Science.gov

Sample records for plant antimicrobial agents

  1. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Marjorie Murphy

    1999-01-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and “leads” which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations. PMID:10515903

  2. Plant Antimicrobial Peptides as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune defense mechanism of many organisms and are promising candidates to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria to animals and humans. AMPs also display anticancer activities because of their ability to inactivate a wide range of cancer cells. Cancer remains a cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, the development of methods for its control is desirable. Attractive alternatives include plant AMP thionins, defensins, and cyclotides, which have anticancer activities. Here, we provide an overview of plant AMPs anticancer activities, with an emphasis on their mode of action, their selectivity, and their efficacy. PMID:25815333

  3. Plant antimicrobial peptides as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; López-Meza, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are part of the innate immune defense mechanism of many organisms and are promising candidates to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria to animals and humans. AMPs also display anticancer activities because of their ability to inactivate a wide range of cancer cells. Cancer remains a cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, the development of methods for its control is desirable. Attractive alternatives include plant AMP thionins, defensins, and cyclotides, which have anticancer activities. Here, we provide an overview of plant AMPs anticancer activities, with an emphasis on their mode of action, their selectivity, and their efficacy. PMID:25815333

  4. Plant Antimicrobial Agents and Their Effects on Plant and Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    González-Lamothe, Rocío; Mitchell, Gabriel; Gattuso, Mariza; Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François; Bouarab, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    To protect themselves, plants accumulate an armoury of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Some metabolites represent constitutive chemical barriers to microbial attack (phytoanticipins) and others inducible antimicrobials (phytoalexins). They are extensively studied as promising plant and human disease-controlling agents. This review discusses the bioactivity of several phytoalexins and phytoanticipins defending plants against fungal and bacterial aggressors and those with antibacterial activities against pathogens affecting humans such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus involved in respiratory infections of cystic fibrosis patients. The utility of plant products as “antibiotic potentiators” and “virulence attenuators” is also described as well as some biotechnological applications in phytoprotection. PMID:20111686

  5. Anthocyanins as antimicrobial agents of natural plant origin.

    PubMed

    Cisowska, Agnieszka; Wojnicz, Dorota; Hendrich, Andrzej B

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are particularly abundant in different fruits, especially in berries. The beneficial effects of these compounds for human health have been known from at least the 16th century. Despite the great number of papers devoted to the different biological effects exerted by anthocyanins only a limited number of studies is focused on the antimicrobial activity of these compounds. Anthocyanin content of berry fruits varies from 7.5 mg/100 mg fresh fruit in redcurrant (Ribes rubum) up to 460 mg/100 g fresh fruit in chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa). After consumption, anthocyanins are intensively metabolized, mainly in the intestines and liver. Glucorination, methylation and sulfation are the most typical metabolic reactions. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plant phenolic compounds against human pathogens has been intensively studied to characterize and develop new healthy food ingredients as well as medical and pharmaceutical products. However, there is very little information available about the antimicrobial activity of the pure anthocyanins. In the last part of this review we present the collection of papers describing the anthocyanin profiles of different fruits (mainly berries) and the antimicrobial properties of the identified compounds. Generally, anthocyanins are active against different microbes, however Gram-positive bacteria usually are more susceptible to the anthocyanin action than Gram-negative ones. Mechanisms underlying anthocyanin activity include both membrane and intracellular interactions of these compounds. Antimicrobial activity of berries and other anthocyanin-containing fruits is likely to be caused by multiple mechanisms and synergies because they contain various compounds including anthocyanins, weak organic acids, phenolic acids, and their mixtures of different chemical forms. Therefore, the antimicrobial effect of chemically complex compounds has to be critically analyzed. PMID:21366068

  6. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry. PMID:24446991

  7. Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. The antimicrobially inactive components of Ptelea trifoliata L.

    PubMed

    Mitscher, L A; Bathala, M S; Clark, G W; Beal, J L

    1975-01-01

    From the weakly antibacterial non-quaternary alkaloidal fractions from Ptelea trifoliata L. (Rutaceae), ten tertiary quinol-2-one and quinol-4-one alkaloids were isolated and identified. In addition, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosteryl-beta-D-glucoside and bergapten were isolated. None of these compounds possessed perceptible antimicrobial activity. The weak antimicrobial activity of the neutral and alkaloidal fractions was traced to small amounts of pteleatinium chloride which had not been completely separated by bulk processes. Alkaloids previously known to be present in P. trifoliata which were found in this study ptelefoline methyl ether, pteleine and skimmianine. Alkaloids previously known but new to this plant were lunidoine and isomaculasidine. Alkaloids newly found in nature were neohydroxylunine, hydroxylunidonine, 6-methoxylunidoine, 6-methoxylunineand 6-methoxy-hydroxylunidine. The structure of the latter three bases is proposed tentatively. PMID:1134209

  8. Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Antimicrobial isoflavanoids and related substances from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. typica.

    PubMed

    Mitscher, L A; Park, Y H; Clark, D; Beal, J L

    1980-01-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. typica resulted in the isolation and characterization of glabridin (I), glabrol (2), glabrene (3), 3-hydroxyglabrol (4), 4'-O-methylglabridin (5), 3'-methoxyglabridin (6), formononetin (7), phaseollinisoflavan (8), hispaglabridin A (9), hispaglabridin B (13), salicylic acid and O-acetyl salicylic acid. Of these, hispaglabridin A, hispaglabridin B, 4'-O-methylglabridin, glabridin, glabrol and 3-hydroxyglabrol possess significant antimicrobial activity in vitro; hispaglabridin A, hispaglabridin B, 3'-methoxyglabridin, 4'-O-methylglabridin 3-hydroxyglabrol, phaseollinisoflavan, salicylic acid, and O, acetyl salicylic acid are newly found in Glycyrrhiza sp.; and hispaglabridin A, hispaglabridin B, 3'-methoxyglabridin, 4'-O-methylglabridin, and 3-hydroxyglabrol are new to the literature and their structures are proposed herein. PMID:7381508

  9. Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. The quaternary alkaloids of Ptelea trifoliata.

    PubMed

    Mitscher, L A; Bathala, M S; Clark, G W; Beal, J L

    1975-01-01

    Quaternary alkaloid extracts of Ptelea trifoliata showed potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. Chromatographic examination showed the presence of six components. Of these, choline and O-4-methyl ptelefolinium were known compounds. Rational structures are proposed for the new alkaloids, O-4-methylhydroxyluninium, neohydroxylunine and pteleatinium salts. Pteleatinium salt is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of the plant. PMID:1094214

  10. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  11. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    PubMed

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials. PMID:25832181

  12. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous system toxicities occurring most commonly, but only rarely necessitating discontinuance of therapy. In 17 of 18 prospective, randomized, double-blind comparisons with another agent or placebo, fluoroquinolones were tolerated as well as or better than the comparison regimen. Bacterial resistance has been uncommonly documented but occurs, most notably with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally other species for which the therapeutic ratio is less favorable. Fluoroquinolones offer an efficacious, well-tolerated, and cost-effective alternative to parenteral therapies of selected infections. PMID:2680058

  13. Use of antimicrobial agents in food processing systems.

    PubMed

    Abushelaibi, Aisha A; Al Shamsi, Mariam S; Afifi, Hanan S

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews the patents showing the use of antimicrobial agents in processing plants to eliminate the growth of the microorganism that affects on the quality and safety of the end products. Several materials have unique antimicrobial effects, especially towards biofilms in the processing equipments. The selection of a proper antimicrobial agent is essential to obtain the best results in preserving foods. The antimicrobial agent must not be toxic, and many factors need to be considered in choosing the right antimicrobial agent. PMID:22316268

  14. Pharmacogenomics of antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Ar Kar; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity varies between individuals owing to multiple factors. Genetic variants that affect drug-metabolizing enzymes may influence antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, thereby determining efficacy and/or toxicity. In addition, many severe immune-mediated reactions have been associated with HLA class I and class II genes. In the last two decades, understanding of pharmacogenomic factors that influence antimicrobial efficacy and toxicity has rapidly evolved, leading to translational success such as the routine use of HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity reactions. This article examines recent advances in the field of antimicrobial pharmacogenomics that potentially affect treatment efficacy and toxicity, and challenges that exist between pharmacogenomic discovery and translation into clinical use. PMID:25495412

  15. High CO2 concentration as an inductor agent to drive production of recombinant phytotoxic antimicrobial peptides in plant biofactories.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria; Company, Nuri; Riudavets, Jordi; Nadal, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides such as BP100 are of increasing interest for developing novel phytosanitary or therapeutic agents and products with industrial applications. Biotechnological production of these peptides in plants can be severely impaired due to the toxicity exerted on the host by high-level expression. This can be overcome by using inducible promoters with extremely low activity throughout plant development, although the yields are limited. We examined the use of modified atmospheres using the increased levels of [CO2], commonly used in the food industry, as the inductor agent to biotechnologically produce phytotoxic compounds with higher yields. Here we show that 30 % [CO2] triggered a profound transcriptional response in rice leaves, including a change in the energy provision from photosynthesis to glycolysis, and the activation of stress defense mechanisms. Five genes with central roles in up-regulated pathways were initially selected and their promoters successfully used to drive the expression of phytotoxic BP100 in genetically modified (GM) rice. GM plants had a normal phenotype on development and seed production in non-induction conditions. Treatment with 30 % [CO2] led to recombinant peptide accumulation of up to 1 % total soluble protein when the Os.hb2 promoter was used. This is within the range of biotechnological production of other peptides in plants. Using BP100 as a proof-of-concept we demonstrate that very high [CO2] can be considered an economically viable strategy to drive production of recombinant phytotoxic antimicrobial peptides in plant biofactories. PMID:26687131

  16. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  17. Secondary Metabolites from Plants Inhibiting ABC Transporters and Reversing Resistance of Cancer Cells and Microbes to Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Ashour, Mohamed L.; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Fungal, bacterial, and cancer cells can develop resistance against antifungal, antibacterial, or anticancer agents. Mechanisms of resistance are complex and often multifactorial. Mechanisms include: (1) Activation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as P-gp, which pump out lipophilic compounds that have entered a cell, (2) Activation of cytochrome p450 oxidases which can oxidize lipophilic agents to make them more hydrophilic and accessible for conjugation reaction with glucuronic acid, sulfate, or amino acids, and (3) Activation of glutathione transferase, which can conjugate xenobiotics. This review summarizes the evidence that secondary metabolites (SM) of plants, such as alkaloids, phenolics, and terpenoids can interfere with ABC transporters in cancer cells, parasites, bacteria, and fungi. Among the active natural products several lipophilic terpenoids [monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes (including saponins), steroids (including cardiac glycosides), and tetraterpenes] but also some alkaloids (isoquinoline, protoberberine, quinoline, indole, monoterpene indole, and steroidal alkaloids) function probably as competitive inhibitors of P-gp, multiple resistance-associated protein 1, and Breast cancer resistance protein in cancer cells, or efflux pumps in bacteria (NorA) and fungi. More polar phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids, catechins, chalcones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthocyanins, tannins, anthraquinones, and naphthoquinones) directly inhibit proteins forming several hydrogen and ionic bonds and thus disturbing the 3D structure of the transporters. The natural products may be interesting in medicine or agriculture as they can enhance the activity of active chemotherapeutics or pesticides or even reverse multidrug resistance, at least partially, of adapted and resistant cells. If these SM are applied in combination with a cytotoxic or antimicrobial agent, they may reverse resistance in a synergistic fashion. PMID:22536197

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    PubMed

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  20. Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Stratton, C W

    2000-01-01

    The 20th century has been considered the antimicrobial era--whereas the 21st century may well represent the post-antimicrobial era. The reason for this dramatic change, should it come to pass, is the development of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. This emerging resistance is now challenging the clinical utility of many antimicrobial agents such that the chemotherapy of hospitalized patients with serious infections has been compromised. If the problem with resistance is to be successfully dealt with by clinicians, the mechanisms of such resistance must be known and understood. This paper thus reviews the most important mechanisms of resistance as well as some of the most important pathogens having these mechanisms. An understanding of these important microbial resistance mechanisms will help the clinician identify circumstances in which resistance may be a problem as well as evaluating the potential usefulness of an alternate antimicrobial agent against resistant microbes. PMID:11214188

  1. Fate of flame retardants and the antimicrobial agent triclosan in planted and unplanted biosolid-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth F; Gunsch, Claudia K; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the fate of contaminant-laden biosolids is needed to fully evaluate the environmental impacts of biosolid land application. The present study examined the fate of several flame retardants and triclosan in biosolid-amended soil in a 90-d greenhouse experiment. Objectives included evaluating the persistence of these compounds in soil, their phytoaccumulation potential by alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and potential degradation reactions. Concentrations of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners BDE-47 and BDE-209 and the antimicrobial triclosan declined significantly over time in biosolid-amended soil planted with alfalfa and then reached a steady state by day 28. In contrast, no significant losses of those analytes were observed from soil in nonvegetated pots. The amount of an analyte lost from vegetated soil ranged from 43% for the flame retardant di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate to 61% for triclosan and was significantly and negatively related to the log octanol-water partition coefficient. Alfalfa roots and shoots were monitored for the compounds, but no clear evidence of phytoaccumulation was observed. Methyl triclosan formation was observed in the biosolid-amended soils during the study period, indicating in situ biotransformation of triclosan. The present study demonstrates that, although they are highly recalcitrant, PBDEs, selected alternate brominated flame retardants, and triclosan are capable of undergoing dissipation from biosolid-amended soils in the presence of plants. PMID:25546022

  2. Protease inhibitors from plants with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Cheol; Hwang, Indeok; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Nah, Jae-Woon; Hahm, Kyung-Soo; Park, Yoonkyung

    2009-06-01

    Antimicrobial proteins (peptides) are known to play important roles in the innate host defense mechanisms of most living organisms, including plants, insects, amphibians and mammals. They are also known to possess potent antibiotic activity against bacteria, fungi, and even certain viruses. Recently, the rapid emergence of microbial pathogens that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has triggered considerable interest in the isolation and investigation of the mode of action of antimicrobial proteins (peptides). Plants produce a variety of proteins (peptides) that are involved in the defense against pathogens and invading organisms, including ribosome-inactivating proteins, lectins, protease inhibitors and antifungal peptides (proteins). Specially, the protease inhibitors can inhibit aspartic, serine and cysteine proteinases. Increased levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors correlated with the plants resistance to the pathogen. Usually, the purification of antimicrobial proteins (peptides) with protease inhibitor activity was accomplished by salt-extraction, ultrafiltration and C(18) reverse phase chromatography, successfully. We discuss the relation between antimicrobial and anti-protease activity in this review. Protease inhibitors from plants potently inhibited the growth of a variety of pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains and are therefore excellent candidates for use as the lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:19582234

  3. Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Mah, T F; O'Toole, G A

    2001-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. Recent work has indicated that slow growth and/or induction of an rpoS-mediated stress response could contribute to biocide resistance. The physical and/or chemical structure of exopolysaccharides or other aspects of biofilm architecture could also confer resistance by exclusion of biocides from the bacterial community. Finally, biofilm-grown bacteria might develop a biofilm-specific biocide-resistant phenotype. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the biofilm, it is likely that there are multiple resistance mechanisms at work within a single community. Recent research has begun to shed light on how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:11166241

  4. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  5. Discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Gootz, T D

    1990-01-01

    The unprecedented growth in the number of new antibiotics over the past two decades has been the result of extensive research efforts that have exploited the growing body of knowledge describing the interactions of antibiotics with their targets in bacterial cells. Information gained from one class of antimicrobial agents has often been used to advance the development of other classes. In the case of beta-lactams, information on structure-activity relationships gleaned from penicillins and cephalosporins was rapidly applied to the cephamycins, monobactams, penems, and carbapenems in order to discover broad-spectrum agents with markedly improved potency. These efforts have led to the introduction of many new antibiotics that demonstrate outstanding clinical efficacy and improved pharmacokinetics in humans. The current review discusses those factors that have influenced the rapid proliferation of new antimicrobial agents, including the discovery of new lead structures from natural products and the impact of bacterial resistance development in the clinical setting. The development process for a new antibiotic is discussed in detail, from the stage of early safety testing in animals through phase I, II, and III clinical trials. PMID:2404566

  6. Development of Non-Natural Flavanones as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Zachary L.; Shah, Karan; Panepinto, John C.; Jacobs, Amy; Koffas, Mattheos A. G.

    2011-01-01

    With growing concerns over multidrug resistance microorganisms, particularly strains of bacteria and fungi, evolving to become resistant to the antimicrobial agents used against them, the identification of new molecular targets becomes paramount for novel treatment options. Recently, the use of new treatments containing multiple active ingredients has been shown to increase the effectiveness of existing molecules for some infections, often with these added compounds enabling the transport of a toxic molecule into the infecting species. Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites and have been shown to have natural abilities as microbial deterrents and anti-infection agents in plants. Combining these ideas we first sought to investigate the potency of natural flavonoids in the presence of efflux pump inhibitors to limit Escherichia coli growth. Then we used the natural flavonoid scaffold to synthesize non-natural flavanone molecules and further evaluate their antimicrobial efficacy on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Of those screened, we identified the synthetic molecule 4-chloro-flavanone as the most potent antimicrobial compound with a MIC value of 70 µg/mL in E. coli when combined with the inhibitor Phe-Arg-ß-naphthylamide, and MICs of 30 µg/mL in S. cerevesiae and 30 µg/mL in C. neoformans when used alone. Through this study we have demonstrated that combinatorial synthesis of non-natural flavonones can identify novel antimicrobial agents with activity against bacteria and fungi but with minimal toxicity to human cells. PMID:22039419

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Bordetella parapertussis to various antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, M; Haraguchi, Y

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro activity of 18 antimicrobial agents against 32 strains of Bordetella parapertussis isolated from whooping cough patients was studied. The most active antimicrobial agents were piperacillin and minocycline, followed (in descending order of activity) by moxalactam, erythromycin, cefoperazone, tetracycline, ampicillin, cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, josamycin, sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid. Isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin, cephalothin, cefatrizine, cefaclor, streptomycin, and cephalexin. PMID:2764546

  8. Nanofibers used for delivery of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dave Wei-Chih; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology has gained an increased interest in several different areas of biotechnology including the drug delivery via nanofibers. Self-assembly, phase separation and electrospinning can all be used to successfully generate nanofibers with sizes well within the range of those of the fibers present in the native extracellular matrix (50-500 nm). In this article, the authors introduced the most popular applications of nanofibers related to the delivery of antimicrobial agents for infectious diseases. To date, only a few in-vivo studies are available at present to demonstrate its clinical potential; most of the studies are of exploratory nature and rely mostly on in-vitro experiments. Therefore, further advancement in the production and clinical performance of drug-loaded nanofibrous matrices seems necessary. PMID:26139128

  9. Use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Park, Y H; Hwang, S Y; Hong, M K; Kwon, K H

    2012-04-01

    The aquaculture industry has grown dramatically, and plays an important role in the world's food supply chain. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with food animals receives much attention, and drug use in aquaculture is also an important issue. There are many differences between aquatic and terrestrial management systems, such as the methods used for administration of drugs. Unique problems are related to the application of drugs in aquatic environments. Residual drugs in fish products can affect people who consume them, and antimicrobials released into aquatic environments can select for resistant bacteria. Moreover, these antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, or their resistance genes, can be transferred to humans. To decrease the risks associated with the use of antimicrobials, various regulations have been developed. In addition, it is necessary to prevent bacterial diseases in aquatic animals by vaccination, to improve culture systems, and to monitor the amount of antimicrobial drugs used and the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. PMID:22849275

  10. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed papers is provided. PMID:9515662

  11. The Three Bacterial Lines of Defense against Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gang; Shi, Qing-Shan; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Xie, Xiao-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents target a range of extra- and/or intracellular loci from cytoplasmic wall to membrane, intracellular enzymes and genetic materials. Meanwhile, many resistance mechanisms employed by bacteria to counter antimicrobial agents have been found and reported in the past decades. Based on their spatially distinct sites of action and distribution of location, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of bacteria were categorized into three groups, coined the three lines of bacterial defense in this review. The first line of defense is biofilms, which can be formed by most bacteria to overcome the action of antimicrobial agents. In addition, some other bacteria employ the second line of defense, the cell wall, cell membrane, and encased efflux pumps. When antimicrobial agents permeate the first two lines of defense and finally reach the cytoplasm, many bacteria will make use of the third line of defense, including alterations of intracellular materials and gene regulation to protect themselves from harm by bactericides. The presented three lines of defense theory will help us to understand the bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents and design efficient strategies to overcome these resistances. PMID:26370986

  12. De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  13. Controlled fermentation of kimchi using naturally occurring antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented food. Since it ferments continuously during distribution and storage, the extension of shelf life by preventing over-acidification is a major concern in the kimchi industry. One of the most frequently attempted ways to delay fermentation is to add naturally occurring antimicrobial agents. Many researchers have investigated ways to delay over-acidification by adding minor ingredients, fruits or fruit seed extracts, extracts of medicinal herbs, culinary herbs and spices, and other miscellaneous substances to kimchi. The addition of naturally occurring antimicrobial agents may enhance the acceptability of kimchi to consumers over a longer period of time but may also have a disadvantage in that it may cause changes in sensory quality, especially if added in large amounts. To avoid undesirable sensory changes, application of hurdle technologies (i.e., multifactor preservative systems) which involve using combinations of low amounts of various naturally occurring antimicrobial agents as ingredients should be explored with the goal of controlling fermentation. If synergistic or additive antimicrobial effects can be achieved using small amounts of a combination of natural agents, changes in sensory qualities will be minimized, thereby prolonging shelf life. Research findings summarized in this review provide a basis for developing effective hurdle technologies using naturally occurring antimicrobial agents to extend shelf life of kimchi and perhaps other types of traditional fermented foods. PMID:22850370

  14. Short Antimicrobial Peptides and Peptide Scaffolds as Promising Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Domalaon, Ronald; Zhanel, George G; Schweizer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have recently garnered significant attention as an emerging source of potential antibiotics, due to the swift emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and a dwindling antibiotic pipeline. The vast majority of antimicrobial peptides are long, comprised of more than 10 amino acids, resulting in significant production costs for their synthesis while simultaneously displaying metabolic instability and relatively poor pharmacological profiles. To counter these problems, efforts have been shifted to shorter molecules and the development of new peptidomimetic approaches. In this paper, we review promising short, naturally-isolated or synthetic, antimicrobial peptides, along with their mimics, and discuss their merits as potential antibacterial agents. PMID:26369812

  15. Mushrooms as possible antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav; Dašić, Marko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 μg/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 μg/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 μg/mL) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 μg/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

  16. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K.; Di, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted. PMID:26539472

  17. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

  18. Plasma pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Pea, Federico

    2013-02-01

    Prompt optimal antimicrobial treatment in critically ill patients is mandatory and must be achieved not only in terms of spectrum of activity, but also in terms of exposure at the infection site. Plasma profile of antimicrobial agents may represent a valid surrogate marker of drug exposure and allow to identify the correct dosage for a given drug. However, in the critically ill patients the pharmacokinetic behavior of antimicrobials may be altered by some very peculiar pathophysiological conditions, so that dosages significantly different from those used in clinically stable patients or from those originally studied in healthy volunteers for regulatory purposes may often be needed in order to ensure optimal plasma drug exposure in such population. This is especially true for hydrophilic antimicrobials (aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, glycopeptides, lipopeptides, echinocandins, fluconazole, acyclovir, ganciclovir) whose volume of distribution and clearance may be significantly altered by these conditions. These aspects are particularly relevant in patients with severe sepsis or with septic shock for whom the time for being considered as a special population to be studied apart from the general population has probably come. From the healthcare system perspective, this means that individualization of antimicrobial therapy by means of a real time therapeutic drug monitoring coupled with clinical pharmacological advice should be considered an invaluable tool for optimizing antimicrobial therapy and for the containment of microbial resistance in this setting. PMID:22946868

  19. [Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of rapidly growing mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aragón, J; García-Agudo, L; Flores, S; Rodríguez, M J; Marín, P; García-Martos, P

    2007-12-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria are often associated with human diseases. We investigated the in vitro susceptibilities of 40 isolates to six antimicrobial agents: 17 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 11 M. chelonae and 12 M. abscessus isolated from several human sources: 29 respiratory secretions, 5 cutaneous abscesses, 4 corneal ulcers and 2 urine samples of patients treated at "Hospital Puerta del Mar" (Cádiz). Susceptibility studies were determined by the broth microdilution method for amikacin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, imipenem and cefoxitin. Results suggest that amikacin is the most effective antimicrobial agent for treating infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria. Clarithromycin and imipenem show good activity against M. fortuitum and M. abscessus, but not against M. chelonae. Quinolones are only effective against M. fortuitum. It's important to identify, in rapidly growing mycobacteria infections, the etiologic agent to determine correct treatment. PMID:18563216

  20. Cardioactive agents from plants.

    PubMed

    Gutirrez, Rosa Martha Prez; Baez, Efren Garcia

    2009-06-01

    This review presents 201 compounds isolated and identified from plants that present cardioactive activity. These substances have been classified by chemical groups and each provides the most relevant information of its pharmacological activity, action mechanism, chemical structure, spectroscopic date and other properties. Chemical structures have been drawn to indicate the stereochemistry. In this review the summary of the scientific information of plants that present biological activity and the compounds responsible for this activity is presented, which introduces the reader to the study of medicinal plants and also provide bibliographic references, where a detailed study of pharmacology can be found. PMID:19519512

  1. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of peroxide-based bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; de Oliveira, Rogério; Reis, André Figueiredo; Gonçalves, Reginaldo Bruno; Giannini, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    Antibacterial activity of 4 commercial bleaching agents (Day White, Colgate Platinum, Whiteness 10% and 16%) on 6 oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus sanguinis, Candida albicans, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. A chlorhexidine solution was used as a positive control, while distilled water was the negative control. Bleaching agents and control materials were inserted in sterilized stainless-steel cylinders that were positioned under inoculated agar plate (n = 4). After incubation according to the appropriate period of time for each microorganism, the inhibition zones were measured. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (a = 0.05). All bleaching agents and the chlorhexidine solution produced antibacterial inhibition zones. Antimicrobial activity was dependent on peroxide-based bleaching agents. For most microorganisms evaluated, bleaching agents produced inhibition zones similar to or larger than that observed for chlorhexidine. C albicans, L casei, and L acidophilus were the most resistant microorganisms. PMID:17625621

  3. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry. PMID:24915323

  4. Antimicrobial agents in the prevention of travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    DuPont, H L; Ericsson, C D; Johnson, P C; Cabada, F J

    1986-01-01

    Each of 433 adults traveling to Guadalajara, Mexico, from the United States during summer months was enrolled in one of four clinical trials of the protective effect of antimicrobial agents against travelers' diarrhea. Only one (2%) of 57 subjects taking trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160 mg/800 mg daily) experienced diarrhea during a two-week study, whereas eight (14%) of 58 subjects taking trimethoprim alone (200 mg daily) and 10 (33%) of 30 taking placebo developed illness (P less than .05 and P less than .0001, respectively). Diarrhea occurred significantly less frequently among subjects receiving trimethoprim than among placebo recipients (P less than .05). None of 11 students given bicozamycin (500 mg four times daily) developed diarrhea during a three-week study, whereas 10 (53%) of 19 placebo recipients became ill (P = .003). Four (7%) of 54 subjects receiving norfloxacin (400 mg daily) experienced diarrhea during a two-week study; in contrast, 34 (60%) of 57 placebo recipients developed diarrhea (P less than .0001). The various antimicrobial agents prevented illness due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella as well as that unassociated with a pathogen. The drugs were well tolerated. Current evidence suggests that trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the optimal antimicrobial agent available for prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea. PMID:3523713

  5. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.

    PubMed

    Hfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonalves, R B

    2010-11-01

    The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915

  6. Biologically Active and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Carlos E.; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A.; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  7. Biologically active and antimicrobial peptides from plants.

    PubMed

    Salas, Carlos E; Badillo-Corona, Jesus A; Ramírez-Sotelo, Guadalupe; Oliver-Salvador, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are part of an innate response elicited by most living forms. In plants, they are produced ubiquitously in roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves, highlighting their physiological importance. While most of the bioactive peptides produced in plants possess microbicide properties, there is evidence that they are also involved in cellular signaling. Structurally, there is an overall similarity when comparing them with those derived from animal or insect sources. The biological action of bioactive peptides initiates with the binding to the target membrane followed in most cases by membrane permeabilization and rupture. Here we present an overview of what is currently known about bioactive peptides from plants, focusing on their antimicrobial activity and their role in the plant signaling network and offering perspectives on their potential application. PMID:25815307

  8. Rational use of antimicrobial agents and diagnostic microbiology facilities.

    PubMed

    Sturm, A W

    1988-08-01

    During a two month period doctors' motives for prescribing antimicrobial chemotherapy were studied. Of the 1775 patients admitted, 374 (21%) received antimicrobial agents for 384 infective episodes. In 44 (11.5%) no infection could be subsequently proven. Of the remaining 340, drug selection was based on a susceptibility report in 120 (35%), on the advice of a medical microbiologist with the aid of a Gram stain in 66 (19%), and without this assistance in 51 (15%). In 103 (30%) episodes the clinician selected the agent without advice and laboratory tests. Infection was proven in 237 of 238 episodes in which therapy was started following a known susceptibility result or the advice of the microbiologist. Four (1.7%) of these later required a change of therapy, compared with 22 (21%) of the 103 courses started without such help (P less than 0.0005). This study has shown that the use of the laboratory and consultation with a medical microbiologist improves the rational prescribing of antimicrobial chemotherapy. PMID:3182419

  9. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 μg/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 μg/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

  10. Antimicrobial plant metabolites: structural diversity and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Radulović, N S; Blagojević, P D; Stojanović-Radić, Z Z; Stojanović, N M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial infectious diseases continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. It has been estimated that microbial species comprise about 60% of the Earth's biomass. This, together with the fact that their genetic, metabolic and physiological diversity is extraordinary, makes them a major threat to the health and development of populations across the world. Widespread antibiotic resistance, the emergence of new pathogens in addition to the resurgence of old ones, and the lack of effective new therapeutics exacerbate the problems. Thus, the need to discover and develop new antimicrobial agents is critical to improve mankind's future health. Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) offer particular promise in this sense. Plant Kingdom could be considered a rich source of the most diverse structures (e.g. there are more than 12,000 known alkaloids, more than 8,000 phenolic compounds and over 25,000 different terpenoids), many of which were proven to possess strong antimicrobial properties (e.g. thymol, eurabienol, etc.). In many instances, PSMs can be easily isolated from the plant matrix, either in pure state or in the form of mixtures of chemically related compounds. What is also important is that the development of bacterial resistance toward natural plant products (that are generally regarded as eco-friendly) has been thus far documented in a very limited number of cases (e.g. for reserpine). Having all of the mentioned advantages of PSMs as potential antimicrobials in mind, a major question arises: why is it that there are still no commercially available or commonly used antibiotics of plant origin? This review tries to give a critical answer to this question by considering potential mechanisms of antimicrobial action of PSMs (inhibition of cell wall or protein synthesis, inducing leakage from the cells by tampering with the function of the membranes, interfering with intermediary metabolisms or DNA/RNA synthesis/function), as well as their physical and chemical properties (e.g. hydrophilicity/lipophilicity, chemical stability). To address the possible synergistic/antagonistic effects between PSMs and with standard antibiotics, special attention has been given to the antimicrobial activity of PSM-mixtures (e.g. essential oils, plant extracts). Moreover, possible ways of overcoming some of PSMs molecular limitations in respect to their usage as potential antibiotics were also discussed (e.g. derivatization that would enable fine tuning of certain molecular characteristics). PMID:23210781

  11. Essential oils and their principal constituents as antimicrobial agents for synthetic packaging films.

    PubMed

    Kuorwel, Kuorwel K; Cran, Marlene J; Sonneveld, Kees; Miltz, Joseph; Bigger, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Spices and herbal plant species have been recognized to possess a broad spectrum of active constituents that exhibit antimicrobial (AM) activity. These active compounds are produced as secondary metabolites associated with the volatile essential oil (EO) fraction of these plants. A wide range of AM agents derived from EOs have the potential to be used in AM packaging systems which is one of the promising forms of active packaging systems aimed at protecting food products from microbial contamination. Many studies have evaluated the AM activity of synthetic AM and/or natural AM agents incorporated into packaging materials and have demonstrated effective AM activity by controlling the growth of microorganisms. This review examines the more common synthetic and natural AM agents incorporated into or coated onto synthetic packaging films for AM packaging applications. The focus is on the widely studied herb varieties including basil, oregano, and thyme and their EOs. PMID:22416718

  12. Coping with the rising tide of resistance to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Hunter, P A

    2001-06-01

    The 11th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases was held in Istanbul, Turkey, from April 2nd to April 4th, 2001. The meeting was attended by approximately 4,500 people. Sessions were well attended and included a number of workshops, keynote lectures, symposia, free papers and posters. As at many chemotherapy meetings in recent years, a major topic was the continuing growth of resistance among all microbes to antimicrobial agents, and this is the topic highlighted in this report. PMID:12813593

  13. Peptidomimetics as a new generation of antimicrobial agents: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing public health concern around the world. Rapid increase in the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has been the target of extensive research efforts to develop a novel class of antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small cationic amphiphilic peptides, which play an important role in the defense against bacterial infections through disruption of their membranes. They have been regarded as a potential source of future antibiotics, owing to a remarkable set of advantageous properties such as broad-spectrum activity, and they do not readily induce drug-resistance. However, AMPs have some intrinsic drawbacks, such as susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, toxicity, and high production cost. Currently, a new class of AMPs termed “peptidomimetics” have been developed, which can mimic the bactericidal mechanism of AMPs, while being stable to enzymatic degradation and displaying potent activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. This review will focus on current findings of antimicrobial peptidomimetics. The potential future directions in the development of more potent analogs of peptidomimetics as a new generation of antimicrobial agents are also presented. PMID:25210467

  14. Activities of antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of Mycobacterium haemophilum.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, E M; Edwards, F F; Kiehn, T E; Brown, S T; Armstrong, D

    1993-01-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum, first described in 1978, can cause severe infections of skin, respiratory tract, bone, and other organs of immunocompromised patients. There is no standardized antimicrobial susceptibility test, and for the 27 reported cases, a variety of test methods have been used. This paper reports the in vitro test results for 17 isolates of M. haemophilum recovered from 12 patients in the New York City area. MICs of 16 antimicrobial agents were determined in microtiter trays containing Middlebrook 7H9 broth plus 60 microM hemin, inoculated with 10(6) CFU of the organism per ml and incubated at 30 degrees C for 10 days. Ethambutol, ethionamide, tetracycline, cefoxitin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were inactive against initial isolates from the 12 patients. Isoniazid was weakly active with a MIC for 50% of strains tested (MIC50) of 8 micrograms/ml and a MIC90 of > 32 micrograms/ml. Three quinolones, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and sparfloxacin, were moderately active with MIC50s of 2 to 4 micrograms/ml and MIC90s of 4 to 8 micrograms/ml. Amikacin and clofazamine were active with MIC90s of 4 and 2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Clarithromycin was the most active macrolide with a MIC90 of < or = 0.25 microgram/ml. The MIC90 of azithromycin was 8 micrograms/ml, and the MIC90 of erythromycin was 4 micrograms/ml. The rifamycins were active with a MIC90 of 1 microgram/ml for rifampin and one of < or = 0.03 micrograms/ml for rifabutin. For a second isolate from the skin of one patient and a isolate from an autopsy culture of the spleen of a second patient, MICs of rifampin and rifabutin were > 16 microgram/ml, whereas initial isolates were inactivated by low concentrations of the rifamycins. Both patients had been treated for several months with several antimicrobial agents, including a rifamycin. PMID:8285613

  15. Effects of treatment with antimicrobial agents on the human colonic microflora

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Fatemeh; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are the most valuable means available for treating bacterial infections. However, the administration of therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents to patients is a leading cause of disturbance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora. This disturbance results in diminishing the natural defense mechanisms provided by the colonic microbial ecosystem, making the host vulnerable to infection by commensal microorganisms or nosocomial pathogens. In this minireview, the impacts of antimicrobials, individually and in combinations, on the human colonic microflora are discussed. PMID:19337440

  16. Novel Zinc(II) Complexes of Heterocyclic Ligands as Antimicrobial Agents: Synthesis, Characterisation, and Antimicrobial Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yamgar, Ramesh S.; Nivid, Y.; Nalawade, Satish; Mandewale, Mustapha; Atram, R. G.; Sawant, Sudhir S.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel Zn(II) metal complexes derived from three novel heterocyclic Schiff base ligands 8-[(Z)-{[3-(N-methylamino)propyl]imino}methyl]-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one, 2-[(E)-{[4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]imino}methyl]phenol, and (4S)-4-{4-[(E)-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]benzyl}-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one have been described. These Schiff base ligands and metal complexes are characterised by spectroscopic techniques. According to these data, we propose an octahedral geometry to all the metal complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes was studied against Gram negative bacteria: E. coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens, Gram positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, and also against fungi, that is, C. albicans and A. niger. Some of the metal complexes show significant antifungal activity (MIC < 0.2 μg/mL). The “in vitro” data has identified [Zn(NMAPIMHMC)2]·2H2O, [Zn(TMPIMP)2]·2H2O, and [Zn(HBABO)2]·2H2O as potential therapeutic antifungal agents against C. albicans and A. niger. PMID:24707242

  17. Controlling the release of peptide antimicrobial agents from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anita; Fleming, Kathleen E; Chuang, Helen F; Chau, Tanguy M; Loose, Christopher R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory N; Hammond, Paula T

    2010-03-01

    Medical conditions are often exacerbated by the onset of infection caused by hospital dwelling bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics taken orally or intravenously can require large and frequent doses, further contributing to the sharp rise in resistant bacteria observed over the past several decades. These existing antibiotics are also often ineffective in preventing biofilm formation, a common cause of medical device failure. Local delivery of new therapeutic agents that do not allow bacterial resistance to occur, such as antimicrobial peptides, could alleviate many of the problems associated with current antibacterial treatments. By taking advantage of the versatility of layer-by-layer assembly of polymer thin films, ponericin G1, an antimicrobial peptide known to be highly active against S. aureus, was incorporated into a hydrolytically degradable polyelectrolyte multilayer film. Several film architectures were examined to obtain various drug loadings that ranged from 20 to 150 microg/cm2. Release was observed over approximately ten days, with varying release profiles, including burst as well as linear release. Results indicated that film-released peptide did not suffer any loss in activity against S. aureus and was able to inhibit bacteria attachment, a necessary step in preventing biofilm formation. Additionally, all films were found to be biocompatible with the relevant wound healing cells, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These films provide the level of control over drug loading and release kinetics required in medically relevant applications including coatings for implant materials and bandages, while eliminating susceptibility to bacterial resistance. PMID:20004967

  18. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    PubMed

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa. PMID:17893761

  19. Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter. PMID:26939268

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Seven Essential Oils From Iranian Aromatic Plants Against Common Causes of Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Ghadiri, Pooria; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Moein, Mohammad Reza; Mehriar, Peiman; Bahrani, Farideh; Golzar, Tahereh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Fani, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, there has been a growing trend in using oral hygienic products originating from natural resources such as essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. Seven aromatic plants used in this study are among popular traditional Iranian medicinal plants with potential application in modern medicine as anti-oral infectious diseases. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils from seven medicinal plants against pathogens causing oral infections. Materials and Methods: The chemical compositions of EOs distilled from seven plants were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These plants included Satureja khuzestanica, S. bachtiarica, Ocimum sanctum, Artemisia sieberi, Zataria multiflora, Carum copticum and Oliveria decumbens. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was evaluated by broth micro-dilution in 96 well plates as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methods. Results: The tested EOs inhibited the growth of examined oral pathogens at concentrations of 0.015-16 µL/mL. Among the examined oral pathogens, Enterococcus faecalis had the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Microbicidal Concentrations (MMCs). Of the examined EOs, S. khuzestanica, Z. multiflora and S. bachtiarica, showed the highest antimicrobial activities, respectively, while Artemisia sieberi exhibited the lowest antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: The excellent antimicrobial activities of the tested EOs might be due to their major phenolic or alcoholic monoterpenes with known antimicrobial activities. Hence, these EOs can be possibly used as an antimicrobial agent in treatment and control of oral pathogens. PMID:25793100

  1. The effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecology of the human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Nord, C E

    1993-06-01

    The most common and significant cause of disturbances in the normal intestinal microflora is the administration of antimicrobial agents. The microflora can be influenced by antimicrobial agents because of incomplete absorption of any orally administered antimicrobial agent, secretion of an antimicrobial agent in the bile, or secretion from the intestinal mucosa. Administration of these agents may seriously disturb the balance of the normal intestinal microflora. This disturbance can cause bacterial overgrowth and emergence of resistant microorganisms which may lead to serious infections and also encourage transfer of resistance factors among bacteria. The ecological effects of penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, macrolides, clindamycin, tetracyclines, nitroimidazoles and quinolones on the human intestinal microflora are presented in this review article. PMID:8212506

  2. Nontherapeutic Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Animal Agriculture: Implications for Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Jerome A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health globally and threatens our ability to treat infectious diseases. Antimicrobial-resistant infections are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Infants and children are affected by transmission of susceptible and resistant food zoonotic pathogens through the food supply, direct contact with animals, and environmental pathways. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents in veterinary and human medicine is, in large part, responsible for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Approximately 80% of the overall tonnage of antimicrobial agents sold in the United States in 2012 was for animal use, and approximately 60% of those agents are considered important for human medicine. Most of the use involves the addition of low doses of antimicrobial agents to the feed of healthy animals over prolonged periods to promote growth and increase feed efficiency or at a range of doses to prevent disease. These nontherapeutic uses contribute to resistance and create new health dangers for humans. This report describes how antimicrobial agents are used in animal agriculture, reviews the mechanisms of how such use contributes to development of resistance, and discusses US and global initiatives to curb the use of antimicrobial agents in agriculture. PMID:26574594

  3. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenakshi; Khatoon, Sayyada; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Vivek; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2010-01-01

    Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases. PMID:21808577

  4. Antimicrobial peptide genes in Bacillus strains from plant environments.

    PubMed

    Mora, Isabel; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio

    2011-12-01

    The presence of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) biosynthetic genes srfAA (surfactin), bacA (bacylisin), fenD (fengycin), bmyB (bacyllomicin), spaS (subtilin), and ituC (iturin) was examined in 184 isolates of Bacillus spp. obtained from plant environments (aerial, rhizosphere, soil) in the Mediterranean land area of Spain. Most strains had between two and four AMP genes whereas strains with five genes were seldom detected and none of the strains had six genes. The most frequent AMP gene markers were srfAA, bacA, bmyB, and fenD, and the most frequent genotypes srfAA-bacA-bmyB and srfAAbacA- bmyB-fenD. The dominance of these particular genes in Bacillus strains associated with plants reinforces the competitive role of surfactin, bacyllomicin, fengycin, and bacilysin in the fitness of strains in natural environments. The use of these AMP gene markers may assist in the selection of putative biological control agents of plant pathogens. PMID:22569759

  5. Multidrug Pump Inhibitors Uncover Remarkable Activity of Plant Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Tegos, George; Stermitz, Frank R.; Lomovskaya, Olga; Lewis, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Plant antimicrobials are not used as systemic antibiotics at present. The main reason for this is their low level of activity, especially against gram-negative bacteria. The reported MIC is often in the range of 100 to 1,000 μg/ml, orders of magnitude higher than those of common broad-spectrum antibiotics from bacteria or fungi. Major plant pathogens belong to the gram-negative bacteria, which makes the low level of activity of plant antimicrobials against this group of microorganisms puzzling. Gram-negative bacteria have an effective permeability barrier, comprised of the outer membrane, which restricts the penetration of amphipathic compounds, and multidrug resistance pumps (MDRs), which extrude toxins across this barrier. It is possible that the apparent ineffectiveness of plant antimicrobials is largely due to the permeability barrier. We tested this hypothesis in the present study by applying a combination of MDR mutants and MDR inhibitors. A panel of plant antimicrobials was tested by using a set of bacteria representing the main groups of plant pathogens. The human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were also tested. The results show that the activities of the majority of plant antimicrobials were considerably greater against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus megaterium and that disabling of the MDRs in gram-negative species leads to a striking increase in antimicrobial activity. Thus, the activity of rhein, the principal antimicrobial from rhubarb, was potentiated 100- to 2,000-fold (depending on the bacterial species) by disabling the MDRs. Comparable potentiation of activity was observed with plumbagin, resveratrol, gossypol, coumestrol, and berberine. Direct measurement of the uptake of berberine, a model plant antimicrobial, confirmed that disabling of the MDRs strongly increases the level of penetration of berberine into the cells of gram-negative bacteria. These results suggest that plants might have developed means of delivering their antimicrobials into bacterial cells. These findings also suggest that plant antimicrobials might be developed into effective, broad-spectrum antibiotics in combination with inhibitors of MDRs. PMID:12234835

  6. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products. PMID:26396358

  7. How do the newer oral antimicrobials stack up against traditional agents?

    PubMed

    Gleckman, R; De La Rosa, G

    1998-10-01

    As the antibiotic arsenal expands with the development of new oral agents, selecting appropriate therapy is becoming more difficult. What are the therapeutic indications for the newer antimicrobials, and what advantages do they have over traditional agents? Drs Gleckman and De La Rosa discuss current issues related to antibiotic treatment and offer specific recommendations for the best use of the newer agents. PMID:9793559

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

  9. In vitro activity of 79 antimicrobial agents against Corynebacterium group D2.

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodriguez, J A; García Sánchez, J E; Muñoz Bellido, J L; Nebreda Mayoral, T; García Sánchez, E; García García, I

    1991-01-01

    Corynebacterium group D2 (CGD2) is involved in urinary tract infections in patients with underlying predisposing factors. This microorganism is highly resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents. We tested the activities of 79 antimicrobial agents against CGD2. beta-Lactams, aminoglycosides, and macrolides were ineffective. Fluorinated quinolones showed irregular activities, ofloxacin being the most active one. Doxycycline, rifampin, and mainly glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) were the most active antibiotics against CGD2. PMID:1759839

  10. Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources. PMID:25774105

  11. [Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of root canal irrigation agents].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, N A; Krechina, E K; Iarygina, L B; Efremov, N V

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of different antiseptics for root canal irrigation: chlorhexidine bigluconate solution in 6 concentrations (2.0-1.0-0.5-0.2-0.1-0.02%), two sodium hypochlorite formulations: "Parcan" (France) and "Hypochloran-3" (Russia), and stabilized EDTA solution (EDTA Solutions (Korea)) was carried out. The results indicate that the level of antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine is directly proportional to its concentration. Sodium hypochlorite tends to be more effective in compare with chlorhexidine. EDTA Solutions has a pronounced antimicrobial activity against all strains. PMID:24300699

  12. The dynamic observation of plasma concentration of antimicrobial agents during balanced ultrafiltration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yinghui; Guan, Yulong; Wan, Caihong; Fu, Zhida; Jiang, Juanjuan; Wu, Chunfu; Zhao, Ju; Sun, Peng; Long, Cun

    2014-01-01

    Routine perioperative intravenous antimicrobial agents are administered as surgical prophylaxis. However, whether balanced ultrafiltration during extracorporeal circulation has substantial effect on the concentration of antimicrobial agents remains unclear. The concentrations of antimicrobial agents in plasma and ultrafiltrate samples were measured in this pseudo-extracorporeal circulation model. Extracorporeal circulation consisted of cardiotomy reservoir, membrane oxygenator, and pediatric arterial line filter. A hemoconcentrator was placed between the arterial purge line and oxygenator venous reservoir. Fresh donor human whole blood was added into the circuit and mixed with Ringer's solution to obtain a final hematocrit of 24-28%. Two kinds of antimicrobial agents, cefotiam (320 mg) and cefmetazole (160 mg), were bolus added into the circuit. After 30 min of extracorporeal circulation, zero-balanced ultrafiltration was initiated and arterial line pressure was maintained at approximately 100 mm Hg with a Hoffman clamp. The rate of ultrafiltration (12 mL/min) was controlled by ultrafiltrate outlet pressure. An identical volume of Plasmalyte A was dripped into the circuit to maintain stable hematocrit during 45 min of experiment. Plasma and ultrafiltrate samples were drawn every 5 min, and concentrations of antimicrobial agents (including cefotiam and cefmetazole) were measured with high performance liquid chromatography. Both antimicrobial agents were detected in ultrafiltrate, demonstrating hemoconcentration may remove antimicrobial agents. The concentrations of plasma antimicrobial agents decreased linearly with the increase of ultrafiltrate volume. At end of balanced ultrafiltration, the concentration of plasma cefotiam was 104.96 ± 44.36 mg/L, which is about 44.38% ± 7.42% of the initial concentration (238.95 ± 101.12 mg/L) (P < 0.001); the concentration of plasma cefmetazole decreased linearly to 25.76 ± 14.78 mg/L, which is about 49.69% ± 10.49% of the initial concentration (51.49 ± 28.03 mg/L) (P < 0.001). The total amount of cefotiam in ultrafiltrate is 27.16% ± 12.17% of the total dose administered, whereas cefmetazole in ultrafiltrate is 7.74% ± 4.17%. Balanced ultrafiltration may remove antimicrobial agents from plasma and has a prominent influence on plasma concentration of antimicrobial agent. The strategy of surgical prophylaxis should consider this unique technique during extracorporeal circulation. PMID:23865445

  13. Environmental fate of two sulfonamide antimicrobial agents in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary antimicrobials have been detected in a number of environmental samples, including agricultural soils. In this study, the persistence and sorption of the sulfonamide sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfachloropyridine (SCP) in soil and their potential effects on soil microorganisms were investiga...

