xiangmin

    2010-03-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management Workshop; Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, 11-14 November 2009; A 3-day workshop was held in Australia to discuss problems and issues facing coastal zones, including degradation of coastal ecosystems and the impacts of climate change such as sea level rise and changed weather patterns, and to formulate a collaborative research strategy to improve the coastal zone management (CZM) system to tackle these problems. The workshop, which brought together experts from University of New South Wales (UNSW) and Ocean University of China (OUC), highlighted the similarities in topics important to Australia and China. This workshop focused on science, policy, and the legal framework required to manage sustainable development of these coastal zones. Many parallels exist between the difficult issues facing CZM in both countries. Significant research into changes in coastal areas and their causes has been undertaken, but this research effort has not been fully reflected in coastal zone planning and management activities. Workshop participants reviewed current progress in understanding scientific, engineering, and socioeconomic processes in the coastal zones, brainstormed challenges in developing a multidisciplinary research framework capable of integrating science into coastal zone management, and identified a cross-institutional approach to addressing these issues.

  12. On validation of the rain climatic zone designations for Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiyemi, O. O.; Ibiyemi, T. S.; Ojo, J. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, validation of rain climatic zone classifications for Nigeria is presented based on global radio-climatic models by the International Telecommunication Union-Radiocommunication (ITU-R) and Crane. Rain rate estimates deduced from several ground-based measurements and those earlier estimated from the precipitation index on the Tropical Rain Measurement Mission (TRMM) were employed for the validation exercise. Although earlier classifications indicated that Nigeria falls into zones P, Q, N, and K for the ITU-R designations, and zones E and H for Crane's climatic zone designations, the results however confirmed that the rain climatic zones across Nigeria can only be classified into four, namely P, Q, M, and N for the ITU-R designations, while the designations by Crane exhibited only three zones, namely E, G, and H. The ITU-R classification was found to be more suitable for planning microwave and millimeter wave links across Nigeria. The research outcomes are vital in boosting the confidence level of system designers in using the ITU-R designations as presented in the map developed for the rain zone designations for estimating the attenuation induced by rain along satellite and terrestrial microwave links over Nigeria.

  13. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  14. Habitable zones in the universe.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2005-12-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review the historical development of the concept of habitable zones and the present state of the research. We also suggest ways to make progress on each of the habitable zones and to unify them into a single concept encompassing the entire universe. PMID:16254692

  15. Planned orphanhood.

    PubMed

    Landau, R

    1999-07-01

    Medical technology, which today makes it possible to bear a child after death, enables planned orphanhood. The first part of this paper will discuss the medical innovations in human conception, the psycho-social aspects of the wish for children from the genes of someone who is no longer alive, and the ensuing orphanhood and its implications. The second part will discuss the ethical issues relating to planned orphanhood: Who are involved in the matter of planned orphanhood? Is the decision to produce a planned orphan a private or public matter? Whose responsibility is the birth and bringing up of the planned orphan? To whom does society have more responsibility - the children who already exist or future children? And can planned orphanhood be regarded as a justification for wrongful conception? The last part of the paper will examine the judicial aspects of planned orphanhood in Israel and elsewhere and discuss the application of the principles of human dignity, human welfare, and justice. The paper argues for discouraging planned orphanhood so as to avoid violating the principles of human dignity and liberty, human welfare, and human justice, from the perspectives of both those who are involved in the process in general and the orphan who is the target of the medical intervention in particular. Its aim is to encourage deep and comprehensive public discussion of this issue in all its aspects. PMID:10414828

  16. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  17. Expedition Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Planning an expedition, particularly an expedition to climb Mount McKinley, can appear monumental. Not only must the obvious items like food, equipment and personnel be carefully planned, but attention must also focus on "insignificant" items like applications and reservations which, if forgotten, could mean the difference between a successful or…

  18. Graphical Planning Of Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, J. F.; Ruley, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Mission Planning Graphical Tool (MPGT) computer program provides analysts with graphical representations of spacecraft and environmental data used in planning missions. Designed to be generic software tool configured to analyze any specified Earth-orbiting spacecraft mission. Data presented as series of overlays on top of two-dimensional or three-dimensional projection of Earth. Includes spacecraft-orbit tracks, ground-station-antenna masks, solar and lunar ephemerides, and coverage by Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). From graphical representations, analyst determines such spacecraft-related constraints as communication coverage, infringement upon zones of interference, availability of sunlight, and visibility of targets to instruments.

