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Sample records for plant breeding method

  1. Unconventional methods in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Melchers, G

    There are three wass whereby unconventional methods of plant genetics can be used for applied plant breeding. 1. The time necessary for breeding by recombination can be shortened, making use of the discovery that plants can be obtained directly from the products of meiosis, the "Gonen." Two new cultivars bred in tobacco by this method already exist. 2. Microbiological methods may be applied to mutation and selection in haploid or dihaploid cell cultures. New cultivars bred by this method have not yet been published, but it should be possible to make use of this technique in plant breeding. 3. Somatic hybridization of plants by fusions of protoplasts or by uptake of nuclei and other organelles (plastids, mitochondria) or pure nucleic acids is another useful method. There exist up to now somatic hybrid plants (a) between mutants of the liverwort Sphaerocarpos donnellii, (b) some varieties of tobacco, and (c) two species of Nicotiana. All these hybrids can also be produced by conventional sexual hybridization. It is impossible to predict how often incompatibility for cross-fertilization can be surmounted by somatic hybridization, as incompatibility between two genomes must be restricted to the fertilization process, but it can work on any stage of the development of the hybrid. PMID:1032113

  2. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

  3. Breeding Horticultural Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding involves selection of plants with combinations of improved traits that are inherited in a predictable manner. Collecting, understanding, and incorporating genetic variation into a horticultural breeding program are critical to success. Clearly defined goals help plant breeders choose ...

  4. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: I. Rank aggregating methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining heterogeneous data from plant breeding trials into a single dataset can be challenging, especially if observations have been performed only on partially overlapping sets of accessions, or if evaluations were done with different rating scales. In the present work we propose combining such d...

  5. Haploids: Constraints and opportunities in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Britt, Anne B; Tripathi, Leena; Sharma, Shivali; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of haploids in higher plants led to the use of doubled haploid (DH) technology in plant breeding. This article provides the state of the art on DH technology including the induction and identification of haploids, what factors influence haploid induction, molecular basis of microspore embryogenesis, the genetics underpinnings of haploid induction and its use in plant breeding, particularly to fix traits and unlock genetic variation. Both in vitro and in vivo methods have been used to induce haploids that are thereafter chromosome doubled to produce DH. Various heritable factors contribute to the successful induction of haploids, whose genetics is that of a quantitative trait. Genomic regions associated with in vitro and in vivo DH production were noted in various crops with the aid of DNA markers. It seems that F2 plants are the most suitable for the induction of DH lines than F1 plants. Identifying putative haploids is a key issue in haploid breeding. DH technology in Brassicas and cereals, such as barley, maize, rice, rye and wheat, has been improved and used routinely in cultivar development, while in other food staples such as pulses and root crops the technology has not reached to the stage leading to its application in plant breeding. The centromere-mediated haploid induction system has been used in Arabidopsis, but not yet in crops. Most food staples are derived from genomic resources-rich crops, including those with sequenced reference genomes. The integration of genomic resources with DH technology provides new opportunities for the improving selection methods, maximizing selection gains and accelerate cultivar development. Marker-aided breeding and DH technology have been used to improve host plant resistance in barley, rice, and wheat. Multinational seed companies are using DH technology in large-scale production of inbred lines for further development of hybrid cultivars, particularly in maize. The public sector provides support to

  6. Genomic selection in plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor ...

  7. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to 'Beniazuma', one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  8. Breeding erect plant type sweetpotato lines using cross breeding and gamma-ray irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kuranouchi, Toshikazu; Kumazaki, Tadashi; Kumagai, Toru; Nakatani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Few sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) cultivars with erect plant type are available despite their advantages over spreading type, such as simplicity of cultivation and ability to adapt to limited space. One of the reasons is insufficiency of their agronomic characteristics for table use. So, it is important to overcome these drawbacks of ER-type lines. We attempted to breed new erect plant type sweetpotato lines having good agronomic traits using cross breeding and mutation breeding with gamma-ray irradiation. With cross breeding we successfully developed new erect plant type lines with almost equal levels of yield as compared to ‘Beniazuma’, one of the leading cultivars in Japan. However, mutation breeding failed to develop any promising lines because we could not obtain distinct erect plant type lines. In the future larger numbers of plants should be used for mutation breeding, and irradiation methods should be improved. PMID:27436957

  9. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet. PMID:26859270

  10. 78 FR 45494 - Plant Breeding Listening Session meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... breeding and cultivar development stakeholders. DATES: The Plant Breeding Listening Session will be held... discuss their plant breeding and cultivar development programs and/or their perception of needs and potential improvements in publicly-funded plant breeding and cultivar development research. Following...