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R. Udaya; Begum, V. Hazeena

    2002-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities were detected in the 80% ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. The treatments resulted in the formation of various inhibitory zones, in contrast to the control where no inhibitory zone was observed. PMID:22557059

  15. Antimicrobial studies of some selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R Udaya; Begum, V Hazeena

    2002-04-01

    Antimicrobial activities were detected in the 80% ethanolic extract of Achyranthes aspera, Ficus glomerata, Leucas aspera, Thespesia populnea and Zizyphus jujube against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and salmonella typhi. The treatments resulted in the formation of various inhibitory zones, in contrast to the control where no inhibitory zone was observed. PMID:22557059

  16. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Traditional Plant Used in Mestizo Shamanism from the Peruvian Amazon in Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). Material and Method: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Results: Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. Conclusion: This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto. PMID:27013805

  17. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural antimicrobial/antioxidative agents in clinical, pharmaceutical and food processing industries. PMID:26417316

  18. EDTA: An Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Agent for Use in Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Simon; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Methods employed for preventing and eliminating biofilms are limited in their efficacy on mature biofilms. Despite this a number of antibiofilm formulations and technologies incorporating ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) have demonstrated efficacy on in vitro biofilms. The aim of this article is to critically review EDTA, in particular tetrasodium EDTA (tEDTA), as a potential antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent, in its own right, for use in skin and wound care. EDTA's synergism with other antimicrobials and surfactants will also be discussed. Recent Advances: The use of EDTA as a potentiating and sensitizing agent is not a new concept. However, currently the application of EDTA, specifically tEDTA as a stand-alone antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent, and its synergistic combination with other antimicrobials to make a “multi-pronged” approach to biofilm control is being explored. Critical Issues: As pathogenic biofilms in the wound increase infection risk, tEDTA could be considered as a potential “stand-alone” antimicrobial/antibiofilm agent or in combination with other antimicrobials, for use in both the prevention and treatment of biofilms found within abiotic (the wound dressing) and biotic (wound bed) environments. The ability of EDTA to chelate and potentiate the cell walls of bacteria and destabilize biofilms by sequestering calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron makes it a suitable agent for use in the management of biofilms. Future Direction: tEDTA's excellent inherent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity and proven synergistic and permeating ability results in a very beneficial agent, which could be used for the development of future antibiofilm technologies. PMID:26155384

  19. In vitro susceptibility of equine-obtained isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to gallium maltolate and 20 other antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Norman, T E; Batista, M; Lawhon, S D; Zhang, S; Kuskie, K R; Swinford, A K; Bernstein, L R; Cohen, N D

    2014-07-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:24829243

  20. In Vitro Susceptibility of Equine-Obtained Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis to Gallium Maltolate and 20 Other Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Batista, M.; Lawhon, S. D.; Zhang, S.; Kuskie, K. R.; Swinford, A. K.; Bernstein, L. R.; Cohen, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of gallium maltolate (GaM) and 20 other antimicrobial agents against clinical equine isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The growth of cultured isolates was not inhibited by any concentration of GaM. MIC data revealed susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials. PMID:24829243

  1. Effect of new antimicrobial agents on the ecological balance of human microflora.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamun-Ur; Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2012-04-01

    The human normal microflora is relatively stable at each ecological habitat under normal circumstances and acts as a barrier against colonization by potentially pathogenic microorganisms and against overgrowth of already present opportunistic microorganisms. Administration of antimicrobial agents causes disturbances in the ecological balance between the host and the normal microflora. The risk of emergence and spread of resistant strains between patients and dissemination of resistant determinants between microorganisms is reduced if colonization resistance is not disturbed by antimicrobial agents. In this article, the potential ecological effects of administration of new antimicrobial agents on the intestinal and oropharyngeal microflora are summarized. The review is based on clinical studies published during the past 10 years. PMID:22155131

  2. Inhibition of bacterial colonization by antimicrobial agents incorporated into dental resins.

    PubMed

    Bapna, M S; Murphy, R; Mukherjee, S

    1988-09-01

    The antimicrobial activity of several chemical agents was determined by incorporating these agents into dentine adhesive resin and following the colonization of Streptococcus mutans on the surfaces of the resin and culture vessel, as well as in the surrounding medium, by optical density measurements. It was found that sodium fluoride and dodecylamine, an organic amine, exhibited excellent antimicrobial properties. These chemicals not only inhibited bacterial growth completely but also seemed to reduce the adhesion of the bacteria to the resin surface. A silver compound, protargin, was mildly effective in inhibiting growth of S. mutans. Copper oxide and chelating acids such as vanillic acid, syringic acid, and ethylenediamine-n, n' diacetic acid (EDDA) were not effective as antimicrobial agents against S. mutans. PMID:3072391

  3. Effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecological balance of human microflora.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, A; Edlund, C; Nord, C E

    2001-09-01

    The normal microflora acts as a barrier against colonisation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and against overgrowth of already present opportunistic microorganisms. Control of growth of opportunistic microorganisms is termed colonisation resistance. Administration of antimicrobial agents, therapeutically or as prophylaxis, causes disturbances in the ecological balance between the host and the normal microflora. Most studies on the impact of antimicrobial agents on normal microflora have been carried out on the intestinal flora. Less is known on the effects on oropharyngeal, skin, and vaginal microflora. Disturbances in the microflora depend on the properties of the agents as well as of the absorption, route of elimination, and possible enzymatic inactivation and/or binding to faecal material of the agents. The clinically most common disturbances in the intestinal microflora are diarrhoea and fungal infections that usually cease after the end of treatment. A well-balanced microflora prevents establishment of resistant microbial strains. By using antimicrobial agents that do not disturb colonisation resistance, the risk of emergence and spread of resistant strains between patients and dissemination of resistant determinants between microorganisms is reduced. In this article, the potential ecological effects of administration of antimicrobial agents on the intestinal, oropharyngeal, and vaginal microflora are summarised. The review is based on clinical studies published during the past 10 years. PMID:11871461

  4. In vitro synergistic activity between bismuth subcitrate and various antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter pyloridis (C. pylori).

    PubMed

    Van Caekenberghe, D L; Breyssens, J

    1987-09-01

    The in vitro interactions between bismuth subcitrate and a variety of antimicrobial agents against 12 Campylobacter pyloridis (C. pylori) isolates were studied by the agar dilution checkerboard technique. The combination of bismuth subcitrate with the older quinolone, oxolinic acid, produced synergistic activity against all strains. This observation, however, could not be extended to the (aryl) fluoroquinolones, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and difloxacin, since synergy was rare or absent when bismuth subcitrate was combined with these antibiotics. Among the other antimicrobial agents tested, rifampin and the beta-lactams frequently showed showed MICs for C. pyloridis similar to those of bismuth subcitrate. PMID:3674850

  5. The potential of nitric oxide releasing therapies as antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Schairer, David O.; Chouake, Jason S.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived, diatomic, lipophilic gas that plays an integral role in defending against pathogens. Among its many functions are involvement in immune cell signaling and in the biochemical reactions by which immune cells defend against bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. NO signaling directs a broad spectrum of processes, including the differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of immune cells. When secreted by activated immune cells, NO diffuses across cellular membranes and exacts nitrosative and oxidative damage on invading pathogens. These observations led to the development of NO delivery systems that can harness the antimicrobial properties of this evanescent gas. The innate microbicidal properties of NO, as well as the antimicrobial activity of the various NO delivery systems, are reviewed. PMID:22546899

  6. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M M; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  7. Carbon nanodots as molecular scaffolds for development of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Ngu-Schwemlein, Maria; Chin, Suk Fun; Hileman, Ryan; Drozdowski, Chris; Upchurch, Clint; Hargrove, April

    2016-04-01

    We report the potential of carbon nanodots (CNDs) as a molecular scaffold for enhancing the antimicrobial activities of small dendritic poly(amidoamines) (PAMAM). Carbon nanodots prepared from sago starch are readily functionalized with PAMAM by using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Electron microscopy images of these polyaminated CNDs show that they are approximately 30-60nm in diameter. Infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy analyses of the water-soluble material established the presence of the polyamidoaminated moiety and the intrinsic fluorescence of the nanodots. The polyaminated nanodots (CND-PAM1 and CND-PAM2) exhibit in vitro antimicrobial properties, not only to non-multidrug resistant bacteria but also to the corresponding Gram-negative multidrug bacteria. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges from 8 to 64μg/mL, which is much lower than that of PAMAM G1 or the non-active PAMAM G0 and CNDs. Additionally, they show synergistic effect in combination with tetracycline or colistin. These preliminary results imply that CNDs can serve as a promising scaffold for facilitating the rational design of antimicrobial materials for combating the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, their fluorescence could be pertinent to unraveling their mode of action for imaging or diagnostic applications. PMID:26923697

  8. Exploring the potential of magnetic antimicrobial agents for water disinfection.

    PubMed

    Pina, Ana S; Batalha, Iris L; Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Aoki, Matheus A; Roque, Ana C A

    2014-12-01

    Industrial and urban activities yield large amounts of contaminated groundwater, which present a major health issue worldwide. Infectious diseases are the most common health risk associated with drinking-water and wastewater remediation is a major concern of our modern society. The field of wastewater treatment is being revolutionized by new nano-scale water disinfection devices which outperform most currently available technologies. In particular, iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used in environmental applications due to their unique physical-chemical properties. In this work, poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG)-coated MNPs have been functionalized with (RW)3, an antimicrobial peptide, to yield a novel magnetic-responsive support with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli K-12 DSM498 and Bacillus subtilis 168. The magnetic-responsive antimicrobial device showed to be able to successfully disinfect the surrounding solution. Using a rapid high-throughput screening platform, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be 500 μM for both strains with a visible bactericidal effect. PMID:25201339

  9. Global survey on nebulization of antimicrobial agents in mechanically ventilated patients: a call for international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Solé-Lleonart, C; Roberts, J A; Chastre, J; Poulakou, G; Palmer, L B; Blot, S; Felton, T; Bassetti, M; Luyt, C-E; Pereira, J M; Riera, J; Welte, T; Qiu, H; Rouby, J-J; Rello, J

    2016-04-01

    Nebulized antimicrobial agents are increasingly administered for treatment of respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients. A structured online questionnaire assessing the indications, dosages and recent patterns of use for nebulized antimicrobial agents in MV patients was developed. The questionnaire was distributed worldwide and completed by 192 intensive care units. The most common indications for using nebulized antimicrobial agent were ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT; 58/87), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; 56/87) and management of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative (67/87) bacilli in the respiratory tract. The most common prescribed nebulized agents were colistin methanesulfonate and sulfate (36/87, 41.3% and 24/87, 27.5%), tobramycin (32/87, 36.7%) and amikacin (23/87, 26.4%). Colistin methanesulfonate, amikacin and tobramycin daily doses for VAP were significantly higher than for VAT (p < 0.05). Combination of parenteral and nebulized antibiotics occurred in 50 (86%) of 58 prescriptions for VAP and 36 (64.2%) of 56 of prescriptions for VAT. The use of nebulized antimicrobial agents in MV patients is common. There is marked heterogeneity in clinical practice, with significantly different in use between patients with VAP and VAT. Randomized controlled clinical trials and international guidance on indications, dosing and antibiotic combinations to improve clinical outcomes are urgently required. PMID:26723563

  10. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for selected antimicrobial agents against Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from hepatic abscesses in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Mateos, E; Piriz, S; Valle, J; Hurtado, M; Vadillo, S

    1997-02-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations for 35 antimicrobial agents against 100 Fusobacterium necrophorum isolates from hepatic abscesses in sheep and cattle were determined. Twelve of the thirteen beta-lactam antibiotics tested inhibited growth of 100% of strains tested. Of the remaining antimicrobial agents, extensive susceptibility was found for: spiramycin, josamycin, lincomycin, tylosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, rufloxacin, metronidazole, cotrimoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, virginiamycin and fosfomycin. PMID:9049945

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Bacteriophage Endolysin Produced in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants.

    PubMed

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Foster-Frey, Juli; Donovan, David M; Bauchan, Gary; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-01-28

    The increasing spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has raised the interest in alternative antimicrobial treatments. In our study, the functionally active gram-negative bacterium bacteriophage CP933 endolysin was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by a combination of transient expression and vacuole targeting strategies, and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. Expression of the cp933 gene in E. coli led to growth inhibition and lysis of the host cells or production of trace amounts of CP933. Cytoplasmic expression of the cp933 gene in plants using Potato virus X-based transient expression vectors (pP2C2S and pGR107) resulted in death of the apical portion of experimental plants. To protect plants against the toxic effects of the CP933 protein, the cp933 coding region was fused at its Nterminus to an N-terminal signal peptide from the potato proteinase inhibitor I to direct CP933 to the delta-type vacuoles. Plants producing the CP933 fusion protein did not exhibit the severe toxic effects seen with the unfused protein and the level of expression was 0.16 mg/g of plant tissue. Antimicrobial assays revealed that, in contrast to gram-negative bacterium E. coli (BL21(DE3)), the gram-positive plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis was more susceptible to the plant-produced CP933, showing 18% growth inhibition. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the combination of transient expression and protein targeting to the delta vacuoles is a promising approach to produce functionally active proteins that exhibit toxicity when expressed in plant cells. PMID:26403819

  12. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

    2012-07-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  13. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  14. Novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Giannakaki, Venetia; Miyakis, Spiros

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens to compromise the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Strains resistant to most (if not all) antibiotics available have emerged. Gram-positive such representatives include strains of Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and highly-resistant to penicillin Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the phenomenon of antimicrobial drug resistance is expanding, limited number of new antibiotics has been successfully developed in the last few decades. Several novel antimicrobial agents, however, are currently in diverse phases of development and undergoing clinical trials. This review will summarize the main candidates for novel antibacterial agents active against Gram-positive multi-resistant pathogens along with the discussion of some patents relevant to the topic. PMID:23016758

  15. Benzofuran as a promising scaffold for the synthesis of antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents: A review.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Ghadamali; Asadi, Parvin; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Khodarahmi, Elham

    2015-11-01

    Benzofuran as an important heterocyclic compound is extensively found in natural products as well as synthetic materials. Since benzofuran drivatives display a diverse array of pharmacological activities, an interest in developing new biologically active agents from benzofuran is still under consideration. This review highlights recent findings on biological activities of benzofuran derivatives as antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents and lays emphasis on the importance of benzofurans as a major source for drug design and development. PMID:26941815

  16. Benzofuran as a promising scaffold for the synthesis of antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents: A review

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Ghadamali; Asadi, Parvin; Hassanzadeh, Farshid; Khodarahmi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Benzofuran as an important heterocyclic compound is extensively found in natural products as well as synthetic materials. Since benzofuran drivatives display a diverse array of pharmacological activities, an interest in developing new biologically active agents from benzofuran is still under consideration. This review highlights recent findings on biological activities of benzofuran derivatives as antimicrobial and antibreast cancer agents and lays emphasis on the importance of benzofurans as a major source for drug design and development. PMID:26941815

  17. Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Review Microbiology and Antimicrobial Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Peggy L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study assessed the effectiveness of a microcomputer-assisted instructional program using graphics, color, and text in simulations to enhance pharmacy students' knowledge of microbiology and antimicrobial agents. Results indicated high short- and long-term retention of information presented and higher levels of knowledge and comprehension among

  18. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. PMID:25841054

  19. Destruction of Opportunistic Pathogens via Polymer Nanoparticle-Mediated Release of Plant-Based Antimicrobial Payloads.

    PubMed

    Amato, Dahlia N; Amato, Douglas V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Braasch, Dwaine A; Walley, Susan E; Douglas, Jessica R; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Patton, Derek L

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of antimicrobial thymol/carvacrol-loaded polythioether nanoparticles (NPs) via a one-pot, solvent-free miniemulsion thiol-ene photopolymerization process is reported. The active antimicrobial agents, thymol and carvacrol, are employed as "solvents" for the thiol-ene monomer phase in the miniemulsion to enable facile high capacity loading (≈50% w/w), excellent encapsulation efficiencies (>95%), and elimination of all postpolymerization purification processes. The NPs serve as high capacity reservoirs for slow-release and delivery of thymol/carvacrol-combination payloads that exhibit inhibitory and bactericidal activity (>99.9% kill efficiency at 24 h) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including both saprophytic (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and pathogenic species (E. coli ATCC 43895, Staphylococcus aureus RN6390, and Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2). This report is among the first to demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy of essential oil-loaded nanoparticles against B. cenocepacia - an innately resistant opportunistic pathogen commonly associated with debilitating respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis. Although a model platform, these results point to promising pathways to particle-based delivery of plant-derived extracts for a range of antimicrobial applications, including active packaging materials, topical antiseptics, and innovative therapeutics. PMID:26946055

  20. In vitro potency and combination testing of antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Amrita; Martin, Irene; Zhanel, George G; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major concern to public health due to decreased susceptibility to frontline antimicrobials. To find agents that are active against N. gonorrhoeae, we tested antimicrobials alone or in combination by Etest gradient strips. The potencies (as assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations) of twenty-five antimicrobials were evaluated against nine reference strains of N. gonorrhoeae (WHO F, G, K, L, M, N, O, P and ATCC 49226). Potency was greatest for netilmicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. Combinations of azithromycin, moxifloxacin, or gentamicin with ceftriaxone, doripenem, or aztreonam were tested against reference isolates and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated. All nine combinations resulted in indifference (>0.5 FICI ≤ 4). Combinations with FICI < 1 were further evaluated in nine clinical isolates which supported the finding of indifference. No antagonism was observed in any of the combinations tested. This is the first report in which the six combinations of azithromycin, moxifloxacin or gentamcin in combination with doripenem or aztreonam were tested in N. gonorrhoeae. These data on antimicrobials with higher potency and combinations that did not show antagonism can help to guide larger scale susceptibility studies for antimicrobial resistant N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:26603424

  1. Metabolic Network Analysis-Based Identification of Antimicrobial Drug Targets in Category A Bioterrorism Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents. PMID:24454817

  2. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents. PMID:24454817

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants and Investigation of Flavonoids of Tripleurospermum disciforme

    PubMed Central

    Tofighi, Zahra; Molazem, Maryam; Doostdar, Behnaz; Taban, Parisa; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Securigera securidaca were used as disinfectant agents and for treatment of some disease in folk medicine of Iran. The antimicrobial effects of different fractions of seeds extract of S. securidaca, petals extract of R. damascena and aerial parts extract of T. disciforme were examined against some gram positive, gram negative and fungi by cup plate diffusion method. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of S. securidaca showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while its methanol fraction had no antibacterial effects. R. damascena petals extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. T. disciforme aerial parts extract exhibited antimicrobial effects only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. None of the fractions had any antifungal activities. Therefore, present study confirmed utility of these plants as disinfectant agents. Six flavonoids were isolated from T. disciforme: Luteolin, Quercetin-7-O-glucoside, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, Apigenin and Apigenin-7-O-glucoside. The flavonoids and the antimicrobial activity of T. disciforme are reported for the first time. PMID:25561928

  4. Antimicrobial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants and Investigation of Flavonoids of Tripleurospermum disciforme.

    PubMed

    Tofighi, Zahra; Molazem, Maryam; Doostdar, Behnaz; Taban, Parisa; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Samadi, Nasrin; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Securigera securidaca were used as disinfectant agents and for treatment of some disease in folk medicine of Iran. The antimicrobial effects of different fractions of seeds extract of S. securidaca, petals extract of R. damascena and aerial parts extract of T. disciforme were examined against some gram positive, gram negative and fungi by cup plate diffusion method. The petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of S. securidaca showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while its methanol fraction had no antibacterial effects. R. damascena petals extract demonstrated antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. T. disciforme aerial parts extract exhibited antimicrobial effects only against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. None of the fractions had any antifungal activities. Therefore, present study confirmed utility of these plants as disinfectant agents. Six flavonoids were isolated from T. disciforme: Luteolin, Quercetin-7-O-glucoside, Kaempferol, Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside, Apigenin and Apigenin-7-O-glucoside. The flavonoids and the antimicrobial activity of T. disciforme are reported for the first time. PMID:25561928

  5. CO-releasing Metal Carbonyl Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents in the Post-antibiotic Era*

    PubMed Central

    Wareham, Lauren K.; Poole, Robert K.; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of a “post-antibiotic era” in the 21st century, in which common infections may kill, has prompted research into radically new antimicrobials. CO-releasing molecules (CORMs), mostly metal carbonyl compounds, originally developed for therapeutic CO delivery in animals, are potent antimicrobial agents. Certain CORMs inhibit growth and respiration, reduce viability, and release CO to intracellular hemes, as predicted, but their actions are more complex, as revealed by transcriptomic datasets and modeling. Progress is hindered by difficulties in detecting CO release intracellularly, limited understanding of the biological chemistry of CO reactions with non-heme targets, and the cytotoxicity of some CORMs to mammalian cells. PMID:26055702

  6. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Youn; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Ki; Ha, Yong-Geun; Hwang, Ju Young; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Seon-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Plant extracts have been found to be effective in reducing microorganisms. This study evaluated antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes by using a disk diffusion assay, and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) showed the highest inhibitory effect. To investigate the efficacy of clove extract that inactivates pathogens on lettuce, inoculated lettuce with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes was treated with diluted clove extracts or distilled water for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 min. Clove extract treatment significantly reduced populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surface of lettuce. Practical Application: This result indicated that clove extract is a useful antimicrobial agent to reduce the microbial level of foodborne pathogens on fresh lettuce. It also might be a natural antimicrobial for reducing or replacing chemical sanitizers in food preservation. PMID:21535692

  7. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection. PMID:25784148

  8. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  9. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the centralwestern region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Batista, Ana Lucia; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Pott, Vali Joana; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae), Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae), Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae), Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae), Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) March. (Burseraceae), as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources. Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations. PMID:24031956

  10. Self-assembled cationic peptide nanoparticles as an efficient antimicrobial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lihong; Xu, Kaijin; Wang, Huaying; Jeremy Tan, P. K.; Fan, Weimin; Venkatraman, Subbu S.; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial cationic peptides are of interest because they can combat multi-drug-resistant microbes. Most peptides form α-helices or β-sheet-like structures that can insert into and subsequently disintegrate negatively charged bacterial cell surfaces. Here, we show that a novel class of core-shell nanoparticles formed by self-assembly of an amphiphilic peptide have strong antimicrobial properties against a range of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The nanoparticles show a high therapeutic index against Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and are more potent than their unassembled peptide counterparts. Using Staphylococcus aureus-infected meningitis rabbits, we show that the nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier and suppress bacterial growth in infected brains. Taken together, these nanoparticles are promising antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat brain infections and other infectious diseases.

  11. Self-assembled cationic peptide nanoparticles as an efficient antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Xu, Kaijin; Wang, Huaying; Tan, P K Jeremy; Fan, Weimin; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Li, Lanjuan; Yang, Yi-Yan

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial cationic peptides are of interest because they can combat multi-drug-resistant microbes. Most peptides form alpha-helices or beta-sheet-like structures that can insert into and subsequently disintegrate negatively charged bacterial cell surfaces. Here, we show that a novel class of core-shell nanoparticles formed by self-assembly of an amphiphilic peptide have strong antimicrobial properties against a range of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The nanoparticles show a high therapeutic index against Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and are more potent than their unassembled peptide counterparts. Using Staphylococcus aureus-infected meningitis rabbits, we show that the nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier and suppress bacterial growth in infected brains. Taken together, these nanoparticles are promising antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat brain infections and other infectious diseases. PMID:19581900

  12. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  13. Variation in Colonial Morphology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae After Growth on Media Containing Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    James, Ann N.; Wende, Reuben D.; Williams, Robert P.

    1973-01-01

    Stable colonial types 1, 2, 3, and 4 were prepared from eight strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Four of the strains, termed laboratory strains, had been transferred over 100 times; three strains, termed clinical strains, were transferred only three to five times after isolation from patients, and one stabilized clinical strain was transferred purposefully 30 times after isolation from a patient. Colonial types of the three categories were grown on four media containing the following agents at the level used in diagnostic media: (i) vancomycin, colistin, and nystatin; (ii) these antibiotics plus trimethoprim lactate; (iii) trimethoprim lactate alone; and (iv) a control with no antimicrobial agents. When grown on media containing the antimicrobial agents, colonial types 1, 2, and 3 of all strains showed specific and consistent changes that precluded accurate identification of the types. In general, the colonies were smaller, more dense to transmission of light, and more granular than colonies grown on control medium. More colonies showed these type changes in the clinical strains and on media containing trimethoprim lactate. Colonies of type 4 showed little or no change. The changes in colonial morphology of types 1, 2, and 3 were pronounced enough to make colony typing difficult if the antimicrobial agents, particularly trimethoprim lactate, were present in media. Images PMID:4201640

  14. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram. PMID:17583653

  15. Antimicrobial activity of selected Iranian medicinal plants against a broad spectrum of pathogenic and drug multiresistant micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Abedini, A; Roumy, V; Mahieux, S; Gohari, A; Farimani, M M; Rivière, C; Samaillie, J; Sahpaz, S; Bailleul, F; Neut, C; Hennebelle, T

    2014-10-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 44 methanolic extracts from different parts of Iranian indigenous plant species used in traditional medicines of Iran were tested against a panel of 35 pathogenic and multiresistant bacteria and 1 yeast. The antimicrobial efficacy was determined using Müller-Hinton agar in Petri dishes seeded by a multiple inoculator and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) method. The 21 most active extracts (MIC < 0·3 mg ml(-1) for one or several micro-organisms) were submitted to a more refined measurement. The best antibacterial activity was obtained by 10 plants. Microdilution assays allowed to determinate the MIC and MBC of the 21 most active extracts. The lowest achieved MIC value was 78 μg ml(-1), with 4 extracts. This work confirms the antimicrobial activity of assayed plants and suggests further examination to identify the chemical structure of their antimicrobial compounds. Significance and impact of the study: This study describes the antimicrobial screening of Iranian plant extracts chosen according to traditional practice against 36 microbial strains, from reference culture collections or recent clinical isolates, and enables to select 4 candidates for further chemical characterization and biological assessment: Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferulago contracta (seeds) and Perovskia abrotanoides (aerial parts). This may be useful in the development of potential antimicrobial agents, from easily harvested and highly sustainable plant parts. Moreover, the weak extent of cross-resistance between plant extracts and antibiotics warrants further research and may promote a strategy based on less potent but time-trained products. PMID:24888993

  16. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry. PMID:22385168

  17. Engineered Chimeric Peptides as Antimicrobial Surface Coating Agents toward Infection-Free Implants.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Hilal; O'Neill, Mary B; Kacar, Turgay; Wilson, Brandon R; Oren, E Emre; Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-03-01

    Prevention of bacterial colonization and consequent biofilm formation remains a major challenge in implantable medical devices. Implant-associated infections are not only a major cause of implant failures but also their conventional treatment with antibiotics brings further complications due to the escalation in multidrug resistance to a variety of bacterial species. Owing to their unique properties, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have gained significant attention as effective agents to combat colonization of microorganisms. These peptides have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of activities with specificity to a target cell while having a low tendency for developing bacterial resistance. Engineering biomaterial surfaces that feature AMP properties, therefore, offer a promising approach to prevent implant infections. Here, we engineered a chimeric peptide with bifunctionality that both forms a robust solid-surface coating while presenting antimicrobial property. The individual domains of the chimeric peptides were evaluated for their solid-binding kinetics to titanium substrate as well as for their antimicrobial properties in solution. The antimicrobial efficacy of the chimeric peptide on the implant material was evaluated in vitro against infection by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus. epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, which are commonly found in oral and orthopedic implant related surgeries. Our results demonstrate significant improvement in reducing bacterial colonization onto titanium surfaces below the detectable limit. Engineered chimeric peptides with freely displayed antimicrobial domains could be a potential solution for developing infection-free surfaces by engineering implant interfaces with highly reduced bacterial colonization property. PMID:26795060

  18. Development of an experimental apparatus and protocol for determining antimicrobial activities of gaseous plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-12-23

    There is a growing interest in the use of naturally-occurring antimicrobial agents such as plant essential oils (EOs) to inhibit the growth of hazardous and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Gaseous EOs (EO gases) have many potential applications in the food industry, including use as antimicrobial agents in food packaging materials and sanitizing agents for foods and food-contact surfaces, and in food processing environments. Despite the potentially beneficial applications of EO gases, there is no standard method to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. Thus, the present study was aimed at developing an experimental apparatus and protocol to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of EO gases against microorganisms. A sealed experimental apparatus was constructed for simultaneous evaluation of antimicrobial activities of EO gases at different concentrations without creating concentration gradients. A differential medium was then evaluated in which a color change allowed for the determination of growth of glucose-fermenting microorganisms. Lastly, an experimental protocol for the assessment of MIC and MLC values of EO gases was developed, and these values were determined for 31 EO gases against Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. Results showed that cinnamon bark EO gas had the lowest MIC (0.0391 μl/ml), followed by thyme-thymol EO gas (0.0781 μl/ml), oregano EO gas (0.3125 μl/ml), peppermint EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml), and thyme-linalool EO gas (0.6250 μl/ml). The order of the MLC values of the EO gases against the E. coli O157:H7 was thyme-thymol (0.0781 μl/ml)antimicrobial agents. PMID:26350124

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains: in vitro activities of 20 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Lehtopolku, Mirva; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Huovinen, Pentti; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J

    2010-03-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding antimicrobial agents that are suitable to treat severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant Campylobacter spp. Our aim was to identify agents that are potentially effective against multiresistant Campylobacter strains. The in vitro activities of 20 antimicrobial agents against 238 Campylobacter strains were analyzed by determining MICs by the agar plate dilution method or the Etest. These strains were selected from 1,808 Campylobacter isolates collected from Finnish patients between 2003 and 2005 and screened for macrolide susceptibility by using the disk diffusion test. The 238 strains consisted of 183 strains with erythromycin inhibition zone diameters of < or =23 mm and 55 strains with inhibition zone diameters of >23 mm. Of the 238 Campylobacter strains, 19 were resistant to erythromycin by MIC determinations (MIC > or = 16 microg/ml). Given that the resistant strains were identified among the collection of 1,808 isolates, the frequency of erythromycin resistance was 1.1%. All erythromycin-resistant strains were multidrug resistant, with 18 (94.7%) of them being resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC > or = 4 microg/ml). The percentages of resistance to tetracycline and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (co-amoxiclav) were 73.7% and 31.6%, respectively. All macrolide-resistant strains were susceptible to imipenem, meropenem, and tigecycline. Ten (52.6%) multiresistant strains were identified as being Campylobacter jejuni strains, and 9 (47.4%) were identified as being C. coli strains. These data demonstrate that the incidence of macrolide resistance was low but that the macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains were uniformly multidrug resistant. In addition to the carbapenems, tigecycline was also highly effective against these multidrug-resistant Campylobacter strains in vitro. Its efficacy for the treatment of human campylobacteriosis should be evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:20038624

  20. In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Characterization of Peptoids as Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Czyzewski, Ann M; Jenssen, Håvard; Fjell, Christopher D; Waldbrook, Matt; Chongsiriwatana, Nathaniel P; Yuen, Eddie; Hancock, Robert E W; Barron, Annelise E

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a global threat that has spurred the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimetics as novel anti-infective agents. While the bioavailability of AMPs is often reduced due to protease activity, the non-natural structure of AMP mimetics renders them robust to proteolytic degradation, thus offering a distinct advantage for their clinical application. We explore the therapeutic potential of N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, as AMP mimics using a multi-faceted approach that includes in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques. We report a new QSAR model that we developed based on 27 diverse peptoid sequences, which accurately correlates antimicrobial peptoid structure with antimicrobial activity. We have identified a number of peptoids that have potent, broad-spectrum in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. Lastly, using a murine model of invasive S. aureus infection, we demonstrate that one of the best candidate peptoids at 4 mg/kg significantly reduces with a two-log order the bacterial counts compared with saline-treated controls. Taken together, our results demonstrate the promising therapeutic potential of peptoids as antimicrobial agents. PMID:26849681

  1. In Vivo, In Vitro, and In Silico Characterization of Peptoids as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fjell, Christopher D.; Waldbrook, Matt; Chongsiriwatana, Nathaniel P.; Yuen, Eddie; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Barron, Annelise E.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a global threat that has spurred the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their mimetics as novel anti-infective agents. While the bioavailability of AMPs is often reduced due to protease activity, the non-natural structure of AMP mimetics renders them robust to proteolytic degradation, thus offering a distinct advantage for their clinical application. We explore the therapeutic potential of N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, as AMP mimics using a multi-faceted approach that includes in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques. We report a new QSAR model that we developed based on 27 diverse peptoid sequences, which accurately correlates antimicrobial peptoid structure with antimicrobial activity. We have identified a number of peptoids that have potent, broad-spectrum in vitro activity against multi-drug resistant bacterial strains. Lastly, using a murine model of invasive S. aureus infection, we demonstrate that one of the best candidate peptoids at 4 mg/kg significantly reduces with a two-log order the bacterial counts compared with saline-treated controls. Taken together, our results demonstrate the promising therapeutic potential of peptoids as antimicrobial agents. PMID:26849681

  2. Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Hong; Fan, Lu; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Agulló-Barceló, Míriam; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L

    2016-05-17

    Free nitrous acid (FNA) has recently been demonstrated as an antimicrobial agent on a range of micro-organisms, especially in wastewater-treatment systems. However, the antimicrobial mechanism of FNA is largely unknown. Here, we report that the antimicrobial effects of FNA are multitargeted. The response of a model denitrifier, Pseudomnas aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1), common in wastewater treatment, was investigated in the absence and presence of inhibitory level of FNA (0.1 mg N/L) under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. This was achieved through coupling gene expression analysis, by RNA sequencing, and with a suite of physiological analyses. Various transcripts exhibited significant changes in abundance in the presence of FNA. Respiration was likely inhibited because denitrification activity was severely depleted, and decreased transcript levels of most denitrification genes occurred. As a consequence, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited due to the lowered cellular redox state in the FNA-exposed cultures. Meanwhile, during FNA exposure, PAO1 rerouted its carbon metabolic pathway from the TCA cycle to pyruvate fermentation with acetate as the end product as a possible survival mechanism. Additionally, protein synthesis was significantly decreased, and ribosome preservation was evident. These findings improve our understanding of PAO1 in response to FNA and contribute toward the potential application for use of FNA as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:27116299

  3. Chemokine-Derived Peptides: Novel Antimicrobial and Antineoplasic Agents.

    PubMed

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio; Medina-Tamayo, Jaciel; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are a burgeoning family of chemotactic cytokines displaying a broad array of functions such as regulation of homeostatic leukocyte traffic and development, as well as activating the innate immune system. Their role in controlling early and late inflammatory stages is now well recognized. An improper balance either in chemokine synthesis or chemokine receptor expression contributes to various pathological disorders making chemokines and their receptors a useful therapeutic target. Research in this area is progressing rapidly, and development of novel agents based on chemokine/ chemokine receptors antagonist functions are emerging as attractive alternative drugs. Some of these novel agents include generation of chemokine-derived peptides (CDP) with potential agonist and antagonist effects on inflammation, cancer and against bacterial infections. CDP have been generated mainly from N- and C-terminus chemokine sequences with subsequent modifications such as truncations or elongations. In this review, we present a glimpse of the different pharmacological actions reported for CDP and our current understanding regarding the potential use of CDP alone or as part of the novel therapies proposed in the treatment of microbial infections and cancer. PMID:26062132

  4. Chemokine-Derived Peptides: Novel Antimicrobial and Antineoplasic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio; Medina-Tamayo, Jaciel; Garcia-Zepeda, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are a burgeoning family of chemotactic cytokines displaying a broad array of functions such as regulation of homeostatic leukocyte traffic and development, as well as activating the innate immune system. Their role in controlling early and late inflammatory stages is now well recognized. An improper balance either in chemokine synthesis or chemokine receptor expression contributes to various pathological disorders making chemokines and their receptors a useful therapeutic target. Research in this area is progressing rapidly, and development of novel agents based on chemokine/chemokine receptors antagonist functions are emerging as attractive alternative drugs. Some of these novel agents include generation of chemokine-derived peptides (CDP) with potential agonist and antagonist effects on inflammation, cancer and against bacterial infections. CDP have been generated mainly from N- and C-terminus chemokine sequences with subsequent modifications such as truncations or elongations. In this review, we present a glimpse of the different pharmacological actions reported for CDP and our current understanding regarding the potential use of CDP alone or as part of the novel therapies proposed in the treatment of microbial infections and cancer. PMID:26062132

  5. High-Level Antimicrobial Efficacy of Representative Mediterranean Natural Plant Extracts against Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Manuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios Leandros; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    Nature is an unexplored reservoir of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Since biofilm-related oral diseases often correlate with antibiotic resistance, plant-derived antimicrobial agents could enhance existing treatment options. Therefore, the rationale of the present report was to examine the antimicrobial impact of Mediterranean natural extracts on oral microorganisms. Five different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosa were tested against ten bacteria and one Candida albicans strain. The extraction protocols were conducted according to established experimental procedures. Two antimicrobial assays—the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay—were applied. The screened extracts were found to be active against each of the tested microorganisms. O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.60–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.15–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. Extracts were less effective against C. albicans and exerted bactericidal effects at a concentration range of 0.07–5.00 mg mL−1 on strict anaerobic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Parvimonas micra). Ethyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents. PMID:25054150

  6. Screening of some medicinal plants of Ethiopia for their anti-microbial properties and chemical profiles.

    PubMed

    Geyid, Aberra; Abebe, Dawit; Debella, Asfaw; Makonnen, Zewdneh; Aberra, Frehiwot; Teka, Frehiwot; Kebede, Tesfaye; Urga, Kelbessa; Yersaw, Kidist; Biza, Teklele; Mariam, Bisrat Haile; Guta, Mulugeta

    2005-03-21

    In the indigenous health care delivery system of Ethiopia, numerous plant species are used to treat diseases of infectious origin. Regardless of the number of species, if any of such claims could be verified scientifically, the potential significance for the improvement of the health care services would be substantial. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the presence of anti-microbial activity in the crude extracts of some of the commonly used medicinal plants as well as to identify the class of compounds in the plants that were subjected to such screening. Thus, the crude methanol, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of 67 plant species were subjected to preliminary screening against 10 strains of bacterial species and 6 fungal strains using the agar dilution method. A sample concentration of 250-2000 microg/ml and 500-4000 microg/ml were used for the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The results indicated that 44 different plant species exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria while one species, viz., Albizzia gummifera showed activity against all the 10 bacteria at different gradient of dilution. Twenty three species inhibited or retarded growth of one or more organisms at dilution as low as 250 microg/ml. Extracts of same plants species were also tested against six different fungal pathogenic agents of which eight species showed growth inhibition against one or more of the organisms. Trichila emetica and Dovyalis abyssinica, which inhibited growth of four and five fungal strains at 100 microg/ml concentration, respectively, were the most promising plants. Chemical screening conducted on the extracts of all the plants showed the presence of several secondary metabolites, mainly, polyphenols, alkaloids, tannins sterols/terpenes, saponins and glycosides. The plants containing more of these metabolites demonstrated stronger anti-microbial properties stressing the need for further investigations using fractionated extracts and purified chemical components. PMID:15740876

  7. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T. foenum graecum) showed significant antimicrobial activity (P < .05) against most of the isolates. The MIC and MFC values were ranged from 31 to 500 μg/ml. P. aeruginosa was observed highest susceptible bacteria (46.6%) on the basis of susceptible index. Conclusion It can be concluded that treated oral cancer patients were neutropenic and prone to secondary infection of microbes. The medicinal plant can prove as effective antimicrobial agent to check the secondary infections in treated cancer patients. PMID:21599889

  8. Comparative in vitro activities of six new fluoroquinolones and other oral antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Simor, A E; Ferro, S; Low, D E

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 56 clinical isolates of Campylobacter pylori to six new fluoroquinolones and other oral antimicrobial agents were determined by an agar dilution technique. Ciprofloxacin was the most active of the fluoroquinolones (MIC for 90% of strains tested [MIC90], 0.05 microgram/ml). Other fluoroquinolones had variable activities, although most isolates were moderately susceptible to fleroxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) and lomefloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml). PMID:2712542

  9. Binding properties of antimicrobial agents to lipid membranes using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Hirokazu; Nishiguchi, Kenzo; Oka, Masako; Maki, Hideki; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kamimori, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the interaction of antimicrobial agents with four model lipid membranes that mimicked mammalian cell membranes and Gram-positive and -negative bacterial membranes and analyzed the binding kinetics using our surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. The selective and specific binding characteristics of antimicrobial agents to the lipid membranes were estimated, and the kinetic parameters were analyzed by application of a two-state reaction model. Reproducible analysis of binding kinetics was observed. Vancomyicn, teicoplanin, erythromycin, and linezolid showed little interaction with the four lipid membranes in the SPR system. On the other hand, vancomycin analogues showed interaction with the model lipid membranes in the SPR system. The selective and specific binding characteristics of vancomycin analogues to the lipid membranes are discussed based on data for in vitro antibacterial activities and our data on the binding affinity of the D-alanyl-D-alanine terminus of a pentapeptide cell wall obtained by SPR. The mechanism of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci could be evaluated using the binding affinity obtained with our SPR techniques. The results indicate that the SPR method could be widely applied to predict binding characteristics, such as selectivity and specificity, of many antimicrobial agents to lipid membranes. PMID:25087959

  10. Expression of tmRNAin Mycobacteria is Increased by Antimicrobial Agents that Target the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Andini, Nadya; Nash, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The specialized RNA, tmRNA, is a central component of prokaryote trans-translation; a process that salvages stalled translational complexes. Evidence from other bacteria, suggested that exposure to ribosome inhibitors elevated tmRNA levels, although it was unclear whether such changes resulted from increased tmRNA synthesis. Consequently, this study was initiated to determine the effect of ribosome inhibitors on the expression tmRNA in mycobacteria. Exposure of Mycobacterium smegmatis to ribosome-targeting antimicrobial agents was associated with increased in the levels of the tmRNA precursor, pre-tmRNA, and mature tmRNA. For example, exposure to 16 μg mL−1 erythromycin for 3 h increased pre-tmRNA and tmRNA by 18 and 6-fold, respectively. Equivalent results were found following exposure of Mycobacterium bovis BCG to streptomycin. Exposure to antimicrobial agents with non-ribosome targets did not affect tmRNA levels. The increased tmRNA levels were associated with increased output from the ssrA promoter, which controls tmRNA transcription, without evidence of a change in tmRNA degradation. Thus, these results suggested that the upregulation of tmRNA expression was an important response of bacteria to exposure to ribosome-inhibiting antimicrobial agents. PMID:21718348

  11. In Vitro Activities of the Everninomicin SCH 27899 and Other Newer Antimicrobial Agents against Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Lisa L.; Torigian, Christine V.; Barbour, Alan G.

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the everninomicin antibiotic SCH 27899 against 17 isolates of Borrelia spp. was investigated. MICs ranged from 0.06 to 0.5 μg/ml. Time-kill studies with the B31 strain of B. burgdorferi demonstrated ≥3-log10-unit killing after 72 h with concentrations representing four times the MIC. The in vitro activity of four other newer antimicrobial agents, meropenem, cefepime, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and linezolid, was also tested against the B31 strain. Meropenem was the most potent of the latter agents, with an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml. PMID:10390242

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants against several foodborne and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Alves, Sofia; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Amaral, Joana S; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-12-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils extracted from a variety of aromatic plants, often used in the Portuguese gastronomy was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion method. The essential oils of thyme, oregano, rosemary, verbena, basil, peppermint, pennyroyal and mint were tested against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative strains (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). For most essential oils examined, S. aureus, was the most susceptible bacteria, while P. aeruginosa showed, in general, least susceptibility. Among the eight essential oils evaluated, thyme, oregano and pennyroyal oils showed the greatest antimicrobial activity, followed by rosemary, peppermint and verbena, while basil and mint showed the weakest antimicrobial activity. Most of the essential oils considered in this study exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. Thyme oil showed a promising inhibitory activity even at low concentration, thus revealing its potential as a natural preservative in food products against several causal agents of foodborne diseases and food spoilage. In general, the results demonstrate that, besides flavoring the food, the use of aromatic herbs in gastronomy can also contribute to a bacteriostatic effect against pathogens. PMID:23444311

  13. Protective effects of intravenous immunoglobulin and antimicrobial agents on acute pneumonia in leukopenic mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaru; Katoh, Hideya; Hamaoka, Saeko; Kinoshita, Mao; Akiyama, Koichi; Naito, Yoshifumi; Sawa, Teiji

    2016-04-01

    Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes the type of acute lung injury that is strongly associated with bacteremia, sepsis, and mortality, especially under immunocompromised conditions. Although administration of immunoglobulin solution is an applicable immunotherapy in immunocompromised patients, efficacy of immunoglobulin administration against multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa pneumonia has not been well evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of prophylactic administration of immunoglobulin solution (IVIG) in comparison with that of other types of antimicrobial agents, such as anti-PcrV IgG, piperacillin/tazobactam, or colistin in an immunocompromised mouse model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Colistin was the most effective agent for preventing acute lung injury, bacteremia, cytokinemia, and sepsis. Among the four tested antimicrobial agents, after colistin, anti-PcrV IgG and IVIG were the most effective at protecting mice from mortality. Piperacillin/tazobactam did not prevent acute lung injury or bacteremia; rather, it worsened lung histology. The data suggest that using an agent for which a positive result in an in vitro susceptibility test has been obtained may not always prevent acute lung injury in a leukopenic host infected with P. aeruginosa. Clinicians should consider the possibility of discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo tests because the absence of in vitro bactericidal activity in an antimicrobial agent is not always a reliable predictor of its lack of ability to eradicate bacteria in vivo, even in immunocompromised hosts. Based on our findings, the potential protective effects of IVIG against the acute lung injury induced by P. aeruginosa should be reevaluated. PMID:26867796

  14. Risk factors for resistance to antimicrobial agents among nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Mark B; Craven, Sharon; McGeer, Allison J; Simor, Andrew E; Bradley, Suzanne F; Low, Donald E; Armstrong-Evans, Maxine; Moss, Lorraine A; Walter, Stephen D

    2003-01-01

    The authors prospectively collected data on exposure to antimicrobial agents and susceptibility patterns among all clinical isolates of bacteria taken from 9,156 residents of 50 nursing homes in Canada and the United States in 1998-1999. Exposure to antimicrobial agents was measured during the 10 weeks prior to detection of targeted resistant bacteria in residents and compared with antibiotic exposure during a 10-week interval in individuals with sensitive organisms. These main effects were adjusted for infection-control and staffing covariates using multiple logistic regression modeling. Increased staffing of nursing homes with registered nurses (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72, 0.87) per registered nurse per 100 resident-days) and use of antibacterial soap (adjusted OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.90) were associated with reduced risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing home residents. An increase in the number of hand-washing sinks per 100 residents was shown to reduce the risk of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (adjusted OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98). Exposure to TMP-SMX and exposure to fluoroquinolones were significant risk factors for isolation of TMP-SMX-resistant Enterobacteriaciae (adjusted OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.22) and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaciae (adjusted OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.11), respectively. These findings suggest that increased staffing, more hand-washing sinks, and use of antimicrobial soap may reduce resistance to antimicrobial agents in long-term care facilities. PMID:12505889

  15. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ahmad, Mudasir; Swami, Babu Lal; Ikram, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26843966

  16. Perspectives and concerns regarding antimicrobial agent shortages among infectious disease specialists.

    PubMed

    Gundlapalli, Adi V; Beekmann, Susan E; Graham, Donald R; Polgreen, Philip M

    2013-03-01

    Antimicrobial shortages have made treating certain infections more difficult. A web-based survey asking about experience with antimicrobial drug shortages was distributed in 2011 to 1328 infectious diseases physician members of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Network of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. A majority (78%) of 627 respondents reported needing to modify antimicrobial choices because of drug shortages within the past 2 years. Antimicrobials most often reported as not available or available but in short supply were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole injection (by 65% of respondents), amikacin (by 58%), aztreonam (by 31%), and foscarnet (by 22%). Most respondents (55%) reporting a shortage indicated that the shortage adversely affected patient outcomes and that they were forced to use alternative and second line agents which were either less effective, more toxic, or more costly. Most (70%) indicated that they learned about the shortage from contact with the pharmacy after trying to prescribe a drug in short supply. More effective means of informing physicians about drug shortages is critical to lessen the impact on patient care. PMID:23305775

  17. Agricultural Application of Higher Plants for Their Antimicrobial Potentials in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes published research into Chinese medicinal and aromatic plants as sources of new crop protectants. Literature was reviewed based on our personal experience, reported antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, novel chemical structures, and potential for agricultural utiliz...

  18. Synthesis and Evaluation of Ester Derivatives of 10-Hydroxycanthin-6-one as Potential Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Dai, Jiang-Kun; Liu, Dan; Wang, Shi-Jun; Wang, Jun-Ru

    2016-01-01

    As part of our continuing research on canthin-6-one antimicrobial agents, a new series of ester derivatives of 10-hydroxycanthin-6-one were synthesized using a simple and effective synthetic route. The structure of each compound was characterized by NMR, ESI-MS, FT-IR, UV, and elemental analysis. The antimicrobial activity of these compounds against three phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria solani, Fusarium graminearum, and Fusarium solani) and four bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae) were evaluated using the mycelium linear growth rate method and micro-broth dilution method, respectively. The structure-activity relationship is discussed. Of the tested compounds, 4 and 7s displayed significant antifungal activity against F. graminearum, with inhibition rates of 100% at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Compounds 5, 7s, and 7t showed the best inhibitory activity against all the tested bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 3.91 and 31.25 μg/mL. Thus, 7s emerged as a promising lead compound for the development of novel canthine-6-one antimicrobial agents. PMID:27007362

  19. Effect of ionizing energy on extracts of Quillaja saponaria to be used as an antimicrobial agent on irradiated edible coating for fresh strawberries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga, G. E.; Junqueira-Gonçalves, M. P.; Pizarro, M.; Contreras, R.; Tapia, A.; Silva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating antimicrobial compounds into edible films or coatings provides a novel way to improve the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods. Diverse studies with Quillaja saponaria Mol. (popularly named quillay) extracts have demonstrated their potential as antifungal agents against phytopathogenic fungi. Crosslinking induced by ionizing radiation is an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on milk proteins. However there are few reports about the effects of γ-radiation on plant extracts. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 kGy) on extracts prepared from in vitro plants of Q. saponaria to be used as antimicrobial agent in irradiated edible coating based on calcium caseinate and whey protein isolated, and also to establish the concentration of Q. saponaria extract to be added as an antifungal agent in the coating. Gamma irradiation since 15 kGy affects negatively the antimicrobial activity and metabolites composition of extract of Q. saponaria by reducing compounds of phenolic nature. Otherwise no effect on saponins profile was observed even at higher doses. It was possible to conclude that the antifungal activity of Q. saponaria extract is mainly related to phenolic compounds content. In addition, our work also shows that to obtain an efficient antifungal protection is necessary to add a minimum concentration of 6% of the extract after the coating irradiation.

  20. Multidrug resistance genes in staphylococci from animals that confer resistance to critically and highly important antimicrobial agents in human medicine.

    PubMed

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Shen, Jianzhong; Kadlec, Kristina; Wang, Yang; Li, Beibei; Zhang, Wan-Jiang; Feßler, Andrea T; Wu, Congming; Schwarz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Most antimicrobial resistance genes known so far to occur in staphylococci of animal origin confer resistance to a specific class of antimicrobial agents or to selected members within such a class. However, there are also a few examples of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes that confer resistance to antimicrobial agents of different classes by either target site methylation or active efflux via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The present review provides an overview of these MDR genes with particular reference to those genes involved in resistance to critically or highly important antimicrobial agents used in human and veterinary medicine. Moreover, their location on mobile genetic elements and colocated resistance genes, which may play a role in coselection and persistence of the MDR genes, are addressed. PMID:25455417

  1. Morphological and biochemical changes in Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms induced by sub-inhibitory exposure to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Dynes, James J; Lawrence, John R; Korber, Darren R; Swerhone, George D W; Leppard, Gary G; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2009-02-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to examine the morphological and biochemical changes in Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 4 antimicrobial agents: triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine dihydrochloride, and trisodium phosphate. CLSM analyses using the stains SYTO9 and propidium iodide indicated that the antimicrobial agents affected cell membrane integrity and cellular density to differing degrees. However, fluorescein diacetate assays and plate counts demonstrated that the cells remained metabolically active. Fluorescent lectin binding assays showed that changes in the arrangement and composition of the exopolymer matrix of the biofilms also occurred and that these changes depended on the antimicrobial agent. Detailed single cell analyses using STXM provided evidence that the cell morphology, and the spatial distribution and relative amounts of protein, lipids and polysaccharides in the biofilms and within the cells were different for each antimicrobial. The distribution of chlorhexidine in the biofilm, determined from its distinct spectral signature, was localized mainly inside the bacterial cells. Each antimicrobial agent elicited a unique response; P. fluorescens cells and biofilms changed their morphology and architecture, as well as the distribution and abundance of biomacromolecules, in particular the exopolymer matrix. Pseudomonas fluorescens also exhibited adaptation to benzalkonium chloride at 10 microg/mL. Our observations point to the importance of changes in the quantity and chemistry of the exopolymeric matrix in the response to antimicrobial agents and suggest their importance as targets for control. PMID:19295649

  2. Inspired by Nature: The Use of Plant-derived Substrate/Enzyme Combinations to Generate Antimicrobial Activity in situ.