  19. Progress Report on the US Critical Zone Observatory Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program supported by the National Science Foundation originated from the recommendation of the Earth Science community published in the National Research Council report "Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences" (2001) to establish natural laboratories to study processes and systems of the Critical Zone - the surface and near-surface environment sustaining nearly all terrestrial life. After a number of critical zone community workshops to develop a science plan, the CZO program was initiated in 2007 with three sites and has now grown to 10 sites and a National Office, which coordinates research, education and outreach activities of the network. Several of the CZO sites are collocated with sites supported by the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and the Long Term Agricultural Research (LTAR) programs, and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Future collaboration with additional sites of these networks will add to the potential to answer questions in a more comprehensive manner and in a larger regional scale about the critical zone form and function. At the international level, CZOs have been established in many countries and strong collaborations with the US program have been in place for many years. The next step is the development of a coordinated international program of critical zone research. The success of the CZO network of sites can be measured in transformative results that elucidate properties and processes controlling the critical zone and how the critical zone structure, stores and fluxes respond to climate and land use change. This understanding of the critical zone can be used to enhance resilience and sustainability, and restore ecosystem function. Thus, CZO science can address major societal challenges. The US CZO network is a facility open to research of the critical zone community at large. Scientific data and information about the US program are available at www.criticalzone.org.

  20. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  1. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  2. Commercial Zone Melting Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; Xie, Hongyao; Shu, Shengcheng; Yan, Yonggao; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth telluride-based compounds have been extensively utilized for commercial application. However, thermoelectric materials must suffer numerous mechanical vibrations and thermal stresses while in service, making it equally important to discuss the mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In this study, the compressive and bending strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone melting (ZM) ingots were investigated at 25, 100, and 200 °C, respectively. Due to the obvious anisotropy of materials prepared by ZM method, the effect of anisotropy on the strengths was also explored. Two-parameter Weibull distribution was employed to fit a series of values acquired by a universal testing machine. And digital speckle photography was applied to record the strain field evolution, providing visual observation of surface strain. The compressive and bending strengths along ZM direction were approximately three times as large as those perpendicular to the ZM direction independent of the temperature, indicating a weak van der Waals bond along the c axis.

  3. Neonatal Subventricular Zone Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Feliciano, David M.; Lafourcade, Carlos A.; Bordey, Angélique

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) line the postnatal lateral ventricles and give rise to multiple cell types which include neurons, astrocytes, and ependymal cells1. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for NSC self-renewal, commitment, and differentiation is critical for harnessing their unique potential to repair the brain and better understand central nervous system disorders. Previous methods for the manipulation of mammalian systems required the time consuming and expensive endeavor of genetic engineering at the whole animal level2. Thus, the vast majority of studies have explored the functions of NSC molecules in vitro or in invertebrates. Here, we demonstrate the simple and rapid technique to manipulate neonatal NPCs that is referred to as neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ) electroporation. Similar techniques were developed a decade ago to study embryonic NSCs and have aided studies on cortical development3,4 . More recently this was applied to study the postnatal rodent forebrain5-7. This technique results in robust labeling of SVZ NSCs and their progeny. Thus, postnatal SVZ electroporation provides a cost and time effective alternative for mammalian NSC genetic engineering. PMID:23426329

  4. Sonic boom focal zones due to tactical aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1990-10-01

    A study has been conducted of the focal zone 'superbooms' associated with tactical maneuvers of military supersonic aircraft. Focal zone footprints were computed for 21 tactical maneuvers: two for the SR-71 and 19 for fighters engaged in air combat maneuver (ACM) training. These footprints provide quantitative results which may be used for environmental planning. A key finding of this study is that focus factors and footprint areas for high-g fighter maneuvers are substantially smaller than those for gentle maneuvers associated with larger aircraft.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Yale Zone Catalogue -60 to -70 (Fallon 1983)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, F. W.