  11. Selection methods in forage breeding: a quantitative appraisal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage breeding can be extraordinarily complex because of the number of species, perenniality, mode of reproduction, mating system, and the genetic correlation for some traits evaluated in spaced plants vs. performance under cultivation. Aiming to compare eight forage breeding methods for direct sel...

  12. Linkage Drag: Implication for Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage drag is commonly observed in plant breeding, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling this is unclear. The Pi-ta gene, a single copy gene near the centromere region of chromosome 12, confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae that contain AVR-Pita. The Pi-ta gene in Tetep has been su...

  13. Observations on anopheline breeding in relation to aquatic plants in different breeding habitats of Kheda (Gujarat).

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Srivastava, H C

    2004-09-01

    Water bodies infested with aquatic vegetations may pose problems in mosquito control through bio-environmental methods. Paucity of information pertaining to association of mosquito breeding with aquatic vegetation was the basis for present investigation. The mosquito breeding sites infested with solitary/dominating plant community viz., Eichhornia crassipes, Ipomoea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphea neuchali, Trapa bispinosa, Lemna paucicostata, Trachelomonas spp., Azolla pinnata, Algae spp. and Cynodon dactylon were selected for the study. The investigation revealed that breeding of eleven anopheline species was associated with Eichhornia in different habitats followed by Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon (8 each), Ipomoea and Trapa (6), Lemna. and Nymphea (5), Azolla and Trachelomonas (4). An. subpictus was associated with all types of vegetation. An. annularis, An. nigerrimus and An. barbirostris were associated with nine plant species. An. culicifacies, the principal malaria vector was found breeding in association with seven aquatic plants and showed strong association with Cynodon, Hydrilla and algae. The species diversity in habitats infested with Hydrilla, algae and Cynodon seems to be most favourable for the breeding of An. culicifacies. It is suggested that thinning or removal of such vegetations at regular interval may help to reduce vector population and enhance the efficacy of biological control agents particularly the larvivorous fishes in such habitats. PMID:16509256

  14. Exploitation of induced 2n-gametes for plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-02-01

    Unreduced gamete formation derived via abnormal meiotic cell division is an important approach to polyploidy breeding. This process is considered the main driving force in spontaneous polyploids formation in nature, but the potential application of these gametes to plant breeding has not been fully exploited. An effective mechanism for their artificial induction is needed to attain greater genetic variation and enable efficient use of unreduced gametes in breeding programs. Different approaches have been employed for 2n-pollen production including interspecific hybridization, manipulation of environmental factors and treatment with nitrous oxide, trifluralin, colchicine, oryzalin and other chemicals. These chemicals can act as a stimulus to produce viable 2n pollen; however, their exact mode of action, optimum concentration and developmental stages are still not known. Identification of efficient methods of inducing 2n-gamete formation will help increase pollen germination of sterile interspecific hybrids for inter-genomic recombination and introgression breeding to develop new polyploid cultivars and increase heterozygosity among plant populations. Additionally, the application of genomic tools and identification and isolation of genes and mechanisms involved in the induction of 2n-gamete will enable increased exploitation in different plant species, which will open new avenues for plant breeding. PMID:24311154

  15. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, ‘breeding by design’, or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the ‘superdomestication’ of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits. PMID:23115520

  16. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques.

    PubMed

    Schaart, Jan G; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Lotz, Lambertus A P; Smulders, Marinus J M

    2016-05-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product classes with a different degree of genetic modification. For each product class, recent examples are described to illustrate the potential for breeding new crops with improved traits. Finally, we touch upon the future applications of these methods, such as cisgenic potato genotypes in which specific combinations of Phytophthora infestans resistance genes have been stacked for use in durable cultivation, or the creation of new disease resistances by knocking out or removing S-genes using genome-editing techniques. PMID:26654659

  17. Radiation-induced mutations and plant breeding

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ionizing radiation could cause genetic changes in an organism and could modify gene linkages. The induction of mutation through radiation is random and the probability of getting the desired genetic change is low but can be increased by manipulating different parameters such as dose rate, physical conditions under which the material has been irradiated, etc. Induced mutations have been used as a supplement to conventional plant breeding, particularly for creating genetic variability for specific characters such as improved plant structure, pest and disease resistance, and desired changes in maturity period; more than 200 varieties of crop plants have been developed by this technique. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has used this technique fruitfully to evolve better germplasm in cotton, rice, chickpea, wheat and mungbean; some of the mutants have become popular commercial varieties. This paper describes some uses of radiation induced mutations and the results achieved in Pakistan so far.