    PubMed

    Estevam, Ethiene Castellucci; Griffin, Sharoon; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Zieliński, Dariusz; Aszyk, Justyna; Osowicka, Magdalena; Dawidowska, Natalia; Idroes, Rinaldi; Bartoszek, Agnieszka; Jacob, Claus

    2015-10-01

    The last decade has witnessed a renewed interest in antimicrobial agents. Plants have received particular attention and frequently rely on the spontaneous enzymatic conversion of an inactive precursor to an active agent. Such two-component substrate/enzyme defence systems can be reconstituted ex vivo. Here, the alliin/alliinase system from garlic seems to be rather effective against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whilst the glucosinolate/myrosinase system from mustard appears to be more active against certain bacteria. Studies with myrosinase also confirm that enzyme and substrate can be added sequentially. Ultimately, such binary systems hold considerable promise and may be employed in a medical or agricultural context. PMID:26669114

  3. Curcumin-encapsulated nanoparticles as innovative antimicrobial and wound healing agent.

    PubMed

    Krausz, Aimee E; Adler, Brandon L; Cabral, Vitor; Navati, Mahantesh; Doerner, Jessica; Charafeddine, Rabab A; Chandra, Dinesh; Liang, Hongying; Gunther, Leslie; Clendaniel, Alicea; Harper, Stacey; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Burn wounds are often complicated by bacterial infection, contributing to morbidity and mortality. Agents commonly used to treat burn wound infection are limited by toxicity, incomplete microbial coverage, inadequate penetration, and rising resistance. Curcumin is a naturally derived substance with innate antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Acting by multiple mechanisms, curcumin is less likely than current antibiotics to select for resistant bacteria. Curcumin's poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation profile hinder usage; nanoparticle encapsulation overcomes this pitfall and enables extended topical delivery of curcumin. In this study, we synthesized and characterized curcumin nanoparticles (curc-np), which inhibited in vitro growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in dose-dependent fashion, and inhibited MRSA growth and enhanced wound healing in an in vivo murine wound model. Curc-np may represent a novel topical antimicrobial and wound healing adjuvant for infected burn wounds and other cutaneous injuries. PMID:25240595

  4. Plants' Metabolites as Potential Antiobesity Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gooda Sahib, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Mahomoodally, Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related complications are on the increase both in the developed and developing world. Since existing pharmaceuticals fail to come up with long-term solutions to address this issue, there is an ever-pressing need to find and develop new drugs and alternatives. Natural products, particularly medicinal plants, are believed to harbor potential antiobesity agents that can act through various mechanisms either by preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss amongst others. The inhibition of key lipid and carbohydrate hydrolyzing and metabolizing enzymes, disruption of adipogenesis, and modulation of its factors or appetite suppression are some of the plethora of targeted approaches to probe the antiobesity potential of medicinal plants. A new technology such as metabolomics, which deals with the study of the whole metabolome, has been identified to be a promising technique to probe the progression of diseases, elucidate their pathologies, and assess the effects of natural health products on certain pathological conditions. This has been applied to drug research, bone health, and to a limited extent to obesity research. This paper thus endeavors to give an overview of those plants, which have been reported to have antiobesity effects and highlight the potential and relevance of metabolomics in obesity research. PMID:22666121

  5. Development of intra-vaginal matrices from polycaprolactone for sustained release of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Dang, Nhung T T; Turner, Mark S; Coombes, Allan G A

    2013-07-01

    Microporous poly(ε-caprolactone) matrices were loaded with an antibacterial agent, ciprofloxacin and an antifungal agent, miconazole nitrate, respectively, for investigations of their potential as controlled vaginal delivery devices. Ciprofloxacin loadings up to 15% w/w could be obtained by increasing the drug content of the poly(ε-caprolactone) solution, while the actual loadings of miconazole were much lower (1-3% w/w) due to drug partition into methanol during the solvent extraction. The kinetics of ciprofloxacin release in simulated vaginal fluid at 37 were characterised by a small burst release phase in the first 24 h, low drug release up to 7 days (10%) and gradual release of up to 80% of the drug content by day 30. Meanwhile, the release kinetics of miconazole-loaded matrices could be effectively described by the Higuchi model with 100% drug release from the highest loaded matrices (3.2% w/w) in 13 days. Ciprofloxacin or miconazole released over 30 and 13 days, respectively, from poly(ε-caprolactone) matrices into simulated vaginal fluid retained high levels of antimicrobial activity in excess of 80% of the activity of the free drug. This study confirms the potential of poly(ε-caprolactone) matrices for delivering antimicrobial agents in the form of an intra-vaginal device. PMID:22684517

  6. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians. PMID:26351633

  7. In Vitro Effects of Antimicrobial Agents on Planktonic and Biofilm Forms of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Clinical Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kristi L.; Reichert, Emily J.; Piper, Kerryl E.; Patel, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an atypically virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcal species associated with acute and destructive infections that often resemble Staphylococcus aureus infections. Several types of infection caused by S. lugdunensis (e.g., native valve endocarditis, prosthetic joint infection, and intravascular catheter infection) are associated with biofilm formation, which may lead to an inability to eradicate the infection due to the intrinsic nature of biofilms to resist high levels of antibiotics. In this study, planktonic MICs and MBCs and biofilm bactericidal concentrations of 10 antistaphylococcal antimicrobial agents were measured for 15 S. lugdunensis isolates collected from patients with endocarditis, medical device infections, or skin and soft tissue infections. Planktonic isolates were susceptible to all agents studied, but biofilms were resistant to high concentrations of most of the drugs. However, moxifloxacin was able to kill 73% of isolates growing in biofilms at ≤0.5 μg/ml. Relative to the effect on cell density, subinhibitory concentrations of nafcillin substantially stimulated biofilm formation of most isolates, whereas tetracycline and linezolid significantly decreased biofilm formation in 93 and 80% of isolates, respectively. An unexpected outcome of MBC testing was the observation that vancomycin was not bactericidal against 93% of S. lugdunensis isolates, suggesting widespread vancomycin tolerance in this species. These data provide insights into the response of S. lugdunensis isolates when challenged with various levels of antimicrobial agents in clinical use. PMID:17158933

  8. Salmonellosis in finishing pigs in Spain: prevalence, antimicrobial agent susceptibilities, and risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vico, J P; Rol, I; Garrido, V; San Román, B; Grilló, M J; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2011-07-01

    A herd-based survey of Salmonella in pigs was carried in a major pig producing region of Spain. Mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the carcasses of 25 pigs from each of 80 herds at time of slaughter. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 31% of animals and 94% of herds. Within-herd prevalence ranged from 4 to 88%, with the prevalence in most herds being greater than 10%. A large diversity of Salmonella serotypes was found, with Typhimurium, 4,[5],12:i:-, and Rissen being the most prevalent. Two or more serotypes coexisted in 73% of the herds. Salmonella Typhimurium was present in 68% of the herds. Most (82%) of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serogroups targeted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests for pig salmonellosis. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was detected in 73% of the strains, and one or more resistant strains were recovered from pigs in 93% of the herds. Antimicrobial agent resistance (AR) was more frequent among the most prevalent than it was among the rarer serotypes. Twenty-five multi-AR patterns were found. Resistance to three or more families of antimicrobial agents was found in 75% of AR strains. The finding that many of the herds yielded isolates of several multi-AR patterns indicates that Salmonella infections were acquired from multiple sources. High prevalence of Salmonella in herds was associated with lack of rodent control programs, herds from farms with only finishing pigs, herds managed by more than one full-time worker, herds for which the source of drinking water was not a city supply, and relatively long fattening times. PMID:21740708

  9. A general approach to describe the antimicrobial agent release from highly swellable films intended for food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A; Panizza, A; Corbo, M R; Nicolais, L

    2003-06-01

    A mathematical model able to describe the release kinetics of antimicrobial agents from crosslinked polyvinylalcohol (PVOH) into water is presented. The model was developed by taking into account the diffusion of water molecules into the polymeric film, the counter-diffusion of the incorporated antimicrobial agent from the film into water, and the polymeric matrix swelling kinetic. To validate the model the water sorption kinetics as well as the release kinetics of three antimicrobial agents (i.e., lysozyme, nisin and sodium benzoate, all approved to be used in contact with food) were determined at ambient temperature (25 degrees C). The three investigated active agents were entrapped in four films of PVOH with a different degree of crosslink. The model was successfully used to fit all the above sets of data, corroborating the validity of the hypothesis made to derive it. PMID:12767710

  10. Mechanisms of Antiviral Action of Plant Antimicrobials against Murine Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gilling, Damian H.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID:24907316

  11. Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gilling, Damian H; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R; Bright, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤ 35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID:24907316

  12. Piperidine-mediated synthesis of thiazolyl chalcones and their derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, P; Maruthavanan, T

    2012-01-01

    A series of new thiazolyl chalcones, 1-[2-amino-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]-3-aryl-prop-2-en-1-one were prepared by piperidine mediated Claisen-Schmidt condensation of thiazolyl ketone with aromatic aldehyde. These chalcones on cyclisation gave 2-amino-6-(2-amino-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl)-4-aryl-4H-pyridine-3-carbonitrile and 2-amino-6-(2-amino-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl)-4-aryl-4H-pyran-3-carbonitrile. The result showed that the compounds exhibited marked potency as antimicrobial agents. PMID:21834630

  13. Effect of acidity and antimicrobial agent-like compounds on viability of Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    PubMed Central

    Janda, J M

    1987-01-01

    Nineteen Plesiomonas shigelloides strains were evaluated for their stability at acidic and slightly alkaline pHs and for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agent-like compounds produced by enteric flora. Most P. shigelloides isolates were rapidly inactivated under high-acid (pH 4 or less) conditions. Screening of enteric bacteria for elaboration of factors active against P. shigelloides revealed two organisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus [Enterococcus] faecium) capable of secreting such inhibitory substances. The results of this study suggest some factors potentially important in regulating gastrointestinal colonization by P. shigelloides from environmental sources. PMID:3112177

  14. pH and Antimicrobial Activity of Portland Cement Associated with Different Radiopacifying Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Cornélio, Ana Lívia G.; Andolfatto, Carolina; Salles, Loise P.; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and pH changes induced by Portland cement (PC) alone and in association with radiopacifiers. Methods. The materials tested were pure PC, PC + bismuth oxide, PC + zirconium oxide, PC + calcium tungstate, and zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar diffusion test using the following strains: Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After 24 hours of incubation at 37°C, inhibition of bacterial growth was observed and measured. For pH analysis, material samples (n = 10) were placed in polyethylene tubes and immersed in 10 mL of distilled water. After 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, the pH of the solutions was determined using a pH meter. Results. All microbial species were inhibited by the cements evaluated. All materials composed of PC with radiopacifying agents promoted pH increase similar to pure Portland cement. ZOE had the lowest pH values throughout all experimental periods. Conclusions. All Portland cement-based materials with the addition of different radiopacifiers (bismuth oxide, calcium tungstate, and zirconium oxide) presented antimicrobial activity and pH similar to pure Portland cement. PMID:23119173

  15. [The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of different antimicrobial agents].

    PubMed

    Guz, Katarzyna; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    One of the major achievements in modern medicine has been the development of research into antimicrobial agents. These drugs are now widely used in the treatment of human and animal infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. However, some antibacterial agents, mainly macrolides, tetracyclines, and sulfonamides, have both anti-inflammatory and immunomodalotory properties. They can down-regulate prolonged inflammation, increase mucus clearance, prevent bacterial biofilm formation, and stimulate or impair the activation of the host immune system. It is possible that these drugs are able in modify phagocyte activity by altering their functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, bacterial killing, and cytokine production). In addition, some antibiotics influence the biology of bacteria; they alter their metabolism, morphology, and antigenicity and inhibit the production of various virulence factors. The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of antibiotics can occasionally be therapeutically useful in the treatment of chronic, noninfectious disorders, such as rheumatism, asthma, and other immunological diseases. PMID:18097341

  16. Bacterial inactivation using silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles as functional antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Luo, Jin; Shan, Shiyao; Crew, Elizabeth; Yin, Jun; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Wallek, Brandi; Wong, Season

    2011-01-01

    The ability for silver nanoparticles to function as an antibacterial agent while being separable from the target fluids is important for bacterial inactivation in biological fluids. This report describes the analysis of the antimicrobial activities of silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical methods. The bacterial inactivation of several types of bacteria was analyzed, including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli). The results have demonstrated the viability of the silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles for achieving effective bacterial inactivation efficiency comparable to and better than silver nanoparticles conventionally used. The bacteria inactivation efficiency of our MZF@Ag nanoparticles were also determined for blood platelets samples, demonstrating the potential of utilization in inactivating bacterial growth in platelets prior to transfusion to ensure blood product safety, which also has important implications for enabling the capability of effective separation, delivery and targeting of the antibacterial agents. PMID:21999710

  17. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  18. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  19. Novel Penicillin Analogues as Potential Antimicrobial Agents; Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Zaman; Bais, Abdul; Manir, Md. Maniruzzaman; Niazi, Umar

    2015-01-01

    A number of penicillin derivatives (4a-h) were synthesized by the condensation of 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as antimicrobial agents. In silico docking study of these analogues was performed against Penicillin Binding Protein (PDBID 1CEF) using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 in order to investigate the antimicrobial data on structural basis. Penicillin binding proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity in bacteria. The excellent antibacterial potential was depicted by compounds 4c and 4e against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidus and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the standard amoxicillin. The most potent penicillin derivative 4e exhibited same activity as standard amoxicillin against S. aureus. In the enzyme inhibitory assay the compound 4e inhibited E. coli MurC with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. The docking scores of these compounds 4c and 4e also verified their greater antibacterial potential. The results verified the importance of side chain functionalities along with the presence of central penam nucleus. The binding affinities calculated from docking results expressed in the form of binding energies ranges from -7.8 to -9.2kcal/mol. The carboxylic group of penam nucleus in all these compounds is responsible for strong binding with receptor protein with the bond length ranges from 3.4 to 4.4 Ǻ. The results of present work ratify that derivatives 4c and 4e may serve as a structural template for the design and development of potent antimicrobial agents. PMID:26267242

  20. Comparison of five different susceptibility test methods for detecting antimicrobial agent resistance among Haemophilus influenzae isolates.

    PubMed

    Giger, O; Mortensen, J E; Clark, R B; Evangelista, A

    1996-03-01

    The detection of antimicrobial agent resistance among ninety-eight Haemophilus influenzae isolates was assessed by six different antibiotic test methods: agar dilution on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% lysed horse blood (MH-LHB), E-test using both Haemophilus test medium (HTM) agar and chocolate Mueller-Hinton (CMH) agar plates, Vitek Haemophilus susceptibility cards, and three overnight microdilution systems that included two commercial systems, Micro-Media and MicroScan, and the reference broth microdilution method using HTM broth. Agents tested in the study included ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (A/C), cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Both the reference HTM microbroth dilution method and agar dilution correctly classified all nine of the beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR) isolates. Each of the other test methods failed to detect one of the BLNAR strains, either because of growth failure (Micro-Media and MicroScan) or miscategorization of an isolate as susceptible (E-Test HTM, E-Test CMH, and Vitek). None of the test methods detected all six isolates identified as A/C resistant by HTM microbroth dilution. Of the remaining antimicrobials tested, ampicillin and cefuroxime yielded data that could be compared by all test methods. The very major, major, and minor errors for these two antimicrobials in comparison to the reference HTM microdilution method were as follows: Micro-Media (1.7%, 0%, and 4.8%); MicroScan (11.9%, 0%, and 8.1%); E-Test HTM (1.6%, 0%, and 2.0%); E-Test CMH (1.6%, 1.6%, and 4.6%); Vitek (8.1%, 0%, and 3.1%); and agar dilution on MH-LHB (0%, 0%, and 4.6%). Micro-Media and MicroScan panels failed to support the growth of 4.1% and 5.1% of the isolates, respectively. PMID:8724400

  1. Molecular docking and multivariate analysis of xanthones as antimicrobial and antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Freddy A; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson

    2015-01-01

    Xanthones are secondary metabolites which have drawn considerable interest over the last decades due to their antimicrobial properties, among others. A great number of this kind of compounds has been therefore reported, but there is a limited amount of studies on screening for biological activity. Thus, as part of our research on antimicrobial agents of natural origin, a set of 272 xanthones were submitted to molecular docking (MD) calculations with a group of seven fungal and two viral enzymes. The results indicated that prenylated xanthones are important hits for inhibition of the analyzed enzymes. The MD scores were also analyzed by multivariate statistics. Important structural details were found to be crucial for the inhibition of the tested enzymes by the xanthones. In addition, the classification of active xanthones can be achieved by statistical analysis on molecular docking scores by an affinity-antifungal activity relationship approach. The obtained results therefore are a suitable starting point for the development of antifungal and antiviral agents based on xanthones. PMID:26197308

  2. Search for antisickling agents from plants

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Bisnu Prasad; Archana, Y.; Satapathy, Nibarana; Naik, Soumendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The sickle cell disease is fatal in nature. Thousands of children are dying off due to this health problem throughout the globe. Due to the rapid development of diagnosis and clinical managements such patients are living up to a respectable age. But as there is no permanent cure the patients are suffering from bone and joint pain, jaundice, hepato-splenomegaly, chronic infections etc. The main physiological complicacy is due to the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin (HbS), (sickling process) inside the red blood cell (RBC) of these patients during deoxygenating state. The change of RBC from spherical to sickle shape is due to the polymerization of mutant hemoglobin (HbS) inside the RBC and membrane distortion during anoxic condition. The mechanism and the process of sickling are very complex and multifactor in nature. To get rid from such complicacies it is necessary to suitably and accurately stop the sickling of RBC of the patients. The potential anti-sickling agents either from natural sources and/or synthetic molecules may be helpful for reducing the clinical morbidity of the patients. A lot of natural compounds from plant extracts have been tried by several workers in recent past. Most of the studies are based on in vitro red cell sickling studies and their mode of action has not been properly understood. Although, few studies have been in vivo in nature pertaining to transgenic sickle animal model, there is paucity of data on the human studies. The result of such studies although has shown some degree of success, a promising anti-sickling agent is yet to be established. PMID:23922457

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a poultry further processing plant.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Steven A; Berrang, Mark E; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Fletcher, Daniel L; Meinersmann, Richard J

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance profiles of distinct types of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a commercial poultry cooking plant. One hundred fifty-seven L. monocytogenes isolates representing 14 different actA types were tested for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial drugs using the broth microdilution method. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials except for ceftriaxone (153 isolates [97%] intermediate or resistant), oxacillin with 2% NaCl (142 isolates [90%] resistant), ciprofloxacin (59 isolates [37%] intermediate or resistant), tetracycline (5 isolates [3%] resistant), clindamycin (43 isolates [27%] intermediate), linezolid (3 isolates [2%] intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1 isolate [<1%] intermediate). Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was low among all actA types. There was a low amount of diversity of resistotypes, which were defined in this study as subdivisions of actA types according to antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. The five tetracycline-resistant isolates represented all the members of one actA type in lineage II. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance is not highly prevalent in L. monocytogenes from a poultry further processing environment. Types of L. monocytogenes as distinguished by actA sequencing do not predict antimicrobial resistance except possibly for tetracycline resistance. L. monocytogenes types that persist in a poultry cook plant are not related to antimicrobial resistance, and excluding tetracycline resistance, antimicrobial resistance does not seem to differ according to actA type or lineage. PMID:18564907

  4. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a poultry further processing plant.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lyon SA; Berrang ME; Fedorka-Cray PJ; Fletcher DL; Meinersmann RJ

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance profiles of distinct types of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a commercial poultry cooking plant. One hundred fifty-seven L. monocytogenes isolates representing 14 different actA types were tested for susceptibility to 19 antimicrobial drugs using the broth microdilution method. All isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials except for ceftriaxone (153 isolates [97%] intermediate or resistant), oxacillin with 2% NaCl (142 isolates [90%] resistant), ciprofloxacin (59 isolates [37%] intermediate or resistant), tetracycline (5 isolates [3%] resistant), clindamycin (43 isolates [27%] intermediate), linezolid (3 isolates [2%] intermediate), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (1 isolate [<1%] intermediate). Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was low among all actA types. There was a low amount of diversity of resistotypes, which were defined in this study as subdivisions of actA types according to antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. The five tetracycline-resistant isolates represented all the members of one actA type in lineage II. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance is not highly prevalent in L. monocytogenes from a poultry further processing environment. Types of L. monocytogenes as distinguished by actA sequencing do not predict antimicrobial resistance except possibly for tetracycline resistance. L. monocytogenes types that persist in a poultry cook plant are not related to antimicrobial resistance, and excluding tetracycline resistance, antimicrobial resistance does not seem to differ according to actA type or lineage.

  5. Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by callus and leaf extracts from saltmarsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum L.

    PubMed

    Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Raj, Anburaj; Alikunhi, Nabeel M

    2010-09-01

    The present work studied the effect of extracts from tissue culture-derived callus and leaf of the saltmarsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. on synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using AgNO(3) as a substrate. The callus extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, better than leaf extract. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with X-ray diffraction spectrum which exhibited intense peaks, corresponding to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0), (3 1 1), and (2 2 2) sets of lattice planes of silver. The extracts incubated with AgNO(3) showed gradual change in color of the extracts to yellowish brown, with intensity increasing during the period of incubation. Control without silver nitrate did not show any change in color. The silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical in shape with variable size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by Transmission Electron Microscopy. There were prominent peaks in the extracts corresponding to amide I, II and III indicating the presence of the protein, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement. There were also peaks that were corresponding to aromatic rings, geminal methyls and ether linkages, indicating the presence of flavones and terpenoids responsible for the stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles were observed to inhibit clinical strains of bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial activity was more distinct than antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activity was enhanced when polyvinyl alcohol was added as a stabilizing agent. The present work highlighted the possibility of using tissue culture-derived callus extract from the coastal saltmarsh species for the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles. PMID:20627485

  6. Resistance of Shigella, Salmonella, and other selected enteric pathogens to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Murray, B E

    1986-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are commonly used therapeutically and prophylactically for travelers' diarrhea. Resistance of enteric pathogens to these agents may prevent the success of such therapy, with the result depending upon the level of resistance and the drug concentrations achieved in the gastrointestinal tract. Data from a number of geographic locations were collected in order to determine whether consistent trends exist and whether predictions can be made regarding the susceptibility of various enteric pathogens worldwide. These data showed marked variability in the prevalence of resistance. Among Shigella, the percentage of strains resistant to commonly used agents varied within the following ranges: ampicillin, 7% (Dacca) to 87% (Thailand); tetracycline, 11% (Sri Lanka) to 91% (Mexico); and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 0 (Dacca, 1980) to 55% (Dacca, 1984). Resistance in Salmonella strains showed a similar marked variability. Few strains of enteroxigenic Escherichia coli (less than or equal to 10%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Relatively recent isolates of all pathogens examined tended to be more resistant than earlier isolates to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole as well as to other agents. PMID:3523714

  7. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) approach to study the combined effect of antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda Godoy; Mendonça, Layanne Andrade; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto

    2015-09-01

    The combination of antimicrobial agents has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to control bacterial diseases and to reduce the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in clinical environments. In this study, the interaction between the lantibiotic bovicin HC5 with chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nisin, lysostaphin and hydrogen peroxide against Staphylococcus aureus O46 was evaluated by MIC assays. The central composite rotatable design (CCRD), a robust and economic statistical design, was used to combine concentration levels of different antimicrobials agents with distinct mechanisms of action and the presence of significant interactions among the antimicrobials was determined by regression analysis. According to the adjusted model, there were no significant interactions between bovicin HC5 and gentamicin, lysostaphin, nisin or hydrogen peroxide. However, bovicin HC5 showed a significant interaction (P < 0.02) with chloramphenicol. This is the first study applying the CCRD approach to evaluate the combined effect of antimicrobials against S. aureus. Based on our results, this approach is an effective strategy to determine synergistic interactions between antimicrobial agents applied in human and veterinary medicine against bacterial pathogens. PMID:26081601

  8. ["In vitro" activity of ten antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria. A collaborative study, 1999-2002].

    PubMed

    Litterio, M; Bianchini, H; Carloni, G; Di Martino, A; Fernández Canigia, L; Greco, G; Legaria, C; Rollet, R; Rossetti, A; Predari, S C; Castello, L

    2004-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, imipenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole, and azitromycin was assesed against 166 strains of anaerobic bacteria recovered from eight hospitals in Buenos Aires. The strains studied were Bacteroides fragilis group (65), Fusobacterium spp. (26), Prevotella spp. (21), Porphyromonas spp. (10), Clostridium difficile (10), other clostridia (12), and gram-positive cocci (22). The MICs were determined by the agar dilution method according to NCCLS document M11-A5. Metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam were the most active antimicrobial agents tested and exhibited MIC90 values of < or = 2 microg/ml and < or = 4 microg/ml against gram-negative organisms, and < or = 2 microg/ml, and < or = 8 microg/ml against gram-positive organisms, respectively. Among beta-lactams the activity against gram-negative rods was in the following order: imipenem > piperacillin > cefoxitin > ceftriaxone > ampicillin. Among the gram-positive bacteria the decreased activity was: piperacillin > imipenem > cefoxitin > ceftriaxone > ampicillin. The majority of the species studied showed different degrees of resistance to clindamycin and azitromycin. Nevertheless, 90% of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas spp. isolates were inhibited by 0.125 mg/ml of clindamycin and azitromycin, respectively. PMID:15559195

  9. [In vitro sensitivity to antimicrobial agents of Haemophilus influenzae strains isolated from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Budak, Fatma; Gür, Deniz

    2003-01-01

    In-vitro activity of several antimicrobial agents were evaluated against Haemophilus influenzae (n:127) isolated from clinical specimens within the years 2000 and 2002 in a children's hospital. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disk diffusion method according to the recommendations of the NCCLS standards and beta-lactamase activity was investigated by nitrocefin test. Resistance rates for the antibiotics were as follows: ampicillin 5.6%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 27.5%, tetracycline 8.6%, clarithromycin 7%, chloramphenicol 4.7%. Five isolates (3.9%) were found multiple resistant. Beta-lactamase activities were detected in all of the ampicillin resistant isolates. None of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefprozil, cefpodoksim, cefotaxime, meropenem or ciprofloxacin. According to these results, resistance to ampicillin is low in our H. influenzae isolates compared to other European countries but resistance to TMP/SMX is very high and this finding has to be taken into account in the empirical therapy of community acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:12838674

  10. Phyllanthus wightianus Mll. Arg.: A Potential Source for Natural Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, D.; Srinivasan, R.; Shivakumar, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Phyllanthus wightianus belongs to Euphorbiaceae family having ethnobotanical importance. The present study deals with validating the antimicrobial potential of solvent leaf extracts of P. wightianus. 11 human bacterial pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens) and 4 fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mucor racemosus, and Aspergillus niger) were also challenged with solvent leaf extracts usingagar well and disc diffusion methods. Further, identification of the active component present in the bioactive extract was done using GC-MS analysis. Results show that all extracts exhibited broad spectrum (629?mm) of antibacterial activity on most of the tested organisms. The results highlight the fact that the well in agar method was more effective than disc diffusion method. Significant antimicrobial activity was detected in methanol extract against S. pneumoniae (29?mm) with MIC and MBC values of 15.62??g/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that 29 bioactive constituents were present in methanolic extract of P. wightianus, of which 9,12-octadecaenioic acid (peak area 22.82%; RT-23.97) and N-hexadecanoic acid (peak area 21.55% RT-21.796) are the major compounds. The findings of this study show that P. wightianus extracts may be used as an anti-infective agent in folklore medicine. PMID:24883301

  11. Phyllanthus wightianus Müll. Arg.: a potential source for natural antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, D; Srinivasan, R; Shivakumar, M S

    2014-01-01

    Phyllanthus wightianus belongs to Euphorbiaceae family having ethnobotanical importance. The present study deals with validating the antimicrobial potential of solvent leaf extracts of P. wightianus. 11 human bacterial pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris, and Serratia marcescens) and 4 fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mucor racemosus, and Aspergillus niger) were also challenged with solvent leaf extracts usingagar well and disc diffusion methods. Further, identification of the active component present in the bioactive extract was done using GC-MS analysis. Results show that all extracts exhibited broad spectrum (6-29 mm) of antibacterial activity on most of the tested organisms. The results highlight the fact that the well in agar method was more effective than disc diffusion method. Significant antimicrobial activity was detected in methanol extract against S. pneumoniae (29 mm) with MIC and MBC values of 15.62 μg/mL. GC-MS analysis revealed that 29 bioactive constituents were present in methanolic extract of P. wightianus, of which 9,12-octadecaenioic acid (peak area 22.82%; RT-23.97) and N-hexadecanoic acid (peak area 21.55% RT-21.796) are the major compounds. The findings of this study show that P. wightianus extracts may be used as an anti-infective agent in folklore medicine. PMID:24883301

  12. In vivo killing of Staphylococcus aureus using a light-activated antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The widespread problem of antibiotic resistance in pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus has prompted the search for new antimicrobial approaches. In this study we report for the first time the use of a light-activated antimicrobial agent, methylene blue, to kill an epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA-16) strain in two mouse wound models. Results Following irradiation of wounds with 360 J/cm2 of laser light (670 nm) in the presence of 100 μg/ml of methylene blue, a 25-fold reduction in the number of viable EMRSA was seen. This was independent of the increase in temperature of the wounds associated with the treatment. Histological examination of the wounds revealed no difference between the photodynamic therapy (PDT)-treated wounds and the untreated wounds, all of which showed the same degree of inflammatory infiltration at 24 hours. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that PDT is effective at reducing the total number of viable EMRSA in a wound. This approach has promise as a means of treating wound infections caused by antibiotic-resistant microbes as well as for the elimination of such organisms from carriage sites. PMID:19193212

  13. Effects of subtherapeutic administration of antimicrobial agents to beef cattle on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter hyointestinalis.

    PubMed

    Inglis, G D; McAllister, T A; Busz, H W; Yanke, L J; Morck, D W; Olson, M E; Read, R R

    2005-07-01

    The influence of antimicrobial agents on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Campylobacter isolates recovered from 300 beef cattle maintained in an experimental feedlot was monitored over a 315-day period (11 sample times). Groups of calves were assigned to one of the following antimicrobial treatments: chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (CS), chlortetracycline alone (Ct), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin phosphate, and no antimicrobial agent (i.e., control treatment). In total, 3,283 fecal samples were processed for campylobacters over the course of the experiment. Of the 2,052 bacterial isolates recovered, 92% were Campylobacter (1,518 were Campylobacter hyointestinalis and 380 were C. jejuni). None of the antimicrobial treatments decreased the isolation frequency of C. jejuni relative to the control treatment. In contrast, C. hyointestinalis was isolated less frequently from animals treated with CS and to a lesser extent from animals treated with Ct. The majority (> or =94%) of C. jejuni isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, but more isolates with resistance to tetracycline were recovered from animals fed Ct. All of the 1,500 isolates of C. hyointestinalis examined were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. In contrast, 11%, 10%, and 1% of these isolates were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, and ampicillin, respectively. The number of animals from which C. hyointestinalis isolates with resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline were recovered differed among the antimicrobial treatments. Only Ct administration increased the carriage rates of erythromycin-resistant isolates of C. hyointestinalis, and the inclusion of CS in the diet increased the number of animals from which tetracycline-resistant isolates were recovered. The majority of C. hyointestinalis isolates with resistance to tetracycline were obtained from cohorts within a single pen, and most of these isolates were recovered from cattle during feeding of a forage-based diet as opposed to a grain-based diet. The findings of this study show that the subtherapeutic administration of tetracycline, alone and in combination with sulfamethazine, to feedlot cattle can select for the carriage of resistant strains of Campylobacter species. Considering the widespread use of in-feed antimicrobial agents and the high frequency of beef cattle that shed campylobacters, the development of AMR should be monitored as part of an on-going surveillance program. PMID:16000800

  14. Comparative in vitro activity of faropenem and 11 other antimicrobial agents against 250 invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from France.

    PubMed

    Decousser, J W; Pina, P; Picot, F; Allouch, P Y

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the in vitro activity of faropenem, a new member of the penem class intended for oral administration, compared with 11 other antimicrobial agents against a large number of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from adults and children with bloodstream infections in France. The minimum inhibitory concentration of faropenem against 90% of the pediatric strains tested was generally one to two dilutions lower than the most potent beta-lactam agents (i.e., 0.5 micro g/ml for faropenem vs. 1 for amoxicillin, 1 for cefotaxime and 0.5 micro g/ml for ceftriaxone). Against the adult strains, only moxifloxacin had a MIC(90) value similar to faropenem (i.e., 0.25 micro g/ml for both agents). Faropenem seems to be a promising antimicrobial agent for the treatment of adult and pediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. PMID:12942341

  15. Contribution of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity in the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lather, Puja; Mohanty, A. K.; Jha, Pankaj; Garsa, Anita Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is found in a wide variety of habitats, including human skin, where many strains are commensals that may be clinically significant or contaminants of food. To determine the physiological characteristics of resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus against pediocin, a class IIa bacteriocin, a resistant strain was compared with wild type in order to investigate the contribution of hydrophobicity to this resistance. Additional clumping of resistant strain relative to wild type in light microscopy was considered as an elementary evidence of resistance attainment. A delay in log phase attainment was observed in resistant strain compared to the wild type strain. A significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity was detected for resistant strain in both hexadecane and xylene indicating the contribution of cell surface hydrophobicity as adaptive reaction against antimicrobial agents. PMID:26966577

  16. Novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant gram-negative bacteria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karras, George; Giannakaki, Venetia; Kotsis, Vasilios; Miyakis, Spiros

    2012-12-01

    No novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been available to daily clinical practice during the last 5 years. On the other hand, resistance rates and mechanisms of those pathogens are increasing worldwide. Pan-resistant (against which none of the currently available antibiotics is effective) strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been described. Encouraging is the fact that several novel compounds (some of them with mechanisms of action different to those of the antibiotics commercially available) are through the development stages. We summarize the main such compounds that show potential for offering solution to the treatment of Gram-negative multi-resistant bacteria along with the discussion of some patents associated with the topic. PMID:23061790

  17. DECOMPOSITION SUPPRESSION OF RAYON BY SURFACE COATING USING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND POVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittami, Tadashi; Murata, Ryota; Nakamura, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kanji; Nakamura, Kazuho

    The authors examined whether decomposition of rayon in environment is suppressed by coating it with antimicrobial agent DC5700 and poval (PVA). When the rayon samples coated with DC5700 were decomposed in activated sludge or bark compost toge ther with non-coated samples, the coated samples needed longer time for the decomposition comparing to the non-coated samples under the environmental condition whose water content is 56% or less. Moreov er, PVA coating together with DC5700 further extended the decomposition time of rayon samples under the condition whose water content is 40% or less. The dyeing test of DC5700 using bromphenol blue indicated that PVA coating together with DC5700 prevented DC5700 from removing from the rayon su rface under the low-water-con tent condition and thus the double coating sample was decomposed slowly.

  18. Effect of hyperbaric oxyhelium gas on response of bacteria to antimicrobial agents in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kenward, M A; Alcock, S R; McKay, I C

    1984-01-01

    Modern diving techniques can require the treatment of infection in an atmosphere of pressurized oxyhelium gas. The antibiotic susceptibility of 16 species and strains (eight genera) of gram-negative bacilli and 3 species and strains (two genera) of gram-positive cocci to each of 21 antimicrobial agents was assessed in air at atmospheric pressure and in oxyhelium gas at an absolute pressure of 7 bar (ca. 709 kPa). A disk diffusion technique was employed, and significantly different results were obtained in the two atmospheres. The effect of oxyhelium on diameters of growth inhibition varied significantly with the bacterium and with the antibiotic and was particularly marked with certain bacterium-antibiotic combinations. The gram-negative bacilli generally gave reduced zone diameters in oxyhelium, whereas the gram-positive cocci showed a mixture of effects. PMID:6441512

  19. Sparfloxacin-metal complexes as antifungal agents - Their synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M. Saeed; Gul, Somia; Shamim, Sana

    2010-06-01

    Metal complexes with the third-generation quinolone antibacterial agent sparfloxacin (SPFX) or 5-amino-1-cyclopropyl-7-(cis-3,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-6,8,di-fluoro-1-4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinocarboxylic acid have been synthesized and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques such as TLC, IR, NMR and elemental analyses. In these complexes, sparfloxacin acts as bidentate deprotonated ligands bound to the metal through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been evaluated against four Gram-positive and seven Gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against five different fungi has been evaluated and compared with reference drug sparfloxacin. Fe 2+-SPFX and Cd 2+-SPFX complexes showed remarkable potency as compared to the parent drug.

  20. Contribution of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity in the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Lather, Puja; Mohanty, A K; Jha, Pankaj; Garsa, Anita Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is found in a wide variety of habitats, including human skin, where many strains are commensals that may be clinically significant or contaminants of food. To determine the physiological characteristics of resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus against pediocin, a class IIa bacteriocin, a resistant strain was compared with wild type in order to investigate the contribution of hydrophobicity to this resistance. Additional clumping of resistant strain relative to wild type in light microscopy was considered as an elementary evidence of resistance attainment. A delay in log phase attainment was observed in resistant strain compared to the wild type strain. A significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity was detected for resistant strain in both hexadecane and xylene indicating the contribution of cell surface hydrophobicity as adaptive reaction against antimicrobial agents. PMID:26966577

  1. Application of Antimicrobial Agents via Commercial Spray Cabinet To Inactivate Salmonella on Skinless Chicken Meat.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J L; Vimini, B; Schwarz, J G; Nichols, P; Parveen, S

    2016-04-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food safety concern for raw poultry products. New and innovative application methods of antimicrobials for the reduction of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products are essential. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of three antimicrobial compounds against Salmonella on raw chicken meat when applied individually and in combination using a commercial spray cabinet. Raw chicken thigh meat inoculated with 5 log CFU/g Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 53647 was passed through a spray cabinet while being sprayed with 5% lauric arginate (LAE), 0.8% vinegar solution (VS), near-neutral electrolyzed water, or deionized water. The following three experiments were carried out: (i) exposure times of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 s, (ii) storage at 4°C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 days after a 60-s exposure, and (iii) a combination of treatment with LAE and VS followed by storage at 4°C for 0, 1, 2, and 3 days. Analysis of variance and the Tukey test were used to determine mean significant differences (P < 0.05). The experiment was carried out in duplicate for each replicate (n = 3 × 2). In comparing individual antimicrobials, the 60-s treatment time resulted in the greatest reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium, with LAE achieving the greatest reduction (2.07 log), followed by VS, near-neutral electrolyzed water, and deionized water (0.63, 0.56, and 0.53 log, respectively). After 3 days of storage, LAE significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Salmonella Typhimurium, by 1.28 log. The combination of VS and then LAE resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) greater reduction than using LAE followed by VS (1.61 and 0.93 log, respectively). The results of this study suggest that LAE is a viable compound to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium on raw chicken meat and that the order of application of antimicrobial agents plays a vital role. PMID:27052860

  2. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  3. Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents provide a novel way to improve the safety and shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin, incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated appl...

  4. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  5. In Vitro Activities of Polycationic Peptides Alone and in Combination with Clinically Used Antimicrobial Agents against Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Giacometti, A.; Cirioni, O.; Ancarani, F.; Del Prete, M. S.; Fortuna, M.; Scalise, G.

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro activities of magainin II, nisin, and ranalexin alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents against six clinical isolates of Rhodococcus equi were investigated by MIC and time-kill studies. All isolates were more susceptible to nisin. A positive interaction was observed when the peptides were combined with ampicillin, ceftriaxone, rifabutin, rifampin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and vancomycin. PMID:10428947

  6. Consumer-mediated nutrient recycling is influenced by interactions between nutrient enrichment and the anti-microbial agent triclosan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2, 4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a widely used antimicrobial agent in personal care products whose fate and transport in aquatic ecosystems is a growing environmental concern. Evidence for chronic ecological effects of triclosan in aquatic organisms is increasing. At larger sca...

  7. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity. PMID:21663492

  9. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  10. Susceptibility of bacterial etiological agents to commonly-used antimicrobial agents in children with sepsis at the Tamale Teaching Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections in neonates and infants are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common bacteria causing such infections and their susceptibility patterns will provide necessary information for timely intervention. This study is aimed at determining the susceptibilities of bacterial etiological agents to commonly-used antimicrobial agents for empirical treatment of suspected bacterial septicaemia in children. Methods This is a hospital based retrospective analysis of blood cultures from infants to children up to 14 years of age with preliminary diagnosis of sepsis and admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and Paediatric Wards of the Teaching Hospital Tamale from July 2011 to January 2012. Results Out of 331 blood specimens cultured, the prevalence of confirmed bacterial sepsis was 25.9% (86/331). Point prevalence for confirmed cases from NICU was 44.4% (28/63) and 21.6% (58/268) from the Paediatric ward. Gram positive cocci (GPC) were the predominant isolates with Coagulase positive (32.2%) and Coagulase-negative (28.7%) Staphylococci accounting for 60.9% of the total isolates. Gram negative rods (GNR) comprised 39.1% of all isolates with Klebsiella, E.coli and Salmonella being the most common organisms isolated. Klebsiella was the most frequent GNR from the NICU and Salmonella typhi was predominantly isolated from the paediatric ward. Acinetobacter showed 100.0% susceptibility to Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime but was resistant (100.0%) to Ampicillin, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole. Escherichia coli and Klebsiella were 80.0% and 91.0% susceptible to Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime respectively. Klebsiella species showed 8.3% susceptibility to Tetracycline but was resistant to Ampicillin and Cotrimoxazole. Escherichia coli showed 40.0% susceptibility to Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Cotrimoxazole; 20.0% susceptibility to Tetracycline and 80.0% susceptible to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Coagulase negative Staphylococci was susceptible to Gentamicin (72.0%) but Coagulase positive Staphylococci showed intermediate sensitivity to Gentamicin (42.9%). Conclusion Coagulase Negative, Coagulase Positive Staphylococci, Salmonella and Klebsiella were the aetiological agents of bloodstream infection among children at TTH. While gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed low susceptibility to Ampicillin, Tetracycline and Cotrimoxazole, the GNR were susceptible to Gentamicin and third-generation cephalosporins. PMID:23419199

  11. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Germanò, M P; D'angelo, V; Marino, A; Cannatelli, M A

    2000-05-01

    A comparative study on the antimicrobial properties of extracts from medicinal plants obtained by two different methods was carried out. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of extracts from six plants was conducted by a disc diffusion test against Gram-positive, -negative and fungal organisms. The most active extracts (inhibition diameter >/=12 mm) were assayed for the minimum inhibitory concentration and submitted to phytochemical screening by thin-layer chromatography and bioautography. The results obtained indicate that the diethyl ether extracts were the most efficient antimicrobial compounds. The activity was more pronounced against Gram-positive and fungal organisms than against Gram-negative bacteria. Bioautography showed that the antimicrobial activity was probably due to flavonoids and terpenes. PMID:10792667

  12. In vitro drug susceptibility of 40 international reference rapidly growing mycobacteria to 20 antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Wan, Li; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhao, Zhongfu; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are human pathogens that are relatively easily identified by acid-fast staining but are proving difficult to treat in the clinic. In this study, we performed susceptibility testing of 40 international reference RGM species against 20 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton (CAMH) broth microdilution based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay recommended by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The results demonstrated that RGM organisms were resistant to the majority of first-line antituberculous agents but not to second-line fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides. Three drugs (amikacin, tigecycline and linezolid) displayed potent antimycobacterial activity against all tested strains. Capreomycin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin emerged as promising candidates for the treatment of RGM infections, and cefoxitin and meropenem were active against most strains. Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonae), M. abscessus, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum, M. boenickei, M. conceptionense, M. pseudoshottsii, M. septicum and M. setense were the most resistant RGM species. These results provide significant insight into the treatment of RGM species and will assist optimization of clinical criteria. PMID:26629031

  13. In vitro drug susceptibility of 40 international reference rapidly growing mycobacteria to 20 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Wan, Li; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Zhao, Xiuqin; Zhao, Zhongfu; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are human pathogens that are relatively easily identified by acid-fast staining but are proving difficult to treat in the clinic. In this study, we performed susceptibility testing of 40 international reference RGM species against 20 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton (CAMH) broth microdilution based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay recommended by the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The results demonstrated that RGM organisms were resistant to the majority of first-line antituberculous agents but not to second-line fluoroquinolones or aminoglycosides. Three drugs (amikacin, tigecycline and linezolid) displayed potent antimycobacterial activity against all tested strains. Capreomycin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin emerged as promising candidates for the treatment of RGM infections, and cefoxitin and meropenem were active against most strains. Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonae), M. abscessus, M. bolletii, M. fortuitum, M. boenickei, M. conceptionense, M. pseudoshottsii, M. septicum and M. setense were the most resistant RGM species. These results provide significant insight into the treatment of RGM species and will assist optimization of clinical criteria. PMID:26629031

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial agents for veterinary use in the ecotoxicity test using microalgae.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Kaoru; Nagase, Hiroyasu; Ozawa, Manao; Endoh, Yuuko S; Goto, Kisako; Hirata, Kazumasa; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Yoshimura, Haruo

    2004-12-01

    The influence of antimicrobial agents approved as veterinary drugs in Japan on the growth of green algae, Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, was studied in accordance with the OECD guidelines for testing chemicals. Among the agents tested, growth inhibitory activity was very varied, i.e. erythromycin showed the strongest activity (EC50, 50% effective concentration, = 0.037 mg/l), sulfa drugs had activity to some extent (EC50s of sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and sulfadimethoxine were 1.5, 2.2, and 2.3 mg/l, respectively), but ampicillin and cefazolin did not inhibit growth (EC50s>1000 mg/l). We also investigated synergistic effect of combining sulfa drugs with trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, which are commonly used as a combined drug. By adding trimethoprim, the growth inhibitory activity of sulfamethoxazole and sulfadiazine was significantly enhanced. Growth inhibition by sulfa drugs was reduced by the addition of folic acid, indicating that they inhibit folate synthesis in green algae. PMID:15519420

  15. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Taf del Valle (Tucumn, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Hernndez, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

    2000-11-01

    Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Taf del Valle (Tucumn, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:11025172

  16. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2015-05-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  17. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  18. Drug-induced liver injury due to antimicrobials, central nervous system agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad; Andrade, Raúl J

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents including antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents are the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-induced liver failure across the world. Better molecular and genetic biomarkers are acutely needed to help identify those at risk of liver injury particularly for those needing antituberculosis therapy. Some antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate and isoniazid consistently top the lists of agents in retrospective and prospective DILI databases. Central nervous system agents, particularly antiepileptics, account for the second most common class of agents implicated in DILI registries. Hepatotoxicity from older antiepileptics such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital are often associated with hypersensitivity features, whereas newer antiepileptic drugs have a more favorable safety profile. Antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs carry very low risk of significant liver injury, but their prolific use make them important causes of DILI. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent remain the mainstays of minimizing hepatotoxicity. PMID:24879980

  19. Synthesis of bio-based nanocomposites for controlled release of antimicrobial agents in food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGruson, Min Liu

    The utilization of bio-based polymers as packaging materials has attracted great attention in both scientific and industrial areas due to the non-renewable and nondegradable nature of synthetic plastic packaging. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biobased polymer with excellent film-forming and coating properties, but exhibits brittleness, insufficient gas barrier properties, and poor thermal stability. The overall goal of the project was to develop the polyhydroxyalkanoate-based bio-nanocomposite films modified by antimicrobial agents with improved mechanical and gas barrier properties, along with a controlled release rate of antimicrobial agents for the inhibition of foodborne pathogens and fungi in food. The ability for antimicrobial agents to intercalate into layered double hydroxides depended on the nature of the antimicrobial agents, such as size, spatial structure, and polarity, etc. Benzoate and gallate anions were successfully intercalated into LDH in the present study and different amounts of benzoate anion were loaded into LDH under different reaction conditions. Incorporation of nanoparticles showed no significant effect on mechanical properties of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films, however, significantly increased the tensile strength and elongation at break of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) films. The effects of type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles (unmodified LDH and LDH modified by sodium benzoate and sodium gallate) on structure and properties of PHBV films were then studied. The arrangement of LDH in the bio-nanocomposite matrices ranged from exfoliated to phase-separated depending on the type and concentration of LDH nanoparticles. Intercalated or partially exfoliated structures were obtained using modified LDH, however, only phase-separated structures were formed using unmodified LDH. The mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and thermo-mechanical (storage modulus) properties were significantly improved with low concentrations of nanoparticles incorporated into the polymer. The incorporation of LDH modified by sodium benzoate further improved the mechanical properties in comparison with unmodified LDH, which may be due to the increased compatibility between PHBV and nanoparticles and the larger basal distance between nanolayers after modification. The concentration of benzoate anions in LDH nanoparticles was another factor which affected the properties of PHBV composite films. The PHBV film with 2% modified LDH with 20.9 % w/w of benzoate anions in LDH had the best mechanical and thermomechanical properties. Apparent glass transition temperature increased with the addition of modified LDH but did not change with the addition of unmodified LDH. Moreover, the effect of nanoparticles on thermal properties as well as crystallization of PHBV composites was dependent on the type of nanoparticles. A comparison of mechanical properties and release kinetics of antimicrobial agents directly dispersed in PHBV and modified in LDH and then dispersed in PHBV was made. The results indicated that mechanical properties increased and release rate decreased in the latter case. The release of benzoate and gallate into DI water from PHBV composite films with LDH modified by benzoate and gallate followed pseudo-Fickian behavior fitted with a power law model. The release of benzoate from PHBV composite films with LDH modified by benzoate was also fitted with a Weibull model indicating Fickian behavior in fractal substrate morphologically similar to the percolation cluster. The concentration of modified LDH and the loading of benzoate in modified LDH showed a significant effect on the release kinetics of benzoate. The diffusivities of benzoate at 21 °C ranged from 3.41 to14.97 x 10-16 m 2/s. The slowest release rate was achieved by the PHBV film containing 5 % w/w of modified LDH with medium loading of benzoate (21 % w/w of benzoate) in nanoparticles. The release of gallate from PHBV was much faster than that of benzoate. The effective diffusivity of benzoate increased with increase of temperature and the activation energy Ea for benzoate diffusion was calculated as 66.4 kJ/mol. It will be thus possible to design biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites with a tunable release of active molecules for various applications. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  20. Antimicrobial activity of snakin-defensin hybrid protein in tobacco and potato plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To augment plant protection against phytopathogens, we constructed a fusion gene for the simultaneous expression of snakin-1 (SN1) and defensin-1 (PTH1) antimicrobial proteins as a hybrid protein (SAP) in plant cells. Prior to in vivo evaluation of SAP phytoprotective activity, the hybrid protein ex...

  1. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungal spores in nutrient solution or bacteria in liquefied agar), allowing time for the microbes to gr...