    1994-07-01

    The original plans for the Southern Yale Zone catalogs were to reobserve and derive strengthened positions and proper motions for all stars in the zones -30 deg to -50 deg and -60 deg to -90 deg. Having been delayed by an incredible number of misfortunes, the zone -60 deg to -70 deg has now been published (Fallon 1983). The catalog contains the measured positions and derived proper motions for the stars in this zone. In addition to the data in the published catalog, this file lists the numbers of the plates measured for each star. (1 data file).

  6. Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground Floor Plan, West Bunkhouse - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  7. Southwest elevation, roof plan, site plan & main floor plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest elevation, roof plan, site plan & main floor plan, loft plan, section looking east, north window head detail - Richard Buckminster Fuller & Anne Hewlett Fuller Dome Home, 407 South Forest Avenue, Carbondale, Jackson County, IL

  8. Remote-sensing applications as utilized in Florida's coastal zone management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worley, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Land use maps were developed from photomaps obtained by remote sensing in order to develop a comprehensive state plan for the protection, development, and zoning of coastal regions. Only photographic remote sensors have been used in support of the coastal council's planning/management methodology. Standard photointerpretation and cartographic application procedures for map compilation were used in preparing base maps.

  9. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  10. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  11. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  12. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  13. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  14. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

  15. Application of Zoning and ``Limits of Acceptable Change'' to Manage Snorkelling Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, George S. J.; Dearden, Philip; Rollins, Rick

    2007-06-01

    Zoning and applying Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) are two promising strategies for managing tourism in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Typically, these management strategies require the collection and integration of ecological and socioeconomic data. This problem is illustrated by a case study of Koh Chang National Marine Park, Thailand. Biophysical surveys assessed coral communities in the MPA to derive indices of reef diversity and vulnerability. Social surveys assessed visitor perceptions and satisfaction with conditions encountered on snorkelling tours. Notably, increased coral mortality caused a significant decrease in visitor satisfaction. The two studies were integrated to prescribe zoning and “Limits of Acceptable Change” (LAC). As a biophysical indicator, the data suggest a LAC value of 0.35 for the coral mortality index. As a social indicator, the data suggest that a significant fraction of visitors would find a LAC value of under 30 snorkellers per site as acceptable. The draft zoning plan prescribed four different types of zones: (I) a Conservation Zone with no access apart from monitoring or research; (II) Tourism Zones with high tourism intensities at less vulnerable reefs; (III) Ecotourism zones with a social LAC standard of <30 snorkellers per site, and (IV) General Use Zones to meet local artisanal fishery needs. This study illustrates how ecological and socioeconomic field studies in MPAs can be integrated to craft zoning plans addressing multiple objectives.

  16. Winter Storm Zones on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Barnes, J. R.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Preferred regions of weather activity in Mars' winter middle latitudes-so called 'storm zones' are found in a general circulation model of Mars' atmospheric circulation. During northern winter, these storm zones occur in middle latitudes in the major planitia (low-relief regions) of the western and eastern hemisphere. In contrast, the highlands of the eastern hemisphere are mostly quiescent. Compared to Earth's storm zones where diabatic heating associated with land-sea thermal contrasts is crucial, orography on Mars is fundamental to the regionalization of weather activity. Future spacecraft missions aimed at assessing Mars' climate and its variability need to include such regions in observation strategies.

  17. Alternative Zoning Scenarios for Regional Sustainable Land Use Controls in China: A Knowledge-Based Multiobjective Optimisation Model

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  18. Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation. PMID:25170679

  19. Float-zone processing in a weightless environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.; Haggerty, J. S.; Perron, R. R.; Strong, P. F.; Swanson, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results were reported of investigations to: (1) test the validity of analyses which set maximum practical diameters for Si crystals that can be processed by the float zone method in a near weightless environment, (2) determine the convective flow patterns induced in a typical float zone, Si melt under conditions perceived to be advantageous to the crystal growth process using flow visualization techniques applied to a dimensionally scaled model of the Si melt, (3) revise the estimates of the economic impact of space produced Si crystal by the float zone method on the U.S. electronics industry, and (4) devise a rational plan for future work related to crystal growth phenomena wherein low gravity conditions available in a space site can be used to maximum benefit to the U.S. electronics industry.