  18. Targeted Proteomics Approach for Precision Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Chawade, Aakash; Alexandersson, Erik; Bengtsson, Therese; Andreasson, Erik; Levander, Fredrik

    2016-02-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a targeted mass spectrometry technique that enables precise quantitation of hundreds of peptides in a single run. This technique provides new opportunities for multiplexed protein biomarker measurements. For precision plant breeding, DNA-based markers have been used extensively, but the potential of protein biomarkers has not been exploited. In this work, we developed an SRM marker panel with assays for 104 potato (Solanum tuberosum) peptides selected using univariate and multivariate statistics. Thereafter, using random forest classification, the prediction markers were identified for Phytopthora infestans resistance in leaves, P. infestans resistance in tubers, and plant yield in potato leaf secretome samples. The results suggest that the marker panel has the predictive potential for three traits, two of which have no commercial DNA markers so far. Furthermore, the marker panel was also tested and found to be applicable to potato clones not used during the marker development. The proposed workflow is thus a proof-of-concept for targeted proteomics as an efficient readout in accelerated breeding for complex and agronomically important traits. PMID:26704985

  19. Modern biotechnology and the future of plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of crop plants has been traditionally achieved through conventional plant breeding. The art of plant breeding was developed long before the laws of genetics (the science of heredity) became known. The discovery of the principles of genetics at the turn of the last century boosted...

  20. New biotechnology enhances the application of cisgenesis in plant breeding

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hongwei; Atlihan, Neslihan; Lu, Zhen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Cisgenesis is genetic modification to transfer beneficial alleles from crossable species into a recipient plant. The donor genes transferred by cisgenesis are the same as those used in traditional breeding. It can avoid linkage drag, enhance the use of existing gene alleles. This approach combines traditional breeding techniques with modern biotechnology and dramatically speeds up the breeding process. This allows plant genomes to be modified while remaining plants within the gene pool. Therefore, cisgenic plants should not be assessed as transgenics for environmental impacts. PMID:25157261

  1. Grasses and Legumes: Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have been breeding forage and turf species for over 100 years. This chapter explores the progress that has been made in improving grasses and legumes for human benefit and the evolution of breeding and selection systems that have brought about those changes....

  2. Increasing the Oleic Acid in Soybean Oil with Plant Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the oleic acid content along with decrease in linolenic acid can improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Genetic changes in soybean using standard plant breeding practices has resulted in a publicly released a mid-oleic breeding line, N98-4445A, with oil that averages 57% oleic ac...

  3. Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

    2010-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027

  4. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation. PMID:26322577

  5. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation. PMID:26322577

  6. SNP Markers and Their Impact on Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Mammadov, Jafar; Aggarwal, Rajat; Buyyarapu, Ramesh; Kumpatla, Siva

    2012-01-01

    The use of molecular markers has revolutionized the pace and precision of plant genetic analysis which in turn facilitated the implementation of molecular breeding of crops. The last three decades have seen tremendous advances in the evolution of marker systems and the respective detection platforms. Markers based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have rapidly gained the center stage of molecular genetics during the recent years due to their abundance in the genomes and their amenability for high-throughput detection formats and platforms. Computational approaches dominate SNP discovery methods due to the ever-increasing sequence information in public databases; however, complex genomes pose special challenges in the identification of informative SNPs warranting alternative strategies in those crops. Many genotyping platforms and chemistries have become available making the use of SNPs even more attractive and efficient. This paper provides a review of historical and current efforts in the development, validation, and application of SNP markers in QTL/gene discovery and plant breeding by discussing key experimental strategies and cases exemplifying their impact. PMID:23316221

  7. Rapid cyling plant breeding in citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance or tolerance to huanglongbing (HLB) and other important traits have been identified in several citrus types and relatives and associated markers should be identified soon. What is urgently needed in addition is an accelerated strategy for citrus variety breeding. Identification and use of...