  2. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of N-(cinnamyl) chitosan analogs as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I

    2013-06-01

    The current study focuses on the preparation of new N-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives as antimicrobial agents against nine types of crop-threatening pathogens. Chitosan was reacted with a set of aromatic cinnamaldehyde analogs by reductive amination involving formation of the corresponding imines, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride to produce N-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives. The structural characterization was confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the degrees of substitution ranged from 0.08 to 0.28. The antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora. A higher inhibition activity was obtained by N-(α-methylcinnamyl) chitosan with MIC 1275 and 1025 mg/L against A. tumefaciens and E. carotovora, respectively followed by N-(o-methoxycinnamyl) chitosan (MIC=1925 and 1550 mg/L, respectively). The antifungal assessment was evaluated in vitro by mycelial radial growth technique against Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Pythium debaryanum and Phytophthora infestans. N-(o-methoxycinnamyl) chitosan showed the highest antifungal activity among the tested compounds against the airborne fungi A. alternata, B. cinerea, Bd. theobromae and Ph. infestans with EC₅₀ of 672, 796, 980 and 636 mg/L, respectively. However, N-(p-N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan was the most active against the soil born fungi F. oxysporum, F. solani and P. debaryanum (EC50=411, 566 and 404 mg/L, respectively). On the other hand, the chitosan derivatives caused significant reduction in spore germination of A. alternata, B. cinerea, F. oxysporum and F. solani compared to chitosan and the reduction in spore germination was higher than that of the mycelia inhibition. The synthesis and characterization of new chitosan derivatives are ongoing in our laboratory aiming to obtain derivatives with higher antimicrobial activities and used as safe alternatives to harmful microbicides. PMID:23511055

  3. The use of the antimicrobial peptide piscidin (PCD)-1 as a novel anti-nociceptive agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wu-Fu; Huang, Shi-Ying; Liao, Chang-Yi; Sung, Chun-Sung; Chen, Jyh-Yih; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2015-06-01

    The antimicrobial peptide piscidin (PCD)-1 has been reported to have antibacterial and immunomodulatory functions. Here, we investigated the anti-neuropathic properties of PCD-1, in order to determine its potential as a compound to alleviate pain. Treatment with PCD-1 suppressed the inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS in murine macrophage (RAW264.7) and microglial (BV2) cell lines stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For studies of the effect of PCD-1 in vivo, mononeuropathy in rats was induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI), and the resulting anti-nociceptive behaviors were compared between CCI controls and CCI rats given intrathecal injections of PCD-1. Much like gabapentin, PCD-1 exerts anti-nociceptive effects against thermal hyperalgesia, with a median effective dose (ED50) of 9.5 μg in CCI rats. In CCI rats, PCD-1 exerted effects against mechanical and cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and weight-bearing deficits. Furthermore, CCI-mediated activation of microglia and astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord were decreased by PCD-1. In addition, PCD-1 suppressed up-regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (phospho-mTOR) in CCI rats. Finally, CCI-induced down-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats was attenuated by injection of PCD-1. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that the marine antimicrobial peptide PCD-1 has anti-nociceptive effects, and thus may have potential for development as an alternative pain-alleviating agent. PMID:25890701

  4. Chimeric Peptides as Implant Functionalization Agents for Titanium Alloy Implants with Antimicrobial Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucesoy, Deniz T.; Hnilova, Marketa; Boone, Kyle; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2015-04-01

    Implant-associated infections can have severe effects on the longevity of implant devices and they also represent a major cause of implant failures. Treating these infections associated with implants by antibiotics is not always an effective strategy due to poor penetration rates of antibiotics into biofilms. Additionally, emerging antibiotic resistance poses serious concerns. There is an urge to develop effective antibacterial surfaces that prevent bacterial adhesion and proliferation. A novel class of bacterial therapeutic agents, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are receiving increasing attention as an unconventional option to treat septic infection, partly due to their capacity to stimulate innate immune responses and for the difficulty of microorganisms to develop resistance towards them. While host and bacterial cells compete in determining the ultimate fate of the implant, functionalization of implant surfaces with AMPs can shift the balance and prevent implant infections. In the present study, we developed a novel chimeric peptide to functionalize the implant material surface. The chimeric peptide simultaneously presents two functionalities, with one domain binding to a titanium alloy implant surface through a titanium-binding domain while the other domain displays an antimicrobial property. This approach gains strength through control over the bio-material interfaces, a property built upon molecular recognition and self-assembly through a titanium alloy binding domain in the chimeric peptide. The efficiency of chimeric peptide both in-solution and absorbed onto titanium alloy surface was evaluated in vitro against three common human host infectious bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli. In biological interactions such as occur on implants, it is the surface and the interface that dictate the ultimate outcome. Controlling the implant surface by creating an interface composed chimeric peptides may therefore open up new possibilities to modify the implant site and tailor it to a desirable bioactivity.

  5. Establishing the Minimal Bactericidal Concentration of an Antimicrobial Agent for Planktonic Cells (MBC-P) and Biofilm Cells (MBC-B)

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Thien-Fah

    2014-01-01

    This protocol allows for a direct comparison between planktonic and biofilm resistance for a bacterial strain that can form a biofilm in vitro. Bacteria are inoculated into the wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. In the case of the planktonic assay, serial dilutions of the antimicrobial agent of choice are added to the bacterial suspensions. In the biofilm assay, once inoculated, the bacteria are left to form a biofilm over a set period of time. Unattached cells are removed from the wells, the media is replenished and serial dilutions of the antimicrobial agent of choice are added. After exposure to the antimicrobial agent, the planktonic cells are assayed for growth. For the biofilm assay, the media is refreshed with fresh media lacking the antimicrobial agent and the biofilm cells are left to recover. Biofilm cell viability is assayed after the recovery period. The MBC-P for the antimicrobial agent is defined as the lowest concentration of drug that kills the cells in the planktonic culture. In contrast, the MBC-B for a strain is determined by exposing preformed biofilms to increasing concentrations of antimicrobial agent for 24 hr. The MBC-B is defined as the lowest concentration of antimicrobial agent that kills the cells in the biofilm. PMID:24430536

  6. The continuing search for antitumor agents from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Chai, Heebyung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites and their semi-synthetic derivatives continue to play an important role in anticancer drug therapy. In this short review, selected single chemical entity antineoplastic agents from higher plants that are currently in clinical trials as cancer chemotherapy drug candidates are described. These compounds are representative of a wide structural diversity. In addition, the approaches taken toward the discovery of anticancer agents from tropical plants in the laboratory of the authors are summarized. The successful clinical utilization of cancer chemotherapeutic agents from higher plants has been evident for about half a century, and, when considered with the promising pipeline of new plant-derived compounds now in clinical trials, this augurs well for the continuation of drug discovery research efforts to elucidate additional candidate substances of this type. PMID:20228943

  7. THE POTENTIAL OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS, AS A BIO-CONTROL AGENT AGAINST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...

  8. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 5-fluorouracil-derived benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xue-Jie; Jeyakkumar, Ponmani; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Zhou, Qian; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-06-01

    A series of 5-fluorouracil benzimidazoles as novel type of potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized for the first time. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison with reference drugs norfloxacin, chloromycin and fluconazole. Noticeably, 3-fluorobenzyl benzimidazole derivative 5c gave remarkable antimicrobial activities against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, MRSA and Bacillus proteus with MIC values of 1, 2 and 4μg/mL, respectively. Experimental research revealed that compound 5c could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form compound 5c-DNA complex which might block DNA replication and thus exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking indicated that compound 5c should bind with DNA topoisomerase IA through three hydrogen bonds by the use of fluorine atom and oxygen atoms in 5-fluorouracil with the residue Lys 423. PMID:27117429

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar

    2010-01-01

    The uses of traditional medicinal plants for primary health care have steadily increased worldwide in recent years. Scientists are in search of new phytochemicals that could be developed as useful anti-microbials for treatment of infectious diseases. Currently, out of 80% of pharmaceuticals derived from plants, very few are now being used as anti-microbials. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites that have found anti-microbial properties. This review highlights the current status of traditional medicine, its contribution to modern medicine, recent trends in the evaluation of anti-microbials with a special emphasis upon some tribal medicine, in vitro and in vivo experimental design for screening, and therapeutic efficacy in safety and human clinical trails for commercial outlet. Many of these commercially available compounds are crude preparations administered without performing human clinical trials. Recent methods are useful to standardize the extraction for scientific investigation of new phytochemicals and anti-microbials of traditionally used plants. It is concluded that once the local ethnomedical preparations of traditional sources are scientifically evaluated before dispensing they should replace existing drugs commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of infection. This method should be put into practice for future investigations in the field of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and other biological fields for drug discovery. PMID:18955349

  10. Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Eileen F.; Clarke, Siobhan F.; Marques, Tatiana M.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; O’Doherty, Robert M.; Shanahan, Fergus; Cotter, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of serious health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and a variety of cancers among others and has been repeatedly shown to be associated with a higher risk of mortality. The relatively recent discovery that the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiota may affect the risk of developing obesity and related disorders has led to an explosion of interest in this distinct research field. A corollary of these findings would suggest that modulation of gut microbial populations can have beneficial effects with respect to controlling obesity. In this addendum, we summarize our recent data, showing that therapeutic manipulation of the microbiota using different antimicrobial strategies may be a useful approach for the management of obesity and metabolic conditions. In addition, we will explore some of the mechanisms that may contribute to microbiota-induced susceptibility to obesity and metabolic diseases. PMID:23018760

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus species isolated from commercial ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contamination of commercial fermentation cultures is a common and costly problem to the fuel ethanol industry. Antimicrobials such as virginiamycin (VIR) and penicillin (PEN) are frequently used to control contamination but there are little data available on the susceptibility of bacteria...

  12. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five Palestinian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Qabaha, Khaled Ibraheem

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens. PMID:24146509

  13. Interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaolong; Tu, Yenan; Song, Chaofeng; Li, Tiancui; Lin, Juan; Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Jiantong; Wu, Chenxi

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria can co-exist in eutrophic waters with chemicals or other substances derived from personal care products discharged in wastewater. In this work, we investigate the interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa was very sensitive to TCS with the 96h lowest observed effect concentration of 1.0 and 10μg/L for inhibition of growth and photosynthetic activity, respectively. Exposure to TCS at environmentally relevant levels (0.1-2.0μg/L) also affected the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), while microcystin production was not affected. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination showed the destruction of M. aeruginosa cell ultrastructure during TCS exposure. TCS however, can be biotransformed by M. aeruginosa with methylation as a major biotransformation pathway. Furthermore, the presence of M. aeruginosa in solution promoted the photodegradation of TCS. Overall, our results demonstrate that M. aeruginosa plays an important role in the dissipation of TCS in aquatic environments but high residual TCS can exert toxic effects on M. aeruginosa. PMID:26800489

  14. Assessment of spermicidal activity of the antimicrobial peptide sarcotoxin Pd: A potent contraceptive agent.

    PubMed

    Zare-Zardini, Hadi; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Anbari, Fatemeh; Halvaei, Iman; Ebrahimi, Leila

    2016-02-01

    Objectives In searching for new spermicidal microbicides for use in the prevention of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) we investigated the spermicidal and cytotoxicity activities of the antimicrobial peptide sarcotoxin Pd. Methods Washed sperm from 10 healthy, normal volunteers was treated with different concentrations of sarcotoxin Pd. Sperm motility and morphology were assessed at 0, 0.3, 5, 10 and 15 min. The cytotoxicity of sarcotoxin Pd in normal human cervical HeLa cells was measured. Percentage cell survival was expressed as the number of live cells in the test group. Results The cytotoxic effect of sarcotoxin Pd was concentration-dependent. Significant cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations above 24 μg/ml. Sarcotoxin Pd immobilised 100% of spermatozoa at a dose of 90 and 80 μg/ml after 0.3 and 5 min, respectively, and immobilised 50% of spermatozoa after 15 min at lower doses. Sarcotoxin Pd inhibited sperm motility in a dose-dependent manner. The peptide immobilised sperm within 20 s at its maximal effective concentration of 90 μg/ml. Conclusions Sarcotoxin Pd appears to be a good candidate for a contraceptive agent in the prevention of unplanned pregnancy and STIs. PMID:26052043

  15. Reductive destruction and decontamination of aqueous solutions of chlorinated antimicrobial agent using bimetallic systems.

    PubMed

    Ghauch, Antoine; Tuqan, Almuthanna

    2009-05-30

    Palladium, ruthenium and silver were investigated as catalysts for the dechlorination of dichlorophen (DCP, 2,2'-methylenebis(4-chlorophenol)), an antimicrobial and anthelmintic agent largely used as algicide, fungicide and bactericide. Experiments were undertaken under oxic and anoxic conditions for experimental durations up to 180 min (3h). The anoxic conditions were achieved by purging the solutions with nitrogen gas. Reactions were performed in a 12+/-0.5 mg L(-1) DCP solution (V=20 mL) using 0.8 g of Fe(0) (40 g L(-1)). Along with micrometric Fe(0), five Fe(0)-plated systems were investigated: Pd (1%), Ru (0.01%), Ru (0.1%), Ru (1%) and Ag (1%). Metal plating was controlled by atomic absorption spectroscopy. DCP degradation was monitored using: (i) two HPLC devices, (ii) ion chromatography, (iii) UV and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Results indicated: (i) total dechlorination with Fe/Pd, (ii) partial dechlorination (40%) with Fe/Ru, and no reaction with Fe/Ag. DCP is vanished completely after 90 min of contact with Fe/Pd following a first order kinetic. The observed degradation rate k(obs) was about (3.98+/-0.10)x10(-2)min(-1), the calculated half-life t(1/2) about 17.4+/-0.9 min and a t(50) about 10.1+/-0.5 min. A DCP degradation pathway map was also proposed. PMID:18819749

  16. VINEGAR AS AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT FOR CONTROL OF Candida spp. IN COMPLETE DENTURE WEARERS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Telma Maria Silva; Neves, Ana Christina Claro; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    The use of denture is known to increase the carriage of Candida in healthy patients, and the proliferation of Candida albicans strains can be associated with denture-induced stomatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. in complete upper denture wearers. Fifty-five patients were submitted to a detailed clinical interview and oral clinical examination, and were instructed to keep their dentures immersed in a 10% vinegar solution (pH less than 3) overnight for 45 days. Before and after the experimental period, saliva samples were collected for detection of Candida, counting of cfu/mL and identification of species by phenotypical tests (germ tube formation, chlamidoconidia production, and carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation). The results were analyzed using Spearman's correlation and Student's t-test (p≤0.05). Candida yeasts were present in 87.3% of saliva samples before the treatment. A significant reduction was verified in CFU/mL counts of Candida after treatment. A positive correlation between Candida and denture stomatitis was verified, since the decrease of cfu/mL counts was correlated with a reduction in cases of denture stomatitis. Although it was not able to eliminate C. albicans, the immersion of the complete denture in 10% vinegar solution, during the night, reduced the amounts (cfu/mL) of Candida spp. in the saliva and the presence of denture stomatitis in the studied patients. PMID:19082396

  17. Potential of Submergedly Cultivated Mycelia of Ganoderma spp. as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antiradical and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) potentials of ethanol mycelial extracts of selected Ganoderma species and strains and to define interand intraspecies diversity among Ganoderma species and strains. Ganoderma lucidum strains were good DPPH• scavengers (neutralizing up to 57.12% radicals), contrary to G. applanatum (20.35%) and G. carnosum (17.04%). High correlations between the activities and contents of total phenols in the extracts showed that these compounds were carriers of the activity. Results obtained by both discdiffusion and microdilution methods indicated that the extract of G. lucidum BEOFB 433 was the most potent antibacterial agent that inhibited growth of almost all bacterial species at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Salmonella typhimurium was the most sensitive species to the mycelium extracts. Extracts of G. lucidum BEOFB 431 and BEOFB 434 showed the best antifungal activity since in concentration of 0.5 mg/mL inhibited the growth of Aspergillus glaucus (BEOFB 431) and the growth of A. glaucus and Trichoderma viride (BEOFB 434). Extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum BEOFB 431 had the strongest fungicidal effects, with lethal outcomes for A. glaucus and T. viride, respectively, being noted at a concentration of 1.17 mg/mL. Aspergillus niger was proved as the most resistant species. PMID:26420047

  18. Synthesis of pseudopeptides based L-tryptophan as a potential antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jian; Yin, Liang; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Yongmei

    2007-03-15

    Four compounds named L-BTrpPA, L-Trp-o-PA, L-Trp-m-PA and L-Trp-p-PA, pseudopeptides constructed from pyridine and tryptophan units, were synthesized and tested against the Gram-positive, Gram-negative strains of bacteria and human pathogenic fungi. L-Trp-o-PA proved to be a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, showing a significant inhibition of the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus), and pathogenic fungi (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Rhodotorula glutinis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus nigricans) tested and activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter aerogenes) tested. The in vitro cell cytotoxicity of L-Trp-o-PA was evaluated using haemolytic assay, in which the compound was found to have low lytic property, even up to the concentration of 4000 microg/mL, it only lysed 6-7% of erythrocytes, which was 100-fold greater than the MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration). PMID:17257839

  19. Tolerance to antimicrobial agents and persistence of Escherichia coli and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, V D; Bulakhov, A V; Kiselevsky, D B; Kuznetsova, Yu E; Molchanova, D V; Sinitsyn, S V; Shestak, A A

    2008-07-01

    Bacterial persistence is the tolerance of a small part of a cell population to bactericidal agents, which is attained by a suppression of important cell functions and subsequent deceleration or cessation of cell division. The growth rate is the decisive factor in the transition of the cells to the persister state. A comparative study of quickly growing Escherichia coli K-12 strain MC 4100 and cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 growing slowly was performed. The cyanobacterial cells, like E. coli cells, differed in sensitivity to antimicrobial substances depending on the growth phase. Carbenicillin inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan, a component of the bacterial cell wall, and lincomycin inhibiting the protein synthesis gave rise to nucleoid decay in cells from exponential cultures of Synechocystis 6803 and did not influence the nucleoids in cells from stationary cultures. Carbenicillin suppressed the growth of exponential cultures and had no effect on cyanobacterial stationary cultures. A suppression of Synechocystis 6803 growth in the exponential phase by lincomycin was stronger than in the stationary phase. Similar data were obtained with cyanobacterial cells under the action of H2O2 or menadione, an inducer of reactive oxygen species production. Slowly growing cyanobacteria were similar to quickly growing E. coli in their characteristics. Persistence is a characteristic feature of cyanobacteria. PMID:18707592

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Aminobenzamide Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents: Opening/Closing Pharmacophore Site

    PubMed Central

    Mabkhot, Yahia N.; Al-Majid, Abdullah M.; Barakat, Assem; Al-Showiman, Salim S.; Al-Har, Munirah S.; Radi, Smaail; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam; Hadda, Taibi B.

    2014-01-01

    A series of new 2-aminobenzamide derivatives (1–10) has been synthesized in good to excellent yields by adopting both conventional and/or a time-efficient microwave assisted methodologies starting from isatoic anhydride (ISA) and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and microanalytical data. Selected compounds of this series were then tested against various bacterial (Bacillus subtilis (RCMB 000107) and Staphylococcus aureus (RCMB 000106). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (RCMB 000102) and Escherichia coli (RCMB 000103) and fungal strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae (RCMB 006002), Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 002003) and Candida albicans (RCMB 005002) to explore their potential as antimicrobial agents. Compound 5 was found to be the most active compound among those tested, which showed excellent antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (RCMB 002003) more potent than standard Clotrimazole, and moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activity against most of the other strains of bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, potential pharmacophore sites were identified and their activity was related with the structures in the solution. PMID:24663060

  1. In vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on Mycobacterium leprae in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ramasesh, N; Krahenbuhl, J L; Hastings, R C

    1989-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae synthesizes large quantities of a specific phthiocerol-containing phenolic glycolipid in vivo. We have shown earlier that viable M. leprae readily incorporates radiolabeled palmitic acid into phenolic glycolipid I when residing in cultured macrophages in vitro and that this process is inhibited by the antileprosy drug rifampin. In the present paper we report that application of this observation to the rapid evaluation of over 25 antimicrobial agents for potential antileprosy activity in vitro. All the known antileprosy drugs rifampin, dapsone, clofazimine, and ethionamide inhibited phenolic glycolipid I synthesis. Rifabutin, a spiropiperidyl derivative of rifamycin, also reported to be active in the mouse model, was very effective. Interestingly, the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were also found to be active in this system, while D-cycloserine and other cell wall synthesis inhibitors showed no effect. Many of the compounds found to be active in this system have been reported to be effective in vivo in mice. This correlation lends support to the feasibility of using phenolic glycolipid I synthesis for the rapid evaluation of new drugs against leprosy. PMID:2665640

  2. Oxidative degradation study on antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin by electro-Fenton process: kinetics and oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Muna Sh; Oturan, Nihal; El Kacemi, Kacem; El Karbane, Miloud; Aravindakumar, C T; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative degradation of the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) has been investigated using electro-Fenton (EF) treatment with a constant current in the range 60-500 mA. The process generates highly oxidant species OH in situ via electrochemically monitored Fenton reaction. The EF experiments were performed using cells with a carbon felt cathode and Pt anode. Effect of applied current and catalyst concentration on the kinetics of oxidative degradation and mineralization efficiency have been investigated. Degradation of CIP followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The rate constant of the oxidation of CIP by OH has been determined to be (1.01 ± 0.14) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) by using competitive kinetics method. An optimum current of 400 mA and a catalyst concentration of Fe(2+) at 0.1mM are found to be optimal for an effective degradation of CIP under our operating conditions. A remarkably high degree of mineralization (>94%) was obtained at 6h of treatment under these conditions. A number of stable intermediate products have been identified using HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Based on the identified reaction intermediates, a plausible reaction pathway was proposed for the mineralization process. The high degree of mineralization obtained in this work highlights the potential application of EF process in the efficient removal of fluoroquinolone based drugs in aqueous medium. PMID:25201488

  3. The Antimicrobial Properties of Cedar Leaf (Thuja plicata) Oil; A Safe and Efficient Decontamination Agent for Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, James; Kuo, Michael; Vimalanathan, Selvarani

    2011-01-01

    Cedar leaf oil (CLO), derived from the Western red cedar, Thuja plicata, was evaluated as a safe and acceptable broad spectrum antimicrobial agent, with a view to its potential applications in buildings, including the alleviation of sick building syndrome. Various Gram-positive and Gram-negative human bacteria, and two fungal organisms, all known to be common environmental sources of potential infection, were selected and tested quantitatively, and all of them were found to be susceptible to CLO liquid and vapor. Bacterial spores and Aspergillus niger were sensitive, although less so than the vegetative bacteria. Similar tests with cultured human lung cells showed that continuous exposure to CLO vapor for at least 60 minutes was not toxic to the cells. Based on these results, CLO shows promise as a prospective safe, green, broad-spectrum anti-microbial agent for decontamination of buildings. PMID:22408584

  4. Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Salmonella isolates recovered from layer farms and eggs in the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Adesiyun, Abiodun; Webb, Lloyd; Musai, Lisa; Louison, Bowen; Joseph, George; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Samlal, Sannandan; Rodrigo, Shelly

    2014-12-01

    This investigation determined the frequency of resistance of 84 isolates of Salmonella comprising 14 serotypes recovered from layer farms in three Caribbean countries (Trinidad and Tobago, Grenada, and St. Lucia) to eight antimicrobial agents, using the disc diffusion method. Resistance among isolates of Salmonella was related to the country of recovery, type of sample, size of layer farms, and isolate serotype. Overall, all (100.0%) of the isolates exhibited resistance to one or more of seven antimicrobial agents tested, and all were susceptible to chloramphenicol. The resistance detected ranged from 11.9% to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT) to 100.0% to erythromycin. The difference was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.23). Across countries, for types of samples that yielded Salmonella, significant differences in frequency of resistance were detected only to SXT (P = 0.002) in Trinidad and Tobago and to gentamycin (P = 0.027) in St. Lucia. For the three countries, the frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents was significantly different for ampicillin (P = 0.001) and SXT (P = 0.032). A total of 83 (98.8%) of the 84 isolates exhibited 39 multidrug resistance patterns. Farm size significantly (P = 0.032) affected the frequency of resistance to kanamycin across the countries. Overall, among the 14 serotypes of Salmonella tested, significant (P < 0.05) differences in frequency of resistance were detected to kanamycin, ampicillin, and SXT. Results suggest that the relatively high frequency of resistance to six of the antimicrobial agents (erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) tested and the multidrug resistance detected may pose prophylactic and therapeutic concerns for chicken layer farms in the three countries studied. PMID:25474066

  5. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing of Brucella species: quality control limits for ten antimicrobial agents against three standard quality control strains.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Traczewski, Maria M

    2005-11-01

    Brucella broth without supplementation is the recommended medium for broth microdilution susceptibility tests of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. Based on an eight-laboratory collaborative study using a pH-adjusted modification of this medium, we propose MIC quality control ranges for three control strains against 10 antimicrobials that are potentially efficacious for treating infections caused by these agents of bioterrorism. PMID:16272526

  6. In vitro and in vivo analysis of antimicrobial agents alone and in combination against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    He, Songzhe; He, Hui; Chen, Yi; Chen, Yueming; Wang, Wei; Yu, Daojun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of tigecycline and other 13 common antimicrobial agents, alone or in combination, against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods: An in vitro susceptibility test of 101 A. baumannii was used to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). A mouse lung infection model of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii, established by the ultrasonic atomization method, was used to define in vivo antimicrobial activities. Results: Multi-drug resistant A. baumannii showed high sensitivity to tigecycline (98% inhibition), polymyxin B (78.2% inhibition), and minocycline (74.2% inhibition). However, the use of these antimicrobial agents in combination with other antimicrobial agents produced synergistic or additive effects. In vivo data showed that white blood cell (WBC) counts in drug combination groups C (minocycline + amikacin) and D (minocycline + rifampicin) were significantly higher than in groups A (tigecycline) and B (polymyxin B) (P < 0.05), after administration of the drugs 24 h post-infection. Lung tissue inflammation gradually increased in the model group during the first 24 h after ultrasonic atomization infection; vasodilation, congestion with hemorrhage were observed 48 h post infection. After 3 days of anti-infective therapy in groups A, B, C, and D, lung tissue inflammation in each group gradually recovered with clear structures. The mortality rates in drug combination groups(groups C and D) were much lower than in groups A and B. Conclusion: The combination of minocycline with either rifampicin or amikacin is more effective against multi-drug resistant A. baumannii than single-agent tigecycline or polymyxin B. In addition, the mouse lung infection by ultrasonic atomization is a suitable model for drug screening and analysis of infection mechanism. PMID:26074898

  7. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-Marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude "waste" plant materials for specific practical applications, especially-but not exclusively-in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure. PMID:27104554

  8. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 20 antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, H; Ishimaru, M; Kojima, A

    2002-11-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 20 antimicrobial agents were determined against 51 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine intramammary infections. Fourteen (27.4%) isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin, but none of the isolates was resistant to cloxacillin, nafcillin, or cephems. Among aminoglycosides, gentamicin was the most active, with an MIC50 of 0.2 microg/ml, followed by kanamycin, with an MIC50 of 0.78 microg/ml. Five isolates (9.8%) were resistant to dihydrostreptomycin, three isolates (5.9%) to kanamycin and two isolates (3.9%) to gentamicin. Resistance to erythromycin was observed in two isolates (3.9%). Tylosin was less active than erythromycin, with MIC50s of 1.56 microg/ml versus 0.39 microg/ml, but none of the isolates was resistant to this antibiotic. Oxytetracycline MICs were situated in the range of 0.39-1.56 microg/ml for 48 susceptible isolates. Although 19 (37.3%) isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents, a single resistance pattern was most frequent: benzylpenicillin (12 isolates), dihydrostreptomycin (two isolates) and kanamycin (one isolate). There were no isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents such as methicillin, lincomycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol and virginiamycin, which have not been approved for use in cattle husbandry in Japan. PMID:12489715

  9. Combating Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Plant-Derived Antimicrobials: A Minireview of the Mechanistic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy to combat microbial infections. Historically, plant extracts have been used as a safe, effective, and natural remedy for ailments and diseases in traditional medicine. Extensive research in the last two decades has identified a plethora of PDAs with a wide spectrum of activity against a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. Active components of many plant extracts have been characterized and are commercially available; however, research delineating the mechanistic basis of their antimicrobial action is scanty. This review highlights the potential of various plant-derived compounds to control pathogenic bacteria, especially the diverse effects exerted by plant compounds on various virulence factors that are critical for pathogenicity inside the host. In addition, the potential effect of PDAs on gut microbiota is discussed. PMID:25298964

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Romanian medicinal plants hydroalcoholic extracts on planktonic and adhered cells.

    PubMed

    Stanciuc, A M; Gaspar, A; Moldovan, L; Saviuc, C; Popa, M; Măruţescu, L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial and antifungal potential of some Romanian medicinal plants, arnica--Arnica montana, wormwood--Artemisia absinthium and nettle--Urtica dioica. In order to perform this antimicrobial screening, we obtained the vegetal extracts and we tested them on a series of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also against two fungal strains. The vegetal extracts showed antimicrobial activity preferentially directed against the planktonic fungal and bacterial growth, while the effect against biofilm formation and development was demonstrated only against S. aureus and C. albicans. Our in vitro assays indicate that the studied plant extracts are a significant source of natural alternatives to antimicrobial therapy, thus avoiding antibiotic therapy, the use of which has become excessive in recent years. PMID:21717806

  11. Susceptibilities of Listeria species isolated from food to nine antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Franco Abuín, C M; Quinto Fernández, E J; Fente Sampayo, C; Rodríguez Otero, J L; Domínguez Rodríguez, L; Cepeda Sáez, A

    1994-07-01

    The agar dilution method was used to determine the activities of gentamicin, erythromycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfamethazine, cephalothin, penicillin G, and tetracycline against 73 strains belonging to the genus Listeria (L. innocua, L. seeligeri, and L. monocytogenes). All strains were isolated from raw milk, cheese, the dairy processing plant, poultry, and the poultry slaughterhouse. Gentamicin, ampicillin, and erythromycin, of which the MICs for 90% of the strains tested for all three species were < or = 5.96 micrograms/ml, were found to be the most active agents studied. Most of the L. innocua strains isolated from poultry and the poultry slaughterhouse were resistant to tetracycline. PMID:7979303

  12. Edible Apple Film Wraps Containing Plant Antimicrobials Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens on Meat and Poultry Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an effort to discover new ways to improve microbial food safety, we evaluated apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobial compounds for their activity against pathogenic foodborne bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 (107 CFU/...

  13. Multitasking antimicrobial peptides, plant development, and host defense against biotic/abiotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses due to pathogens are a major threat to global food security. Plants employ a multilayer defense system against pathogens including use of physical barriers (cell wall), induction of hypersensitive defense response (HR), resistance (R) proteins, and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AM...

  14. Mechanical, Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties of Apple Puree Edible Films Containing Plant Essential Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films, as carriers of antimicrobial compounds, constitute an approach for incorporating plant essential oils onto fresh-cut fruit surfaces. The effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 of oregano, cinnamon and lemongrass oils in apple puree film-forming solution (APFFS) and in an edible film ...

  15. Antimicrobial Peptides: Insights into Membrane Permeabilization, Lipopolysaccharide Fragmentation and Application in Plant Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Aritreyee; Ghosh, Anirban; Airoldi, Cristina; Sperandeo, Paola; Mroue, Kamal H.; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Kundu, Pallob; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in multidrug resistance against bacterial infections has become a major concern to human health and global food security. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently received substantial attention as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics because of their potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These peptides have also been implicated in plant disease control for replacing conventional treatment methods that are polluting and hazardous to the environment and to human health. Here, we report de novo design and antimicrobial studies of VG16, a 16-residue active fragment of Dengue virus fusion peptide. Our results reveal that VG16KRKP, a non-toxic and non-hemolytic analogue of VG16, shows significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative E. coli and plant pathogens X. oryzae and X. campestris, as well as against human fungal pathogens C. albicans and C. grubii. VG16KRKP is also capable of inhibiting bacterial disease progression in plants. The solution-NMR structure of VG16KRKP in lipopolysaccharide features a folded conformation with a centrally located turn-type structure stabilized by aromatic-aromatic packing interactions with extended N- and C-termini. The de novo design of VG16KRKP provides valuable insights into the development of more potent antibacterial and antiendotoxic peptides for the treatment of human and plant infections. PMID:26144972

  16. Antimicrobial resistance of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a poultry further processing plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare antimicrobial resistance profiles of distinct types of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a commercial poultry cooking plant. One hundred fifty seven L. monocytogenes isolates representing 14 different ActA types were tested for susceptibility to 19 ant...

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides: Insights into Membrane Permeabilization, Lipopolysaccharide Fragmentation and Application in Plant Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Datta, Aritreyee; Ghosh, Anirban; Airoldi, Cristina; Sperandeo, Paola; Mroue, Kamal H; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Kundu, Pallob; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    The recent increase in multidrug resistance against bacterial infections has become a major concern to human health and global food security. Synthetic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently received substantial attention as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics because of their potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These peptides have also been implicated in plant disease control for replacing conventional treatment methods that are polluting and hazardous to the environment and to human health. Here, we report de novo design and antimicrobial studies of VG16, a 16-residue active fragment of Dengue virus fusion peptide. Our results reveal that VG16KRKP, a non-toxic and non-hemolytic analogue of VG16, shows significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative E. coli and plant pathogens X. oryzae and X. campestris, as well as against human fungal pathogens C. albicans and C. grubii. VG16KRKP is also capable of inhibiting bacterial disease progression in plants. The solution-NMR structure of VG16KRKP in lipopolysaccharide features a folded conformation with a centrally located turn-type structure stabilized by aromatic-aromatic packing interactions with extended N- and C-termini. The de novo design of VG16KRKP provides valuable insights into the development of more potent antibacterial and antiendotoxic peptides for the treatment of human and plant infections. PMID:26144972

  18. The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system.

    PubMed

    Lis-Balchin, M; Steyrl, H; Krenn, E

    2003-01-01

    Essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols, obtained after distillation of various scented Pelargonium (Geraniaceae) leaves were assessed for their antimicrobial activity in a model food system. Both the essential oils and hydrosols were used at 1000 ppm in broccoli soup, previously inoculated with Enterobacter aerogenes (at 10(5) cfu g(-1)) and Staphylococcus aureus (at 10(4) cfu g(-1)). The results showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the broccoli soup by the essential oils of 'Sweet Mimosa', 'Mabel Grey', P. graveolens, 'Atomic Snowflake', 'Royal Oak', 'Attar of Roses' and a lesser effect by 'Chocolate Peppermint' and 'Clorinda'; the hydrosols, however, had a potentiating effect on the bacterial population in the food. Both extracts showed a complete inhibition of S. aureus in the Maximum Recovery Diluent (MRD). Antibacterial activity against E. aerogenes in the broccoli soup was generally very much reduced: only the essential oil of 'Mabel Grey' showed complete inhibition and virtually no reductions in colonies were seen with the other essential oils; the hydrosols again caused an increase in bacterial colonies. All the essential oils, bar Chocolate Peppermint showed complete inhibition of E. aerogenes in MRD, but the hydrosols showed no effect. The results strongly suggest that the residual hydrosols from distillation of these plant essential oils have no potential as antibacterial agents in foods, in contrast to most of the essential oils, which show potential against some micro-organisms, but only in some food systems. The problem of food component interference and its possible management is discussed. PMID:12557249

  19. Screening of commercial and pecan shell-extracted liquid smoke agents as natural antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Babu, D; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-06-01

    Liquid smoke extracts have traditionally been used as flavoring agents, are known to possess antioxidant properties, and serve as natural alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. The antimicrobial efficacies of commercial liquid smoke samples may vary depending on their source and composition and the methods used to extract and concentrate the smoke. We investigated the MICs of eight commercial liquid smoke samples against Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli . The commercial liquid smoke samples purchased were supplied by the manufacturer as water-based or concentrated extracts of smoke from different wood sources. The MICs of the commercial smokes to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens ranged from 0.5 to 6.0% for E. coli, 0.5 to 8.0% for Salmonella, and 0.38 to 6% for S. aureus. The MIC for each liquid smoke sample was similar in its effect on both E. coli and Salmonella. Solvent-extracted antimicrobials prepared using pecan shells displayed significant differences between their inhibitory concentrations depending on the type of solvent used for extraction. The results indicated that the liquid smoke samples tested in this study could serve as effective natural antimicrobials and that their inhibitory effects depended more on the solvents used for extraction than the wood source. PMID:22691487

  20. Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations: antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Haba, Ester; Bouhdid, Samira; Torrego-Solana, Noelia; Marqués, A M; Espuny, M José; García-Celma, M José; Manresa, Angeles

    2014-12-10

    This work examines the influence of essential oil composition on emulsification with rhamnolipids and their use as therapeutic antimicrobial agents against two opportunistic pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Candida albicans. Rhamnolipids, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with waste frying oil as the carbon source, were composed of eight rhamnolipid homologues. The rhamnolipid mixture was used to produce emulsions containing essential oils (EOs) of Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum verum, Origanum compactum and Lavandula angustifolia using the titration method. Ternary phase diagrams were designed to evaluate emulsion stability, which differed depending on the essential oil. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs alone and the emulsions was evaluated. The antimicrobial activity presented by the essential oils alone increased with emulsification. The surface properties of rhamnolipids contribute to the positive dispersion of EOs and thus increase their availability and antimicrobial activity against C. albicans and S. aureus. Therefore, rhamnolipid-based emulsions represent a promising approach to the development of EO delivery systems. PMID:25269010

  1. In-vitro activity of antimicrobial agents against Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Brussels.

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoof, R; Vanderlinden, M P; Hubrechts, J M; Butzler, J P; Yourassowsky, E

    1978-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 18 antimicrobial agents against 104 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in the Brussels area between January and October 1976 have been measured. The MICs for penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin, and cephalexin showed a bimodal distribution. The second modus strains of cephalexin (MIC = 6.25 microgram/ml) were relatively resistant to penicillin G (MIC greater than or equal to 0.08 microgram/ml). About 51% of all strains were relatively resistant to penicillin G, 40.5% to ampicillin (MIC greater than or equal to 0.16 microgram/ml), 46% to amoxycillin, and 47.5% to carbenicillin. For cephalexin and cephaloridine, 25% and 8.5% respectively of all strains were relatively resistant (MIC greater than 3.12 microgram/ml). For cefazolin all MICs fell into a range of 0.097--3.12 microgram/ml. Resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, and spiramycin (MIC greater than or equal to 1 microgram/ml) was found in 9.5%, 7%, 6%, 36.5%, and 71% respectively of all isolates. No strains were resistant to rifampicin. For chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol the MICs ranged from 0.39 to 12.5 microgram/ml and from 0.195 to 3.12 microgram/ml respectively. The results for sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and the combination of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in a 20:1 ratio are given and discussed. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices have also been calculated. No beta-lactamase-producing strains were found, and a contingency coefficient C has been determined for all the pairs of antibiotics investigated. PMID:101275

  2. [Antimicrobial and rapid bactericidal activities of sitafloxacin and other agents against Streptococcus pyogenes].

    PubMed

    Namba, Eiko; Okumura, Ryo; Chiba, Megumi; Hoshino, Kazuki; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of sitafloxacin against Japanese clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes by broth microdilution susceptibility testing and time-kill studies to elucidate its eradication potential against S. pyogenes. One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of S. pyogenes isolated from pharynx were tested to sitafloxacin and seven other agents in the susceptibility testing. The time-kill studies were conducted with five strains, one of which was resistant to clarithromycin, one resistant to levofloxacin and one type strain of S. pyogenes. In the time-kill studies, sitafloxacin, garenoxacin, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were assessed at static concentrations of their respective peak concentrations in plasma (C(max)) when administered as oral single doses for adult patients with S. pyogenes infections. We found the rank order of antimicrobial activity against S. pyogenes isolates was: cefcapene (MIC90, 0.015 microg/mL) > amoxicillin (0.03 microg/mL) > sitafloxacin (0.12 microg/mL) > garenoxacin (0.25 microg/mL) > levofloxacin (4 microg/mL) > minocycline (16 microg/mL). Macrolide-resistant isolates accounted for 72 (60.5%), resulting in clarithromycin and azithromycin MIC90s of > 32 and > 128 microg/mL, respectively. Sitafloxacin exhibited the most rapid bactericidal activity (> or = log reduction from the initial inoculum) within 2h against all tested strains, including even one levofloxacin-resistant strain. For garenoxacin, bactericidal activity was achieved between 2 and 6 h. Amoxicillin revealed no significant bactericidal activity up to 6 h. Clarithromycin showed no bactericidal activity and did not inhibit growth of a clarithromycin-resistant strain. These data indicate the potential usefulness of sitafloxacin for the treatment of S. pyogenes eradication. PMID:24527519

  3. Antimicrobial factor from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens inhibits Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Velho, Renata Voltolini; de Souza da Motta, Amanda; Segalin, Jéferson; Brandelli, Adriano

    2012-03-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LBM 5006 produces an antimicrobial factor active against Paenibacillus larvae, a major honeybee pathogen. The antagonistic effect and the mode of action of the antimicrobial factor were investigated. The antibacterial activity was produced starting at mid-logarithmic growth phase, reaching its maximum during the stationary phase. Exposure of cell suspensions of P. larvae to this antimicrobial resulted in loss of cell viability and reduction in optical density associated with cell lysis. Scanning electron microscopy showed damaged cell envelope and loss of protoplasmic material. The antimicrobial factor was stable for up to 80°C, but it was sensitive to proteinase K and trypsin. Mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the antimicrobial activity is associated with iturin-like peptides. The antimicrobial factor from B. amyloliquefaciens LBM 5006 showed a bactericidal effect against P. larvae cells and spores. This is the first report on iturin activity against P. larvae. This antimicrobial presents potential for use in the control of American foulbrood disease. PMID:21858429

  4. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  5. Antimicrobial activity of 20 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Palestinian area.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Yaghmour, R M; Faidi, Y R; Salem, K; Al-Nuri, M A

    1998-04-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were Phagnalon rupestre and Micromeria nervosa, whereas, the least active plant was Ziziphus spina-christi. Only ten of the tested plant extracts were active against C. albicans, with the most active from M. nervosa and Inula viscosa and the least active from Ruscus aculeatus. Of all extracts the ethanolic extract of M. nervosa was the most active, whereas, the aqueous extract of Phagnalon rupestre was the most active of all aqueous extracts tested. The ethanolic extracts (70%) showed activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria and 40% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity, whereas, 50% of the aqueous extracts showed antibacterial activity and 20% of these extracts showed anticandidal activity. PMID:9613839

  6. Discovery of membrane active benzimidazole quinolones-based topoisomerase inhibitors as potential DNA-binding antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Addla, Dinesh; Ponmani, Jeyakkumar; Wang, Ao; Xie, Dan; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Geng, Rong-Xia; Cai, Gui-Xin; Li, Shuo; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole quinolones as potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized. Most of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antimicrobial activities in comparison with reference drugs. The most potent compound 15m was membrane active and did not trigger the development of resistance in bacteria. It not only inhibited the formation of biofilms but also disrupted the established Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms. It was able to inhibit the relaxation activity of E. coli topoisomerase IV at 10 μM concentration. Moreover, this compound also showed low toxicity against mammalian cells. Molecular modeling and experimental investigation of compound 15m with DNA suggested that this compound could effectively bind with DNA to form a steady 15m-DNA complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities. PMID:26871658

  7. Investigation of Vietnamese plants for potential anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Lynette Bueno; Still, Patrick C.; Naman, C. Benjamin; Ren, Yulin; Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Van Thanh, Bui; Swanson, Steven M.; Soejarto, Djaja D.

    2014-01-01

    Higher plants continue to afford humankind with many new drugs, for a variety of disease types. In this review, recent phytochemical and biological progress is presented for part of a collaborative multi-institutional project directed towards the discovery of new antitumor agents. The specific focus is on bioactive natural products isolated and characterized structurally from tropical plants collected in Vietnam. The plant collection, identification, and processing steps are described, and the natural products isolated from these species are summarized with their biological activities. PMID:25395897

  8. Thiazole-based chalcones as potent antimicrobial agents. Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liaras, K; Geronikaki, A; Glamočlija, J; Cirić, A; Soković, M

    2011-05-15

    As part of ongoing studies in developing new antimicrobials, we report the synthesis of a new class of structurally novel derivatives, that incorporate two known bioactive structures a thiazole and chalcone, to yield a class of compounds with interesting antimicrobial properties. Evaluation of antibacterial activity showed that almost all the compounds exhibited greater activity than reference drugs and thus could be promising novel drug candidates. PMID:21524583

  9. Surface Modification of Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) Dendrimer as Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Shakira; Vasanthan, Nadarajah; Kwon, Dong; Sekosan, Gabriela; Ghosh, Subhas

    2012-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) (G3) dendrimer was modified into quaternary ammonium salts using tertiary amines with different chain lengths: dimethyldodecyl amine, dimethylhexyl amine, and dimethylbutyl amine using an efficient synthetic route. The antimicrobial activity of these dendrimer ammonium salts against Staphylococcus and E-coli bacteria was examined using the disc diffusion method. It was found that quaternary ammonium salt prepared with the dimethyldodecyl amine exhibits antimicrobial efficacy against Staphalococus and E.coli bacteria. PMID:23125468

  10. Efficacy of antimicrobial agents in lettuce leaf processing water for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Phelan, Vanessa H; Doyle, Michael P

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to study transfer and control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during simultaneous washing of inoculated and uninoculated lettuce pieces and to determine the efficacy of antimicrobial agents (peroxyacetic acid, mixed peracid, and sodium hypochlorite) on reducing the transfer of E. coli O157:H7 through processing water with or without organic load. Lettuce leaf pieces (5 by 5 cm) were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 at 5.6 log CFU per piece. One inoculated lettuce piece was added to five uninoculated leaves during washing. Peroxyacetic acid and mixed peracid were tested at 10, 20, and 30 ppm, and chlorine was tested at 30 and 50 ppm. No organic load (liquefied lettuce leaves) and 10% organic load in processing water were compared. Without organic load, peroxyacetic acid at 30 ppm, mixed peracid at 10, 20, and 30 ppm, and chlorine at 30 and 50 ppm all significantly reduced E. coli O157: H7 in processing water by 1.83, 1.73, 1.50, 1.83, 1.34, and 1.83 log CFU/ml, respectively, compared with washing with water alone. These antimicrobials at all concentrations tested also significantly reduced transfer of the bacteria from an inoculated leaf to uninoculated leaves in the processing water by 0.96 to 2.57 log CFU per piece. A 10% organic load in the processing water reduced efficacy of antimicrobial agents. In this contaminated water, peroxyacetic acid at 10 and 20 ppm and chlorine at 30 ppm produced effects not significantly different from those of water alone. Therefore, it is important to understand the impact of organic load when validating the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments. PMID:19681260

  11. Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ikumi; Kagota, Kei-Ichiro; Yasuda, Yusuke; Yoneda, Saori; Morita, Junpei; Nakada, Norihide; Kameda, Yutaka; Kimura, Kumiko; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Acute and chronic (or sub-chronic) toxicity of five selected antimicrobial agents, including triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol, was investigated using the conventional three-aquatic-organism battery. These compounds are widely used in cosmetics and other personal care products and their ecological risk has recently become a significant concern. As results of toxicity tests, TCS was found to be most strongly toxic for green algae [e.g. 72 h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.50 µg l(-1) ] among the selected compounds, followed by TCC, while TCC was more toxic or similar to TCS for Daphnia and fish (e.g. Daphnia 8 day NOEC of 1.9 µg l(-1) ). Having compared the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from the toxicity data with measured environmental concentrations (MEC), the preliminary ecological risk assessment of these five antimicrobials was conducted. The MEC/PNEC ratios of TCS and TCC were over 1 for some monitoring data, especially in urban streams with watershed areas without sewage service coverage, and their potential risk for green algae and Daphnia might be at a level of concern, although the contribution of TCS/TCC on the total toxicity of the those sites needs to be further investigated. For the three other antimicrobials, the maximum MEC/PNEC ratio for resorcinol was 0.1-1, but those for phenoxyethanol and p-thymol were <0.1 and their risk to aquatic organisms is limited, although the additive effects with TCS, TCC and other antimicrobial agents, such as parabens, need to be further examined in future studies. PMID:22806922

  12. Discovery of new anticancer agents from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Small organic molecules derived from higher plants have been one of the mainstays of cancer chemotherapy for approximately the past half a century. In the present review, selected single chemical entity natural products of plant origin and their semi-synthetic derivatives currently in clinical trials are featured as examples of new cancer chemotherapeutic drug candidates. Several more recently isolated compounds obtained from plants showing promising in vivo biological activity are also discussed in terms of their potential as anticancer agents, with many of these obtained from species that grow in tropical regions. Since extracts of only a relatively small proportion of the ca. 300,000 higher plants on earth have been screened biologically to date, bioactive compounds from plants should play an important role in future anticancer drug discovery efforts. PMID:22202049

  13. Effect of mixed antimicrobial agents and flavors in active packaging films.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Batlle, Ramón; Nerín, Cristina

    2009-09-23

    Active packaging is an emerging food technology to improve the quality and safety of food products. Many works have been developed to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Essential oils have been traditionally used as flavorings in food, so they have an important odor impact but they have as well antimicrobial properties that could be used to protect the food. Recent developments in antimicrobial active packaging showed the efficiency of essential oils versus bread and bakery products among other applications. However, one of the main problems to face is the odor and taste they could provide to the packaged food. Using some aromas to mask the odor could be a good approach. That is why the main objective of this paper is to develop an antimicrobial packaging material based on the combination of the most active compounds of essential oils (hydrocinnamaldehyde, oregano essential oil, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol) together with some aromas commonly used in the food industry. A study of the concentration required to get the antimicrobial properties, the organoleptic compatibility with typical aroma present in many food systems (vanilla, banana, and strawberry), and the right combination of both systems has been carried out. Antimicrobial tests of both the mentioned aromas, the main components of some essential oils, and the combination of both groups were carried out against bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella choleraesuis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli), yeasts (Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii), and molds (Botrytis cinerae, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium roqueforti, Eurotium repens, Penicillium islandicum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium nalgiovensis). The sensory properties of the combinations were evaluated with a triangular test and classification was by an order test; the odor threshold of the aroma compounds was also studied. The results reveal that none of the aromas had antimicrobial properties. The most antimicrobial compounds are thymol, carvacrol, and cinnamaldehyde, but none of them could be combined with banana aroma, whereas only thymol with strawberry aroma gave the right combined organoleptic profile. All of the antimicrobials under study could be combined with vanilla aroma, providing both antimicrobial property and the odor expected. PMID:19711918

  14. Peel bond strength of resilient liner modified by the addition of antimicrobial agents to denture base acrylic resin

    PubMed Central

    ALCNTARA, Cristiane S.; de MACDO, Allana F.C.; GURGEL, Bruno C.V.; JORGE, Janaina H.; NEPPELENBROEK, Karin H.; URBAN, Vanessa M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to prolong the clinical longevity of resilient denture relining materials and reduce plaque accumulation, incorporation of antimicrobial agents into these materials has been proposed. However, this addition may affect their properties. Objective This study evaluated the effect of the addition of antimicrobial agents into one soft liner (Soft Confort, Dencril) on its peel bond strength to one denture base (QC 20, Dentsply). Material and Methods Acrylic specimens (n=9) were made (75x10x3 mm) and stored in distilled water at 37C for 48 h. The drug powder concentrations (nystatin 500,000U - G2; nystatin 1,000,000U - G3; miconazole 125 mg - G4; miconazole 250 mg - G5; ketoconazole 100 mg - G6; ketoconazole 200 mg - G7; chlorhexidine diacetate 5% - G8; and 10% chlorhexidine diacetate - G9) were blended with the soft liner powder before the addition of the soft liner liquid. A group (G1) without any drug incorporation was used as control. Specimens (n=9) (75x10x6 mm) were plasticized according to the manufacturers' instructions and stored in distilled water at 37C for 24 h. Relined specimens were then submitted to a 180-degree peel test at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. Data (MPa) were analyzed by analysis of variance (?=0.05) and the failure modes were visually classified. Results No significant difference was found among experimental groups (p=0.148). Cohesive failure located within the resilient material was predominantly observed in all tested groups. Conclusions Peel bond strength between the denture base and the modified soft liner was not affected by the addition of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23329241

  15. Distribution and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Singh, Garima; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-03-01

    Distributions of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L. was studied and 91 isolates belonging to 18 genera were recovered. The isolates were distributed to sordariomycetes (62.63%), dothideomycetes (19.78%), eurotiomycetes (7.69%), zygomycetes (4.19%), agaricomycetes (1.09%), and mycelia sterilia (4.39%). Based on colony morphology and examination of spores, the isolates were classified into 18 taxa, of which Colletotrichum, Phomopsis and Phoma were dominant, their relative frequencies were 23.07%, 17.58% and 12.08% respectively. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi was determined and found to be significantly higher in leaf segments (50.76%), followed by root (41.53%) and stem tissues (27.69%). All the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity and revealed that 26.37% endophytic fungi were active against one or more pathogens. Twenty four isolates showing significant antimicrobial activity were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rRNA gene. Results indicated that endophytic fungi associated with leaf were functionally versatile as they showed antimicrobial activity against most of the tested pathogens. The endophytic fungi Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis (KF193982) inhibited all the tested bacterial pathogens, whereas, Penicillium chermesinum (KM405640) displayed most significant antifungal activity. This seems to be the first hand report to understand the distribution and antimicrobial ability of endophytic fungi from ethno-medicinal plant M. malabathricum. PMID:27097442

  16. Mechanical, barrier, and antimicrobial properties of apple puree edible films containing plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Graü, Maria A; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Friedman, Mendel; Henika, Philip R; Martín-Belloso, Olga; McHugh, Tara H

    2006-11-29

    Edible films, as carriers of antimicrobial compounds, constitute an approach for incorporating plant essential oils (EOs) onto fresh-cut fruit surfaces. The effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 of oregano, cinnamon, and lemongrass oils in apple puree film-forming solution (APFFS) and in an edible film made from the apple puree solution (APEF) was investigated along with the mechanical and physical properties of the films. Bactericidal activities of APFFS, expressed as BA50 values (BA50 values are defined as the percentage of antimicrobial that killed 50% of the bacteria under the test conditions) ranged from 0.019% for oregano oil to 0.094% for cinnamon oil. Oregano oil in the apple puree and in the film was highly effective against E. coli O157:H7. The data show that (a) the order of antimicrobial activities was oregano oil > lemongrass oil > cinnamon oil and (b) addition of the essential oils into film-forming solution decreased water vapor permeability and increased oxygen permeability, but did not significantly alter the tensile properties of the films. These results show that plant-derived essential oils can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films for various food applications. PMID:17117819

  17. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity of Endophytic Fungi From Medicinal Plants in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gashgari, Rukaia; Gherbawy, Youssuf; Ameen, Fuad; Alsharari, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endophytic fungi, which have been reported in numerous plant species, are important components of the forest community and contribute significantly to the diversity of natural ecosystems. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate and characterize, at the molecular level, the diversity and antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi from medicinal plants in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Fungi growing on plant segments were isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The isolates were grouped into 35 distinct operational taxonomic units, based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions in the rRNA gene. The colonization frequency and the dominant fungi percentage of these endophytic fungi were calculated. A dual culture technique was adopted to investigate the antifungal activity of these endophytes. Results: Tamarix nilotica showed the highest endophytic diversity with a relative frequency of 27.27%, followed by Cressa cretica with a relative frequency of 19.27%. The most frequently isolated species was Penicillium chrysogenum with an overall colonization rate of 98.57%. Seven out of 35 endophytic fungi exhibited strong antifungal activity to all plant fungal pathogens tested. P. chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum, and F. nygamai exhibited the highest inhibition against the human pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Aspergillus sydowii, P. chrysogenum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum showed strong antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of these endophytic microorganisms could be exploited in biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. PMID:27099679

  18. Outpatient antimicrobial protocol for febrile neutropenia: a nonrandomized prospective trial using ceftriaxone, amikacin, and oral adjuvant agents.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S; Bapna, A; Pai, S K; Nair, C N; Kurkure, P A; Advani, S H

    1997-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy has revolutionized the management of febrile neutropenia (FN) in cancer patients. In vogue is an effective therapy an an outpatient basis. One thousand three hundred episodes of FN observed in 70 pediatric solid tumors (STs) and 65 cases of hematomalignancy (HM) at a median age of 5.5 years were treated with a protocol using once-a-day injectable ceftriaxone plus amikacin and other oral adjuvant antimicrobial agents. The mean duration of FN in the ST group was 4.0 +/- 1.2 days and in the HM group was 5.0 +/- 2.5 days. The mean duration of antimicrobial cover in the ST group was 5.0 +/- 1.75 days and in the HM group was 6.0 +/- 1.5 days. The overall recrudescence rate was 6% and the mean duration to recrudescence was 4 +/- 1.5 days (range 3-6 days). The objectives of this protocol were cost reduction and utilization of the available inpatient resources optimally by reducing the pressures of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia. We concluded that a selected group of patients with FN can be effectively managed with this regimen on an outpatient basis. PMID:9185205

  19. Evaluation of a range of antimicrobial agents against the parasitic protozoa, Plasmodium falciparum, Babesia rodhaini and Theileria parva in vitro.