  20. JGR and marginal ice zone processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a follow-up to the special sessions on marginal ice zone (MIZ) processes at the AGU 1981 Fall Meeting in San Francisco and to sessions scheduled for the upcoming AGU/ASLO Meeting in San Antonio, a collection of papers on MIZ research is planned for the Journal of Geophysical Research.Tentative titles for manuscripts should be sent as soon as possible to Robin D. Muench, Coordinator JGR/MIZ Issue, SAI/Northwest, 13400B Northrup Way #36, Bellevue, WA 98005. Finished manuscripts, due April 1, 1982, should be sent directly to A.D. Kirwan, Jr., coeditor of JGR, Oceans and Atmospheres, Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. South, St. Petersburg, FL 33701. Authors are requested to specify that manuscripts are for the special MIZ issue.

  1. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  2. In situ vadose zone bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Höhener, Patrick; Ponsin, Violaine

    2014-06-01

    Contamination of the vadose zone with various pollutants is a world-wide problem, and often technical or economic constraints impose remediation without excavation. In situ bioremediation in the vadose zone by bioventing has become a standard remediation technology for light spilled petroleum products. In this review, focus is given on new in situ bioremediation strategies in the vadose zone targeting a variety of other pollutants such as perchlorate, nitrate, uranium, chromium, halogenated solvents, explosives and pesticides. The techniques for biostimulation of either oxidative or reductive degradation pathways are presented, and biotransformations to immobile pollutants are discussed in cases of non-degradable pollutants. Furthermore, research on natural attenuation in the vadose zone is presented. PMID:24863890

  3. Zone purification of potassium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susman, S.

    1969-01-01

    Procedure for removal of sodium and bromine from KCl involves zone refining in dilute halogen atmosphere. Distribution of Na and Br at concentrations of parts per million is followed by neutron-activation analyses.

  4. Current status of coastal zone issues and management in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenzhi; Wong, Ming H

    2007-10-01

    This paper identifies and examines social-economic and environmental issues recently emerged in China's coastal zone. Evaluation of management scheme and progress in perspectives of coordinated legislation, institutional arrangement, public participation, capacity building, and scientific research (mainly coastal planning and functional zoning) in China's coastal zone are made. The Chinese government has made a significant effort in developing legislation for the coastal zone. Jurisdictional and zoning boundaries, and allocating use rights for coastal and marine resources have been established. State Oceanic Administration is the leading agency responsible for China's ocean policymaking and overall management of ocean and coastal affairs. A demonstrated project for integrated coastal management in Xiamen has been implemented, and is characterized as "decentralization" approach in decision-making process. In view of the above, comprehensive coastal management in China is a big challenge, facing with many difficulties. Finally, recommendations are raised for tackling these issues for China's coastal zone management. PMID:17532045

  5. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  6. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  7. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Bridge.... Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 11/9/2009 USCG-2008-0700 Portland, OR Safety Zones (Part 165... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones... temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, drawbridge operation regulations...

  8. Characterizing CO2 storage reservoir for above-zone monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid, K. M.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) provides an excellent opportunity for commercial sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Fluvial, strand plain, and deltaic sandstones of Oligocene and Miocene formations that extend across the Gulf Coast Basin were prolific oil producers for many decades and are also considered to be effective reservoirs for large scale carbon storage. A deep-seated salt dome, faulted anticlinal structure from Gulf coastal region is currently under investigation to develop a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan as coordinated with commercial surveillance of an EOR site for injecting large volume (>1 Million ton/year) of CO2. Geophysical logs have been used to characterize the injection zone reservoir and overburden. One novel MVA element in design is above-zone pressure and geochemical monitoring for out-of-zone migration. Initial characterization with wireline logs demonstrates the extent and areal continuity of reservoir sands and geometries of faults that cut the reservoir. To develop the monitoring plan, we focus characterization on several elements: (1) input data for quick-look dynamic model of the extent of CO2 plume and amount and extent of accompanying pressure elevation, (2) characterization of the zones above the top-reservoir seal for above-zone pressure monitoring, and (3) intersection of faults with well-bores in intervals above the top-reservoir seal for thermal monitoring. Other uncertainties addressed during characterization are the upper extent of faults and juxtaposition of layers to assess the potential for cross-fault fluid migration. Such detail characterization will allow realistic assessment of the sensitivity of monitoring techniques such as temperature logging for tracking up-fault fluid migration and pressure change for out-of zone fluid migration. Successful use of such geophysical techniques for MVA based on uniting elements of existing regulatory monitoring expectations with commercial best practices will be