    PubMed

    McColm, A A; McHardy, N

    1984-08-01

    Eighteen antimicrobials commonly used in tissue culture were screened in three different protozoan test systems in order to establish their suitability for routine inclusion in protozoal cultivation systems. The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, was inhibited by more than half the antibiotics tested at concentrations recommended for normal tissue culture use. Eight compounds were well tolerated and thus could be used prophylactically to prevent microbial contamination. These antimicrobials were the bactericidal aminoglycoside antibiotics, streptomycin, gentamicin and kanamycin, the bacteriostatic protein synthesis inhibitors, chloramphenicol and chlortetracycline and the antifungals, 5-fluorocytosine, nystatin and amphotericin B. Babesia rodhaini and Theileria parva were less sensitive than P. falciparum and tolerated all 18 compounds at concentrations well above 100 micrograms ml-1. Extension of the study to examine direct antiprotozoal action of these and other antimicrobials not normally used in culture confirmed that P. falciparum was significantly more sensitive than the other parasites. Tylosin, rifamycin, gramicidin D and valinomycin were all strongly antimalarial with IC50 values of 0.245, 1.20, 1.3 X 10(-3) and 1.9 X 10(-3) micrograms ml-1 respectively. This compares with a value of 1.35 X 10(-2) micrograms ml-1 for the standard antimalarial, chloroquine. Only valinomycin and, more particularly, gramicidin D were significantly active against B. rodhaini and T. parva. Gramicidin D was more effective, but more toxic, than the standard antiprotozoal agents tested at curing in vivo malarial and babesial infections in mice. PMID:6206808

  20. New Approaches to Antibiotic Use and Review of Recently Approved Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andrew W; Jain, Rupali; Spach, David H

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial drug-resistance continues to force adaptation in our clinical practice. We explore new evidence regarding adjunctive antibiotic therapy for skin and soft tissue abscesses as well as duration of therapy for intra-abdominal abscesses. As new evidence refines optimal practice, it is essential to support clinicians in adopting practice patterns concordant with evidence-based guidelines. We review a simple approach that can 'nudge' clinicians towards concordant practices. Finally, the use of novel antimicrobials will play an increasingly important role in contemporary therapy. We review five new antimicrobials recently FDA-approved for use in drug-resistant infections: dalbavancin, oritavancin, ceftaroline, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam. PMID:27235621

  1. Dropwort (Filipendula hexapetala Gilib.): potential role as antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Katanic, Jelena; Mihailovic, Vladimir; Stankovic, Nevena; Boroja, Tatjana; Mladenovic, Milan; Solujic, Slavica; Stankovic, Milan S.; Vrvic, Miroslav M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of Filipendula hexapetala Gilib. aerial parts (FHA) and roots (FHR) and their potential in different model systems, as well as antimicrobial activity. According to this, a number of assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of F. hexapetala extracts. In addition, the antioxidant activity assays in different model systems were carried out, as well as pH, thermal and gastrointestinal stability studies. The phenolic compounds contents in FHA and FHR were also determined. The results showed that F. hexapetala extracts had considerable antioxidant activity in vitro and a great stability in different conditions. The extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against most of the tested bacterial and fungal species. Also, the extracts contain high level of phenolic compounds, especially aerial parts extract. PMID:26417349

  2. Exploiting Innate Immune Cell Activation of a Copper-Dependent Antimicrobial Agent during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Festa, Richard A.; Helsel, Marian E.; Franz, Katherine J.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recalcitrant microbial infections demand new therapeutic options. Here we present an approach that exploits two prongs of the host immune cell antimicrobial response: the oxidative burst and the compartmentalization of copper (Cu) within phagolysosomes. The prochelator QBP is a nontoxic protected form of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) in which a pinanediol boronic ester blocks metal ion coordination by 8HQ. QBP is deprotected via reactive oxygen species produced by activated macrophages, creating 8HQ and eliciting Cu-dependent killing of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in mouse pulmonary infection. 8HQ ionophoric activity increases intracellular Cu, overwhelming the Cu-resistance mechanisms of C. neoformans to elicit fungal killing. The Cu-dependent antimicrobial activity of 8HQ against a spectrum of microbial pathogens suggests that this strategy may have broad utility. The conditional activation of Cu ionophores by innate immune cells intensifies the hostile antimicrobial environment and represents a promising approach to combat infectious disease. PMID:25088681

  3. Role of the Gram-Negative Envelope Stress Response in the Presence of Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Guest, Randi L; Raivio, Tracy L

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial survival necessitates endurance of many types of antimicrobial compound. Many Gram-negative envelope stress responses, which must contend with an outer membrane and a dense periplasm containing the cell wall, have been associated with the status of protein folding, membrane homeostasis, and physiological functions such as efflux and the proton motive force (PMF). In this review, we discuss evidence that indicates an emerging role for Gram-negative envelope stress responses in enduring exposure to diverse antimicrobial substances, focusing on recent studies of the γ-proteobacterial Cpx envelope stress response. PMID:27068053

  4. Drug repositioning: auranofin as a prospective antimicrobial agent for the treatment of severe staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Cassetta, Maria Iris; Marzo, Tiziano; Fallani, Stefania; Novelli, Andrea; Messori, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    Auranofin, (AF), a gold(I) complex in clinical use for the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, is reported here to produce remarkable bactericidal effects in vitro against Staphylococcus sp. Noticeably, a similar antimicrobial action and potency are also noticed toward a few methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains but not toward Escherichia coli. The time and concentration dependencies of the antimicrobial actions of AF have been characterized through recording time kill curves, and a concentration dependent profile highlighted. Overall, the present results point out that auranofin might be quickly and successfully repurposed for the treatment of severe bacterial infections due to resistant Staphylococci. PMID:24820140

  5. The effect of radiopacifiers agents on pH, calcium release, radiopacity, and antimicrobial properties of different calcium hydroxide dressings.

    PubMed

    Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; García-Godoy, Franklin; Moldauer, Bertram Ivan; Gagliardi Minotti, Paloma; Tercília Grizzo, Larissa; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, pH level, calcium ion release, and radiopacity of calcium hydroxide pastes associated with three radiopacifying agents (iodoform, zinc oxide, and barium sulfate). For the pH and calcium release tests, 45 acrylic teeth were utilized and immersed in ultrapure water. After 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days the solution was analyzed by using a pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Polyethylene tubes filled with the pastes were used to perform the radiopacity test. For the antimicrobial test, 25 dentin specimens were infected intraorally in order to induce the biofilm colonization and treated with the pastes for 7 days. The Live/Dead technique and a confocal microscope were used to obtain the ratio of live cells. Parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were performed to show differences among the groups (P < 0.05). The pH analysis at 7 days showed significant differences (P < 0.05) among the groups. No differences among the pastes were found in the calcium release test on the 7th day (P > 0.05). The calcium hydroxide/iodoform samples had the highest radiopacity and antimicrobial activity against the biofilm-infected dentin in comparison to the other pastes (P < 0.05). Calcium hydroxide mixed with 17% iodoform and 35% propylene glycol into a paste had the highest pH, calcium ion release, radiopacity, and the greatest antimicrobial action versus similar samples mixed with BaSO4 or ZnO. PMID:25990864

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    PubMed

    Scur, M C; Pinto, F G S; Pandini, J A; Costa, W F; Leite, C W; Temponi, L G

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%); eucalyptol (15%), δ-cadinene (9.63%) and α-selinene (6.5%). The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities. PMID:26871744

  7. Synthesis of some novel 4-arylidene pyrazoles as potential antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyrazole and pyrazolone motifs are well known for their wide range of biological activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities. The incorporation of more than one pharmacophore in a single scaffold is a well known approach for the development of more potent drugs. In the present investigation, a series of differently substituted 4-arylidene pyrazole derivatives bearing pyrazole and pyrazolone pharmacophores in a single scaffold was synthesized. Results The synthesis of novel 4-arylidene pyrazole compounds is achieved through Knovenagel condensation between 1,3-diaryl-4-formylpyrazoles and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-(4H)-ones in good yields. All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Conclusions A series of 4-arylidene pyrazole derivatives was evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli), as well as two pathogenic fungal strains (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The majority of the compounds displayed excellent antimicrobial profile against the Gram-positive (B. subtilis and S. aureus), and some of them are even more potent than the reference drug ciprofloxacin. PMID:23981685

  8. Effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil as a natural antimicrobial agent in lipophilic formulations.

    PubMed

    Mantil, Elisabeth; Daly, Grace; Avis, Tyler J

    2015-01-01

    There has been increased interest surrounding the use of tea tree oil (TTO) as a natural antimicrobial. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of TTO and its components were investigated in vitro and in a predominantly lipid-based personal care formulation. In vitro, TTO showed minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.2% (for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pythium sulcatum), 0.4% (for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizopus stolonifer), and 0.8% (for Botrytis cinerea). TTO at 0.08%-0.8% was often as efficient as parabens. Comparison of the antimicrobial activities of TTO components showed that terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene were generally most effective in inhibiting microbial growth. TTO activity in a personal care product was evaluated through air and water exposure, artificial inoculation, and shelf life studies. While TTO did not increase shelf life of unopened products, it decreased microbial load in products exposed to water and air. Results from this study support that antimicrobial activity of TTO can be attributed to varying levels of its components and that low levels of TTO were effective in reducing microbial growth during the use of the product. This study showed that TTO can act as a suitable preservative system within an oil-based formulation. PMID:25515896

  9. Novel 4-Thiazolidinone Derivatives as Anti-Infective Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Singh, Rajendra; Sonar, Pankaj K; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 4-thiazolidinone derivatives was synthesized, characterized by spectral techniques, and screened for antimicrobial activity. All the compounds were evaluated against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungi, at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of all the compounds were also determined and were found to be in the range of 100-400 µg/mL. All the compounds showed moderate-to-good antimicrobial activity. Compounds 4a [2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-3-(4-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-quinazolin-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-one] and 4e [3-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-thiazolidin-4-one] were the most potent compounds of the series, exhibiting marked antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungal strains. Thus, on the basis of results obtained, it may be concluded that synthesized compounds exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. PMID:26925267

  10. Novel 4-Thiazolidinone Derivatives as Anti-Infective Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amit; Singh, Rajendra; Sonar, Pankaj K.; Saraf, Shailendra K.

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 4-thiazolidinone derivatives was synthesized, characterized by spectral techniques, and screened for antimicrobial activity. All the compounds were evaluated against five Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, and two fungi, at concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1600 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of all the compounds were also determined and were found to be in the range of 100–400 µg/mL. All the compounds showed moderate-to-good antimicrobial activity. Compounds 4a [2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-3-(4-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-quinazolin-2-yl)-thiazolidin-4-one] and 4e [3-(4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-thiazolidin-4-one] were the most potent compounds of the series, exhibiting marked antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungal strains. Thus, on the basis of results obtained, it may be concluded that synthesized compounds exhibit a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. PMID:26925267

  11. In vitro culture system to determine MICs and MBCs of antimicrobial agents against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (Nichols strain).

    PubMed Central

    Norris, S J; Edmondson, D G

    1988-01-01

    A new procedure for determining the susceptibility of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum to antimicrobial agents was developed, utilizing a tissue culture system which promotes the in vitro multiplication of this organism. In the absence of antibiotics, T. pallidum (Nichols virulent strain) multiplied an average of 10-fold when incubated for 7 days in the presence of Sf1Ep cottontail rabbit epithelial cell cultures. Varied concentrations of penicillin G, tetracycline, erythromycin, and spectinomycin were added to triplicate cultures to determine their effects on treponemal multiplication, motility, and virulence. The MIC of each antibiotic was defined as the lowest concentration which prevented treponemal multiplication, whereas the MBC was defined as the lowest concentration which abrogated the ability of the cultured treponemes to multiply and cause lesions in rabbits. The in vitro culture technique provided highly reproducible MICs and (in parentheses) MBCs of each of the antibiotics tested: aqueous penicillin G, 0.0005 (0.0025) microgram/ml; tetracycline, 0.2 (0.5) microgram/ml; erythromycin, 0.005 (0.005) microgram/ml; and spectinomycin, 0.5 (0.5) microgram/ml. The significance of these results in light of the in vivo activities and the previous in vitro evaluations of these antibiotics is discussed. The T. pallidum in vitro cultivation system shows promise as a method for studying the interaction between T. pallidum and antimicrobial agents and for screening new antibiotics for syphilis therapy. PMID:2964810

  12. In vitro activities of tulathromycin and ceftiofur combined with other antimicrobial agents using bovine Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolates.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Michael T; Brumbaugh, Gordon W; Watts, Jeffrey L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the activities of two antibacterial agents used in the treatment of bovine respiratory infections-tulathromycin, a macrolide, and ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin-alone, in combination with each other, and in combination with each of seven additional antibiotics (tilmicosin, florfenicol, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, ampicillin, tetracycline, and penicillin G) against bovine Pasteurella multocida (n = 60) and Mannheimia haemolytica (n = 10) isolates for determination of synergy, antagonism, or indifference. Of 458 organism-drug combinations, 160 combinations of tulathromycin and 209 combinations of ceftiofur with eight antimicrobial drugs were indifferent. One combination was antagonistic (ceftiofur + florfenicol against one isolate of P. multocida). Time-kill studies showed loss of cidality for ceftiofur when combined with florfenicol at 1x the minimal inhibitory concentration. Overall, the in vitro data demonstrated that tulathromycin and ceftiofur, in combination with each other or seven other antimicrobial agents, primarily produce an indifferent response with no occurrences of synergism and rare occurrences of antagonism. PMID:19003782

  13. Novel mode of action in plant defense peptides: hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from wheat inhibit fungal metalloproteases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multilayered plant immune system relies on rapid recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns followed by activation of defense-related genes that results in the reinforcement of plant cell walls and production of antimicrobial compounds. To suppress plant defense, fungi secrete effecto...

  14. Antimicrobial and toxicological studies of Ochthochloa compressa plant.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saeed; Bashir, Muhammad Tayyab; Khaliq, Farhan Hameed; Mannan, Abdul; Mukhtar, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-09-01

    The present study demonstrates the biological activity of Ochthochloa compressa, since extensive literature survey has shown no documented biological activity of this plant. Ethanolic extract of whole plant was prepared and evaporated under reduced pressure by rota vapor. The crude extract was further fractionated into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fractions. These fractions were screened for antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Dichloromethane soluble fraction showed significant phytotoxicity whereas n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed non-significant phytotoxicity. Similarly, ethyl acetate soluble fraction was the only fraction, which showed significant cytotoxic activity. There was no antibacterial but moderate antifungal activity was shown by these fractions against selected strains of bacteria and fungi. This is the first report on the biological activity of O. compressa. PMID:25176377

  15. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations. PMID:25427632

  16. Plants as antimalarial agents in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2015-12-01

    Although the burden of malaria is decreasing, parasite resistance to current antimalarial drugs and resistance to insecticides by vector mosquitoes threaten the prospects of malaria elimination in endemic areas. Corollary, there is a scientific departure to discover new antimalarial agents from nature. Because the two antimalarial drugs quinine and artemisinin were discovered through improved understanding of the indigenous knowledge of plants, bioprospecting Sub-Saharan Africa's enormous plant biodiversity may be a source of new and better drugs to treat malaria. This review analyses the medicinal plants used to manage malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Chemical compounds with antiplasmodial activity are described. In the Sub-Saharan African countries cited in this review, hundreds of plants are used as antimalarial remedies. While the number of plant species is not exhaustive, plants used in more than one country probably indicate better antimalarial efficacy and safety. The antiplasmodial data suggest an opportunity for inventing new antimalarial drugs from Sub-Saharan-African flora. PMID:26297798

  17. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  18. Antimicrobial activities of Aerva javanica and Paeonia emodi plants.

    PubMed

    Mufti, Farees Ud Din; Ullah, Hanif; Bangash, Asia; Khan, Niamat; Hussain, Sajid; Ullah, Farhat; Jamil, Muhammad; Jabeen, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Aerva javanica and Paeonia emodi plants extracts were studied for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (NCTC 10418), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis (NCTC 11047) and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) (NCTC 13143) and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani. Extracts were obtained by using methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fraction. The extracts of Paeonia emodi and Aerva javanica showed significant antibacterial activity but only Salmonella typhi was resistant to Aerva javanica. Moreover, the antifungal activity of Aerva javanica was very poor but the fractions of Paeonia emodi showed sufficient inhibition against fungal strains. PMID:22713942

  19. Edible apple film wraps containing plant antimicrobials inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl W; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-10-01

    Apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobials were evaluated for their activity against pathogenic bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g) cultures were surface inoculated on chicken breasts and Listeria monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/g) on ham. The inoculated products were then wrapped with edible films containing 3 concentrations (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3%) of cinnamaldehyde or carvacrol. Following incubation at either 23 or 4 degrees C for 72 h, samples were stomached in buffered peptone water, diluted, and plated for enumeration of survivors. The antimicrobial films exhibited concentration-dependent activities against the pathogens tested. At 23 degrees C on chicken breasts, films with 3% antimicrobials showed the highest reductions (4.3 to 6.8 log CFU/g) of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7. Films with 1.5% and 0.5% antimicrobials showed 2.4 to 4.3 and 1.6 to 2.8 log reductions, respectively. At 4 degrees C, carvacrol exhibited greater activity than did cinnamaldehyde. Films with 3%, 1.5%, and 0.5% carvacrol reduced the bacterial populations by about 3, 1.6 to 3, and 0.8 to 1 logs, respectively. Films with 3% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde induced 1.2 to 2.8 and 1.2 to 1.3 log reductions, respectively. For L. monocytogenes on ham, carvacrol films induced greater reductions than did cinnamaldehyde films at all concentrations tested. In general, the reduction of L. monocytogenes on ham at 23 degrees C was greater than at 4 degrees C. Added antimicrobials had minor effects on physical properties of the films. The results suggest that the food industry and consumers could use these films as wrappings to control surface contamination by foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:19799671

  20. Synthesis, molecular modeling and structural characterization of vanillin derivatives as antimicrobial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Juan; Yin, Yong; Sheng, Gui-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Bo; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-05-01

    Two vanillin derivatives have been designed and synthesized and their biological activities were also evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Their chemical structures are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization of them followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding model. Compound 3a shows the most potent biological activity, which may be a promising antimicrobial leading compound for the further research.

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of some new coumarin derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lav Kumar; Priyanka; Singh, Vineeta; Katiyar, Diksha

    2015-01-01

    A series of 4-methyl-7-O-substituted coumarins (3-12) was synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), four Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris) and three fungal strains (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus terreus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by two-fold serial dilution technique. The results of bioactive assay showed that some of the synthesized coumarins displayed comparable or even better antibacterial and antifungal activities against tested strains in comparison with reference drugs erythromycin, novobiocin and amphotericin B. Compound 9 showed potent antimicrobial activities against seven of the nine microbial strains examined in this study with MIC values ranging between 1.09 and 25 µg/mL and was the most active compound of the series. The present work also describes the effect of substituent on bioactivity. PMID:25181986

  2. Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae lichens and their major metabolites as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Manojlović, Nedeljko; Janković, Slobodan; Stanojković, Tatjana; Ranković, Branislav

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate chemical composition of acetone extracts of the lichens Evernia prunastri and Pseudoevernia furfuraceae and in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of these extracts and some their major metabolites. HPLC-UV method was used for identification of secondary metabolites. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power and determination of total phenolic compounds. As a result of the study physodic acid had largest antioxidant activities. Total content of phenol in extracts was determined as pyrocatechol equivalent. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method. The most active was also physodic acid. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma) and LS174 (human colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT method. PMID:23220145

  3. Commensal Escherichia coli isolate resistant to eight classes of antimicrobial agents in the United States.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Amy L; Folster, Jason; Medalla, Felicita; Joyce, Kevin; Perri, Mary Beth; Johnson, Laura; Zervos, Marcus; Whichard, Jean M; Barzilay, Ezra J

    2011-02-01

    To increase understanding of community-acquired resistance, stool samples from 477 nonhospitalized persons in Maryland and Michigan, from 2004 to 2008, were screened for ceftriaxone resistance. Seven (1.5%) yielded ceftriaxone-resistant Escherichia coli; one isolate was resistant to all eight antimicrobial classes routinely tested: aminoglycosides, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephems, penicillins, folate pathway inhibitors, phenicols, quinolones, and tetracyclines. The extensively resistant isolate was from a 50-year-old woman who denied antimicrobial use, hospitalization, or international travel within 6 months. Meat (beef, chicken, and pork) and eggs were consumed within 1 month before stool collection. Further studies are warranted to understand potential sources, including the food supply, of resistant E. coli. PMID:20973731

  4. Optimization and production of novel antimicrobial agents from sponge associated marine actinomycetes Nocardiopsis dassonvillei MAD08.

    PubMed

    Selvin, Joseph; Shanmughapriya, S; Gandhimathi, R; Seghal Kiran, G; Rajeetha Ravji, T; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Hema, T A

    2009-06-01

    The sponge-associated actinomycetes were isolated from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra, collected from the southwest coast of India. Eleven actinomycetes were isolated depending upon the heterogeneity and stability in subculturing. Among these, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei MAD08 showed 100% activity against the multidrug resistant pathogens tested. The culture conditions of N. dassonvillei MAD08 was optimized under submerged fermentation conditions for enhanced antimicrobial production. The unique feature of MAD08 includes extracellular amylase, cellulase, lipase, and protease production. These enzymes ultimately increase the scope of optimization using broad range of raw materials which might be efficiently utilized. The extraction of the cell free supernatant with ethyl acetate yielded bioactive crude extract that displayed activity against a panel of pathogens tested. Analysis of the active thin layer chromatography fraction by Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry evidenced 11 compounds with antimicrobial activity. The ammonium sulfate precipitation of the culture supernatant at 80% saturation yielded an anticandidal protein of molecular weight 87.12 kDa. This is the first strain that produces both organic solvent and water soluble antimicrobial compounds. The active extract was non-hemolytic and showed surface active property envisaging its probable role in inhibiting the attachment of pathogens to host tissues, thus, blocking host-pathogen interaction at an earlier stage of pathogenesis. PMID:19190903

  5. Biological evaluation and molecular docking of some chromenyl-derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Ionuţ, Ioana; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Oniga, Ilioara; Oniga, Ovidiu; Tiperciuc, Brînduşa; Tamaian, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Various thiosemicarbazones (TSCs) and their heterocyclic thiadiazolines (TDZ) possess important biological effects. In addition, chromenyl derivatives exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities. Based on these findings and as a continuation of our research on nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds, we investigated a series of previously reported chromenyl-TSCs (1a-j) and chromenyl-TDZs (2a-j) for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against two bacterial and four fungal strains. MIC and MBC/MFC (µg/mL) values of these compounds were evaluated and compared to those of Spectinomycin, Moxifloxacin and Fluconazole, used as reference drugs. For a better understanding of the drug-receptor interactions, all the compounds were further subjected to molecular docking against four targets that were chosen based on the specific mechanism of action of the reference drugs used in the antimicrobial screening. All compounds tested showed equal or higher antibacterial/antifungal activities relative to the used reference drugs. In silico studies (molecular docking) revealed that all the investigated compounds showed good binding energies towards four receptor protein targets and supported their antimicrobial properties. PMID:27005495

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  7. Plant antimicrobial peptides snakin-1 and snakin-2: chemical synthesis and insights into the disulfide connectivity.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul W R; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Molina, Antonio; Lpez, Gemma; Middleditch, Martin; Brimble, Margaret A

    2014-04-22

    Antimicrobial peptides and proteins represent an important class of plant defensive compounds against pathogens and provide a rich source of lead compounds in the field of drug discovery. We describe the effective preparation of the cysteine-rich snakin-1 and -2 antimicrobial peptides by using a combination of solid-phase synthesis and native chemical ligation. A subsequent cysteine/cystine mediated oxidative folding to form the six internal disulfide bonds concurrently gave the folded proteins in 40-50?% yield. By comparative evaluation of mass spectrometry, HPLC, biological data and trypsin digest mapping of folded synthetic snakin-2 compared to natural snakin-2, we demonstrated that synthetic snakin-2 possesses full antifungal activity and displayed similar chromatographic behaviour to natural snakin-2. Trypsin digest analysis allowed tentative assignment of three of the purported six disulfide bonds. PMID:24644073

  8. Plant microRNAs as novel immunomodulatory agents

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Duccio; Rizzetto, Lisa; Tocci, Noemi; Rivero, Damariz; Asquini, Elisa; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Bonechi, Elena; Ballerini, Clara; Viola, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of literature is addressing the immuno-modulating functions of miRNAs which include paracrine signaling via exosome-mediated intercellular miRNA. In view of the recent evidence of intake and bioavailability of dietary miRNAs in humans and animals we explored the immuno-modulating capacity of plant derived miRNAs. Here we show that transfection of synthetic miRNAs or native miRNA-enriched fractions obtained from a wide range of plant species and organs modifies dendritic cells ability to respond to inflammatory agents by limiting T cell proliferation and consequently dampening inflammation. This immuno-modulatory effect appears associated with binding of plant miRNA on TLR3 with ensuing impairment of TRIF signaling. Similarly, in vivo, plant small RNAs reduce the onset of severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelities by limiting dendritic cell migration and dampening Th1 and Th17 responses in a Treg-independent manner. Our results indicate a potential for therapeutic use of plant miRNAs in the prevention of chronic-inflammation related diseases. PMID:27167363

  9. Plant microRNAs as novel immunomodulatory agents.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, Duccio; Rizzetto, Lisa; Tocci, Noemi; Rivero, Damariz; Asquini, Elisa; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Bonechi, Elena; Ballerini, Clara; Viola, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    An increasing body of literature is addressing the immuno-modulating functions of miRNAs which include paracrine signaling via exosome-mediated intercellular miRNA. In view of the recent evidence of intake and bioavailability of dietary miRNAs in humans and animals we explored the immuno-modulating capacity of plant derived miRNAs. Here we show that transfection of synthetic miRNAs or native miRNA-enriched fractions obtained from a wide range of plant species and organs modifies dendritic cells ability to respond to inflammatory agents by limiting T cell proliferation and consequently dampening inflammation. This immuno-modulatory effect appears associated with binding of plant miRNA on TLR3 with ensuing impairment of TRIF signaling. Similarly, in vivo, plant small RNAs reduce the onset of severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelities by limiting dendritic cell migration and dampening Th1 and Th17 responses in a Treg-independent manner. Our results indicate a potential for therapeutic use of plant miRNAs in the prevention of chronic-inflammation related diseases. PMID:27167363

  10. Study of in vitro antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan plants.

    PubMed

    Palici, Ionut F; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Zupkó, István; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed; Urbán, Edit; Hohmann, Judit

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of selected Saharan species, which are applied in the traditional medicine but not studied thoroughly from chemical and pharmacological point of view. The studied plants, namely Anthyllis henoniana, Centropodia forskalii, Cornulaca monacantha, Ephedra alata var. alenda, Euphorbia guyoniana, Helianthemum confertum, Henophyton deserti, Moltkiopsis ciliata and Spartidium saharae were collected from remote areas of North Africa, especially from the Tunisian region of Sahara. After drying and applying the appropriate extraction methods, the plant extracts were tested in antimicrobial screening assay, performed on 19 Gram-positive and -negative strains of microbes. The inhibition zones produced by plant extracts were determined by disc-diffusion method. Remarkable antibacterial activities were exhibited by extracts of Ephedra alata var. alenda and Helianthemum confertum against B. subtilis, M. catarrhalis and methicillin-resistant and non-resistant S. aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of these two species were also determined. Antiproliferative effects of the extracts were evaluated against 4 human adherent cell lines (HeLa, A431, A2780 and MCF7). Notable cell growth inhibition was found for extract of Helianthemum confertum and Euphorbia guyoniana. Our results provided data for selection of some plant species for further detailed pharmacological and phytochemical examinations. PMID:26616371

  11. Applications of chitosan powder with in situ synthesized nano ZnO particles as an antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    P, Mujeeb Rahman; Muraleedaran, K; Mujeeb, V M Abdul

    2015-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles are immobilized on the chitosan matrix by an in situ sol-gel conversion of precursor molecules in a single step. Three different composites are prepared by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide with same quantity of chitosan and zinc acetate dihydrate. The composites were characterized by FTIR, UV-visible spectra, and XRD. The observed decrease in the band width corresponding to OH and NH2 group in the composites is ascribed to the reduction of hydrogen bond due to the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. The direct evidence of the immobilization of nano ZnO particles in the matrix was identified by SEM. The average particle size values obtained for the nanoparticles, using Debye-Scherrer equation from XRD, is in the range 10-18nm. Optical studies proved that all the three composites studied have the same band gap energy (3.28eV) in agreement with the reported values. We observed that the composites possess excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than chitosan. Based on the above studies, the biocompatible, eco-friendly and low-cost composite powder could be applied in various fields as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:25841382

  12. Construction of Zinc Oxide into Different Morphological Structures to Be Utilized as Antimicrobial Agent against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, M. F.; Shokry Hassan, H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.; Fouad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Nano-ZnO has been successfully implemented in particles, rods, and tubes nanostructures via sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques. The variation of the different preparation parameters such as reaction temperature, time, and stabilizer agents was optimized to attain different morphological structures. The influence of the microwave annealing process on ZnO crystallinity, surface area, and morphological structure was monitored using XRD, BET, and SEM techniques, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide produced in nanotubes structure was examined against four different multidrug resistant bacteria: Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains. The activity of produced nano-ZnO was determined by disc diffusion technique and the results revealed that ZnO nanotubes recorded high activity against the studied strains due to their high surface area equivalent to 17.8 m2/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO nanotubes showed that the low concentrations of ZnO nanotubes could be a substitution for the commercial antibiotics when approached in suitable formula. Although the annealing process of ZnO improves the degree of material crystallinity, however, it declines its surface area and consequently its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26451136

  13. Construction of Zinc Oxide into Different Morphological Structures to Be Utilized as Antimicrobial Agent against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Elkady, M F; Shokry Hassan, H; Hafez, Elsayed E; Fouad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Nano-ZnO has been successfully implemented in particles, rods, and tubes nanostructures via sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques. The variation of the different preparation parameters such as reaction temperature, time, and stabilizer agents was optimized to attain different morphological structures. The influence of the microwave annealing process on ZnO crystallinity, surface area, and morphological structure was monitored using XRD, BET, and SEM techniques, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide produced in nanotubes structure was examined against four different multidrug resistant bacteria: Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains. The activity of produced nano-ZnO was determined by disc diffusion technique and the results revealed that ZnO nanotubes recorded high activity against the studied strains due to their high surface area equivalent to 17.8 m(2)/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO nanotubes showed that the low concentrations of ZnO nanotubes could be a substitution for the commercial antibiotics when approached in suitable formula. Although the annealing process of ZnO improves the degree of material crystallinity, however, it declines its surface area and consequently its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26451136

  14. Evaluation of bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride based dual functional colloidal carrier as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Kaur, Baljinder; Kant, Ravi; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Bhushan, Shashi; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2016-04-12

    We have developed a dual function carrier using bishexadecyltrimethyl ammonium palladium tetrachloride, which has anticancer as well as antibacterial activity, using a ligand insertion method with a simple and easy work procedure. The complex is prepared by a simple and cost effective method using hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and palladium chloride under controlled stoichiometry. Herein, we report the aggregation (self assembly) of the metallosurfactant having palladium as a counter ion, in aqueous medium along with its binding affinity with bovine serum albumin. The palladium surfactant has exhibited excellent antimicrobial efficacy against fungus and bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria). Cytotoxicity of palladium surfactant against cancerous (Human leukemia HL-60, pancreatic MIA-Pa-Ca-2 and prostate cancer PC-3) and healthy cells (fR2 human breast epithelial cells) was also evaluated using MTT assay. The present dual functional moiety shows a low IC50 value and has potential to be used as an anticancer agent. Our dual function carrier which itself possesses antimicrobial and anticancer activity represents a simple and effective system and can also be utilized as a drug carrier in the future. PMID:26961498

  15. Radiosensitivities of parabens and characterization of the radical species induced in this class of antimicrobial agents after gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Üstündaǧ, Ilknur; Korkmaz, Özden

    Radiosensitivities of methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens and sodium salts of methyl and propyl parabens (hereafter, MP, EP, PP, BP, SMP and SPP, respectively) were investigated by monitoring, through electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, the evolution under different experimental conditions of characteristic features of the radicalic species produced upon irradiation by gamma radiation. While ESR spectra of the studied parabens consisted of the sum of broad and narrow resonance lines of different microwave saturation and thermal characteristics, those of sodium salts appeared to consist of the sum of two overlapping narrow resonance lines. Radical species presented different room and high-temperature decay characteristics, depending on the extent of the cage effect created by the lattice networks on these species. A model based on the presence of two radical species presenting different spectroscopic and kinetic features described best the experimental data collected for parabens and their sodium salts. Radiation yields of the studied parabens towards gamma radiation were calculated to be low (G≤10-2), providing the opportunity of using these antimicrobial agents in food, cosmetics and drugs to be sterilized by radiation without much loss from their antimicrobial activities.

  16. Reduced Susceptibility to Rifampicin and Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents among Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa Pauletti, Rebeca; Reinato Stynen, Ana Paula; Pinto da Silva Mol, Juliana; Seles Dorneles, Elaine Maria; Alves, Telma Maria; de Sousa Moura Souto, Monalisa; Minharro, Silvia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human brucellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains. PMID:26181775

  17. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and 2D-QSAR Study of Halophenyl Bis-Hydrazones as Antimicrobial and Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Eldehna, Wagdy M.; Fares, Mohamed; Al-Rashood, Sara T. A.; Al-Rashood, Khalid A.; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M.; Soliman, Dalia H.

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of our endeavor towards the development of potent and effective antimicrobial agents, three series of halophenyl bis-hydrazones (14a–n, 16a–d, 17a and 17b) were synthesized and evaluated for their potential antibacterial, antifungal and antimycobacterial activities. These efforts led to the identification of five molecules 14c, 14g, 16b, 17a and 17b (MIC range from 0.12 to 7.81 μg/mL) with broad antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Aspergillus fumigates; Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillis subtilis; and Gram negative bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Escherichia coli. Three of the most active compounds, 16b, 17a and 17b, were also devoid of apparent cytotoxicity to lung cancer cell line A549. Amphotericin B and ciprofloxacin were used as references for antifungal and antibacterial screening, while isoniazid and pyrazinamide were used as references for antimycobacterial activity. Furthermore, three Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models were built to explore the structural requirements controlling the different activities of the prepared bis-hydrazones. PMID:25903147

  18. Considering the antimicrobial sensitivity of the intestinal botulism agent Clostridium butyricum when treating concomitant infections.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Ferrini, Anna Maria; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Mannoni, Veruscka; Aureli, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    In Italy, neurotoxigenic Clostridium butyricum has been reported as a new agent of intestinal toxemia botulism, and most of the cases have been associated with enterocolitis. Although infections concomitant with botulism must be treated with antibiotics, this can increase the severity of botulism. We discuss the sensitivity of this agent to certain antibiotics, compared to findings on the sensitivity of C. botulinum. PMID:14758873

  19. Identification, and susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents, of 61 gram-negative anaerobic rods from periodontal pockets.

    PubMed

    Abu-Fanas, S H; Drucker, D B; Hull, P S; Reeder, J C; Ganguli, L A

    1991-02-01

    Sixty-one cultures of Gram-negative anaerobic rods were isolated from deep periodontal pockets of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis. Isolates were speciated as Bacteroides gingivalis (18 isolates), Bacteroides intermedius (8), Bacteroides oris (1), Bacteroides gracilis (17) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (17). Their susceptibilities, to seven antimicrobial agents, were determined in vitro using a plate dilution technique. Amoxycillin and amoxycillin with clavulanic acid were active against all isolates (MIC less than 1 mg/l) and proved the most effective agents tested. F. nucleatum and B. gracilis showed resistance to erythromycin; F. nucleatum had MIC values ranging from 0.03 mg/l up to 128 mg/l when tested with this, least effective agent. Metronidazole was effective against all isolates except for a few strains of B. gracilis (MIC less than 4 mg/l). Tetracycline hydrochloride and minocycline were active against all isolates except for a few strains of B. gracilis (MIC less than 2 mg/l with both minocycline and tetracycline hydrochloride). Penicillin proved less effective than amoxycillin with regard to inhibition of B. gracilis. PMID:1901873

  20. Bacteriophage versus antimicrobial agents for the treatment of murine burn wound infection caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Seema; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2011-02-01

    This study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of silver nitrate and gentamicin in the treatment of burn wound infection and to compare it with phage therapy using an isolated and well-characterized Klebsiella-specific phage, Kpn5. A full-thickness burn wound was induced in mice and infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055 via the topical route. Different concentrations of silver nitrate or gentamicin were applied topically daily after establishment of infection. Phage Kpn5 mixed in hydrogel was also applied topically at an m.o.i. of 200 on the burn wound site. The efficacy of these antimicrobial agents was assessed on the basis of percentage survival of infected mice following treatment. The results showed that a single dose of phage Kpn5 resulted in a significant reduction in mortality (P<0.001). Daily applications of silver nitrate and gentamicin at 0.5 % and 1000 mg l(-1), respectively, provided significant protection (P<0.001) compared to lower concentrations of the two agents. However, the level of protection given by these two agents was lower than that given by the phage therapy. The results strongly suggest that phage Kpn5 has therapeutic utility in treating burn wound infection in mice as a single topical application of this phage was able to rescue mice from infection caused by K. pneumoniae B5055 in comparison to multiple applications of silver nitrate and gentamicin. PMID:20965914

  1. Comparative in vitro activities of several new fluoroquinolones and beta-lactam antimicrobial agents against community isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzulli, T; Simor, A E; Jaeger, R; Fuller, S; Low, D E

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 551 community isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the Canadian province of Ontario to several new fluoroquinolones and beta-lactam antimicrobial agents were determined by a broth microdilution technique. Eight (1.5%) of these isolates were moderately susceptible (MICs, greater than or equal to 0.12 and less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml) to penicillin; none was resistant. Temafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin (MICs for 90% of strains tested, between 1 and 2 micrograms/ml) were the most active fluoroquinolones tested, and BMY-28100 (MIC for 90% of strains tested, 0.25 microgram/ml) was the most active of the new beta-lactams tested. PMID:2334158

  2. In vitro evaluation of cytotoxic and antimicrobial potentials of the Saudi traditional plant Alhagi graecorum boiss.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza; El-Dib, Rabab

    2015-05-01

    Various species of Alhagi are known for a wide diversity of ethnopharmacological uses. This study explored the in vitro antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials of the crude ethanolic extract and isolated fractions from the traditional Saudi plant Alhagi graecorum. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against 19 pathogenic microbial strains using the broth micro dilution assay. On the other hand, the cytotoxicity was assessed using the crystal violet staining method on MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116, A-549, and HEp-2human cell lines. Results showed that the highest antimicrobial activity was shown by the ethyl acetate extract, followed by the dichloromethane and total alcohol extracts. The aqueous extract had no effect on any of the tested microorganisms at 20mg/ml. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract displayed remarkable cytotoxic activity on all five human cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.7 to 8.23 μg/mL, followed by the dichloromethane extract with IC(50) values between 9.4 and 19.7μg/mL using doxorubicin as a reference drug. PMID:26051727

  3. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  4. Alfalfa endophytes as novel sources of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of human and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes may contribute to plant health and disease protection, yet little is known about their various roles in alfalfa. Also, endophytes from several plant species produce novel antimicrobial compounds that may be useful clinically. We isolated endophytic fungi from over 50 samples from s...

  5. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. PMID:20688230

  6. Development of new 5-(chromene-3-yl)methylene-2,4-thiazolidinediones as antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    NASTASĂ, CRISTINA MARIANA; DUMA, MIHAELA; PÎRNĂU, ADRIAN; VLASE, LAURIAN; TIPERCIUC, BRÎNDUŞA; ONIGA, OVIDIU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims In the context of the increasing phenomenon of microbial resistance to usual drugs, the development of new treatment strategies and new therapeutic protocols is a constant need. Thiazolidinedione and chromone represent two important scaffolds in medicinal chemistry due to their large pharmacological applicability. Methods We synthesized a new 5-(chromene-3-yl)methylene-2,4-thiazolidinedione starting from 6,8-dichloro-4-oxo-4H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde. Then, by treating with different α-bromoalkylarylketones, we obtained N-substituted derivatives. All new compounds were investigated for their antimicrobial potential, using the diffusion method, against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 13932, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Three concentrations, 10 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml of compounds were used. The results were evaluated by the measurement of the inhibition zone diameters and compared to those of gentamicin and fluconazole respectively, as reference drugs. Results All new synthesized compounds were characterized using physico-chemical and spectrometric methods. They displayed modest to good antimicrobial activity. New molecules 8, 9 and 10 may represent promising candidates, showing zone inhibition diameters superior to those of reference drugs. Conclusions This work presents chemical synthesis, characterization and investigation of the antibacterial and antifungal potential of 5-(chromene-3-yl)methylene-2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives, which may be worthy of future research for designing new chemical entities. PMID:27004035

  7. SAR study of clubbed [1,2,4]-triazolyl with fluorobenzimidazoles as antimicrobial and antituberculosis agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Ganesh Rajaram; Shaikh, Mohammad Usman; Kale, Rajesh Prabhakar; Shiradkar, Mahendra Ramesh; Gill, Charansingh Harnamsingh

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, a series of novel 2-[4-(1H-[1,2,4]-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]-1-substituted-4,6-difluoro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives are synthesized by the alkylation of 2-[4-(1H-[1,2,4]-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]-4,6-difluoro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole with substituted alkyl and aryl halides. The compounds were evaluated for their preliminary in-vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhosa and then were screened for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain by broth microdilution assay method. The antibacterial data suggested that the analogs with electronegative substituents emerged as promising antimicrobials. It was also observed that the promising antimicrobials have proved to be better antimycobacterials. Few of selected analogs are under further evaluation for secondary antitubercular screening, as they have shown better activity compared to rifampin. PMID:19150154

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Selected Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Alasmary, Fatmah A S; Snelling, Anna M; Zain, Mohammed E; Alafeefy, Ahmed M; Awaad, Amani S; Karodia, Nazira

    2015-01-01

    A library of 53 benzimidazole derivatives, with substituents at positions 1, 2 and 5, were synthesized and screened against a series of reference strains of bacteria and fungi of medical relevance. The SAR analyses of the most promising results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds depended on the substituents attached to the bicyclic heterocycle. In particular, some compounds displayed antibacterial activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) comparable to the widely-used drug ciprofloxacin. The compounds have some common features; three possess 5-halo substituents; two are derivatives of (S)-2-ethanaminebenzimidazole; and the others are derivatives of one 2-(chloromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanethiol. The results from the antifungal screening were also very interesting: 23 compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against the selected fungal strains. They displayed equivalent or greater potency in their MIC values than amphotericin B. The 5-halobenzimidazole derivatives could be considered promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial candidates that deserve further study for potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26307956

  9. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from in vivo and in vitro propagated Lamium album L. plants.

    PubMed

    Chipeva, Valentina Aleksandrova; Petrova, Detelina Christova; Geneva, Milena Evgenieva; Dimitrova, Milena Angelova; Moncheva, Penka Angelova; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta Michova

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 18 different extracts from in vivo and in vitro grown L. album L. plants was evaluated against clinical bacteria and yeasts using the well diffusion method. All the used extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity, whereas only the water extracts from leaves (in vivo) possessed antifungal activity against Candida albicans NBIMCC 72 and Candida glabrata NBIMCC 8673 (14 and 20 mm diameter of inhibition zones and MIC 10 mg/ml, respectively). The methanol and ethanol extracts obtained from the in vitro propagated plants had a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity than those from in vivo plants, while the opposite tendency was observed for the chloroform extracts. All tested flower extracts possessed antimicrobial activity. The chloroform extract from in vivo flowers demonstrated the highest activity against E. faecalis NBIMCC 3915, S. aureus NBIMCC 3703, P. hauseri NBIMCC 1339 and P. aeruginosa NBIMCC 3700 (22 mm, 13 mm, 11 mm, 23 mm zone diameter of inhibition and MIC 0.313 mg/ml, respectively). The water extracts from leaves (both in vivo and in vitro) possessed higher antibacterial activity than extract from flowers. The obtained results showed that both in vivo and in vitro propagated L. album L. could be used as a source of antibacterial substances. PMID:24311888

  10. A potent antimicrobial protein from onion seeds showing sequence homology to plant lipid transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Cammue, B P; Thevissen, K; Hendriks, M; Eggermont, K; Goderis, I J; Proost, P; Van Damme, J; Osborn, R W; Guerbette, F; Kader, J C

    1995-10-01

    An antimicrobial protein of about 10 kD, called Ace-AMP1, was isolated from onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds. Based on the near-complete amino acid sequence of this protein, oligonucleotides were designed for polymerase chain reaction-based cloning of the corresponding cDNA. The mature protein is homologous to plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), but it shares only 76% of the residues that are conserved among all known plant nsLTPs and is unusually rich in arginine. Ace-AMP1 inhibits all 12 tested plant pathogenic fungi at concentrations below 10 micrograms mL-1. Its antifungal activity is either not at all or is weakly affected by the presence of different cations at concentrations approximating physiological ionic strength conditions. Ace-AMP1 is also active on two Gram-positive bacteria but is apparently not toxic for Gram-negative bacteria and cultured human cells. In contrast to nsLTPs such as those isolated from radish or maize seeds, Ace-AMP1 was unable to transfer phospholipids from liposomes to mitochondria. On the other hand, lipid transfer proteins from wheat and maize seeds showed little or no antimicrobial activity, whereas the radish lipid transfer protein displayed antifungal activity only in media with low cation concentrations. The relevance of these findings with regard to the function of nsLTPs is discussed. PMID:7480341

  11. Which Approach Is More Effective in the Selection of Plants with Antimicrobial Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Santana, Elidiane Fonseca; Saraiva, Antonio Marcos; Coutinho, Felipe Neves; Castro, Ricardo Henrique Acre; Pisciottano, Maria Nelly Caetano; Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The development of the present study was based on selections using random, direct ethnopharmacological, and indirect ethnopharmacological approaches, aiming to evaluate which method is the best for bioprospecting new antimicrobial plant drugs. A crude extract of 53 species of herbaceous plants collected in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was tested against 11 microorganisms. Well-agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) techniques were used. Ten extracts from direct, six from random, and three from indirect ethnopharmacological selections exhibited activities that ranged from weak to very active against the organisms tested. The strain most susceptible to the evaluated extracts was Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC analysis revealed the best result for the direct ethnopharmacological approach, considering that some species yielded extracts classified as active or moderately active (MICs between 250 and 1000 µg/mL). Furthermore, one species from this approach inhibited the growth of the three Candida strains. Thus, it was concluded that the direct ethnopharmacological approach is the most effective when selecting species for bioprospecting new plant drugs with antimicrobial activities. PMID:23878595

  12. Which approach is more effective in the selection of plants with antimicrobial activity?

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Santana, Elidiane Fonseca; Saraiva, Antonio Marcos; Coutinho, Felipe Neves; Castro, Ricardo Henrique Acre; Pisciottano, Maria Nelly Caetano; Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-01-01

    The development of the present study was based on selections using random, direct ethnopharmacological, and indirect ethnopharmacological approaches, aiming to evaluate which method is the best for bioprospecting new antimicrobial plant drugs. A crude extract of 53 species of herbaceous plants collected in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was tested against 11 microorganisms. Well-agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) techniques were used. Ten extracts from direct, six from random, and three from indirect ethnopharmacological selections exhibited activities that ranged from weak to very active against the organisms tested. The strain most susceptible to the evaluated extracts was Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC analysis revealed the best result for the direct ethnopharmacological approach, considering that some species yielded extracts classified as active or moderately active (MICs between 250 and 1000 µg/mL). Furthermore, one species from this approach inhibited the growth of the three Candida strains. Thus, it was concluded that the direct ethnopharmacological approach is the most effective when selecting species for bioprospecting new plant drugs with antimicrobial activities. PMID:23878595

  13. Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

    2002-01-01

    The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

  14. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  15. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  16. Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

    2006-09-01

    Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

  17. Relationships of host plant phylogeny, chemistry and host plant specificity of several agents of yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant species used for host specificity testing are usually chosen based on the assumption that the risk of attack by a prospective biological control agent decreases with increasing phylogenetic distance from the target weed. Molecular genetics methods have greatly improved our ability to measure ...

  18. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents. PMID:25970043

  19. Surveying the potential of secreted antimicrobial peptides to enhance plant disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Susan; Solomon, Peter S.; Bedon, Frank; Vincent, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural products found across diverse taxa as part of the innate immune system against pathogen attacks. Some AMPs are synthesized through the canonical gene expression machinery and are called ribosomal AMPs. Other AMPs are assembled by modular enzymes generating nonribosomal AMPs and harbor unusual structural diversity. Plants synthesize an array of AMPs, yet are still subject to many pathogen invasions. Crop breeding programs struggle to release new cultivars in which complete disease resistance is achieved, and usually such resistance becomes quickly overcome by the targeted pathogens which have a shorter generation time. AMPs could offer a solution by exploring not only plant-derived AMPs, related or unrelated to the crop of interest, but also non-plant AMPs produced by bacteria, fungi, oomycetes or animals. This review highlights some promising candidates within the plant kingdom and elsewhere, and offers some perspectives on how to identify and validate their bioactivities. Technological advances, particularly in mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), have been instrumental in identifying and elucidating the structure of novel AMPs, especially nonribosomal peptides which cannot be identified through genomics approaches. The majority of non-plant AMPs showing potential for plant disease immunity are often tested using in vitro assays. The greatest challenge remains the functional validation of candidate AMPs in plants through transgenic experiments, particularly introducing nonribosomal AMPs into crops. PMID:26579150

  20. [Antimicrobial activities of ant Ponericin W1 against plant pathogens in vitro and the disease resistance in its transgenic Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Fang; Sun, Peng-Wei; Tang, Ding-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The application of AMPs from non-plant organisms attracts considerable attention in plant disease resistance engineering. Ponericin W1, isolated from the venom of ant (Pachycondyla goeldii), shows antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it is not clear whether Ponericin W1 is effective against plant pathogens. The results of this study indicated synthesized Ponericin W1 inhibited mycelial growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea, as well as hyphal growth and spore production of Fusarium graminearum. Besides, Ponericin W1 exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. After codon optimization, Ponericin W1 gene was constructed into plant expression vector, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by floral dip method. The Ponericin W1 was located in intercellular space of the transgenic plants as expected. Compared with the wild-type plants, there were ungerminated spores and less hyphal, conidia on the leaves of transgenic plants after innoculation with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. After innoculation with the pathogenic bac-terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the baceria in the leaves of transgenic plants was significantly less than the wild-type plants, indicating that the transgenic plants displayed enhanced disease resistance to pathogens. These results demonstrate a potential use of Ponericin W1 in genetic engineering for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance. PMID:23956091

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel series of aminopyrimidine derivatives as urease inhibitors and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Adsul, Laxman K; Bandgar, Babasaheb P; Chavan, Hemant V; Jalde, Shivkumar S; Dhakane, Valmik D; Shirfule, Amol L

    2013-12-01

    A novel series of carbazole substituted aminopyrimidines (5a-p) were synthesized and screened for their in vitro urease inhibition and antimicrobial activity. Among the compounds, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-6-(9-methyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-pyrimidin-2-amine (5i) was found to be the most potent showing urease inhibitory activity with an IC50 value 19.4 ± 0.43 µM. Compounds 5c, 5g, 5j and 5o showed good activity against all selected bacterial strains and compounds 5b, 5c, 5m and 5o showed good activity against selected fungal strains. All the compounds were subjected for ADME predictions by computational method. PMID:23230954

  2. Quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.

    PubMed

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794

  3. Optimization of four types of antimicrobial agents to increase the inhibitory ability of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Wang, Shujun; Lü, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Fang, Yaowei; Jiao, Yuliang; Hu, Jianen

    2016-03-01

    We adopted the response surface methodology using single factor and orthogonal experiments to optimize four types of antimicrobial agents that could inhibit biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, which is commonly found in the human oral cavity and causes tooth decay. The objective was to improve the function of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash (designed and developed by our laboratory). The experiment was conducted in a three-level, four-variable central composite design to determine the best combination of ZnSO4, lysozyme, citric acid and chitosan. The optimized antibacterial agents were 2.16 g/L ZnSO4, 14 g/L lysozyme, 4.5 g/L citric acid and 5 g/L chitosan. The biofilm formation inhibition reached 84.49%. In addition, microscopic observation of the biofilm was performed using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized formula was tested in marine dextranase Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 mouthwash and enhanced the inhibition of S. mutans. This work may be promoted for the design and development of future marine dextranase oral care products.

  4. Optimization of four types of antimicrobial agents to increase the inhibitory ability of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Wang, Shujun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Xiaobei; Fang, Yaowei; Jiao, Yuliang; Hu, Jianen

    2015-11-01

    We adopted the response surface methodology using single factor and orthogonal experiments to optimize four types of antimicrobial agents that could inhibit biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans, which is commonly found in the human oral cavity and causes tooth decay. The objective was to improve the function of marine Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 dextranase mouthwash (designed and developed by our laboratory). The experiment was conducted in a three-level, four-variable central composite design to determine the best combination of ZnSO4, lysozyme, citric acid and chitosan. The optimized antibacterial agents were 2.16 g/L ZnSO4, 14 g/L lysozyme, 4.5 g/L citric acid and 5 g/L chitosan. The biofilm formation inhibition reached 84.49%. In addition, microscopic observation of the biofilm was performed using scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The optimized formula was tested in marine dextranase Arthrobacter oxydans KQ11 mouthwash and enhanced the inhibition of S. mutans. This work may be promoted for the design and development of future marine dextranase oral care products.

  5. Production of Phytotoxic Cationic α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptides in Plant Cells Using Inducible Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  6. Production of phytotoxic cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides in plant cells using inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Company, Nuri; Nadal, Anna; Ruiz, Cristina; Pla, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic linear antimicrobial peptides with cationic α-helical structures, such as BP100, have potent and specific activities against economically important plant pathogenic bacteria. They are also recognized as valuable therapeutics and preservatives. However, highly active BP100 derivatives are often phytotoxic when expressed at high levels as recombinant peptides in plants. Here we demonstrate that production of recombinant phytotoxic peptides in transgenic plants is possible by strictly limiting transgene expression to certain tissues and conditions, and specifically that minimization of this expression during transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants is essential to obtain viable plant biofactories. On the basis of whole-genome transcriptomic data available online, we identified the Os.hsp82 promoter that fulfilled this requirement and was highly induced in response to heat shock. Using this strategy, we generated transgenic rice lines producing moderate yields of severely phytotoxic BP100 derivatives on exposure to high temperature. In addition, a threshold for gene expression in selected tissues and stages was experimentally established, below which the corresponding promoters should be suitable for driving the expression of recombinant phytotoxic proteins in genetically modified plants. In view of the growing transcriptomics data available, this approach is of interest to assist promoter selection for specific purposes. PMID:25387106

  7. Multitasking antimicrobial peptides in plant development and host defense against biotic/abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2014-11-01

    Crop losses due to pathogens are a major threat to global food security. Plants employ a multilayer defense against a pathogen including the use of physical barriers (cell wall), induction of hypersensitive defense response (HR), resistance (R) proteins, and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Unlike a complex R gene-mediated immunity, AMPs directly target diverse microbial pathogens. Many a times, R-mediated immunity breaks down and plant defense is compromised. Although R-gene dependent pathogen resistance has been well studied, comparatively little is known about the interactions of AMPs with host defense and physiology. AMPs are ubiquitous, low molecular weight peptides that display broad spectrum resistance against bacteria, fungi and viruses. In plants, AMPs are mainly classified into cyclotides, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins, snakins, and hevein-like vicilin-like and knottins. Genetic distance lineages suggest their conservation with minimal effect of speciation events during evolution. AMPs provide durable resistance in plants through a combination of membrane lysis and cellular toxicity of the pathogen. Plant hormones - gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonates, and salicylic acid, are among the physiological regulators that regulate the expression of AMPs. Transgenically produced AMP-plants have become a means showing that AMPs are able to mitigate host defense responses while providing durable resistance against pathogens. PMID:25438794

  8. [Antimicrobial activity and interaction with DNA of medicinal plants from the Peruvian Amazon region].

    PubMed

    Mongelli, E; Desmarchelier, C; Coussio, J; Ciccia, G

    1995-01-01

    Decoctions of four plants used for the treatment of different infections by indigenous groups of the Peruvian Amazon, i.e. Abuta grandifolia, Cyperus articulatus, Gnaphalium spicatum and Pothomorphe peltata were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by the "stroke method" in agar plates. Tested organisms included Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium gordonae. All decoctions showed antimicrobial activity against at least one of the tested organisms. The A. grandifolia and C. articulatis decoctions partially inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa. S. aureus was completely inhibited by C. articulatus decoction and only partially inhibited by G. spicatum and P. peltata. The A. grandifolia decoction also showed a partial inhibition against M. gordonae, showing a clear correlation between the ethnopharmacological use and the observed activity. Methanolic extracts of plants were analyzed by using the DNA-methyl green bioassay. The methanolic extract of P. peltata (concentration 1000 micrograms/ml) showed a decrease of 30% regarding to the initial absorbance of the DNA-MG complex suggesting the possible interaction with DNA. PMID:8850132

  9. Biodiversity of genes encoding anti-microbial traits within plant associated microbes

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    The plant is an attractive versatile home for diverse associated microbes. A subset of these microbes produces a diversity of anti-microbial natural products including polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenoids, heterocylic nitrogenous compounds, volatile compounds, bacteriocins, and lytic enzymes. In recent years, detailed molecular analysis has led to a better understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms. New genomic and bioinformatic tools have permitted comparisons of orthologous genes between species, leading to predictions of the associated evolutionary mechanisms responsible for diversification at the genetic and corresponding biochemical levels. The purpose of this review is to describe the biodiversity of biosynthetic genes of plant-associated bacteria and fungi that encode selected examples of antimicrobial natural products. For each compound, the target pathogen and biochemical mode of action are described, in order to draw attention to the complexity of these phenomena. We review recent information of the underlying molecular diversity and draw lessons through comparative genomic analysis of the orthologous coding sequences (CDS). We conclude by discussing emerging themes and gaps, discuss the metabolic pathways in the context of the phylogeny and ecology of their microbial hosts, and discuss potential evolutionary mechanisms that led to the diversification of biosynthetic gene clusters. PMID:25914708

  10. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with biological agents

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2014-06-24

    Plant biomass particles coated with a biological agent such as a bacterium or seed, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  11. Engineered plant biomass particles coated with bioactive agents

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Plant biomass particles coated with a bioactive agent such as a fertilizer or pesticide, characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to a grain direction and defining a substantially uniform distance along the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L. In particular, the L.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers, the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces characterized by crosscut fibers and end checking between fibers, and the L.times.W dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces.

  12. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Plants Used Traditionally in South Africa to Treat Tuberculosis and Related Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Madikizela, Balungile; Ndhlala, Ashwell Rungano; Finnie, Jeffrey Franklin; Staden, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory ailments are major human killers, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease causing a threat to human healthcare. Many South African plants are used in the traditional treatment of TB and related symptoms, but there has not been a sufficient focus on evaluating their antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of plants used traditionally to treat TB and related symptoms against microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium aurum A+) associated with respiratory infections using the microdilution assay. Ten plants were selected based on a survey of available literature of medicinal plants used in South Africa for the treatment of TB and related symptoms. The petroleum ether, dichloromethane, 80% ethanol, and water extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for antibacterial activity. Out of 68 extracts tested from different parts of the 10 plant species, 17 showed good antimicrobial activities against at least one or more of the microbial strains tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL. The good antimicrobial properties of Abrus precatorius, Terminalia phanerophlebia, Indigofera arrecta, and Pentanisia prunelloides authenticate their traditional use in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thus, further pharmacological and phytochemical analysis is required. PMID:23533527

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts from plants used traditionally in South Africa to treat tuberculosis and related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Madikizela, Balungile; Ndhlala, Ashwell Rungano; Finnie, Jeffrey Franklin; Staden, Johannes Van

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory ailments are major human killers, especially in developing countries. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease causing a threat to human healthcare. Many South African plants are used in the traditional treatment of TB and related symptoms, but there has not been a sufficient focus on evaluating their antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of plants used traditionally to treat TB and related symptoms against microorganisms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycobacterium aurum A+) associated with respiratory infections using the microdilution assay. Ten plants were selected based on a survey of available literature of medicinal plants used in South Africa for the treatment of TB and related symptoms. The petroleum ether, dichloromethane, 80% ethanol, and water extracts of the selected plants were evaluated for antibacterial activity. Out of 68 extracts tested from different parts of the 10 plant species, 17 showed good antimicrobial activities against at least one or more of the microbial strains tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.195 to 12.5 mg/mL. The good antimicrobial properties of Abrus precatorius, Terminalia phanerophlebia, Indigofera arrecta, and Pentanisia prunelloides authenticate their traditional use in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Thus, further pharmacological and phytochemical analysis is required. PMID:23533527

  14. [Pharmacological agents and transport nanosystems based on plant phospholipids].

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N V; Prosorovskiy, V N; Ignatov, D V; Druzilovskaya, O S; Kudinov, V A; Kasatkina, E O; Tikhonova, E G; Ipatova, O M

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of plant phosphatidylcholine (PC)-based pharmacological agents has been developed under academician A.I. Archakov leadership at the Institute of Biomedical Chemistry (IBMC). For their production a unique technology allowing to obtain dry lyophilized phospholipid nanoparticles of 30 nm was elaborated. The successful practical application of PC nanoparticles as a drug agent may be illustrated by Phosphogliv (oral and injection formulations). Being developed at IBMC for the treatment of liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, Phosphogliv (currently marketed by the "Pharmstandard" company) is approved for clinical application in 2000, and is widely used in medical practice. Based on the developed and scaled in IBMC technology of prerparation of ultra small size phospholipid nanoparticles without the use of detergents/surfactants and stabilizers another drug preparation, Phospholipovit, exhibiting pronounced hypolipidemic properties has been obtained. Recently completed preclinical studies have shown that PC nanoparticles of 20-30 nm activate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and in this context it is more active than well known foreign preparation Essentiale. Phospholipovit is now at the stage of clinical trials (phase 1 completed). PC was also used as a basis for the development of a transport nanosystem with a particles size of 20-25 nm in diameter and incorporation of various drug substances from various therapeutic groups. Using several drugs substances as an example, increased bioavailability and specific activity were demonstrated for the formulations equipped with such transport nanosystem. Formulations equipped with the transport nanosystems have been developed for such pharmacological agents as doxorubicin, rifampin, budesonide, chlorin E6, prednisone, and others. PMID:25978388

  15. Chemo-sensitization of fungal pathogens to antimicrobial agents using benzaldehyde analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activity of conventional antifungal agents, fludioxonil, strobilurin and antimycinA, which target the oxidative and osmotic stress response systems, was elevated by co-application of certain analogs of benzaldehyde. Fungal tolerance to 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was foun...

  16. Tragacanth gum as a natural polymeric wall for producing antimicrobial nanocapsules loaded with plant extract.

    PubMed

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid; Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz

    2015-11-01

    Tragacanth gum as a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer with good properties including emulsifying, viscosity and cross-linking ability can be used as the wall material in encapsulation of different compounds, specifically plant extracts. In this paper, for the first time, Tragacanth gum was used to produce nanocapsules containing plant extract through microemulsion method. The effect of different parameters on the average size of prepared nanocapsules in presence of aluminum and calcium chloride through ultrasonic and magnetic stirrer was investigated. The high efficient nanocapsules were prepared with spherical shape and smooth surface. The average size of nanocapsules prepared through ultrasonic using aluminum chloride (22nm) was smaller than other products. The structure of prepared nanocapsules was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of different nanocapsules against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was investigated by shake flask method during their release showed 100% microbial reduction after 12h stirring. PMID:26311653

  17. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maria V; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria Del R; Roura, Sara I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  18. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Maria V.; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A.; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M. Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A. Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria del R.; Roura, Sara I.; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  19. Development of flexible antimicrobial films using essential oils as active agents.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2007-10-17

    The antimicrobial activity in the vapor-phase of laboratory-made flexible films of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (PE/EVOH) incorporating essential oil of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum), oregano ( Origanum vulgare), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum), or cinnamon fortified with cinnamaldehyde was evaluated against a wide range of microorganisms: the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella choleraesuis; the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis; the molds Penicillium islandicum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium nalgiovense, Eurotium repens, and A spergillus flavus and the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Zigosaccharomyces rouxii. Films with a nominal concentration of 4% (w/w) of fortified cinnamon or oregano essential oil completely inhibited the growth of the fungi; higher concentrations were required to inhibit the Gram-positive bacteria (8 and 10%, respectively), and higher concentrations still were necessary to inhibit the Gram-negative bacteria. PP films were more effective than PE/EVOH films. The atmospheres generated by the antimicrobial films inside Petri dishes were quantitatively analyzed using headspace-single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses showed that the oregano-fortified PP films released higher levels of carvacrol and thymol, and the cinnamon-fortified PP films released higher levels of cinnamaldehyde, during the first 3-6 h of incubation, than the corresponding PE/EVOH films. Shelf-life tests were also performed, demonstrating that the antifungal activities of the films persisted for more than two months after their manufacture. In addition, migration tests (overall and specific) were performed, using both aqueous and fatty simulants, to ensure that the films meet EU regulations regarding food contact materials. Following contact with the tested films, the substances that had migrated into the aqueous simulants were recovered by direct immersion-single drop extraction (DI-SDME) and then analyzed by GC-MS. The fatty stimulant (isooctane) was directly injected into the chromatographic system. PMID:17880148

  20. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  1. Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants, of importance in ethnopharmacology, obtained from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marby, Adel; Ejike, Chukwunonso ECC; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Al-badani, Rwaida A; Alghamdi, Ghanem MA; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Background: The development of resistance to synthetic drugs by target organisms is a major challenge facing medicine, yet locked within plants are phytochemicals used in herbal medicine (especially in the Arabian Peninsula) that may find application in this regard. In pursuit of unlocking these “hidden treasures,” the methanol extracts of leaves, aerial parts, fruits, and resins of 17 plants used in the Arabian Peninsula were screened for antimicrobial activities. Materials and Methods: The nematicidal, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined using appropriate assays. Steinernema feltiae, Staphylococcus carnosus, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test organisms. Concentrations of the extracts ranging from 0.5 to 20 mg/ml were tested and appropriate statistical tests performed on the data generated. Results: The results show that extracts from Solanum incanum, Chenopodium murale, Commiphora myrrha, Anthemis nobilis, and Achillea biebersteinii were the most active and had very high activities against two or more of the test organisms at low concentrations. Extracts of the leaves of S. incanum and resins of Ferula asafoetida were the most active nematicides, with significant activity at 0.5 mg/ml. Extracts of C. myrrha and C. murale had the most active antibacterial activity with inhibition zones of 12-15 mm and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5 mg/ml for both bacteria. Extracts of the leaves of A. biebersteinii were the most active fungicide, giving an MIC of 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results validate the use of these plants in ethnopharmacology, and open new vistas of opportunities for the development of cheap but effective agents that may be useful against infectious diseases. PMID:27104031

  2. Enzyme-Responsive Polymeric Vesicles for Bacterial-Strain-Selective Delivery of Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yamin; Liu, Guhuan; Wang, Xiaorui; Hu, Jinming; Liu, Shiyong

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses serious public health concerns and antibiotic misuse/abuse further complicates the situation; thus, it remains a considerable challenge to optimize/improve the usage of currently available drugs. We report a general strategy to construct a bacterial strain-selective delivery system for antibiotics based on responsive polymeric vesicles. In response to enzymes including penicillin G amidase (PGA) and β-lactamase (Bla), which are closely associated with drug-resistant bacterial strains, antibiotic-loaded polymeric vesicles undergo self-immolative structural rearrangement and morphological transitions, leading to sustained release of antibiotics. Enhanced stability, reduced side effects, and bacterial strain-selective drug release were achieved. Considering that Bla is the main cause of bacterial resistance to β-lactam antibiotic drugs, as a further validation, we demonstrate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)-triggered release of antibiotics from Bla-degradable polymeric vesicles, in vitro inhibition of MRSA growth, and enhanced wound healing in an in vivo murine model. PMID:26694087

  3. Potent antimicrobial agents against azole-resistant fungi based on pyridinohydrazide and hydrazomethylpyridine structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Backes, Gregory L; Jursic, Branko S; Neumann, Donna M

    2015-07-01

    Schiff base derivatives have recently been shown to possess antimicrobial activity, and these derivatives include a limited number of salicylaldehyde hydrazones. To further explore this structure-activity relationship between salicylaldehyde hydrazones and antifungal activity, we previously synthesized and analyzed a large series of salicylaldehyde and formylpyridinetrione hydrazones for their ability to inhibit fungal growth of both azole-susceptible and azole-resistant species of Candida. While many of these analogs showed excellent growth inhibition with low mammalian cell toxicity, their activity did not extend to azole-resistant species of Candida. To further dissect the structural features necessary to inhibit azole-resistant fungal species, we synthesized a new class of modified salicylaldehyde derivatives and subsequently identified a series of modified pyridine-based hydrazones that had potent fungicidal antifungal activity against multiple Candida spp. Here we would like to present our synthetic procedures as well as the results from fungal growth inhibition assays, mammalian cell toxicity assays, time-kill assays and synergy studies of these novel pyridine-based hydrazones on both azole-susceptible and azole-resistant fungal species. PMID:25943854

  4. An in vitro method which assesses corneal epithelial toxicity due to antineoplastic, preservative and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Imperia, P S; Botti, R E; Mack, R J; Lass, J H

    1989-01-01

    We developed an in vitro model for studying the cytotoxicity of pharmacologic agents on corneal epithelium employing 3H-thymidine incorporation. Primary rabbit corneal epithelial cell cultures were established, and the cells plated prior to each experiment. 3H-thymidine incorporation was measured after the addition of drug or vehicle to these confluent cells, and dose-response curves were generated. Marked inhibition of 3H-thymidine incorporation was reached at chemotherapeutic concentrations achieved clinically for cytosine arabinoside (10(-7) M), methotrexate (10(-3) M), and 5-fluorouracil (10(-6) M). A 10(-4) M concentration of 2-deoxycytidine, a naturally occurring competitive inhibitor of cytosine arabinoside, protected cells up to a concentration of 10(-5) M. We utilized these data to undertake an in vivo prophylaxis study in 13 leukemia patients receiving high-dose iv cytosine arabinoside. Topical deoxycytidine 10(-4) M and 1% prednisolone phosphate, given 12 hours prior to the start of antileukemic therapy, were effective in reducing symptoms and signs of keratitis; both were better than historical placebo-treated eyes. Ophthalmic preservatives were studied in vitro at concentrations used clinically: benzalkonium chloride (BAC) (0.004-0.02%) was the most toxic, thimerosal (TMS) (0.001-0.004%) intermediate, and chlorobutanol (CHB) (0.2-0.5%) the least toxic. Antiviral agents (final concentration) included: trifluridine (TFT) (1.0%), ethyldeoxuridine (EDU) (2.0%), and idoxuridine (IDU) (0.1%). Dose but not time-dependent concentrations of these 3 agents were noted to cause toxicity; however, (E)-5(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (BVDU) (0.1%) was non-toxic. Similarly, tobramycin and amikacin were significantly less toxic than gentamicin and neomycin in this system. These in vitro cytotoxicity data correlate well with previous in vivo and pre-clinical corneal epithelial toxicity studies. Our model may be useful in the toxicologic study of future topical ophthalmic agents. PMID:2488034

  5. Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Plants Used Traditionally as a Source of Food.

    PubMed

    Tabit, Frederick Tawi; Komolafe, Naomi Tope; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Nyila, Monde Alfred

    2016-03-01

    Many indigenous plants have also been used as a source of food and medicine in many African rural communities in the past. The study investigated the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical constituent, and antioxidant activity of selected traditional plants used traditionally as a source of food and medicine. The methanol and water extracts of different plant parts were analyzed for phytochemicals using standard phytochemical screening reagents while the broth microdilution assays were used to analyze antimicrobial activities. Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and terpenes were found in one or more of the plant extracts, and all the plant extracts demonstrated scavenging activities. The back extracts of Sclerocarya birrea and the leaf extracts of Garcinia livingstonei exhibit the best antioxidant activities, while the water and methanol back extracts of S. birrea and G. livingstonei were the most active against all the tested foodborne bacteria. PMID:26987025

  6. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Muñoz, John F

    2006-01-01

    Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of the selected plants used in folkloric medicine. All these plants were effective against three or more of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, they were ineffective against Streptococcus β hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended. This study also showed that Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:16483385

  7. Thiazole-Based Thiazolidinones as Potent Antimicrobial Agents. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Haroun, Micheline; Tratrat, Cristof; Tsolaki, Evangelia; Geronikaki, Athina

    2016-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing project on the design and synthesis of new thiazole derivatives with antimicrobial activity, fourteen new ethyl 2-(2-((E)-((Z)-5-(4-benzyliden)- 4-oxothiazolidin-2-yliden)amino-4-yl)acetates, carrying halogens, methoxy and other groups were synthesized. Compounds were tested against eight Gram positive and negative bacteria as well as eight yeasts and mold by microdilution assay. All compounds showed good activity against all bacteria tested with MIC ranging between 2.3-39.8 µmol/ml x 10(-2) and MBC of 9.2-79.6 µmol/ml x 10(-2). As reference drugs Ampicillin (MIC 24.8-74.4 and MBC 37.2-124.0 µmol/ml x 10(-2)) and Streptomycin (MIC 4,3-17.2 and MBC 8.6-51.6 µmol/ml x 10(-2)) were used. The best activity was observed for 4-bromo derivative. All tested compounds showed excellent antifungal activity against all fungi tested with MIC in the range between 0.3-38.6 µmol/ml x 10(-2) and MFC range of 0.6-77.2 µmol/ml x 10(-2), better than that of reference drugs, Ketoconazole (MIC 38.0-475.0 and MFC 95.0-570 µmol/ml x 10(-2)) and Bifonazole (MIC 48.0-64.0 and MFC 64.0-80.0 µmol/ml x 10(-2)). The best activity was observed for 3-nitro derivative. It was found that among the 5-arylidene derivatives the inhibitory effect appears to be dependent on the substitution at the benzene ring. Fourteen new ethyl 2-(2-((E)-((Z)-5-(4-benzyliden)-4-oxothiazolidin-2-yliden)amino-4-yl)acetates were synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activity. PMID:26632442

  8. EVA copolymer matrix for intra-oral delivery of antimicrobial and antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Ramadevi, A; Padmavathy, T; Stigall, G; Paquette, D; Kalachandra, S

    2008-02-01

    Biocompatible ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) was utilized to study the release of an antiviral drug (acyclovir (ACY)) and an antimicrobial drug (doxycycline hyclate (DOH)). Release of both drugs from EVA was measured individually and in combination. The effect of drug combination of DOH and ACY is presented. Additionally, the release rate of DOH after coating of the matrix with a different copolymer, in drug-loading with increasing loads of DOH, and with increases in temperature are also presented. The drugs incorporated in EVA films were prepared from the dry sheet obtained by solvent evaporation of polymer casting solutions with drugs. Drug release from the films was examined for about 12 days in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Changes in optical density were followed spectrophotometrically. The combination of ACY and DOH resulted in an increased release of ACY by about three times (P < 0.001) while DOH showed a decrease in rate of about two times compared to the individual release rates (P = 0.008). Increases in drug levels of DOH resulted in increases in drug release rates (P = 0.001). The release rate of DOH increased with temperature (P = .001; 27, 32, 37 and 42 degrees C were studied) and the energy of activation (DeltaE ( not equal) = 56.69 kJ/mol) was calculated using the Arrhenius equation for the diffusion of DOH molecules. Thus, the release rates of drugs were influenced by many factors: drug combination, coating the device, drug-loading, and temperature variation. Therefore it is proposed that controlling these variables should make it possible to obtain therapeutic levels of drugs released from drug loaded polymer, which may be beneficial in treating oral infections. PMID:17619973

  9. Encapsulation of the antimicrobial and immunomodulator agent nitazoxanide within polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Glisoni, Romina J; Sosnik, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a highly hydrophobic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide that displays antimicrobial activity against a variety of parasites, anaerobic bacteria and viruses. More recently, its effectiveness in the pharmacotherapy of chronic hepatitis, the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has been reported. On the other hand, the extremely low aqueous solubility of the drug challenges its administration by different routes. The present work explored for the first time the encapsulation of NTZ within pristine, lactosylated and mixed poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) polymeric micelles (PMs) of different architectures, molecular weights and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) as a strategy to improve its aqueous solubility and to potentially target it to the liver parenchyma. The solubility was increased up to 609 times. The drug encapsulation modified the self-aggregation pattern of the different amphiphiles, resulting in a sharp growth of the micellar size. The encapsulation capacity of the lactosylated derivatives was smaller than that of the pristine counterparts, though the development of mixed PMs that combine a highly hydrophilic lactosylated amphiphile (e.g., poloxamer F127 or poloxamine T1107) that forms the micellar template and a more hydrophobic unmodified poloxamine (T904) that increases the hydrophobicity of the core resulted in the synergistic encapsulation of the drug and a substantial increase of the physical stability over time. Overall findings confirmed the extremely great versatility of the poloxamer/poloxamine mixed self-assembly systems as Trojan nanocarriers for the encapsulation of NTZ towards its targeting to the liver. PMID:24738446

  10. Essential oil from black currant buds as chemotaxonomy marker and antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Ethorđević, Boban S; Pljevljakušić, Ðorđević S; Savikin, Katarina P; Stević, Tatjana R; Bigović, Dubravka J

    2014-08-01

    Dormant buds are recognized as valuable side product of the blackcurrant cultivation. Four blackcurrant varieties cultivated in Serbia, i.e., Ben Sarek, Ometa, Ben Lomond, and Ben Nevis, were evaluated for the content, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity of their bud essential oils. The oil yields of buds harvested during two different growth periods ranged from 1.2-2.0%, and the variety Ometa had the highest yield among the tested varieties. GC-FID and GC/MS analysis of the oils allowed the identification of eight main components, i.e., α-pinene (1.6-5.4%), sabinene (1.9-38.4%), δ-car-3-ene (13.0-50.7%), β-phellandrene (2.9-18.0%), terpinolene (6.6-11.9%), terpinen-4-ol (0.9-6.6%), β-caryophyllene (3.8-10.4%), and α-humulene (0.2-4.1%). In addition, the similarity degree of the essential-oil compositions of buds harvested from the upper and lower parts of the shrubs was investigated by hierarchical clustering. All essential oils originating from the same genotype were grouped in the same cluster, indicating the reliability of essential oils as chemotaxonomic markers. For more detailed chemotaxonomic investigations, the three compounds with the greatest variance were chosen, i.e., sabinene, δ-car-3-ene, and β-phellandrene, which proved to be efficient for the variety distinction. Factor analysis showed that the essential-oil composition as chemotaxonomic marker in blackcurrants was more reliable for variety Ben Sarek than for variety Ben Nevis. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the essential oils had very strong inhibitory activity against all tested microorganisms. Fungi were more sensitive than bacteria; indeed their growth was completely inhibited at much lower concentrations. In comparison to commercial antibiotics, significantly lower concentrations of the oils were necessary for the complete inhibition of fungal growth. PMID:25146766

  11. Antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of N-(benzyl) and quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rabea, Entsar I; Taktak, Nehad E M

    2014-10-13

    Chemical modification of a biopolymer chitosan by introducing quaternary ammonium moieties into the polymer backbone enhances its antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a series of quaternary N-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and UV spectroscopic techniques. The antimicrobial activity against crop-threatening bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Erwinia carotovora and fungi Botrytis cinerea, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora infestans were evaluated. The results proved that the grafting of benzyl moiety or quaternization of the derivatives onto chitosan molecule was successful in inhibiting the microbial growth. Moreover, increase water-solubility of the compounds by quaternization significantly increased the activity against bacteria and fungi. Exocellular enzymes including polygalacturonase (PGase), pectin-lyase (PLase), polyphenol oxidase (PPOase) and cellulase were also affected at 1000 mg/L. These compounds especially quaternary-based chitosan derivatives that have good inhibitory effect should be potentially used as antimicrobial agents in crop protection. PMID:25037402

  12. Purification and characterization of a plant antimicrobial peptide expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S J; McManus, A M; Marcus, J P; Goulter, K C; Green, J L; Nielsen, K J; Craik, D J; Maclean, D J; Manners, J M

    1999-03-01

    MiAMP1 is a low-molecular-weight, cysteine-rich, antimicrobial peptide isolated from the nut kernel of Macadamia integrifolia. A DNA sequence encoding MiAMP1 with an additional ATG start codon was cloned into a modified pET vector under the control of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The pET vector was cotransformed together with the vector pSB161, which expresses a rare arginine tRNA. The peptide was readily isolated in high yield from the insoluble fraction of the Escherichia coli extract. The purified peptide was shown to have an identical molecular weight to the native peptide by mass spectroscopy indicating that the N-terminal methionine had been cleaved. Analysis by NMR spectroscopy indicated that the refolded recombinant peptide had a similar overall three-dimensional structure to that of the native peptide. The peptide inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro in a similar manner to the native peptide. To our knowledge, MiAMP1 is the first antimicrobial peptide from plants to be functionally expressed in E. coli. This will permit a detailed structure-function analysis of the peptide and studies of its mode of action on phytopathogens. PMID:10049672

  13. PvD1 defensin, a plant antimicrobial peptide with inhibitory activity against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Viviane V; Mello, Érica de O; Carvalho, Laís P; de Melo, Edésio J T; Carvalho, André de O; Fernandes, Katia V S; Gomes, Valdirene M

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides and exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of both plant and human pathogens. Despite the broad inhibitory activity that plant defensins exhibit against different micro-organisms, little is known about their activity against protozoa. In a previous study, we isolated a plant defensin named PvD1 from Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Pérola) seeds, which was seen to be deleterious against different yeast cells and filamentous fungi. It exerted its effects by causing an increase in the endogenous production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide), plasma membrane permeabilization and the inhibition of medium acidification. In the present study, we investigated whether PvD1 could act against the protozoan Leishmania amazonensis. Our results show that, besides inhibiting the proliferation of L. amazonensis promastigotes, the PvD1 defensin was able to cause cytoplasmic fragmentation, formation of multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles and membrane permeabilization in the cells of this organism. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that PvD1 defensin was located within the L. amazonensis cells, suggesting the existence of a possible intracellular target. PMID:26285803

  14. Antimicrobial activity of {gamma}-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeonhee Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-10-17

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat {gamma}-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl {beta}-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants.

  15. PvD1 defensin, a plant antimicrobial peptide with inhibitory activity against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Viviane V.; Mello, Érica de O.; Carvalho, Laís P.; de Melo, Edésio J.T.; Carvalho, André de O.; Fernandes, Katia V.S.; Gomes, Valdirene M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant defensins are small cysteine-rich peptides and exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of both plant and human pathogens. Despite the broad inhibitory activity that plant defensins exhibit against different micro-organisms, little is known about their activity against protozoa. In a previous study, we isolated a plant defensin named PvD1 from Phaseolus vulgaris (cv. Pérola) seeds, which was seen to be deleterious against different yeast cells and filamentous fungi. It exerted its effects by causing an increase in the endogenous production of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NO (nitric oxide), plasma membrane permeabilization and the inhibition of medium acidification. In the present study, we investigated whether PvD1 could act against the protozoan Leishmania amazonensis. Our results show that, besides inhibiting the proliferation of L. amazonensis promastigotes, the PvD1 defensin was able to cause cytoplasmic fragmentation, formation of multiple cytoplasmic vacuoles and membrane permeabilization in the cells of this organism. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that PvD1 defensin was located within the L. amazonensis cells, suggesting the existence of a possible intracellular target. PMID:26285803

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus brevis DZQ7, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qihui; Wang, Chengqiang; Hou, Xiaoyang; Xia, Zhilin; Ye, Jiangping; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hu; Wang, Jun; Guo, Haimeng; Yu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yanan; Du, Binghai; Ding, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Brevibacillus brevis DZQ7 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) isolated from tobacco rhizosphere. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. brevis DZQ7. Several functional genes related to antimicrobial activity were identified in the genome. PMID:26294619

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3, a Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qihui; Wang, Chengqiang; Guo, Haimeng; Xia, Zhilin; Ye, Jiangping; Liu, Kai; Yang, Yanan; Hou, Xiaoyang; Liu, Hu; Wang, Jun; Du, Binghai; Ding, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) isolated from tobacco rhizosphere. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of D. tsuruhatensis MTQ3. Several functional genes related to antimicrobial activity and environment adaption have been found in the genome. This is the first genome sequence of D. tsuruhatensis related to PGPR. PMID:26251486

  18. DETOXIFICATION OF CORN ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS BY THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO PLANT-FUNGUS INTERACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides (= F. moniliforme) is a fungus of significant economic importance because of its deleterious effects on plant and animal health and the quality of their products. Corn, the primary host for F. verticillioides, produces the preformed antimicrobial compounds DIMBOA (2,4-dihyd...

  19. The diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plant Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae) from the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mariana L A; Johann, Susana; Hughes, Frederic M; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-12-01

    The fungal endophyte community associated with Baccharis trimera, a Brazilian medicinal plant, was characterized and screened for its ability to present antimicrobial activity. By using molecular methods, we identified and classified the endophytic fungi obtained into 25 different taxa from the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The most abundant species were closely related to Diaporthe phaseolorum, Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, and Preussia pseudominima. The differences observed in endophytic assemblages from different B. trimera specimens might be associated with their crude extract activities. Plants that had higher α-biodiversity were also those that contributed more to the regional (γ) diversity. All fungal isolates were cultured and their crude extracts screened to examine the antimicrobial activities. Twenty-three extracts (12.8%) displayed antimicrobial activities against at least one target microorganism. Among these extracts, those obtained from Epicoccum sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, Cochliobolus lunatus, and Nigrospora sp. presented the best minimum inhibitory concentration values. Our results show that the endophytic fungal community associated with the medicinal plant B. trimera included few dominant bioactive taxa, which may represent sources of compounds with antifungal activity. Additionally, the discovery of these bioactive fungi in association with B. trimera suggests that Brazilian plants used as folk medicine may shelter a rich fungal diversity as well as taxa able to produce bioactive metabolites with antimicrobial activities. PMID:25403761

  20. Prevalence, Serotype, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella on Broiler Carcasses Postpick and Postchill in 20 U. S. Processing Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of broiler processing on the prevalence, serotype and antimicrobial resistance profiles of salmonellae. Twenty US commercial processing plants representing eight integrators in thirteen states were included in the survey. In each of four replic...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus brevis DZQ7, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qihui; Wang, Chengqiang; Hou, Xiaoyang; Xia, Zhilin; Ye, Jiangping; Liu, Kai; Liu, Hu; Wang, Jun; Guo, Haimeng; Yu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yanan

    2015-01-01

    Brevibacillus brevis DZQ7 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) isolated from tobacco rhizosphere. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. brevis DZQ7. Several functional genes related to antimicrobial activity were identified in the genome. PMID:26294619

  2. Effect of plant essential oils on antimicrobial and physical properties of apple-puree, edible films and coatings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of edible films as carriers of antimicrobial plant essential oils and other phytochemicals constitutes an approach for external protection of food systems to reduce surface microbial populations and to enhance oxygen-barrier properties, thus enhancing food safety as well as shelf life. The o...

  3. Platismatia glaucia and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichens as sources of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovic, Tatjana; Stamenkovic, Slaviša; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Radulovic, Niko; Mladenovic, Marko; Stankovic, Milan; Topuzovic, Marina; Radojevic, Ivana; Stefanovic, Olgica; Vasic, Sava; Comic, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antibiofilm potentials of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of lichen species Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea were evaluated. The phytochemical analysis by GC, GC/MS and NMR revealed caperatic acid, atraric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin as the predominant compounds in Platismatia glauca. Atraric acid, olivetoric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were the major constituents in Pseudevernia furfuracea. The strong antioxidant capacities of the Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts were assessed by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH scavenging activities. The methanol extracts of both species exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities with the highest IC50 value for Pseudevernia furfuracea (95.33 µg/mL). The lichen extracts demonstrated important antibacterial activities against 11 bacterial strains with detectable MIC values from 0.08 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Platismatia glauca and from 0.005 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Pseudevernia furfuracea. While the antibacterial activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea were solvent–independent, the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed higher antibacterial activities compared to its methanol extract. The methanol extracts of both species demonstrated significant antifungal activities against 9 fungal strains with detectable MIC values from 0.04 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL. The best antifungal activities were determined against Candida species in Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts with remarkable MIC values which were lower than the MIC values of the positive contol fluconazole. The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed better antibiofilm activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis with BIC value at 0.63 mg/mL then its methanol extract. On the other hand, the methanol extract of Pseudevernia furfuracea was more potent with BIC value at 1.25 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.63 mg/mL on Proteus mirabilis compared to other types of extracts. Our study indicates a possible use of lichens Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea as natural antioxidants and preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. PMID:26417313

  4. Platismatia glaucia and Pseudevernia furfuracea lichens as sources of antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Tatjana; Stamenkovic, Slaviša; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Radulovic, Niko; Mladenovic, Marko; Stankovic, Milan; Topuzovic, Marina; Radojevic, Ivana; Stefanovic, Olgica; Vasic, Sava; Comic, Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antibiofilm potentials of acetone, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of lichen species Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea were evaluated. The phytochemical analysis by GC, GC/MS and NMR revealed caperatic acid, atraric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin as the predominant compounds in Platismatia glauca. Atraric acid, olivetoric acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin were the major constituents in Pseudevernia furfuracea. The strong antioxidant capacities of the Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts were assessed by their total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH scavenging activities. The methanol extracts of both species exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities with the highest IC50 value for Pseudevernia furfuracea (95.33 µg/mL). The lichen extracts demonstrated important antibacterial activities against 11 bacterial strains with detectable MIC values from 0.08 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Platismatia glauca and from 0.005 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL for Pseudevernia furfuracea. While the antibacterial activities of Pseudevernia furfuracea were solvent-independent, the acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed higher antibacterial activities compared to its methanol extract. The methanol extracts of both species demonstrated significant antifungal activities against 9 fungal strains with detectable MIC values from 0.04 mg/mL to 2.5 mg/mL. The best antifungal activities were determined against Candida species in Pseudevernia furfuracea extracts with remarkable MIC values which were lower than the MIC values of the positive contol fluconazole. The acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of Platismatia glauca showed better antibiofilm activities on Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis with BIC value at 0.63 mg/mL then its methanol extract. On the other hand, the methanol extract of Pseudevernia furfuracea was more potent with BIC value at 1.25 mg/mL on Staphylococcus aureus and 0.63 mg/mL on Proteus mirabilis compared to other types of extracts. Our study indicates a possible use of lichens Platismatia glauca and Pseudevernia furfuracea as natural antioxidants and preservatives in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. PMID:26417313

  5. Longitudinal study of susceptibilities of species of the Bacteroides fragilis group to five antimicrobial agents in three medical centers.

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, P; Turgeon, V; Gourdeau, M; Dubois, J; Lamothe, F

    1994-01-01

    A total of 579 clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group collected from three Canadian hospitals were tested for susceptibility to five antimicrobial agents by using an agar dilution method. During the 4-year survey, isolates from intra-abdominal infections were collected from the following sites: abdominal abscesses (48%), peritoneal fluid (39%), blood (10%), and bile (3%). B. fragilis was the most prevalent species (35.4%), followed by B. thetaiotaomicron (19.2%), B. ovatus (15.9%), and B. vulgatus (11%). No metronidazole- or imipenem-resistant strains were found during the survey. Resistance profiles varied among the different species tested: 7.8, 2.9, and 7.3% of B. fragilis strains (n = 205) and 68.1, 17.2, and 9.4% of non-B. fragilis strains (n = 373) were resistant to cefotetan, cefoxitin, and clindamycin, respectively. B. fragilis and B. vulgatus demonstrated lower resistance rates than B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ovatus, B. distasonis, and B. caccae. During the study, rates of resistance to cefotetan and clindamycin fluctuated but rates of resistance to cefoxitin increased, particularly at one center. These data indicate a need to determine the susceptibility patterns of the B. fragilis group periodically at each hospital. PMID:7840557

  6. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents among bovine mastitis pathogens isolated from North American dairy cattle, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Cynthia J; Portis, Ellen; Johansen, Lacie; Mullins, Lisa M; Stoltman, Gillian A

    2013-09-01

    Approximately 8,000 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, isolated by 25 veterinary laboratories across North America between 2002 and 2010, were tested for in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the beta-lactam drugs remained low against most of the Gram-positive strains tested, and no substantial changes in the MIC distributions were seen over time. Of the beta-lactam antimicrobial agents tested, only ceftiofur showed good in vitro activity against E. coli. The MICs of the macrolides and lincosamides also remained low against Gram-positive mastitis pathogens. While the MIC values given by 50% of isolates (MIC50) for erythromycin and pirlimycin and the streptococci were all low (≤0.5 µg/ml), the MIC values given by 90% of isolates (MIC90) were higher and more variable, but with no apparent increase over time. Staphylococcus aureus showed little change in erythromycin susceptibility over time, but there may be a small, numerical increase in pirlimycin MIC50 and MIC90 values. Overall, the results suggest that mastitis pathogens in the United States and Canada have not shown any substantial changes in the in vitro susceptibility to beta-lactam, macrolide, and lincosamide drugs tested over the 9 years of the study. PMID:23907894

  7. In vitro activity of nemonoxacin, tigecycline, and other antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori isolates in Taiwan, 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Yang, J-C; Lee, P-I; Hsueh, P-R

    2010-11-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 330 nonduplicate Helicobacter pylori isolates to nemonoxacin, tigecycline, and eight other antimicrobial agents were determined by using the agar dilution method. Sequencing the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in the gyrA gene of these isolates was also performed. Resistance to clarithromycin showed an increasing trend during the ten-year study period and was highest (38%) in 2005. Tigecycline had potent in vitro activities against all isolates, with an MIC(90) of 0.06 ?g/ml. Among the quinolones tested, nemonoxacin (MIC(50) of 0.12 ?g/ml and MIC(90) of 0.25 ?g/ml) and gemifloxacin had one to two-fold better in vitro activities than ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Among the nine isolates (2.7%) with levofloxacin resistance, four (44.4%) were also resistant to metronidazole, three (33.3%) to clarithromycin, and two (22.2%) to amoxicillin. Isolates with levofloxacin resistance exhibited one or two of three amino acid alterations (Ser-70, Asn-87, and Asp-91) involved in QRDRs in the gyrA gene. A double mutation at Ser70Cys and Asn87Ile had a higher level of resistance. The results of this study suggest a potentially useful role of nemonoxacin and tigecycline in the treatment of infections caused by H. pylori. The gyrA mutation at Ser-70 is a novel finding and has an impact on levofloxacin resistance. PMID:20658256

  8. [Prospects for the use of low-temperature gas plasma as an antimicrobial agent].

    PubMed

    Ermolaeva, S A; Petrov, O F; Miller, G G; Shaginian, I A; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Sysoliatina, E V; Mukhachev, A Ia; Morfill, G E; Fortov, V E; Grigor'ev, A I; Gintsburg, A L

    2011-01-01

    Results of application of LTP at atmospheric pressure as an antibacterial agent during the last decade are considered with reference to physicochemical mechanisms of its bactericidal action. The principles of designing modern LTP sources are described in conjunction with the results of LTP application against pathogenic bacteria in vitro and in biofilms. The possibility to destroy biofilm matrix by LTP is estimated along with the results of its testing for the treatment of acute and chronic wound surfaces. Prospects for the development of "plasma medicine" in this country and abroad are discussed with special emphasis on its advantages, such as the absence of long-acting toxic compounds, small probability of spontaneous mutations accounting for resistance to LTP, relatively low cost of LTP sources, independence of LTP effect of the surface relief, painless application. PMID:22168034

  9. Design and regioselective synthesis of trifluoromethylquinolone derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Garudachari, B; Isloor, Arun M; Satyanarayana, M N; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Pavithra, N; Kulal, Ananda

    2013-10-01

    Three series of new trifluoromethyl substituted quinolone derivatives were synthesized (4a-f, 6a-f and 8a-f) from corresponding substituted anilines by multi-step reactions. The regioselective alkylation with different alkyl halides were carried out by approaching two different routes to get the final products in good yield. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral study and also by C, H, N analyses. Three dimensional structure of 2b and 4b were also confirmed by single crystal X-ray studies. The final compounds (4a-f, 6a-f and 8a-f) were screened for their in-vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity by well plate method (zone of inhibition). The results revealed that, compounds 4a, 6b, 6c and 8e showed significant antibacterial activity as compared to the standard drug Ciprofloxacin. The compound 8a was found to be a potent antifungal agent. PMID:23994870

  10. Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S. N. S.; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the killing time of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

  11. Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S N S; Chen, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the "killing time" of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

  12. Prevalence, Enumeration, Serotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes of Salmonella enterica Isolates from Carcasses at Two Large United States Pork Processing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M.; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Bosilevac, Joseph M.; Shackelford, Steven D.; Wheeler, Tommy L.; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Salmonella enterica contamination on carcasses in two large U.S. commercial pork processing plants. The carcasses were sampled at three points, before scalding (prescald), after dehairing/polishing but before evisceration (preevisceration), and after chilling (chilled final). The overall prevalences of Salmonella on carcasses at these three sampling points, prescald, preevisceration, and after chilling, were 91.2%, 19.1%, and 3.7%, respectively. At one of the two plants, the prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for each of the carcass sampling points. The prevalences of carcasses with enumerable Salmonella at prescald, preevisceration, and after chilling were 37.7%, 4.8%, and 0.6%, respectively. A total of 294 prescald carcasses had Salmonella loads of >1.9 log CFU/100 cm2, but these carcasses were not equally distributed between the two plants, as 234 occurred at the plant with higher Salmonella prevalences. Forty-one serotypes were identified on prescald carcasses with Salmonella enterica serotypes Derby, Typhimurium, and Anatum predominating. S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and London were the most common of the 24 serotypes isolated from preevisceration carcasses. The Salmonella serotypes Johannesburg and Typhimurium were the most frequently isolated serotypes of the 9 serotypes identified from chilled final carcasses. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined for selected isolates from each carcass sampling point. Multiple drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents, was identified for 71.2%, 47.8%, and 77.5% of the tested isolates from prescald, preevisceration, and chilled final carcasses, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the interventions used by pork processing plants greatly reduce the prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses, but MDR Salmonella was isolated from 3.2% of the final carcasses sampled. PMID:22327585

  13. Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment.