  9. Climate change and dead zones.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Andrew H; Gedan, Keryn B

    2015-04-01

    Estuaries and coastal seas provide valuable ecosystem services but are particularly vulnerable to the co-occurring threats of climate change and oxygen-depleted dead zones. We analyzed the severity of climate change predicted for existing dead zones, and found that 94% of dead zones are in regions that will experience at least a 2 °C temperature increase by the end of the century. We then reviewed how climate change will exacerbate hypoxic conditions through oceanographic, ecological, and physiological processes. We found evidence that suggests numerous climate variables including temperature, ocean acidification, sea-level rise, precipitation, wind, and storm patterns will affect dead zones, and that each of those factors has the potential to act through multiple pathways on both oxygen availability and ecological responses to hypoxia. Given the variety and strength of the mechanisms by which climate change exacerbates hypoxia, and the rates at which climate is changing, we posit that climate change variables are contributing to the dead zone epidemic by acting synergistically with one another and with recognized anthropogenic triggers of hypoxia including eutrophication. This suggests that a multidisciplinary, integrated approach that considers the full range of climate variables is needed to track and potentially reverse the spread of dead zones. PMID:25385668

  10. Understanding the Fluvial Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bätz, N.; Lane, S. N.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Lang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphological modelling has evolved significantly the representation of the link between river morphology, flow processes and sediment transport; notably recently, with an emphasis upon the interactions between vegetation dynamics and morphodynamics. Nevertheless, vegetation dynamics have tended to be treated as a simplistic "black box" in which time replaces the more complex underlying processes. Thus, riparian vegetation dynamics not only result from interactions between surface-flow, topography and vegetation resistance to disturbance, but also soil development within the fluvial zone, which affects nutrient and water supply. More generally labeled the critical zone, there is a lack of considering the "critical fluvial zone" in geomorphological models. Understanding the key drivers of this system, thus the processes interrelating vegetation, topography, soil (formation), subsurface- and surface-flow, are crucial to understand how riverine landscapes respond to increasing human pressure and to climate change. In this poster, we consider the likely nature of a braided river critical fluvial zone. Braided rivers in deglaciated forelands provide an opportunity to study the fluvial critical zone due to their dynamic properties, the restricted physical size, the simple ecosystems and the space-for-time relation caused by glacier retreatment after the "Little Ice Age". The poster aims to commence a discussion on the fluvial critical zone, showing first results about: a) the system understanding of a braided river set in a recently deglaciated alpine foreland; b) methodological approaches to quantify the identified interrelating key processes; c) how quantitative understanding can be integrated into fluvial geomorphological modelling.

  11. Stepped conical zone plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltse, James C.

    2001-07-01

    The Fresnel zone plate lens was invented and developed for optical frequencies. However, fabrication difficulties at the short optical wavelengths have prevented obtain good efficiencies. At longer microwave or millimeter-wavelengths fabrication is easier and phase correcting zone plate antennas have been used to obtain good efficiencies. This paper describes a new type of phase correcting zone plate having even better efficiency, namely a diffraction efficiency of 99 percent compared to a true lens, and an overall efficiency much better than a true lens. For the usual zone plate antenna employed at microwave or millimeter wavelengths, path length adjustment is accomplished by cutting different depths in a dielectric plate or by using two or more dielectrics having different dielectric constants. The new design uses a tilted cut in a dielectric plate, which more accurately matches the shape of a true lens and produces much lower phase error. The construction is still near and can be made for example, by a milling machine with a tilted bit. For a circular zone plate, the lens is a stepped conical or tapered shape. Because the phase steps are small, the far-field antenna pattern is excellent and sidelobe-levels are very low. Analysis of typical configurations will be given, showing that phase errors are small, lower than those for an eighth-wave corrected phase zone plate.

  12. Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

    1980-11-01

    An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

  13. Promoting microstructural uniformity during floating-zone crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grugel, R. N.; Lee, C. P.; Anilkumar, A. V.; Wang, T. G.; Shen, X. F.; Cröll, A.; Bune, A.

    1999-01-01

    It is demonstrated in floating-zone configurations utilizing silicone oil and nitrate salts that mechanically induced vibration effectively minimizes detrimental, gravity independent, thermocapillary flow. The processing parameters leading to crystal improvement and aspects of the on-going modeling effort are discussed. Plans for applying the crystal growth technique to commercially relevant materials, e.g., silicon, as well as the value of processing in a microgravity environment are presented.

  14. 15 CFR 923.56 - Plan coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plan coordination. 923.56 Section 923.56 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...

  15. 15 CFR 923.56 - Plan coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan coordination. 923.56 Section 923.56 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM...

  16. Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivelo, Frank Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes the future environment facing community colleges, addressing the service population, demands for accountability and quality, and the need for currency. Identifies seven areas a strategic plan should address (e.g., mission, student success, instructional quality, resource development, diversity, operational efficiency, and community…

  17. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. PMID:24981338

  18. Strategic Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the strategic elements of an institutional plan: assessment of the external environment, auditing of institutional strengths and weaknesses, and matching of institutional strengths with external opportunities through the process of strategic goal setting. Urges community colleges to take action-oriented, dynamic, purposeful steps to shape…

  19. Planning Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Richard B., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Nine articles give information to help make professionals in health, physical education, recreation, dance, and athletics more knowledgeable about planning facilities. Design of natatoriums, physical fitness laboratories, fitness trails, gymnasium lighting, homemade play equipment, indoor soccer arenas, and dance floors is considered. A…

  20. The impact of shadow evacuation on evacuation time estimates for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Weinisch, Kevin; Brueckner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A shadow evacuation is the voluntary evacuation of people from areas outside a declared evacuation area. Shadow evacuees can congest roadways and inhibit the egress of those evacuating from an area at risk. Federal regulations stipulate that nuclear power plant (NPP) licensees in the United States must conduct an Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) study after each decennial census. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published federal guidance for conducting ETE studies in November 2011. This guidance document recommends the consideration of a Shadow Region which extends 5 miles radially beyond the existing 10-mile Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for NPPs. The federal guidance also suggests the consideration of the evacuation of 20 percent of the permanent resident population in the Shadow Region in addition to 100 percent of the declared evacuation region within the EPZ when conducting ETE studies. The 20 percent recommendation was questioned in a March 2013 report prepared by the US Government Accountability Office. This article discusses the effects on ETE of increasing the shadow evacuation from 20 to 60 percent for 48 NPPs in the United States. Only five (10 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase (30 minutes or greater) in 90th percentile ETE (time to evacuate 90 percent of the population in the EPZ), while seven (15 percent) of the 48 sites show a significant increase in 100th percentile ETE (time to evacuate all population in the EPZ). Study areas that are prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation are classified as one of four types; case studies are presented for one plant of each type to explain why the shadow evacuation significantly affects ETE. A matrix of the four case types can be used by emergency management personnel to predict during planning stages whether the evacuated area is prone to a significant increase in ETE due to shadow evacuation. Potential mitigation tactics that reduce demand (public information

  1. Fracture process zone in granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  3. Geothermal policy development program analysis of county general plans, specific plans and zoning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the local geothermal permitting practices of the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties (i.e. Lake, Mendocino, Napa and Sonoma), in California, and the ways in which these processes could be expedited. The detailed analysis of local permitting processes undertaken in the course of this project revealed great variation in procedural approach, types of conditions imposed, phrasing of conditions and length of time it takes to process use permits; and these variations are described in the report. The analysis also revealed a number of interesting techniques employed by one or the other of the counties, or by Imperial County, to improve the process. These techniques are also described. Finally, four alternative approaches to expediting the local geothermal permitting process are identified.