    PubMed

    Macherius, André; Eggen, Trine; Lorenz, Wilhelm; Moeder, Monika; Ondruschka, Jelka; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2012-10-01

    Persistent environmental contaminants may enter agricultural fields via the application of sewage sludge, by irrigation with treated municipal wastewater or by manuring. It has been shown that such contaminants can be incorporated into crop plants. The metabolism of the bacteriostatic agents triclocarban, triclosan, and its transformation product methyl triclosan was investigated after their uptake into carrot cell cultures. A fast metabolization of triclosan was observed and eight so far unknown phase II metabolites, conjugates with saccharides, disaccharides, malonic acid, and sulfate, were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Triclocarban and methyl triclosan lack a phenolic group and remained unaltered in the cell cultures. Phase I metabolization was not observed for any of the compounds. All eight triclosan conjugates identified in the cell cultures were also detected in extracts of intact carrot plants cultivated on triclosan contaminated soils. Their total amount in the plants was assessed to exceed the amount of the triclosan itself by a factor of 5. This study shows that a disregard of conjugates in studies on plant uptake of environmental contaminants may severely underestimates the extent of uptake into plants and, eventually, the potential human exposure to contaminants via food of plant origin. PMID:22989227

  14. High level resistance to trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole and other antimicrobial agents among clinical isolates of Shigella species in Ontario, Canada--an update.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, N.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 598 isolates of Shigella species (24 S. dysenteriae, 254 S. flexneri, 30 S. boydii, 290 S. sonnei) submitted to the Ontario Public Health Laboratories in 1990 were tested for their susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. Overall 79.6% of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents and 52.0% were resistant to four or more. Trimethoprim resistance ranged from 26.7% among isolates of S. boydii to 39.4% among S. flexneri strains. The majority of the 224 TMP resistant isolates (88.8%) demonstrated high level resistance (MIC > 1000 mg/l) to trimethoprim. Resistance to cotrimoxazole increased from 3% in 1978 to between 26.7 and 37.6% in 1990. MICs for 90% of isolates (MIC90s) for ampicillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin were 128 to > 256 mg/l, > 256 for tetracycline and chloramphenicol, and > 2.0/38.0 for cotrimoxazole. These results from the Canadian Province of Ontario emphasize the need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of shigellosis. PMID:1468530

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of hazard analysis critical control point Escherichia coli isolates from federally inspected beef processing plants in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Manninen, Ken; Potter, Andy; McEwen, Scott; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Klashinsky, Sandy; Deckert, Anne; Irwin, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    A survey to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli was conducted in 7 Canadian federally inspected processing plants during 2001. Escherichia coli isolates were recovered during routine hazard analysis critical control point sampling from beef carcasses and trim and subsequently tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility by using susceptibility panels. Of the 2653 isolates analyzed, 68% were sensitive to all 18 antimicrobials tested. For 14 of the 18 antimicrobials evaluated, the percentage of resistant isolates was ? 1. Twenty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, 9% to sulfamethoxazole, 7% to streptomycin, and 3% to ampicillin. Multiple resistance was found in 12% of the isolates, with 7% showing resistance to 2 antimicrobials, 2% to 3 antimicrobials, 2% to 4 antimicrobials, and 1% to 5 or more antimicrobials. Forty-five different antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed. The reasons for the development of the antimicrobial resistance were not investigated in this study. This study was useful as a pilot to help to develop a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in Canada. This study indicates that laboratory standardization is possible for consistent results across the country and that the indicator organism, E. coli, is fairly easy to obtain for surveillance but Salmonella are not, due to their low prevalence in beef. PMID:14524625

  16. Antimicrobial biosynthetic potential and genetic diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Anwesha; Gogoi, Animesh; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Singh, Bhim P; Gupta, Vijai K; Sharma, Rajeev; Saikia, Ratul

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are one of the primary groups that share symbiotic relationships with medicinal plants and are key reservoir of biologically active compounds. In this study, six selective medicinal plants were targeted for the first time for endophytic actinomycetes isolation from Gibbon Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India, during winter and summer and 76 isolates were obtained. The isolates were found to be prevalent in roots followed by stem and leaves. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 16 genera, including rare genera, Verrucosispora, Isoptericola and Kytococcus, which have never been previously reported as endophytic. The genus Streptomyces (66%) was dominant in both seasons. Shannon's diversity index showed that Azadirachta indica (1.49), Rauwolfia serpentina (1.43) and Emblica officinalis (1.24) were relatively good habitat for endophytic actinomycetes. Antimicrobial strains showed prevalence of polyketide synthase (PKS) type-II (85%) followed by PKS type-I (14%) encoded in the genomes. Expression studies showed 12-fold upregulation of PKSII gene in seventh day of incubation for Streptomyces antibioticus (EAAG90). Our results emphasize that the actinomycetes assemblages within plant tissue exhibited biosynthetic systems encoding for important biologically active compounds. PMID:26347302

  17. Thin-layer Chromatographic (TLC) Separations and Bioassays of Plant Extracts to Identify Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Isabelle A.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species. PMID:24747583

  18. Ethnobotanical and antimicrobial study of some selected medicinal plants used in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) as a potential source to cure infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Present investigation deals with antimicrobial screening of ten medicinally important plants used by the inhabitants of district Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) for different infectious diseases. Methods Aqueous, n-hexane and ethanolic extracts of each plant were tested for their antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative strains of bacteria, as well as strain of yeast. Agar well diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to determine the antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts. Results The results indicated that all plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more test pathogens. Interestingly, extracts of three plants showed strong and broad spectrum activity as compared to rest of the extracts which demonstrated the moderate activity. On the whole ethanolic extracts exhibited maximum antimicrobial effect than their corresponding aqueous and n-hexane extracts, when compared with standard antibiotics i.e., Streptomycin and Tetracycline. Among various extracts, only ethanloic extract of Azadirachta indica and aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Bergenia ciliata and ethanolic extract of Punica granatum were found to have potentially promising activity against test microorganisms. Conclusion Different plant extracts show promising antimicrobial activity justifying their usage in traditional medicines. This study will be continued to identify more plants with potential antimicrobial components. PMID:24708514

  19. Synthesis of a new class of antimicrobial agents incorporating the indolin-2-one moiety.

    PubMed

    Kandile, Nadia G; Zaky, Howida T; Saleh, Yassmin G; Ahmed, Nashwa A

    2013-08-01

    New furanone derivatives incorporating the indolin-2-one moiety 3 were prepared via the Perkin reaction of isatins 1 with aroylpropionic acids 2 under conventional conditions or microwave irradiation. A series of functionally heterocyclic derivatives (e.g., pyridazines, pyrroles, and sulfonamides) incorporating the indolin-2-one moiety was achieved via reaction of 3 with different reagents under microwave irradiation conditions. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of FTIR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and mass spectral studies. Some of the new synthesized compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Shigilla flexneri) and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans. Compound 8 j was equipotent to chloramphenicol in inhibiting the growth of E. coli minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 2.5 μg/mL). Compound 8j may possibly be used as a lead compound for developing a new antibacterial agents. The antibacterial activity is expressed as the corresponding MIC (μg/mL) values. PMID:22651801

  20. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobial agents for Moraxella bovoculi associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Angelos, John A; Ball, Louise M; Byrne, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) has been associated with ocular infections by Moraxella bovis, the established etiologic agent of IBK, and more recently, Moraxella bovoculi, a recently described species of Moraxella. To assist in designing rational treatment regimens for M. bovoculi infections associated with IBK, the in vitro susceptibilities of 57 M. bovoculi field isolates cultured from eyes of cattle with IBK in California from 2002 through 2007 were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms (MIC(90)) of the following 18 antibiotics tested in the present study were: danofloxacin and enrofloxacin: ≤0.12 µg/ml; ampicillin and ceftiofur: ≤0.25 µg/ml; penicillin: 0.25 µg/ml; gentamicin: ≤1 µg/ml; chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tiamulin: 1 µg/ml; florfenicol: 0.5 µg/ml; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: ≤2/38 µg/ml; clindamycin: 2 µg/ml; neomycin and tilmicosin: ≤4 µg/ml; tulathromycin: 4 µg/ml; spectinomycin and tylosin: 16 µg/ml; and sulfadimethoxine: >256 µg/ml. The low MIC(90) of these M. bovoculi isolates suggests that commonly used antibiotics for treatment of IBK associated with M. bovis should also be effective against M. bovoculi. PMID:21908289

  1. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor triclosan: repurposing an anti-microbial agent for targeting prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Martin C.; Pouwer, Rebecca H.; Gunter, Jennifer H.; Lubik, Amy A.; Quinn, Ronald J.; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of FASN has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, and numerous inhibitors have been investigated. However, severe pharmacological limitations have challenged their clinical testing. The synthetic FASN inhibitor triclosan, which was initially developed as a topical antibacterial agent, is merely affected by these pharmacological limitations. Yet, little is known about its mechanism in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Here we compared the cellular and molecular effects of triclosan in a panel of eight malignant and non-malignant prostate cell lines to the well-known FASN inhibitors C75 and orlistat, which target different partial catalytic activities of FASN. Triclosan displayed a superior cytotoxic profile with a several-fold lower IC50 than C75 or orlistat. Structure-function analysis revealed that alcohol functionality of the parent phenol is critical for inhibitory action. Rescue experiments confirmed that end product starvation was a major cause of cytotoxicity. Importantly, triclosan, C75 and orlistat induced distinct changes to morphology, cell cycle, lipid content and the expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism, demonstrating that inhibition of different partial catalytic activities of FASN activates different metabolic pathways. These finding combined with its well-documented pharmacological safety profile make triclosan a promising drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:25313139

  2. The use of resazurin as a novel antimicrobial agent against Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Deanna M; O'Dee, Dawn M; Cowan, Brianna N; Birch, James W-M; Mazzella, Leanne K; Nau, Gerard J; Horzempa, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The highly infectious and deadly pathogen, Francisella tularensis, is classified by the CDC as a Category A bioterrorism agent. Inhalation of a single bacterium results in an acute pneumonia with a 30-60% mortality rate without treatment. Due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need for new types of antibacterial drugs. Resazurin is commonly used to measure bacterial and eukaryotic cell viability through its reduction to the fluorescent product resorufin. When tested on various bacterial taxa at the recommended concentration of 44 μM, a potent bactericidal effect was observed against various Francisella and Neisseria species, including the human pathogens type A F. tularensis (Schu S4) and N. gonorrhoeae. As low as 4.4 μM resazurin was sufficient for a 10-fold reduction in F. tularensis growth. In broth culture, resazurin was reduced to resorufin by F. tularensis. Resorufin also suppressed the growth of F. tularensis suggesting that this compound is the biologically active form responsible for decreasing the viability of F. tularensis LVS bacteria. Replication of F. tularensis in primary human macrophages and non-phagocytic cells was abolished following treatment with 44 μM resazurin indicating this compound could be an effective therapy for tularemia in vivo. PMID:24367766

  3. Bacteriophage PBC1 and its endolysin as an antimicrobial agent against Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Kong, Minsuk; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for food poisoning and other, nongastrointestinal infections. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant B. cereus strains, the demand for alternative therapeutic options is increasing. To address these problems, we isolated and characterized a Siphoviridae virulent phage, PBC1, and its lytic enzymes. PBC1 showed a very narrow host range, infecting only 1 of 22 B. cereus strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major capsid protein revealed that PBC1 is more closely related to the Bacillus clarkii phage BCJA1c and phages of lactic acid bacteria than to the phages infecting B. cereus. Whole-genome comparison showed that the late-gene region, including the terminase gene, structural genes, and holin gene of PBC1, is similar to that from B. cereus temperate phage 250, whereas their endolysins are different. Compared to the extreme host specificity of PBC1, its endolysin, LysPBC1, showed a much broader lytic spectrum, albeit limited to the genus Bacillus. The catalytic domain of LysPBC1 when expressed alone also showed Bacillus-specific lytic activity, which was lower against the B. cereus group but higher against the Bacillus subtilis group than the full-length protein. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulent phage PBC1 is a useful component of a phage cocktail to control B. cereus, even with its exceptionally narrow host range, as it can kill a strain of B. cereus that is not killed by other phages, and that LysPBC1 is an alternative biocontrol agent against B. cereus. PMID:25595773

  4. The human milk protein-lipid complex HAMLET sensitizes bacterial pathogens to traditional antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Marks, Laura R; Clementi, Emily A; Hakansson, Anders P

    2012-01-01

    The fight against antibiotic resistance is one of the most significant challenges to public health of our time. The inevitable development of resistance following the introduction of novel antibiotics has led to an urgent need for the development of new antibacterial drugs with new mechanisms of action that are not susceptible to existing resistance mechanisms. One such compound is HAMLET, a natural complex from human milk that kills Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) using a mechanism different from common antibiotics and is immune to resistance-development. In this study we show that sublethal concentrations of HAMLET potentiate the effect of common antibiotics (penicillins, macrolides, and aminoglycosides) against pneumococci. Using MIC assays and short-time killing assays we dramatically reduced the concentrations of antibiotics needed to kill pneumococci, especially for antibiotic-resistant strains that in the presence of HAMLET fell into the clinically sensitive range. Using a biofilm model in vitro and nasopharyngeal colonization in vivo, a combination of HAMLET and antibiotics completely eradicated both biofilms and colonization in mice of both antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains, something each agent alone was unable to do. HAMLET-potentiation of antibiotics was partially due to increased accessibility of antibiotics to the bacteria, but relied more on calcium import and kinase activation, the same activation pathway HAMLET uses when killing pneumococci by itself. Finally, the sensitizing effect was not confined to species sensitive to HAMLET. The HAMLET-resistant respiratory species Acinetobacter baumanii and Moraxella catarrhalis were all sensitized to various classes of antibiotics in the presence of HAMLET, activating the same mechanism as in pneumococci. Combined these results suggest the presence of a conserved HAMLET-activated pathway that circumvents antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The ability to activate this pathway may extend the lifetime of the current treatment arsenal. PMID:22905269

  5. Bacteriophage PBC1 and Its Endolysin as an Antimicrobial Agent against Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Minsuk

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for food poisoning and other, nongastrointestinal infections. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant B. cereus strains, the demand for alternative therapeutic options is increasing. To address these problems, we isolated and characterized a Siphoviridae virulent phage, PBC1, and its lytic enzymes. PBC1 showed a very narrow host range, infecting only 1 of 22 B. cereus strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major capsid protein revealed that PBC1 is more closely related to the Bacillus clarkii phage BCJA1c and phages of lactic acid bacteria than to the phages infecting B. cereus. Whole-genome comparison showed that the late-gene region, including the terminase gene, structural genes, and holin gene of PBC1, is similar to that from B. cereus temperate phage 250, whereas their endolysins are different. Compared to the extreme host specificity of PBC1, its endolysin, LysPBC1, showed a much broader lytic spectrum, albeit limited to the genus Bacillus. The catalytic domain of LysPBC1 when expressed alone also showed Bacillus-specific lytic activity, which was lower against the B. cereus group but higher against the Bacillus subtilis group than the full-length protein. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulent phage PBC1 is a useful component of a phage cocktail to control B. cereus, even with its exceptionally narrow host range, as it can kill a strain of B. cereus that is not killed by other phages, and that LysPBC1 is an alternative biocontrol agent against B. cereus. PMID:25595773

  6. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents. PMID:25671195

  7. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic α-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic α-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for example, BP100 based on inverted repeats, have adequate agronomic performance and resistant phenotypes as a result of a complex equilibrium between bp100der toxicity to plant cells, antimicrobial activity and transgene-derived plant stress response. It is likely that these results can be extended to other peptides with similar characteristics. PMID:22947243

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Escherichia coli isolates as agents of community-acquired urinary tract infection (2008–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Nisel; Ağuş, Neval; Bayram, Arzu; Şamlıoğlu, Pınar; Şirin, M. Cem; Derici, Yeşer Karaca; Hancı, Sevgi Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequently seen community-acquired infections worldwide. E. coli causes 90% of urinary system infections. To guide the empirical therapy, the resistance pattern of E. coli responsible for community-acquired UTI was evaluated throughout a seven-year period in this study. Material and methods The urine cultures of patients with urinary tract infections admitted to outpatient clinics between 1st January 2008 and 31st December 2014 were analyzed. Presence of ≥105 colony-forming units/mL in urine culture media was considered as significant for UTI. Isolated bacteria were identified by standard laboratory techniques or automated system VITEK2 (BioMerieux, France) and BD PhoenixTM 100 (BD, USA), as required. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) criteria. Results A total of 13281 uropathogens were isolated. Overall E. coli accounted for 8975 (67%) of all isolates. Resistance rates of E. coli to antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: ampicillin 66.9%, cefazolin 30.9%, cefuroxime 30.9%, ceftazidime 14.9%, cefotaxime 28%, cefepime 12%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 36.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SXT) 20%, ciprofloxacin 49.9%, amikacin 0.3%, gentamycin 24%, nitrofurantoin 0.9%, and fosfomycin 4.3%. There was no resistance to imipenem nor meropenem. The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli strains was 24%. Conclusion It is concluded that fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin are appropriate empirical therapy for community-acquired UTI empirical therapy, but the fluoroquinolones and the TMP-SXT shall not be used in the emprical treatment of UTI at this stage. In conclusion, as resistance rates show regional differences, it is necessary to regularly examine regional resistance rates to determine the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment and national antibiotic usage policies must be reorganized according to data obtained from these studies. PMID:27011879

  9. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community. PMID:21282489

  10. Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra.

    PubMed

    Simlai, Aritra; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Mandal, Anurup; Bhattacharya, Kashinath; Samanta, Amalesh; Roy, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The development of resistance towards the antibiotics in use today has been a source of growing concern in the modern healthcare system around the world. To counter this major threat, there is an urgent need for discovery of new antimicrobials. Many plants, like mangroves, possess highly diversified list of natural phytochemicals which are known to have wide range of bioactivities. These phytochemicals can be good sources for the discovery of new drugs. In this study, we report the partial phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activities of a semi-purified fraction isolated from the wood tissue of Ceriops decandra, a mangrove plant. This fraction named CD-3PM was chromatographically separated from C. decandra wood extract and was subjected to different spectral analyses to determine its partial chemical nature. The structural investigation indicates the presence of two diterpenoids, i) 3β, 13β-Dihydroxy-8-abietaen-7-one and ii) 3β-Hydroxy-8,13-abietadien-7-one in the CD-3PM fraction. The antimicrobial potential of this fraction was evaluated by microdilution-MTT assay against several organisms. Among the nine microorganisms found to be sensitive to the CD-3PM fraction, six organisms are reported to be pathogenic in nature. The CD-3PM fraction with broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy revealed the presence of two diterpenoids and possesses potential applications in drug discovery process and food processing industries. PMID:27065777

  11. Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Mandal, Anurup; Bhattacharya, Kashinath; Samanta, Amalesh; Roy, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The development of resistance towards the antibiotics in use today has been a source of growing concern in the modern healthcare system around the world. To counter this major threat, there is an urgent need for discovery of new antimicrobials. Many plants, like mangroves, possess highly diversified list of natural phytochemicals which are known to have wide range of bioactivities. These phytochemicals can be good sources for the discovery of new drugs. In this study, we report the partial phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activities of a semi-purified fraction isolated from the wood tissue of Ceriops decandra, a mangrove plant. This fraction named CD-3PM was chromatographically separated from C. decandra wood extract and was subjected to different spectral analyses to determine its partial chemical nature. The structural investigation indicates the presence of two diterpenoids, i) 3β, 13β-Dihydroxy-8-abietaen-7-one and ii) 3β-Hydroxy-8,13-abietadien-7-one in the CD-3PM fraction. The antimicrobial potential of this fraction was evaluated by microdilution-MTT assay against several organisms. Among the nine microorganisms found to be sensitive to the CD-3PM fraction, six organisms are reported to be pathogenic in nature. The CD-3PM fraction with broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy revealed the presence of two diterpenoids and possesses potential applications in drug discovery process and food processing industries. PMID:27065777

  12. Qualitative screening of veterinary anti-microbial agents in tissues, milk, and eggs of food-producing animals using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongmei; Yu, Jie; Tao, Yanfei; Pan, Yuanhu; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yulian; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-04-01

    A method for the analysis of 120 drugs in animal derived food was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These analytes belong to 12 families of veterinary anti-microbial agents (quinolones, macrolides, β-lactams, nitroimidazoles, sulfonamides, lincomycines, chloramphenicols, quinoxalines, tetracyclines, polypeptides, and antibacterial synergists) as well as other compounds not assigned to a particular drug family. The animal derived food samples include muscle and liver of swine, bovine, sheep, and chicken, as well as hen eggs and dairy milk. The sample preparation included ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) with acetonitrile-water and a final clean-up with auto solid-phase extraction (SPE) on HLB cartridges. The detection and quantification of 120 anti-microbial agents was performed using LC-MS/MS in positive and negative ion mode. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of all drugs in food-producing animals were 0.5-3.0μg/kg and 1.5-10.0μg/kg, respectively. The developed method was successfully utilized to monitor real samples, which demonstrated that it is a simple, fast, and robust method, and could be used as a regulatory to screen for the presence of residues from veterinary anti-microbial drugs in animal-derived foods. PMID:26950031

  13. New Type of Antimicrobial Protein Produced by the Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanliang; Ma, Ping; Holtsmark, Ingrid; Skaugen, Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease. PMID:23851100

  14. Antimicrobial and antimalarial properties of medicinal plants used by the indigenous tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Chander, M Punnam; Pillai, C R; Sunish, I P; Vijayachari, P

    2016-07-01

    In this study, methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Alstonia macrophylla, Claoxylon indicum, Dillenia andamanica, Jasminum syringifolium, Miliusia andamanica and Pedilanthus tithymaloides) traditionally used by Nicobarese tribes of Andaman and Nicobar Islands were studied for antimicrobial and antimalarial activities as well as preliminary photochemical analysis. Plants were collected from Car Nicobar of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the ethnobotanical data were gathered from traditional healers who inhabit the study area. The methanol extracts were obtained by cold percolation method and the antimicrobial activity was found using agar well diffusion method. Among the plants tested, J. syringifolium, D. andamanica, C. indicum were most active. The antimalarial activity was evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive MRC-2 isolate. The crude extract of M. andamanica showed excellent antimalarial activity followed by extracts of P. tithymaloides, J. syringifolium and D. andamanica. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that, there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the methanol crude extracts. The in vitro antimicrobial and antimalarial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, sterols, tannins and saponins in the methanol extracts of tested plants. PMID:27174207

  15. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1996), III. Secular changes in susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Kaku, M; Ooe, H; Mochida, C

    1998-03-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 10 hospitals during June 1996 to May 1997, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. E. faecalis Among E. faecalis strains, those with high susceptibilities to ampicillin and minocycline appeared to have decreased in the latest study period. 2. S. aureus To almost antimicrobial agents, S. aureus isolated from uncomplicated UTIs showed low susceptibilities. But the MIC50s of those agents for S. aureus from complicated UTIs have changed better state. Particularly, the MIC50s of imipenem and clindamycin were 0.125 microgram/ml or below in the latest period for the first time in our history. 3. E. coli The susceptibilities to piperacillin and quinolones of E. coli isolated from uncomplicated UTIs were better than those isolated from complicated UTIs. 4. Klebsiella spp. The susceptibilities to almost antimicrobial agents of Klebsiella spp. have been better during the latest period, compared to those during period of 1995-1996, but to ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have appeared to have been lower. 5. P. aeruginosa The susceptibilities to quinolones of P. aeruginosa have been better during the latest period compared those during periods of 1995-1996. But, the susceptibilities to cefozopran, carbapenems and monobactams of P. aeruginosa isolated from complicated UTIs appeared to have been lower. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9597551

  16. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Ferula gummosa plant essential oil compared to NaOCl and CHX: a preliminary in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Gholami, Ahmad; Saliminasab, Mina; Kazemi, Aboozar; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The usage of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents has grown in many fields including dental medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was three-fold: (i) to determine the chemical compositions of the Ferula gummosa essential oil (FGEO), (ii) to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of the oil with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), (iii) to assess the toxic behavior of FGEO in different concentrations compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Materials and Methods Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the chemical compositions of the oil. The disk diffusion method and a broth micro-dilution susceptibility assay were exploited to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, and Candida albicans. The cytocompatibility of the FGEO was assessed on L929 fibroblasts, and compared to that of NaOCl and CHX. Results Twenty-seven constituents were recognized in FGEO. The major component of the oil was β-pinene (51.83%). All three irrigants significantly inhibited the growth of all examined microorganisms compared to the negative control group. FGEO at 50 µg/mL was effective in lower concentration against Enterococcus faecalis than 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX, and was also more potent than 0.2% CHX against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. FGEO was a cytocompatible solution, and had significantly lower toxicity compared to 5% NaOCl and 0.2% CHX. Conclusions FGEO showed a promising biological potency as a root canal disinfectant. More investigations are required on the effectiveness of this oil on intracanal bacterial biofilms. PMID:25671213

  17. Phenolic characterization and antimicrobial activity of folk medicinal plant extracts for their applications in olive production.

    PubMed

    Boiteux, Joana; Soto Vargas, Carolina; Pizzuolo, Pablo; Lucero, Gabriela; Silva, María Fernanda

    2014-06-01

    Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plant extracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plant extracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 μm id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25°C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. PMID:24668423

  18. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    PubMed

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib. PMID:26344979

  19. Efficacy of plant-derived antimicrobials as antimicrobial wash treatments for reducing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Upadhyaya, Indu; Mooyottu, Shankumar; Roshni Amalaradjou, Mary Anne; Schreiber, David; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 3 GRAS-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), carvacrol (CR), and β-resorcylic acid (BR) applied as an antimicrobial wash for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples. "Red delicious" apples inoculated with a 5 strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 were subjected to washing in sterile deionized water containing 0% PDA (control), 0.15% TC, 0.35% TC, 0.15% CR, 0.30% CR, 0.5% BR, or 1% BR for 1, 3, and 5 min at 23 °C in the presence and absence of 1% soil, and surviving pathogen populations on apples were enumerated at each specified time. All PDAs were more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 compared to the water wash treatment (P < 0.05) and reduced the pathogen by 4- to 5-log CFU/apple in 5 min. Chlorine (1%) was the most effective treatment reducing the pathogen on apples to undetectable levels in 1 min (P < 0.05). Moreover, the antimicrobial effect of CR and BR was not affected by the presence of soil, whereas the efficacy of TC and BR was decreased in the presence of soil. Further, no bacteria were detected in the wash solution containing CR and BR; however, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered in the control wash water and treatment solutions containing TC and chlorine, in the presence of 1% soil (P < 0.05). Results suggest that the aforementioned PDAs, especially CR and BR could be used effectively to kill E. coli O157:H7 on apples when used as a wash treatment. Studies on the sensory and quality characteristics of apples treated with PDAs are needed before recommending their usage. PMID:24024692

  20. Potential applications of plant based derivatives as fat replacers, antioxidants and antimicrobials in fresh and processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hygreeva, Desugari; Pandey, M C; Radhakrishna, K

    2014-09-01

    Growing concern about diet and health has led to development of healthier food products. In general consumer perception towards the intake of meat and meat products is unhealthy because it may increase the risk of diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer, because of its high fat content (especially saturated fat) and added synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobials. Addition of plant derivatives having antioxidant components including vitamins A, C and E, minerals, polyphenols, flavanoids and terpenoids in meat products may decrease the risk of several degenerative diseases. To change consumer attitudes towards meat consumption, the meat industry is undergoing major transformations by addition of nonmeat ingredients as animal fat replacers, natural antioxidants and antimicrobials, preferably derived from plant sources. PMID:24845336

  1. Biofilms and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Robin

    2005-08-01

    The pathogenesis of many orthopaedic infections is related to the presence of microorganisms in biofilms. I examine the emerging understanding of the mechanisms of biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Biofilm-associated resistance to antimicrobial agents begins at the attachment phase and increases as the biofilm ages. A variety of reasons for the increased antimicrobial resistance of microorganisms in biofilms have been postulated and investigated. Although bacteria in biofilms are surrounded by an extracellular matrix that might physically restrict the diffusion of antimicrobial agents, this does not seem to be a predominant mechanism of biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Nutrient and oxygen depletion within the biofilm cause some bacteria to enter a nongrowing (ie, stationary) state, in which they are less susceptible to growth-dependent antimicrobial killing. A subpopulation of bacteria might differentiate into a phenotypically resistant state. Finally, some organisms in biofilms have been shown to express biofilm-specific antimicrobial resistance genes that are not required for biofilm formation. Overall, the mechanism of biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance seems to be multifactorial and may vary from organism to organism. Techniques that address biofilm susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents may be necessary before antimicrobial regimens for orthopaedic prosthetic device-associated infections can be appropriately defined in research and clinical settings. Finally, a variety of approaches are being defined to overcome biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. PMID:16056024

  2. Potential Antiosteoporotic Agents from Plants: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Min; Nie, Yan; Cao, Da-Peng; Xue, Yun-Yun; Wang, Jie-Si; Zhao, Lu; Rahman, Khalid; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health hazard and is a disease of old age; it is a silent epidemic affecting more than 200 million people worldwide in recent years. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research many plants and their compounds have been shown to possess antiosteoporosis activity. This paper reviews the medicinal plants displaying antiosteoporosis properties including their origin, active constituents, and pharmacological data. The plants reported here are the ones which are commonly used in traditional medical systems and have demonstrated clinical effectiveness against osteoporosis. Although many plants have the potential to prevent and treat osteoporosis, so far, only a fraction of these plants have been thoroughly investigated for their physiological and pharmacological properties including their mechanism of action. An attempt should be made to highlight plant species with possible antiosteoporosis properties and they should be investigated further to help with future drug development for treating this disease. PMID:23365596

  3. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    PubMed Central

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  4. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    PubMed

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil. PMID:24243612

  6. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p < 0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

  7. Prevalence, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella on broiler carcasses postpick and postchill in 20 U.S. processing plants.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Bailey, J S; Altekruse, S F; Shaw, W K; Patel, B L; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effect of broiler processing on the prevalence, serotype, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of salmonellae. Twenty U.S. commercial processing plants representing eight integrators in 13 states were included in the survey. In each of four replications, 10 carcasses from one flock were collected at rehang and 10 more carcasses were collected at postchill; each carcass was sampled by whole-carcass rinse. Salmonella organisms were isolated from carcass rinses by standard cultural techniques, serotypes were determined, and the resistance to 15 antimicrobials was measured. Overall, Salmonella was detected on 72% of carcasses at rehang (ranging from 35 to 97%) and on 20% of carcasses postchill (ranging from 2.5 to 60%). In every instance, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in Salmonella prevalence was noted between rehang and postchill. The four most common serotypes, accounting for 64% of all Salmonella isolates, were Kentucky, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and Typhimurium var. 5-; most isolates of Kentucky (52%), Heidelberg (79%), and Typhimurium (54%) serotypes were susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs tested. However, only 15% of the Typhimurium var. 5- isolates were pansusceptible; more than one-half of the isolates of this serotype were resistant to three or more drugs. No isolate of any serotype exhibited resistance to amikacin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These data demonstrate that although processing lessens carcass contamination with Salmonella, antimicrobial-resistant isolates may still be present. PMID:19722391

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract and evaluation of its synergistic potential in combination with antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sougata; Patil, Sumersing; Ahire, Mehul; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, Sangeeta; Pardesi, Karishma; Cameotra, Swaranjit S; Bellare, Jayesh; Dhavale, Dilip D; Jabgunde, Amit; Chopade, Balu A

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of an environmentally benign process for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials is an important aspect of current nanotechnology research. Among the 600 species of the genus Dioscorea, Dioscorea bulbifera has profound therapeutic applications due to its unique phytochemistry. In this paper, we report on the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by reduction of aqueous Ag+ ions using D. bulbifera tuber extract. Methods and results Phytochemical analysis revealed that D. bulbifera tuber extract is rich in flavonoid, phenolics, reducing sugars, starch, diosgenin, ascorbic acid, and citric acid. The biosynthesis process was quite fast, and silver nanoparticles were formed within 5 hours. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction confirmed reduction of the Ag+ ions. Varied morphology of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles included spheres, triangles, and hexagons. Optimization studies revealed that the maximum rate of synthesis could be achieved with 0.7 mM AgNO3 solution at 50°C in 5 hours. The resulting silver nanoparticles were found to possess potent antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Beta-lactam (piperacillin) and macrolide (eryth-romycin) antibiotics showed a 3.6-fold and 3-fold increase, respectively, in combination with silver nanoparticles selectively against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Notable synergy was seen between silver nanoparticles and chloramphenicol or vancomycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and was supported by a 4.9-fold and 4.2-fold increase in zone diameter, respectively. Similarly, we found a maximum 11.8-fold increase in zone diameter of streptomycin when combined with silver nanoparticles against E. coli, providing strong evidence for the synergistic action of a combination of antibiotics and silver nanoparticles. Conclusion This is the first report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using D. bulbifera tuber extract followed by an estimation of its synergistic potential for enhancement of the antibacterial activity of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. PMID:22334779

  9. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1995). III. Differences in susceptibilities from previous years].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Hikichi, Y; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Kosakai, N; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Mochida, C

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during June, 1995 through May, 1996, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. Macrolide resistant E. faecalis isolated from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period appeared to have increased compared to those in previous study periods. More than 50% of the isolated E. faecalis during the latest study period were resistant to macrolide antibiotics, for the first time in our history. 2. No obvious changes were observed through the years for susceptibilities of S. aureus to various antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin (VCM) showed the highest activity against S. aureus, with MICs below 2 micrograms/ml or below. 3. Among E. coli strains, those with low susceptibilities to quinolones appeared to have increased over the years with MIC90 changed from between 0.125 microgram/ml or below and 0.5 microgram/ml in the 1989-1990 period to between 8 micrograms/ml and 128 micrograms/ml in the latest study period. 4. Klebsiella spp. showed higher resistance to most antimicrobial agents during periods of 1993-1994 and 1994-1995, but somewhat lower resistance during period of 1995-1996. No resistant Klebsiella spp. were detected from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period. 5. Among P. aeruginosa isolates from complicated UTIs, resistance isolates to gentamicin appeared to be increasing over the years. Resistant strains to quinolones were isolated at lower frequencies during periods of 1991-1994, but higher frequency was observed in the latest period, and MIC50s were between 0.5 and 4 micrograms/ml during 1991-1994, but were 16-32 micrograms/ml during 1995-1996. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9192248

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-naphthoyl-phenylglyoxamide-based small molecular antimicrobial peptide mimics as novel antimicrobial agents and biofilm inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nizalapur, Shashidhar; Ho, Kitty K K; Kimyon, Önder; Yee, Eugene; Berry, Thomas; Manefield, Mike; Cranfield, Charles G; Willcox, Mark; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2016-04-14

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the human immune system. Synthetic AMP mimics represent a novel strategy to counteract the increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance. Here, we describe the synthesis of novel glyoxamide derivatives via ring-opening reactions of N-hexanoyl, N-benzoyl and N-naphthoylisatins with N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine and N,N-dimethylpropane-1,3-diamine. These were converted to both the hydrochloric acid (HCl) or quaternary ammonium iodide (MeI) salts and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by their zone-of-inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The HCl salt 22b exhibited the lowest MIC of 16 μg mL(-1), whereas the corresponding MeI salt 22c had a MIC of 39 μg mL(-1). We also investigated the in vitro toxicity of active compounds against the MRC-5 normal human lung fibroblasts and their activity against established biofilm in S. aureus. PMID:26986463

  11. The antimicrobial efficacy of plant essential oil combinations and interactions with food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, J; Barry-Ryan, C; Bourke, P

    2008-05-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of plant essential oils (EOs) in combination and to investigate the effect of food ingredients on their efficacy. The EOs assessed in combination included basil, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme. Combinations of EOs were initially screened against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using the spot-on-agar test. The influence of varying concentrations of EO combinations on efficacy was also monitored using E. coli. These preliminary studies showed promising results for oregano in combination with basil, thyme or marjoram. The checkerboard method was then used to quantify the efficacy of oregano, marjoram or thyme in combination with the remainder of selected EOs. Fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) were calculated and interpreted as synergy, addition, indifference or antagonism. All the oregano combinations showed additive efficacy against B. cereus, and oregano combined with marjoram, thyme or basil also had an additive effect against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The mixtures of marjoram or thyme also displayed additive effects in combination with basil, rosemary or sage against L. monocytogenes. The effect of food ingredients and pH on the antimicrobial efficacy of oregano and thyme was assessed by monitoring the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes grown in model media. The model media included potato starch (0, 1, 5 or 10%), beef extract (1.5, 3, 6 or 12%), sunflower oil (0, 1, 5 or 10%) and TSB at pH levels of 4, 5, 6 or 7. The antimicrobial efficacy of EOs was found to be a function of ingredient manipulation. Starch and oils concentrations of 5% and 10% had a negative impact on the EO efficacy. On the contrary, the EOs were more effective at high concentrations of protein, and at pH 5, by comparison with pH 6 or 7. This study suggests that combinations of EOs could minimize application concentrations and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food. However, their application for microbial control might be affected by food composition, therefore, careful selection of EOs appropriate to the sensory and compositional status of the food system is required. This work shows that EOs might be more effective against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria when applied to ready to use foods containing a high protein level at acidic pH, as well as lower levels of fats or carbohydrates. PMID:18378032

  12. An investigation of the 6a g inner valence orbital electron density of the antimicrobial agent diacetyl by binary (e,2e) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, G. L.; Ren, X. G.; Zhang, S. F.; Ning, C. G.; Zhou, H.; Li, B.; Li, G. Q.; Deng, J. K.; Wang, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2004-02-01

    We report here the first measurements of the complete valence shell binding energy spectra and the 6a g inner valence orbital momentum profile of the antimicrobial agent diacetyl, also known as 2,3-butanedione (CH 3COCOCH 3), using a high-resolution binary (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy, at an impact energy of 1200 eV plus the binding energy, and using symmetric non-coplanar kinematics. The experimental momentum profile of the 6a g inner valence orbital is compared with Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The experimental measurement is quite well described by the HF and DFT calculations.

  13. Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Rani, Phulan; Khullar, Neeraj

    2004-08-01

    Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma. PMID:15476301

  14. EFFECT OF A FLYASH CONDITIONING AGENT ON POWER PLANT EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study undertaken as a preliminary program to provide data on the environmental effects of a chemical flyash conditioning agent (Apollo Chemicals conditioner LPA 402A). Both the emissions due to the chemical and its effect on electrostatic precipitato...

  15. Antimicrobial Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Sunny C.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemokines are best known for their classic leukocyte chemotactic activity, which is critical for directing the immune response to sites of infection and injury. However, recent studies have suggested that at least some chemokines may also interfere with infectious agents directly. Antimicrobial chemokines tend to contain amphipathic alpha helical secondary structure, and broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria, as well as fungi. Conversely, several bacteria have been identified that possess mechanisms for specifically blocking the antimicrobial activities of chemokines. Although the precise mechanisms by which chemokines and microbes disarm one another in vitro remain unknown, there is now emerging evidence in vivo that such interactions may be biologically significant. More research will be needed to determine whether chemokines with direct antimicrobial activity may be translated into a novel class of antibiotics. PMID:22973274

  16. The diversity and anti-microbial activity of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants in Panxi plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke; Penttinen, Petri; Guan, Tongwei; Xiao, Jing; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Lindström, Kristina; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoping; Strobel, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal plants are sources of biologically active compounds, providing raw material for pharmaceutical, cosmetic and fragrance industries. The endophytes of medicinal plants participate in biochemical pathways and produce analogous or novel bioactive compounds. Panxi plateau in South-west Sichuan in China with its unique geographical and climatological characteristics is a habitat of a great variety of medicinal plants. In this study, 560 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from 26 medicinal plant species in Panxi plateau. 60 isolates were selected for 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis and 14 representative strains were chosen for 16S rDNA sequencing. According to the phylogenetic analysis, seven isolates were Streptomyces sp., while the remainder belonged to genera Micromonospora, Oerskovia, Nonomuraea, Promicromonospora and Rhodococcus. Antimicrobial activity analysis combined with the results of amplifying genes coding for polyketide synthetase (PKS-I, PKS-II) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) showed that endophytic actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants in Panxi plateau had broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and potential natural product diversity, which further proved that endophytic actinomycetes are valuable reservoirs of novel bioactive compounds. PMID:20567975

  17. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants.

    PubMed

    Gravett, Matthew R; Hopkins, Farrha B; Self, Adam J; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict. PMID:25104906

  18. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Farrha B.; Self, Adam J.; Webb, Andrew J.; Timperley, Christopher M.; Baker, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict. PMID:25104906

  19. Discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo assays for the susceptibility of Bacillus C.I.P. 5832 to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Tirel, M L; Levesque, A; Lefrancois, S; Ridremont, B; Nguyen, T H

    1990-01-01

    In vitro, avoparcin, flavomycin, virginiamycin bacitracin, trimethoprim + sulfadimethoxine, colistin, spiramycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin + spectinomycin and a mixture of organic acids were able to inhibit Bacillus C.I.P. 5832. In vivo, none of these antibacterial agents, at the levels incorporated in feeds, could affect the viable bacillus count in the caecal content of chickens. In another in vitro assay, olaquindox, carbadox and tylosin were also effective in inhibiting Bacillus C.I.P. 5832. But, concomitantly administered with carbadox or tylosin, Bacillus C.I.P. 5832 still promoted growth and feed conversion of fattening pigs. These results, as well as data of the quoted literature, suggest that the current in vitro techniques should not be used to screen the susceptibility of Bacillus C.I.P. 5832 to antimicrobial agents. Only in vivo assays seem to be of value. PMID:2292184

  20. Anti-inflammatory agents from plants: progress and potential.

    PubMed

    Recio, M C; Andujar, I; Rios, J L

    2012-01-01

    The identification of substances that can promote the resolution of inflammation in a way that is homeostatic, modulatory, efficient, and well-tolerated by the body is of fundamental importance. Traditional medicines have long provided front-line pharmacotherapy for many millions of people worldwide. Medicinal extracts are a rich source of therapeutic leads for the pharmaceutical industry. The use of medicinal plant therapies to treat chronic illness, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is thus widespread and on the rise.The aim of this review is to present recent progress in clinical anti-inflammatory studies of plant extracts and compound leads such as green tea polyphenols, curcumin, resveratrol, boswellic acid, and cucurbitacins, among others, against chronic inflammatory diseases, mainly RA and IBD. In this context, the present paper also highlights the most promising experimental data on those plant extracts and pure compounds active in animal models of the aforementioned diseases. PMID:22414101

  1. Antimicrobial activity of lippia species from the brazilian semiarid region traditionally used as antiseptic and anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cristiana da Purificação; Rodrigues, Velize Dias; Pinto, Fernanda da Purificação; Pinto, Renata da Purificação; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Pinheiro, Carla Santos Ribeiro; Gadea, Suzana Ferreira Magalhães; Silva, Tânia Regina Dos Santos; Lucchese, Angélica Maria

    2013-01-01

    Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:24109492

  2. Harnessing the multifunctionality in nature: a bioactive agent release system with self-antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Hayriye; Vrana, Nihal Engin; Gudima, Alexandru; Riabov, Vladimir; Gratchev, Alexei; Haikel, Youssef; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Carradò, Adele; Faerber, Jacques; Roland, Thierry; Klüter, Harald; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Schaaf, Pierre; Lavalle, Philippe

    2015-09-16

    Major problems with biomedical devices in particular implants located in nonsterile environments concern: (i) excessive immune response to the implant, (ii) development of bacterial biofilms, and (iii) yeast and fungi infections. An original multifunctional coating that addresses all these issues concomitantly is developed. A new exponentially growing polyelectrolyte multilayer film based on polyarginine (PAR) and hyaluronic acid (HA) is designed. The films have a strong inhibitory effect on the production of inflammatory cytokines released by human primary macrophage subpopulations. This could reduce potential chronic inflammatory reaction following implantation. Next, it is shown that PAR, due to its positive charges, has an antimicrobial activity in film format against Staphylococcus aureus for 24 h. In order to have a long-term antimicrobial activity, a precursor nanoscale silver coating is deposited on the surface before adding the PAR/HA films. Moreover, the PAR/HA films can be easily further functionalized by embedding antimicrobial peptides, like catestatin (CAT), a natural host defense peptide. This PAR/HA+CAT film proves to be effective as an antimicrobial coating against yeast and fungi and its cytocompatibility is also assessed. Finally, this all-in-one system constitutes an original strategy to limit inflammation and prevents bacteria, yeast, and fungi infections. PMID:26379222

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cristiana da Purificação; Rodrigues, Velize Dias; Pinto, Fernanda da Purificação; Pinto, Renata da Purificação; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Pinheiro, Carla Santos Ribeiro; Gadea, Suzana Ferreira Magalhães; Silva, Tânia Regina dos Santos; Lucchese, Angélica Maria

    2013-01-01

    Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:24109492

  4. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 44 antimicrobial agents against three standard control strains in broth with and without human serum.

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, L G; Stratton, C W; Reller, L B

    1981-01-01

    Standard minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are not established for most antimicrobial agents against strains of bacteria commonly used for quality control in susceptibility testing. The effects of cation and human serum supplementation of broth on the values are also unknown. Therefore, we performed 10 minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration determinations for 44 antimicrobial agents against the standard control strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 in Mueller-Hinton broth and in Mueller-Hinton broth supplemented with calcium, magnesium, and 50% pooled human serum. Agreement of replicates was within one twofold dilution 97% of the time. Supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth gave higher minimum inhibitory concentrations for 24 antibiotics against S. aureus, for 17 drugs against E. coli, and for 12 drugs against P. aeruginosa, whereas it gave lower minimum inhibitory concentrations for 1 antibiotic against S. aureus, for 5 against E. coli, and for 5 against P. aeruginosa. Results for minimum bactericidal concentrations were similar. Added serum did not further affect the increased resistance of P. Aeruginosa to aminoglycosides encountered with cation supplementation of broth. These results provide expected values for the quality control strains when minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined in these two Mueller-Hinton media. PMID:6791584

  5. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Indran; Shorten, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    As pathology services become more centralized and automated, the measurement of therapeutic antimicrobial drugs concentrations is increasingly performed in clinical biochemistry or 'blood science' laboratories. This review outlines key groups of antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, antifungal agents and antituberculosis agents, their role in managing infectious diseases, and the reasons why serum concentration measurement is important. PMID:26554904

  6. In vitro antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of plant extracts from Spathodea campanulata, Ficus bubu, and Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Mbosso Teinkela, Jean Emmanuel; Assob Nguedia, Jules Clément; Meyer, Franck; Vouffo Donfack, Erik; Lenta Ndjakou, Bruno; Ngouela, Silvère; Tsamo, Etienne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Guy Blaise Azebaze, Anatole; Wintjens, René

    2016-06-01

    Context African medicinal plants represent a prominent source of new active substances. In this context, three plants were selected for biological investigations based on their traditional uses. Objective The antimicrobial and anti-proliferative features of three plants used for medicinal purpose were evaluated. Materials and methods The antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of Ficus bubu Warb. (Moraceae) stem bark and leaves, of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (Bignoniaceae) flowers, as well as those of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) latex, were determined using the microbroth dilution method against a set of bacteria and fungi pathogens including: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermididis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans, and Trichophyton rubrum. The tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 2500.0 to 2.4 μg/mL and MIC values were evaluated after 24 h incubation at 37 °C. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to estimate anti-proliferative activity of these methanol extracts and of F. bubu latex on three human cancer cell lines (U373 glioblastoma, A549 NSCLC, and SKMEL-28 melanoma). Results The methanol extract of F. bubu stem bark exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against C. albicans with a MIC value of 9.8 μg/mL, while the F. bubu latex and the methanol extract of F. bubu leaves induced significant anti-proliferative activity against lung (IC50 values of 10 and 14 μg/mL, respectively) and glioma (IC50 values of 13 and 16 μg/mL, respectively) cancer cells. Conclusion These results indicate that effective drugs could be derived from the three studied plants. PMID:26799575

  7. Studies of the in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of selected Thai medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional folk medicinal plants have recently become popular and are widely used for primary health care. Since Thailand has a great diversity of indigenous (medicinal) plant species, this research investigated 52 traditionally used species of Thai medicinal plants for their in vitro cytotoxic, antioxidant, lipase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities. Methods The 55 dried samples, derived from the medicinally used parts of the 52 plant species were sequentially extracted by hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and water. These 220 extracts were then screened for in vitro (i) cytotoxicity against four cell lines, derived from human lung (A549), breast (MDA-MB-231), cervical (KB3-1) and colon (SW480) cancers, using the MTT cytotoxicity assay; (ii) antioxidant activity, analyzed by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals; (iii) lipase inhibitory activity, determined from the hydrolytic reaction of p-nitrophenyllaurate with pancreatic lipase; and (iv) antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria species plus one strain of yeast using the disc-diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by the broth micro-dilution assay. Results The crude dichloromethane and/or ethanol extracts from four plant species showed an effective in vitro cytotoxic activity against the human cancer cell lines that was broadly similar to that of the specific chemotherapy drugs (etoposide, doxorubicin, vinblastine and oxaliplatin). In particular, this is the first report of the strong in vitro cytotoxic activity of Bauhinia strychnifolia vines. The tested tissue parts of only six plant species (Allium sativum, Cocoloba uvifera, Dolichandrone spathacea, Lumnitzera littorea, Sonneratia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris) showed promising potential antioxidant activity, whereas lipase inhibitory activity was only found in the ethanol extract from Coscinum fenestratum and this was weak at 17-fold lower than Orlistat, a known lipase inhibitor. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed in the extracts from S. alba and S. caseolaris against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, respectively. Conclusion The Thai medicinal plant B. strychnifolia is first reported to exert strong in vitro cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines and warrants further enrichment and characterization. The broad spectrum of the biological activities from the studied plant extracts can be applied as the guideline for the selection of Thai medicinal plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations. PMID:23145786

  8. Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Methods The 26 plants were extracted with methanol and hot water to yield 52 extracts. Evaluation for in vitro anticancer activity was done against three human cancer cell lines (A-427, 5637 and MCF-7) by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by using an agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH radical. Moreover, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Results Notable cancer cell growth inhibition was observed for extracts from Ballochia atro-virgata, Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens, with IC50 values ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 μg/ml. The methanol extracts of Acanthospermum hispidum, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia and Euphorbia socotrana also showed noticeable antiproliferative potency with IC50 values < 50 μg/ml. The greatest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by extracts from Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana, Commiphora ornifolia, Euclea divinorum, Euphorbia socotrana, Leucas samhaensis, Leucas virgata, Rhus thyrsiflora, and Teucrium sokotranum with inhibition zones > 15 mm and MIC values ≤ 250 μg/ml. In addition, the methanolic extracts of Acacia pennivenia, Boswellia dioscorides, Boswellia socotrana and Commiphora ornifolia showed good antioxidant potential at low concentrations (more than 80% at 50 μg/ml). Conclusion Our results show once again that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with potential anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations. PMID:19320966

  9. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    PubMed

    Lixandru, Brndu?a-Elena; Dr?cea, Nicoleta Olgu?a; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Dr?gulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Lumini?a; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codi??, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  10. In vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and ultrastructural characteristics related to swimming motility and drug action in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Shizuka; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Razvina, Olga; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Isobe, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2010-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni has recently been noted as the most common cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in Japan. In this study, we examined in vitro susceptibility to 36 antimicrobial agents of 109 strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from chickens and patients with enteritis or Guillain-Barré syndrome from 1996 to 2009. Among these agents, carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, panipenem, and biapenem) showed the greatest activity [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)(90), 0.03-0.125 microg/ml]. This was followed by sitafloxacin (MIC(90), 0.25 microg/ml), furazolidone and azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/ml), gentamicin and clindamycin (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml), and clavulanic acid (beta-lactamase inhibitor; MIC(90), 2 microg/ml). All or most strains were resistant to aztreonam, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Marked resistance was also observed for levofloxacin and tetracyclines. Resistance was not present for macrolides and rare for clindamycin. C. jejuni (and C. coli) exhibited high swimming motility and possessed a unique end-side (cup-like) structure at both ends, in contrast to Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. The morphology of C. jejuni (and C. coli) changed drastically after exposure to imipenem (coccoid formation), meropenem (bulking and slight elongation), and sitafloxacin (marked elongation), and exhibited reduced motility. In the HEp-2 cell adherence model, unusually elongated bacteria were also observed for sitafloxacin. The data suggest that although resistance to antimicrobial agents (e.g., levofloxacin) has continuously been noted, carbapenems, sitafloxacin, and others such as beta-lactamase inhibitors alone showed good in vitro activity and that C. jejuni (and C. coli) demonstrated a unique ultrastructural nature related to high swimming motility and drug action. PMID:20225076

  11. Multicenter Study in Taiwan of the In Vitro Activities of Nemonoxacin, Tigecycline, Doripenem, and Other Antimicrobial Agents against Clinical Isolates of Various Nocardia Species▿

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n = 60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n = 24; 16%), N. farcinica (n = 12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n = 9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 8), N. nova (n = 8), N. asiatica (n = 7), N. puris (n = 6), N. flavorosea (n = 5), N. abscessus (n = 3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin = gemifloxacin < moxifloxacin < levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin, and the MIC90s of the tested carbapenems were in the order doripenem = meropenem < ertapenem < imipenem. Tigecycline had a lower MIC90 (1 μg/ml) than linezolid (8 μg/ml). The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were in the order nemonoxacin < gemifloxacin < moxifloxacin < levofloxacin < ciprofloxacin, and the MIC90s of the tested carbapenems were in the order imipenem < doripenem = meropenem < ertapenem. Nemonoxacin had the lowest MIC90 values among the tested quinolones against the other 17 Nocardia isolates. Among the four tested carbapenems, imipenem had the lowest MIC90s. All of the clinical isolates of N. beijingensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. nova, and N. puris and more than half of the N. brasiliensis and N. cyriacigeorgica isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted. PMID:21343461

  12. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1997). III Secular changes in susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, M; Ishibashi, K; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Watanabe, K; Kobayashi, Y; Uchida, H; Ooe, H; Nishikawa, M; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Oka, T; Takano, Y; Miyagawa, Y; Furuhama, T; Kohno, S; Hirakata, Y; Mochida, C

    1999-03-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Echerichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 9 hospitals during June 1997 to May 1998, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. E. faecalis The MIC90s of quinolones for E. faecalis isolated from uncomplicated UTIs have changed better state during the latest period. Among E. faecalis strains, those with high susceptibilities to ampicillin (ABPC) and minocycline (MINO) appeared to had decreased during period of 1995-1997, which recovered during the latest period. 2. S. aureus The sensitive strains of S. aureus to imipenem (IPM) and clindamycin (CLDM) had increased during the period of 1996-1997, but those have decreased again during the latest period. 3. E. coli The susceptibilities of E. coli to MINO have been better in the latest period with the MIC90 was ranged from 2 to 4 micrograms/ml. The susceptibilities to quinolones of E. coli isolated from complicated UTIs had decreased during the period of 1995-1997, but those have recovered during the latest period. 4. Klebsiella spp. Among Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from uncomplicated UTIs, those with low susceptibilities to almost cephems have increased in the latest period. To other antimicrobial agents, the susceptibilities of Klebsiella spp. did not show any changes during the latest period. 5. P. aeruginosa The susceptibilities to most agents of P. aeruginosa did not show any changes, the decreased susceptibilities to cefozopran (CZOP), carbapenems and monobactams of P. aeruginosa observed in 1996 appeared to have been retrieved in 1997. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:10367263

  13. Multicenter study in Taiwan of the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin, tigecycline, doripenem, and other antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of various Nocardia species.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Ko, Wen-Chien; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tan, Hon-Ren; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (a novel nonfluorinated quinolone), doripenem, tigecycline, and 16 other antimicrobial agents against Nocardia species. The MICs of the 19 agents against 151 clinical isolates of Nocardia species were determined by the broth microdilution method. The isolates were identified to the species level using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The results showed that N. brasiliensis (n=60; 40%) was the most common species, followed by N. cyriacigeorgica (n=24; 16%), N. farcinica (n=12; 8%), N. beijingensis (n=9), N. otitidiscaviarum (n=8), N. nova (n=8), N. asiatica (n=7), N. puris (n=6), N. flavorosea (n=5), N. abscessus (n=3), N. carnea (2), and one each of N. alba, N. asteroides complex, N. rhamnosiphila, N. elegans, N. jinanensis, N. takedensis, and N. transvalensis. The MIC90s of the tested quinolones against the N. brasiliensis isolates were in the order nemonoxacin=gemifloxacinantimicrobial agent. The results of this in vitro study suggest that nemonoxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline are promising treatment options for nocardiosis. Further investigation of their clinical role is warranted. PMID:21343461

  14. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  15. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant.

    PubMed

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  16. Interaction and effectiveness of antimicrobials along with healing-promoting agents in a novel biocellulose wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Napavichayanun, Supamas; Amornsudthiwat, Phakdee; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-10-01

    An ideal wound dressing should keep the wound moist, allow oxygen permeation, adsorb wound exudate, accelerate re-epithelialization for wound closure, reduce pain and healing time, and prevent infection. Our novel biocellulose-based wound dressing was composed of three components: 1) biocellulose (BC), intended to create a moist and oxygen-permeated environment with exudate adsorption; 2) silk sericin (SS) known for its enhancement of collagen type I production, which is critical for re-epithelialization; and 3) the antiseptic polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). To deliver an effective BC wound dressing, the interactions between the components (PHMB vs. SS) needed to be thoroughly analyzed. In this study, we investigated important parameters such as the loading sequence, loading concentration, and loading amount of the active compounds to ensure that the BC wound dressing could provide both antimicrobial activity and promote collagen production during healing. The loading sequence of SS and PHMB into BC was critical to maintain PHMB antimicrobial activity; silk sericin needed to be loaded before PHMB to avoid any negative impacts. The minimum PHMB concentration was 0.3% w/v for effective elimination of all tested bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The amounts of SS and PHMB in BC were optimized to ensure that the dressings released the optimal amounts of both SS to enhance fibroblast collagen production and PHMB for effective antimicrobial activity. PMID:26117743

  17. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1) ). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1) ). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1) ). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26686190

  18. In Vitro Analysis of Activities of 16 Antimicrobial Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria from Six Teaching Hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Zhanwei; Li, Henan; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Chunjiang; He, Wenqiang; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of biapenem, arbekacin, and cefminox against different gram-negative bacterial isolates in China, a total of 100 non-duplicated Escherichia coli, 100 Acinetobacter baumannii, 100 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 99 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected from 6 teaching hospitals in China in 2012. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of biapenem, arbekacin, cefminox and 13 other antibiotics were determined by the broth microdilution method. The carbapenems (biapenem, meropenem, and imipenem) exhibited high antimicrobial activity against E. coli (98%) and K. pneumoniae (≥95%), followed by colistin and amikacin. The MIC50 and MIC90 of biapenem against E. coli were ≤0.06 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. For K. pneumoniae, the MIC50 and MIC90 of biapenem were 0.25 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 of cefminox against E. coli were 1.0 mg/L and 4.0 mg/L, respectively. The resistance rates of A. baumannii to most of the antibiotics were more than 50%, except for colistin. Amikacin was the most active antibiotic against P. aeruginosa (97%), followed by colistin (93%). The MIC50 and MIC90 of arbekacin against P. aeruginosa were 2.0 mg/L and 8.0 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, carbapenems, colistin, amikacin, and arbekacin exhibited high antimicrobial activities against gram-negative bacteria, except A. baumannii. PMID:25672407

  19. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plant parts and corresponding calli of Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Castello, Marie-Claire; Phatak, Anita; Chandra, Naresh; Sharon, Madhuri

    2002-12-01

    Ethanol extracts from the different parts of B. orellana showed differential antimicrobial activity. It was found that the extracts of in vitro leaves showed maximum activity against Bacillus pumilus followed by the extracts from the roots and hypocotyls. The callus derived from different explants too showed antimicrobial activity. The leaf callus showed maximum activity. The zone of inhibition for the diluted extracts of in vitro hypocotyls and roots and their corresponding calli showed minimum zone of inhibition at concentration 24 mg/ml, whereas the diluted extract of in vitro leaves and leaf derived callus showed minimum zone of inhibition at 16 mg/ml. PMID:12974400

  20. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Chandra, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To analyze the efficacy of three different concentrations of Ocimum sanctum extract against various microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum was prepared by the hot extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain 3 different concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10%) of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl sul-foxide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 3 different concentrations of extract gave a wider inhibition zone against S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguis, L. acidophilus. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. Results: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract demonstrated maximum antimicrobial activity against microorganisms responsible for dental caries at the 10% concentration level although 5 and 2.5% were also effective. Maximum activity was seen against S. mutans and S. sanguis with 10% extract. Conclusion: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was effective against all the microorganisms. How to cite this article: Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Chandra J. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum Sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):99-101. PMID:26379375

  1. Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. I: Preliminary screening.

    PubMed

    Atal, C K; Sharma, M L; Kaul, A; Khajuria, A

    1986-11-01

    The immunobiological activity was investigated of certain medicinal plants widely used in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine for treatment of chronic infections and immunological disorders. The effect of an ethanolic extract of each drug was studied on delayed type hypersensitivity, humoral responses to sheep red blood cells, skin allograft rejection, and phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. Picrorhiza kurroa was found to be a potent immunostimulant, stimulating both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Tylophora indica, Aconitum heterophyllum and Holarrhena antidysenterica appeared to stimulate phagocytic function while inhibiting the humoral component of the immune system. Tinospora cordifolia and Ocimum gratissimum appeared to improve the phagocytic function without affecting the humoral or cell-mediated immune system. Hemidesmus indicus suppressed both the cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system. PMID:3560991

  2. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PMID:23213795

  3. A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents.

    PubMed

    Gadekar, R; Singour, P K; Chaurasiya, P K; Pawar, R S; Patil, U K

    2010-07-01

    Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl-ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects. PMID:22228953

  4. Characteristics of urinary tract infection pathogens and their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in China: data from a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Lu-Dong; Chen, Shan; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bo; Guo, Hong-Feng; Yang, Bo; Niu, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Yi; Shi, Ben-Kang; Yang, Wei-Min; Zhao, Xiao-Kun; Gao, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Ming; Tian, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the characteristics of pathogens identified in clinical isolates from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) and their in vitro sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics in the clinical setting in China. Design and setting Multicenter study was conducted between January and December 2011 in 12 hospitals in China. Participants Urine samples were collected from 356 symptomatic patients treated in the study hospitals for acute uncomplicated cystitis, recurrent UTI or complicated UTI. Primary and secondary outcome measures Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2011 guidelines. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were tested: fosfomycin tromethamine, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, cefdinir, cefixime, cefaclor, cefprozil, cefuroxime, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, azithromycin, nitrofurantoin and oxacillin. Escherichia coli isolates were screened and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) production was confirmed by a double-disk synergy test. Results 198 urine samples were culture-positive and 175 isolates were included in the final analysis. E coli was detected in 50% of cultures, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (9%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (5%). The detection rate of ESBL-producing E coli was 53%. Resistance to levofloxacin was the most common among all the isolates. Nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin tromethamine had the greatest activity against E coli; overall, 92% and 91% of isolates were susceptible to these antimicrobials. E faecalis had the highest susceptibility rates to fosfomycin tromethamine (100%). Conclusions The most frequently identified pathogens in our patients were ESBL-producing E coli and E faecalis. Fosfomycin tromethamine and nitrofurantoin showed a good antimicrobial activity against UTI pathogens. They may represent good options for the empiric treatment of patients with UTI. PMID:24334199

  5. [Comparison of antimicrobial use density (AUD) of carbapenem antibacterial agents and investigation of the drug susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 3 hospitals in southern Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Kamoshita, Masaharu; Fukue, Hidetaka; Kawahata, Daisuke; Fukutake, Katsuyuki

    2008-07-01

    The optimal use of anti-Pseudomonas agents is an important issue in the prevention of a tolerance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We evaluated the effect of antimicrobial use density (AUD) of carbapenem on drug susceptibility. The AUD of the four carbapenems, imipenem (IPM/CS), panipenem (PAPM/BP), meropenem (MEPM), and biapenem (BIPM), was examined at three hospitals in Ibaraki Prefecture, between April and September 2004. The AUD was calculated using the Defined Daily Doses (DDD) methodology developed by the WHO. A drug susceptibility test was conducted on the 306 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains randomly collected from clinical specimens at the three hospitals between September and December 2004. In accordance with the standards set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that the AUD of carbapenem at the three hospitals tended to be higher than that in other research results in Japan. At one of the three hospitals, the AUD of the PAPM was remarkably high compared to the other carbapenems. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa strains collected at this hospital showed a low susceptibility to carbapenem, and many highly tolerant strains were also observed in this hospital. In order to maintain the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to carbapenem, the overall extent of carbapenem use must be optimal. The use of antimicrobial drugs should be controlled properly at each hospital, in order to prevent excessive use of PAPM/BP from being used over a long period of time. PMID:18709988

  6. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of a Saudi medicinal plant: Rumex nervosus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdul Rahman K.; Siddiqui, Yunus M.; Athar, Md. Tanwir; Al-Buraidi, Ahmed; Al-Eid, A. S.; Horaib, Ghalib B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The antimicrobial effect of aerial part of Rumex nervosus obtained from the Southern region of Saudi Arabia was evaluated on bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, and fungal strain Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The solvents used for the extraction were aqueous, hexane, and methanol. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by agar diffusion and disk diffusion methods and the confirmation of this activity was done by the enumeration of colony forming units (CFU). Results: The aqueous extract showed the growth inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacteria while the Gram-negative P. aeruginosa was the most sensitive microorganism as determined by the agar diffusion technique. Surprisingly, the extract showed little antibacterial activity on other Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) by this technique. Ethanolic extract was also found to be inhibitory to the growth of microorganisms. Hexane extract was relatively low in antimicrobial activity on Gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while both the organic extracts were inhibitory to the growth of the fungus, C. albicans. Hexane gave no conclusive results with agar or disk diffusion methods, but showed the microbial growth inhibition in CFU enumeration. The antibacterial activity of active extracts was compared with vancomycin while antifungal activity of was compared with amphotericin B. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that R. nervosus showed a marked antimicrobial activity with the test organisms. PMID:26681888

  7. Plant endophytes as novel sources of antimicrobials: Characterizing fungal isolates from alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial antibiotic resistance is increasing at alarming rates, posing a critical need for new sources of antibiotics. Many forms of antibiotics currently in use were developed from bacterial and fungal species which produce antimicrobial compounds to ward off microbial competitors. Fungal species ...

  8. In Vitro Approach for Identification of the Most Effective Agents for Antimicrobial Lock Therapy in the Treatment of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Hogan, S; Zapotoczna, M; Stevens, N T; Humphreys, H; O'Gara, J P; O'Neill, E

    2016-05-01

    Infection of intravascular catheters by Staphylococcus aureus is a significant risk factor within the health care setting. To treat these infections and attempt salvage of an intravascular catheter, antimicrobial lock solutions (ALSs) are being increasingly used. However, the most effective ALSs against these biofilm-mediated infections have yet to be determined, and clinical practice varies greatly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacies of antibiotics and antiseptics in current clinical use against biofilms produced by reference and clinical isolates of S. aureus Static and flow biofilm assays were developed using newly described in vivo-relevant conditions to examine the effect of each agent on S. aureus within the biofilm matrix. The antibiotics daptomycin, tigecycline, and rifampin and the antiseptics ethanol and Taurolock inactivated established S. aureus biofilms, while other commonly used antistaphylococcal antibiotics and antiseptic agents were less effective. These findings were confirmed by live/dead staining of S. aureus biofilms formed and treated within a flow cell model. The results from this study demonstrate the most effective clinically used agents and their concentrations which should be used within an ALS to treat S. aureus-mediated intravascular catheter-related infections. PMID:26926633

  9. Tolerance of N-chlorotaurine, an endogenous antimicrobial agent, in the rabbit and human eye--a phase I clinical study.

    PubMed

    Nagl, M; Miller, B; Daxecker, F; Ulmer, H; Gottardi, W

    1998-06-01

    N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an essential weak oxidative N-chloro compound produced by stimulated human leukocytes, shows bactericidal, fungicidal, virucidal and vermicidal efficacy. A double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled study was done to evaluate the tolerance of the aqueous NCT solution by application to rabbit and human conjunctiva. In six rabbits treated with 1% and 3% NCT regimen for nine days no ocular and behaviour changes could be observed. In a pilot study with two volunteers, treatment with 2.8% NCT for five days caused a self-limited conjunctival injection of one subject, while 1% NCT was well tolerated. Subsequently, eight healthy volunteers participated in a phase I clinical study. One percent NCT was applied for five days and was well tolerated by all subjects except for minimal eye burning after the application. Because of these positive results, usage of the antimicrobial agent NCT in ophthalmology is suggested. PMID:9671436

  10. Evaluation of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some Yemeni plants used in folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Mothana, R A A; Gruenert, R; Bednarski, P J; Lindequist, U

    2009-04-01

    The present research study deals with the evaluation of sixty four methanolic and aqueous extracts of thirty Yemeni plants used in traditional medicine for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against three human cancer cell lines in a microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with crystal violet, for their antimicrobial activity against antibiotic susceptible three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacterial and one fungal stains and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains by the agar diffusion method and the determination of MIC against three Gram-positive bacteria with the broth micro-dilution assay, as well as for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Furthermore the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts was determined by using chromatographic methods. As a result of this work, 12 Yemeni herbs namely Centaurothamus maximus, Costus arabicus, Cupressus sempervirens, Dichrocephala integrifolia, Euphorbia schimperi, Gomphocarpus fruticosus, Kanahia laniflora, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides, Solanum glabratum, Tarconanthus camphoratus and Vernonia leopoldii demonstrated a noteworthy growth inhibitory effect against all cancer cell lines with IC50 values <50 microg/ml. Pronounced antimicrobial activity was observed only against Gram-positive bacteria among them multiresistant bacteria with inhibition zones >15 mm and MIC values <500 microg/ml, by 9 plants especially Centaurothamus maximus, Cupressus sempervirens, Enicostemma verticillare, Meriandera benghalensis, Nepeta deflersiana, Pulicaria inuloides, Tarconanthus camphoratus, Teucrium yemense and Vernonia leopoldii. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of Cupressus sempervirens, Meriandera benghalensis, Pulicaria inuloides and Rhus retinorrhaea showed a remarkable radical scavenging effect at low concentrations. PMID:19435146

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of integron-harboring Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples, wastewater treatment plant and river water.

    PubMed

    Koczura, Ryszard; Mokracka, Joanna; Jabłońska, Lucyna; Gozdecka, Edyta; Kubek, Martyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The presence and persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment is thought to be a growing threat to public health. The route of the spread of multiresistant bacteria from human communities to aquatic environment may lead through wastewater treatment plants that release treated wastewater to a water reservoir. In this study we used multiplex PCR assay to determine the frequency of integron presence in Escherichia coli isolates cultured from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (integrons were detected in 11% of E. coli isolates), river water upstream (6%) and downstream (14%) the discharge of WWTP, and clinical specimens (56%). Antimicrobial resistance of the integron-positive isolates, determined by disk diffusion method, varied between E. coli of different origin. Isolates from the downstream river, compared to those cultured from upstream river, were more frequently resistant to kanamycin, cephalotin, co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones. Moreover, they displayed broader resistance ranges, expressed as the number of classes of antimicrobials to which they were resistant. The results may suggest that WWTP effluent contributes to increased frequency of integron-positive E. coli isolates in the river downstream the WWTP and to their elevated resistance level. PMID:22119028

  12. Antimicrobial resistance of integron-harboring Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples, wastewater treatment plant and river water.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Koczura R; Mokracka J; Jabłońska L; Gozdecka E; Kubek M; Kaznowski A

    2012-01-01

    The presence and persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment is thought to be a growing threat to public health. The route of the spread of multiresistant bacteria from human communities to aquatic environment may lead through wastewater treatment plants that release treated wastewater to a water reservoir. In this study we used multiplex PCR assay to determine the frequency of integron presence in Escherichia coli isolates cultured from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (integrons were detected in 11% of E. coli isolates), river water upstream (6%) and downstream (14%) the discharge of WWTP, and clinical specimens (56%). Antimicrobial resistance of the integron-positive isolates, determined by disk diffusion method, varied between E. coli of different origin. Isolates from the downstream river, compared to those cultured from upstream river, were more frequently resistant to kanamycin, cephalotin, co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones. Moreover, they displayed broader resistance ranges, expressed as the number of classes of antimicrobials to which they were resistant. The results may suggest that WWTP effluent contributes to increased frequency of integron-positive E. coli isolates in the river downstream the WWTP and to their elevated resistance level.

  13. First report on rapid screening of nanomaterial-based antimicrobial agents against β-lactamase resistance using pGLO plasmid transformed Escherichia coli HB 101 K-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, M. Alpha; Muralidhar, Y.; Sravanthi, M.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Nissipriya, M.; Reddy, P. Sirisha; Neelima, T. Shoba; Reddy, G. Dilip; Adilaxmamma, K.; Kumar, P. Anand; Krishna, T. Giridhara

    2015-10-01

    Combating antibiotic resistance requires discovery of novel antimicrobials effective against resistant bacteria. Herein, we present for the first time, pGLO plasmid transformed Escherichia coli HB 101 K 12 as novel model for screening of nanomaterial-based antimicrobial agents against β-lactamase resistance. E. coli HB 101 was transformed by pGLO plasmid in the presence of calcium chloride (50 mM; pH 6.1) aided by heat shock (0-42-0 °C). The transformed bacteria were grown on Luria-Bertani agar containing ampicillin (amp) and arabinose (ara). The transformed culture was able to grow in the presence of ampicillin and also exhibited fluorescence under UV light. Both untransformed and transformed bacteria were used for screening citrate-mediated nanosilver (CNS), aloin-mediated nanosilver (ANS), 11-α-keto-boswellic acid (AKBA)-mediated nanosilver (BNS); nanozinc oxide, nanomanganese oxide (NMO) and phytochemicals such as aloin and AKBA. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained by microplate method using ρ-iodo nitro tetrazolium indicator. All the compounds were effective against transformed bacteria except NMO and AKBA. Transformed bacteria exhibited reverse cross resistance against aloin. ANS showed the highest antibacterial activity with a MIC of 0.32 ppm followed by BNS (10.32 ppm), CNS (20.64 ppm) and NZO (34.83 ppm). Thus, pGLO plasmid can be used to induce resistance against β-lactam antibiotics and the model can be used for rapid screening of new antibacterial agents effective against resistant bacteria.

  14. [Transgenic Belarussian-bred potato plants expressing genes for antimicrobial peptides of the cecropin-melittin type].

    PubMed

    Vutto, N L; Gapeeva, T A; Pundik, A N; Tret'iakova, T G; Volotovskiĭ, I D

    2010-12-01

    Binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were constructed to express the genes for antimicrobial peptides (APs) of the cectropin-melittin type under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter in plants. It was shown with Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells that the cassettes could be cloned in pB1121-based vectors with deletion of the 3-D-glycuronidase gene only in the orientation opposite to that of the original vector. Transgenic potato plants were obtained using the Belarussian varieties Odyssey, Vetraz, and Scarb. Their cells expressed the MsrA1 or CEMA peptides of the cecropin-melittin type. The expression was shown to confer higher resistance to bacterial (Erwinia carotovora) infection and extremely high resistance to fungal (Phytophtora infestans and Alternarla solani) infections. PMID:21434415

  15. From individual to collective immunity: the role of the venom as antimicrobial agent in the Stenogastrinae wasp societies.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, David; Mazza, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Sociality is associated with an increased risk of disease transmission and one of the first defense of the insect colonies is represented by antimicrobial secretions. In many eusocial hymenopteran species venom glands represent one of the most important source of antimicrobial substances. It is known that in highly eusocial species the venom is spread on both the cuticle of insects and the comb, thus becoming a component of the so called "social immunity". So far, it is never been ascertained whether this phenomenon is also present in more primitively eusocial and incipiently eusocial groups. Using incipiently eusocial hover wasps as model, we demonstrate that venom is present on insect cuticles and that it strongly acts against microorganisms. By contrast, the nest, regardless of materials, does not represent a ''medium" where the venom is deposited by wasps in order to act as a social antiseptic weapon. Our findings discussed in an evolutionary perspective indicate that a certain degree of sociality or a sufficient number of individuals in an insect society are thresholds to be reached for the rise of complex and efficient forms of collective and social immunity as mechanisms of resistance to diseases. PMID:22108024

  16. Synthesis and characterization of (E)-N'-(substituted benzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide derivatives as potent antimicrobial and hydrogen peroxide scavenging agents.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Manav; Sharma, Gaurav; Deep, Aakash

    2012-01-01

    A series of (E)-N'-(substituted benzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide derivatives were synthesized by coupling isoniazid with differently substituted aldehydes and benzophenones in the presence of absolute ethanol along with catalytic amount of glacial acetic acid. The structure of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed and characterized by using various spectral technique like IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopy. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity in terms of zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration in camparison to the standard drugs. The results revealed that all synthesized compounds had shown potent to mild biological activity. Among the synthesized derivatives, (E)-N'-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide 2e, (E)-N'-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide 2f and (E)-N'-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide 2g were found to be the most effective antimicrobial compounds, whereas compounds 2g and 2k were the most potent antioxidants with significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. PMID:22876606

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazole chalcones as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Bandgar, Babasaheb P; Gawande, Shrikant S; Bodade, Ragini G; Gawande, Nalini M; Khobragade, Chandrahasya N

    2009-12-15

    A novel series of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-propenone (3) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2). Substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2) were prepared by Vilsmeir-Haack reaction on acetophenonephenylhydrazones to offer the target compounds. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibitory assays), antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial activities (agar diffusion method) against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Of 10 compounds screened, compounds 3a, 3c and 3g exhibited promising IL-6 inhibitory (35-70% inhibition, 10 microM), free radical scavenging (25-35% DPPH activity) and antimicrobial activities (MIC 100 microg/mL and 250 microg/mL) at varied concentrations. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and in silico drug relevant properties (HBD, HBA, PSA, cLogP, molecular weight, E(HOMO) and E(LUMO)) further confirmed that the compounds are potential lead compounds for future drug discovery study. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated theoretically and experimentally and revealed to be nontoxic except 3d and 3j. PMID:19896853

  18. Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

    PubMed

    Galvagno, M A; Gil, G R; Iannone, L J; Cerrutti, P

    2007-01-01

    Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage. PMID:17987854

  19. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of New Thione Substituted 1,2,4-Triazole Schiff Bases as Novel Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Akbari Dilmaghani, Karim; Nasuhi Pur, Fazel; Hatami Nezhad, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The condensation reaction of 5-(4-aminophenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione with salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde, 5-bromosalicylaldehyde, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde in methanol results in series of new Schiff bases. The structure of Schiff bases were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy. The synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacterial (Gram negative and Gram positive) strains in-vitro. The synthetic compounds showed different inhibition zones against tested bacterial strains. All compounds showed significant antiproliferative activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 23055. In detail, Entrococcus faecalis (Gram positive) was resistant to all prepared compounds, whereas, A. calcoaceticus (Gram negative) was sensitive to all compounds especially 5c, 5d and 4. S. aureus (Gram positive, relatively resistant to antimicrobials) showed limited sensitivity to only 5c and 5d, and it was resistant to all other compounds and only 5c exhibited low activity against P. aeruginosa (Gram negative). The best results belonged to 5c that showed high activity against A. calcoaceticus (33 mm) as well as S. aureus (20 mm). PMID:26330857

  20. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of New Thione Substituted 1,2,4-Triazole Schiff Bases as Novel Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Akbari Dilmaghani, Karim; Nasuhi Pur, Fazel; Hatami Nezhad, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The condensation reaction of 5-(4-aminophenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione with salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 5-chlorosalicylaldehyde, 5-bromosalicylaldehyde, 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde in methanol results in series of new Schiff bases. The structure of Schiff bases were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR and mass spectroscopy. The synthesized compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacterial (Gram negative and Gram positive) strains in-vitro. The synthetic compounds showed different inhibition zones against tested bacterial strains. All compounds showed significant antiproliferative activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 23055. In detail, Entrococcus faecalis (Gram positive) was resistant to all prepared compounds, whereas, A. calcoaceticus (Gram negative) was sensitive to all compounds especially 5c, 5d and 4. S. aureus (Gram positive, relatively resistant to antimicrobials) showed limited sensitivity to only 5c and 5d, and it was resistant to all other compounds and only 5c exhibited low activity against P. aeruginosa (Gram negative). The best results belonged to 5c that showed high activity against A. calcoaceticus (33 mm) as well as S. aureus (20 mm). PMID:26330857

  1. Molecular properties prediction and synthesis of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues as potent antimicrobial and antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Mohamed Jawed; Samy, Jeyabalan Govinda; Khalilullah, Habibullah; Nomani, Md Shivli; Saraswat, Pankaj; Gaur, Ramakant; Singh, Abhimanyu

    2011-12-15

    In the present investigation, a series of 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-{[(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl]amino}-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one were subjected to molecular properties prediction, drug-likeness by Molinspiration (Molinspiration, 2008) and MolSoft (MolSoft, 2007) software, lipophilicity and solubility parameters using ALOGPS 2.1 program. The compounds followed the Lipinski 'Rule of five' were synthesized for antimicrobial and antitubercular screening as oral bioavailable drugs/leads. Maximum drug-likeness model score (0.95) was found for compound, 4a. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral analysis followed by antimicrobial and antimycobacterial screening. Among the title compounds, compound 4d showed pronounced activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv and isoniazid resistant M. tuberculosis (INHR-TB) with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 0.78?M and 1.52 ?M, respectively. The compound, 4a showed maximum activity against all bacterial strains with MIC 4-8 ?g/mL comparable to standard drug ciprofloxacin, while the compounds, 4e and 4k showed maximum antifungal activity with MIC 8-16 ?g/mL less active than standard drug fluconazole. PMID:22071303

  2. Frequency of resistance to methicillin and other antimicrobial agents among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from pigs and their human handlers in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Annika; Marshall, Jennelle; Ramdass, Kris; Stewart-Johnson, Alva; Adesiyun, Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged recently worldwide in production animals, particularly pigs and veal calves, which act as reservoirs for MRSA strains for human infection. The study determined the prevalence of MRSA and other resistant strains of S. aureus isolated from the anterior nares of pigs and human handlers on pig farms in Trinidad. Methods Isolation of S. aureus was done by concurrently inoculating Baird-Parker agar (BPA) and Chromagar MRSA (CHROM) with swab samples and isolates were identified using standard methods. Suspect MRSA isolates from Chromagar and BPA were subjected to confirmatory test using Oxoid PBP2 latex agglutination test. The disc diffusion method was used to determine resistance to antimicrobial agents. Results The frequency of isolation of MRSA was 2.1% (15 of 723) for pigs but 0.0% (0 of 72) for humans. Generally, for isolates of S. aureus from humans there was a high frequency of resistance compared with those from pigs, which had moderate resistance to the following antimicrobials: penicillin G (54.5%, 51.5%), ampicillin (59.1%, 49.5%), and streptomycin (59.1%, 37.1%), respectively. There was moderate resistance to tetracycline (36.4%, 41.2%) and gentamycin (27.2%, 23.7%) for human and pig S. aureus isolates, respectively, and low resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (4.5%, 6.2%) and norfloxacin (9.1%, 12.4%), respectively. The frequency of resistance to oxacillin by the disc method was 36.4 and 34.0% from S. aureus isolates from humans and pigs, respectively. Out of a total of 78 isolates of S. aureus from both human and pig sources that were resistant to oxacillin by the disc diffusion method, only 15 (19.2%) were confirmed as MRSA by the PBP'2 latex test kit. Conclusions The detection of MRSA strains in pigs, albeit at a low frequency, coupled with a high frequency of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents in pig and humans could have zoonotic and therapeutic implications. Finally, the diagnostic limitation of using CHROMagar and testing for oxacillin resistance by the disc diffusion method alone to determine MRSA strains without performing confirmatory tests cannot be overemphasized because the possibility of overdiagnosis of MRSA infections cannot be ignored. PMID:24765251

  3. Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). PMID:24287494

  4. Antimicrobial stewardship.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Neil

    2006-06-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is a key component of a multifaceted approach to preventing emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Good antimicrobial stewardship involves selecting an appropriate drug and optimizing its dose and duration to cure an infection while minimizing toxicity and conditions for selection of resistant bacterial strains. Studies conducted over the years indicate that antibiotic use is unnecessary or inappropriate in as many as 50% of cases in the United States, and this creates unnecessary pressure for the selection of resistant species. Because the pharmaceutical industry pipeline for new antibiotics has been curtailed in recent years, and it may be >/=10 years before important new antibiotics to treat certain resistant bacteria find their way to market, a premium has been set on maintaining the effectiveness of currently available agents. Several strategies, including prescriber education, formulary restriction, prior approval, streamlining, antibiotic cycling, and computer-assisted programs have been proposed to improve antibiotic use. Although rigorous clinical data in support of these strategies are lacking, the most effective means of improving antimicrobial stewardship will most likely involve a comprehensive program that incorporates multiple strategies and collaboration among various specialties within a given healthcare institution. Computer-assisted software programs may be especially useful in implementing these comprehensive programs. The antimicrobial stewardship program at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, which has been shown to improve appropriateness of antibiotic use and cure rates, decrease failure rates, and reduce healthcare-related costs, is used as an example in support of this multifaceted, multidisciplinary approach. At this time, data from well-controlled studies examining the effect of antibacterial stewardship on emergence of resistance are limited, but available data suggest that good antibiotic stewardship reduces rates of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, resistant gram-negative bacilli, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. PMID:16735152

  5. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Khaksar, Ramin

    2014-01-30

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial kappa-carrageenan-based films containing different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) and Mentha pulegium (MEO) essential oils were developed, and their water vapor permeability (WVP), optical, microstructure, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were characterized. ZEO and MEO decreased the WVP of the emulsified films; for example, 3% ZEO reduced WVP by around 80%. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 1% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 37.43% to 44.74% and from 36.09% to 41.25% respectively. Carrageenan-composite films were less resistant to breakage, more flexible and more opaque with lower gloss. These properties were related to the film's microstructure as analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. ZEO affected the antioxidant properties of the films more markedly than MEO, e.g., ZEO containing films showed DPPH radical scavenging of 80.6% which were two-fold higher than those having MEO. The films' antimicrobial activities were increased by incorporating essential oils, particularly ZEO, which were more effective against the bacteria in the direct-contact method than a vapor phase. S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to either ZEO or MEO, followed by B. cereus and E. coli. A highest inhibition zone of 544.05 mm(2) was observed for S. aureus around the films incorporated with 3% (v/v) ZEO. The total inhibitory zone of 3% (v/v) MEO formulated films was 20.43 for S. typhimurium and 10.15 mm(2) for P. aeruginosa. These results revealed that ZEO and MEO have good potential to be incorporated into κ-carrageenan to make antimicrobial and antioxidant edible films for food applications. PMID:24299814

  6. Absorbent silver (I) antimicrobial fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, silver in form of silver ions, has been gaining importance in the wound management as an effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Silver has a long history as an antimicrobial agent, especially in the treatment of wounds. Alginates and carboxymethyl (CM) cotton contain carboxyl...

  7. Antimicrobial potential of actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the Caatinga biome plant Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul.

    PubMed

    Silva-Lacerda, G R; Santana, R C F; Vicalvi-Costa, M C V; Solidônio, E G; Sena, K X F R; Lima, G M S; Araújo, J M

    2016-01-01

    Actinobacteria are known to produce various secondary metabolites having antibiotic effects. This study assessed the antimicrobial potential of actinobacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. from the Caatinga biome. Sixty-eight actinobacteria isolates were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms by disk diffusion and submerged fermentation, using different culture media, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and chemical prospecting of the crude extract. Of the isolates studied, 52.9% of those isolated at 37°C and 47.05% of those isolated at 45°C had activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Fusarium moniliforme, and Candida albicans. When compared with others actinobacteria, the isolate C1.129 stood out with better activity and was identified by 16S rDNA gene analysis as Streptomyces parvulus. The crude ethanol extract showed an MIC of 0.97 μg/mL for MRSA and B. subtilis, while the ethyl acetate extract showed MIC of 3.9 μg/mL for S. aureus and MRSA, showing the greatest potential among the metabolites produced. Chemical prospecting revealed the presence of mono/sesquiterpenes, proanthocyanidin, triterpenes, and steroids in both crude extracts. This study evaluates S. parvulus activity against multi-resistant microorganisms such as MRSA. Thus, it proves that low-fertility soil, as is found in the Caatinga, may contain important microorganisms for the development of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:26985927

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli. PMID:22011190

  9. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists. PMID:12132261

  10. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  11. Evaluation of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron®) against streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Holla, Goda; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We attempted to find the possibility of determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration needed for nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® AG 300, AG 1100) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro using broth dilution assay. Materials and Methods: An ampoule of freeze-dried S. mutans NCTC reference strain was revived, and the colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated. The MIC and MBC was determined by broth dilution assay using different concentrations of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against 1 × 105 CFU/ml of S. mutans. Results: The MIC and MBC of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against S. mutans were found to be 40 μg/ml. Conclusions: Novaron® has anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans. Further studies are needed to explore the applicability of these silver-supported anti- microbial agents in clinical dentistry. PMID:23293483

  12. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophyte community associated with the traditional Brazilian medicinal plant Solanum cernuum Vell. (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mariana L A; Hughes, Alice F S; Gil, Viviane B; Vaz, Aline B M; Alves, Tânia M A; Zani, Carlos L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2012-01-01

    The diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with the Brazilian medicinal plant Solanum cernuum Vell. were studied during summer and winter seasons. A total of 246 fungal isolates were obtained, including 225 filamentous fungi and 21 yeasts. They were identified by morphological, physiological, and molecular methods. Fifty-five different taxa represented by the phyla Ascomycota (33 taxa), Basidiomycota (21 taxa), and Zygomycota (one taxon) were identified. The most abundant taxa were closely related to Arthrobotrys foliicola , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Coprinellus radians , Glomerella acutata , Diatrypella frostii , Phoma glomerata , Mucor sp., Phlebia subserialis , Phoma moricola , Phanerochaete sordida , and Colletotrichum sp. A total of 265 fungal extracts were screened and 64 (26.01%) displayed antimicrobial activities. Among these extracts, 18 (28.12%) presented antibacterial and antifungal activities, 42 (65.62%) displayed selective antibacterial activity, and four (6.25%) exhibited only antifungal activity. The best values of minimum inhibitory concentration were obtained from extracts of Cryptococcus rajasthanensis , Glomerella acutata, Leptosphaeria sp., and Phoma glomerata ranging from 7.8 to 15.62 µg/mL. This study is the first survey of the endophytic fungi community associated with S. cernuum, and our results show that they can represent a promising source of bioactive compounds. PMID:22182199

  13. The use of ECAS in plant protection: a green and efficient antimicrobial approach that primes selected defense genes.

    PubMed

    Zarattini, Marco; De Bastiani, Morena; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille

    2015-11-01

    The use of highly polluting chemicals for plant and crop protection is one of the components of the negative environmental impact of agricultural activities. In the present paper, an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticide application has been studied, based on the so-called electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS). Experiments have been carried out, by applying ECAS having different contents of active ingredients, on tobacco plants at a laboratory scale and on apple trees at fruit garden scale. The results, accumulated during a couple of years, have shown that properly selected dilute solutions of chlorides, once activated by an electrochemical treatment, exhibit a very effective protecting action of plants, irrespective of their nature. Extension of the research has shown that the observed effect is the result of two distinct factors: the expected anti-microbial action of the electrochemically synthesized oxidants, and an unexpected priming of immune plant defenses, which is clearly due to the treatment with ECAS. Interestingly, the repetition of ECAS application triggers an even stronger activation of defense genes. No oxidative damages, due to the use of the activated solutions, could be detected. PMID:26350548

  14. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  15. Impact of wastewater from different sources on the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in sewage treatment plants in South India.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Masato; Senba, Hironobu; Otagiri, Haruna; Prabhasankar, Valipparambil P; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Ian Joshua, Derrick; Balakrishna, Keshava; Bairy, Indira; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Guruge, Keerthi S

    2015-05-01

    The sewage treatment plant (STP) is one of the most important interfaces between the human population and the aquatic environment, leading to contamination of the latter by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To identify factors affecting the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, water samples were collected from three different STPs in South India. STP1 exclusively treats sewage generated by a domestic population. STP2 predominantly treats sewage generated by a domestic population with a mix of hospital effluent. STP3 treats effluents generated exclusively by a hospital. The water samples were collected between three intermediate treatment steps including equalization, aeration, and clarification, in addition to the outlet to assess the removal rates of bacteria as the effluent passed through the treatment plant. The samples were collected in three different seasons to study the effect of seasonal variation. Escherichia coli isolated from the water samples were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials. The results of logistic regression analysis suggest that the hospital wastewater inflow significantly increased the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli, whereas the treatment processes and sampling seasons did not affect the prevalence of these isolates. A bias in the genotype distribution of E. coli was observed among the isolates obtained from STP3. In conclusion, hospital wastewaters should be carefully treated to prevent the contamination of Indian environment with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. PMID:25704279

  16. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Amber; Khan, Adnan; Borghetto, Ilaria; Kazmi, Shahana U.; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens PMID:25719410

  17. In-vitro comparison of ceftazidime and nine other antimicrobial agents against hospital strains of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, L D; Gentry, L O

    1981-09-01

    The agar dilution in-vitro susceptibility of 370 isolates of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria isolated at Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston, Texas were determined for five new and five currently available agents. Ceftazidime, moxalactam, cefotaxime, ceftizoxime and cefoperazone, all of which are new beta-lactam compounds, were compared with two penicillins, piperacillin, ticarcillin, and three aminoglycosides, gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin. Ceftazidime inhibited 100% of pseudomonas strains at a concentration of 12.5 mg/l, whereas the aminoglycosides inhibited 88-93% and ticarcillin and piperacillin inhibited 47 and 85% of these strains at this concentration. Ceftazidime at a level of 125 mg/l was the most effective agent against all strains of indole positive Proteus spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., and Echerichia coli. Moxalactam was the most effective agent against Enterobacter spp., and ceftazidime was the next most effective agent. Ceftazidime is a potent new beta-lactam which should be useful against hospital strains of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:19802969

  18. [Application prospect and expectation of fungistatic agents of plants in preservation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Hu, Yi-chen; Zhao, Lian-hua; Yang, Shi-hai; Yang, Mei-hua

    2015-10-01

    During the process of growth, harvesting, transportation, processing and storage, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) can be easily contaminated by fungi and their metabolites like mycotoxins, which not only express negative effects on the quality and safety of CHMs and their processed products, but also pose great threats to human health. Now, some chemical synthetic fungicides have been frequently used to control the growth of fungi and accumulation of mycotoxins in the preservation of CHMs. However, the concentration and type of chemical fungicides allowed for postharvest application are restricted due to the disadvantages of their high residual toxicity, long degradation period and pollution to the environment and so on. Therefore, it is critical to research and develop some highly effective, safe and non-toxic, natural, environment-friendly fungistatic agents from plants to prevent CHMs from being contaminated by fungi and mycotoxins. The paper reviews mycotoxins and their harmfulness, the effective compounds of fungistatic plants as well as the antifungal mechanism to provide scientific evidences for developing novel and effective fungistatic agents plants. Then, the application prospect of fungistatic agents from plants in the preservation of CHMs was discussed. PMID:26975093

  19. Alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents in pig production: A multi-country expert-ranking of perceived effectiveness, feasibility and return on investment.

    PubMed

    Postma, Merel; Stärk, Katharina D C; Sjölund, Marie; Backhans, Annette; Beilage, Elisabeth Grosse; Lösken, Svenja; Belloc, Catherine; Collineau, Lucie; Iten, Denise; Visschers, Vivianne; Nielsen, Elisabeth O; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2015-03-01

    Nineteen alternatives to antimicrobial agents were ranked on perceived effectiveness, feasibility and return on investment (ROI) from 0 (not effective, not feasible, no ROI) to 10 (fully effective, completely feasible, maximum ROI) by 111 pig health experts from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived effectiveness were (1) improved internal biosecurity, (2) improved external biosecurity, (3) improved climate/environmental conditions, (4) high health/Specific Pathogen Free/disease eradication and (5) increased vaccination. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived feasibility were (1) increased vaccination, (2) increased use of anti-inflammatory products, (3) improved water quality, (4) feed quality/optimization and (5) use of zinc/metals. The top 5 measures in terms of perceived ROI were (1) improved internal biosecurity, (2) zinc/metals, (3) diagnostics/action plan, (4) feed quality/optimization and (5) climate/environmental improvements. Univariate linear regression showed that veterinary practitioners rank internal biosecurity, vaccination, use of zinc/metals, feed quality optimization and climate/environmental on average highest, while researchers and professors focused more on increased use of diagnostics and action plans. Financial incentives/penalties ranked low in all countries. Belgian respondents ranked feed quality significantly lower compared to the German respondents while reduction of stocking density was ranked higher in Belgium compared to Denmark. Categorical Principal Component Analysis applied to the average ranking supported the finding that veterinary practitioners had a preference for more practical, common and already known alternatives. The results showed that improvements in biosecurity, increased use of vaccination, use of zinc/metals, feed quality improvement and regular diagnostic testing combined with a clear action plan were perceived to be the most promising alternatives to antimicrobials in industrial pig production based on combined effectiveness, feasibility and ROI. PMID:25650306

  20. Antimicrobial activity of an Amazon medicinal plant (Chancapiedra) (Phyllanthus niruri L.) against Helicobacter pylori and lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Gálvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2012-06-01

    The potential of water extracts of the Amazon medicinal plant Chancapiedra (Phyllanthus niruri L.) from Ecuador and Peru for antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori and different strains of lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. H. pylori was inhibited by both water extracts in a dose dependent manner, whereas lactic acid bacterial growth was not affected. Both extracts contained ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and exhibited high free radical scavenging linked-antioxidant activities (89%). However, gallic acid was detected only in the Ecuadorian extract. Preliminary studies on the mode of action of Chancapiedra against H. pylori revealed that inhibition may not involve proline dehydrogenase-based oxidative phosphorylation inhibition associated with simple mono-phenolics and could involve ellagitannins or other non-phenolic compounds through a yet unknown mechanism. This study provides evidence about the potential of Chancapiedra for H. pylori inhibition without affecting beneficial lactic acid bacteria. PMID:22034238

  1. Antimicrobial activity of nerolidol and its derivatives against airborne microbes and further biological activities.

    PubMed

    Krist, Sabine; Banovac, Daniel; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Gochev, Velizar K; Wanner, Jürgen; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Nerolidol and its derivatives, namely cis-nerolidol, O-methyl-nerolidol, O-ethyl-nerolidol, (-)-α-bisabolol, trans,trans-farnesol and its main natural source cabreuva essential oil, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against airborne microbes and antifungal properties against plant pathogens. Among the tested compounds, α-bisabolol was the most effective antimicrobial agent and trans,trans-farnesol showed the best antifungal activity. PMID:25920237

  2. Resistance to the Antimicrobial Agent Fosmidomycin and an FR900098 Prodrug through Mutations in the Deoxyxylulose Phosphate Reductoisomerase Gene (dxr)

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Christopher M.; Meyers, David J.; Imlay, Leah S.; Freel Meyers, Caren

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for new antimicrobial therapies to combat globally important drug-resistant human pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum malarial parasites, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli. These organisms all possess the essential methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, which is not found in humans. The first dedicated enzyme of the MEP pathway, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (Dxr), is inhibited by the phosphonic acid antibiotic fosmidomycin and its analogs, including the N-acetyl analog FR900098 and the phosphoryl analog fosfoxacin. In order to identify mutations in dxr that confer resistance to these drugs, a library of E. coli dxr mutants was screened at lethal fosmidomycin doses. The most resistant allele (with the S222T mutation) alters the fosmidomycin-binding site of Dxr. The expression of this resistant allele increases bacterial resistance to fosmidomycin and other fosmidomycin analogs by 10-fold. These observations confirm that the primary cellular target of fosmidomycin is Dxr. Furthermore, cell lines expressing Dxr-S222T will be a powerful tool to confirm the mechanisms of action of future fosmidomycin analogs. PMID:26124156

  3. One-pot synthesize of dendritic hyperbranched PAMAM and assessment as a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent and anti-biofilm.

    PubMed

    Labena, A; Kabel, K I; Farag, R K

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (h-PAMAM) compound was synthesized from diethylene triamine and different moles percent of methyl acrylate using simple one-pot and commercial synthesis method. The synthesized h-PAMAM was provided with ester and amine terminations. Chemical structure of the synthesized h-PAMAM, with different terminations, was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition, the size and the distribution of the synthesized h-PAMAM were evaluated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. The molecular weights of the synthesized modified hyperbranched polymer, with different terminations, were measured using Gel-permeation chromatograph. The ill-structure of the h-PAMAM with different molar feed methyl acrylate:diethylene triamine (MA:DETA) ratios was designed as h-PAMAM-amine, h-PAMAM-ester and h-PAMAM-amine plus (sharing similar chemical and physical properties with well-defined poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers in generation 2, 2.5 or 3, respectively). Moreover, the synthesized compound expressed broad spectrum antimicrobial and anti-biofilms activity. PMID:26478415

  4. [Recommendations from MENSURA for selection of antimicrobial agents for susceptibility testing and criteria for the interpretation of antibiograms].

    PubMed

    2000-03-01

    This document includes the recommendations from the Spanish antibiogram committee (The MENSURA group, Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos, under the auspices of the Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica) for the selection of antimicrobials for susceptibility testing. Separate tables for each group of organism with proposed susceptibility and resistance breakpoints are updated and comparatively presented with those of other groups, such us NCCLS, CA-SFM and BSAC. The susceptibility breakpoint tends to identify the fully susceptible population, which probably lacks any