  4. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  5. Stratospheric aerosols in the intertropical convergence zone, Panama Canal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.; Lem, H. Y.; Hayes, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate whether injection sources of the stratospheric aerosol layer could be detected in the tropical stratosphere, an examination of the aerosol vertical and horizontal size distribution around the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at the Panama Canal Zone was performed during the summer of 1977. By comparing these data with similar measurements in temperate and polar regions, it was hoped to discover variations in particle size that would indicate whether a young aerosol is forming and entering the stratosphere at the ITCZ; where the aerosol matures; and finally, where it reenters the troposphere. The methods used in the investigations and the results obtained from the analyses are described.

  6. Spatial planning modeling in ICZM implementation for Black Sea- case study Sulina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichersu, Iuliana; Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iulian; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of modeling the spatial planning system in the context of implementation the Protocol for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in the area of Sulina, on the Romanian coastal zone of Black Sea. Spatial Planning system in coastal zone is complex and composed by a big number of factors (identified from all its' components: environment, social, economic and cultural), with multivalent connections. By describing and considering the relationships between the identified factors related to the aspects of coastal zone Sulina we obtain a detailed model of this spatial planning system.This modeling process helps us to visualize the entire systems' dynamics and it is very important for future developments (scenarios, forward looking studies, etc.). The spatial planning system model is use to develop ideas, to use the complex process or predict possible evolution of coastal zone management. Romania already has the legal basis for the implementation of ICZM Protocol, which is very important for the spatial planning system in the coastal zone and aspires towards an efficient coastal zone management. This positive aspect is revealed also in the model and gives the system a beneficial evolution. The results of modeling show how spatial planning is strongly influenced by other factors, in various stages of analysis.One of the most important observations is that spatial planning in the coastal zone is influenced in similar ways by all its' four components, but there are still differences in the evolution of this process.

  7. Nuclear weapon-free zones

    SciTech Connect

    Zinner, P.E.

    1988-06-01

    The literature dealing with nuclear weapon-free zones is not as prominent as is that on arms control and reduction negotiations, confidence-building measures, and a variety of other security-related issues. Documentary sources are relatively scarce and they are widely scattered. Yet on close scrutiny, it becomes apparent that nuclear weapon-free zones have been the object of widespread, intense interest in most regions of the world. Six international treaties designed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons are now in force. A substantial portion of the globe is already under some sort of nuclear weapon-free regime. Proposals for creating additional nuclear weapon-free zones abound. In Europe, the only region where adversary alliances maintain a high concentration of nuclear weapons, issues concerning the viability of nuclear weapon-free zones have attracted special attention. The following pages contain information intended to help to put problems in perspective, create awareness of trends, and provide a basis for identifying factors that may bear significantly on evaluating options in the formulation of national and alliance security policies concerning nuclear weapon-free zones. 31 refs.

  8. The Dynamics of Fault Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Beroza, G.; Kind, R.

    2006-05-01

    Geophysical studies of the Earth's crust, including fault zones, have developed over the past 80 years. Among the first methods to be employed, seismic refraction and reflection profiles were recorded in the North American Gulf Coast to detect salt domes which were known to trap hydrocarbons. Seismic methods continue to be the most important geophysical technique in use today due to the methods' relatively high accuracy, high resolution, and great depth of penetration. However, in the past decade, a much expanded repertoire of seismic and non-seismic techniques have been brought to bear on studies of the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle. Important insights have also been obtained using seismic tomography, measurements of seismic anisotropy, fault zone guided waves, borehole surveys, and geo-electrical, magnetic, and gravity methods. In this presentation, we briefly review recent geophysical progress in the study of the structure and internal properties of faults zones, from their surface exposures to their lower limit. We focus on the structure of faults within continental crystalline and competent sedimentary rock rather than within the overlying, poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks. A significant body of literature exists for oceanic fracture zones, however, due to space limitations we restrict this review to faults within and at the margins of the continents. We also address some unanswered questions, including: 1) Does fault-zone complexity, as observed at the surface, extend to great depth, or do active faults become thin simple planes at depth? and 2) How is crustal deformation accommodated within the lithospheric mantle?

  9. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  10. Energy planning and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration`s final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program.