  8. Designing Graduate-Level Plant Breeding Curriculum: A Delphi Study of Private Sector Stakeholder Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jane K.; Repinski, Shelby L.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Bliss, Frederick A.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-based survey using the Delphi method was conducted to garner current information from private sector stakeholders and build consensus opinions supporting key ideas for enhancing plant breeder education and training. This study asked respondents to suggest and rate topics and content they deemed most important to plant breeding graduate…

  9. Integrating genomics and plant breeding: whither the breeders?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding has been practiced >5,000 years as an art and >100 years as a science. Selection provides the means where populations are improved for product, such as yield or composition, or for crop protection, such as pest and stress resistance. Such activities have not required use of genomic te...

  10. Selection and Breeding of Plant Cultivars to Minimize Cadmium Accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation occurs in the uptake and distribution of essential and nonessential trace elements among crop species and among cultivars within species. Such variation can be responsible for trace element deficiencies and toxicities, which in turn can affect the quality of food. Plant breeding ...

  11. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel ® 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. Results We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Conclusions Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health. PMID:23688245

  12. Willet M. Hays, great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of our association.

    PubMed

    Troyer, A F; Stoehr, H

    2003-01-01

    Willet M. Hays was a great benefactor to plant breeding and the founder of the American Genetic Association (AGA). We commemorate the AGA's centennial. We mined university archives, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yearbooks, plant breeding textbooks, scientific periodicals, and descendants for information. Willet Hays first recognized the individual plant as the unit of selection and started systematic pure-line selection and progeny tests in 1888. He developed useful plant breeding methods. He selected superior flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), wheat (Triticum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) varieties, and discovered Grimm alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); all became commercially important. He initiated branch stations for better performance testing. Willet Hays befriended colleagues in other universities, in federal stations, in a London conference, and in Europe. He gathered and spread the scientific plant breeding gospel. He also improved rural roads and initiated animal breeding records and agricultural economics records. He started the AGA in 1903, serving as secretary for 10 years. He became assistant secretary of agriculture in 1904. He introduced the project system for agricultural research. He authored or coauthored the Nelson Amendment, the Smith-Lever Act, the Smith-Hughes Act, and the protocol leading to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization-all involved teaching agricultural practices that improved the world. PMID:14691309

  13. Computer, Video, and Rapid-Cycling Plant Projects in an Undergraduate Plant Breeding Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Studies the perceived effectiveness of four student projects involving videotape production, computer conferencing, microcomputer simulation, and rapid-cycling Brassica breeding for undergraduate plant breeding students in two course offerings in consecutive years. Linking of the computer conferencing and video projects improved the rating of the…

  14. Diversity in Plant Breeding: A New Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Litrico, Isabelle; Violle, Cyrille

    2015-10-01

    Faced with an accelerating rate of environmental change and the associated need for a more sustainable, low-input agriculture, the urgent new challenge for crop science is to find ways to introduce greater diversity to cropping systems. However, there is a dearth of generic formalism in programs seeking to diversify crops. In this opinion, we propose a new framework, derived from ecological theory, that should enable diversity targets to be incorporated into plant-breeding programs. While ecological theory provides criteria for maintaining diversity and optimizing the production of mixtures, such criteria are rarely fully realized in natural ecosystems. Conversely, crop breeding should optimize both agronomic value and the ability of plants to perform and live alongside one another. This framework represents an opportunity to develop more sustainable crops and also a radical new way to apply ecological theory to cropping systems. PMID:26440430

  15. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients. PMID:25726138

  16. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  17. Assisted Breeding in Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular insight and methods applied to plant breeding and germplasm enhancement is the goal of assisted breeding, also known as marker assisted breeding, marker assisted selection, molecular plant breeding, or genome-wide selection, among others. The basic idea is that most, if not all, heritable ...

  18. Plant hormone interactions: innovative targets for crop breeding and management.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sally; Kudoyarova, Guzel R; Veselov, Dmitry S; Arkhipova, Tatyana N; Davies, William J

    2012-05-01

    Here we highlight how both the root and shoot environment impact on whole plant hormone balance, particularly under stresses such as soil drying, and relate hormone ratios and relative abundances to processes influencing plant performance and yield under both mild and more severe stress. We discuss evidence (i) that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene act antagonistically on grain-filling rate amongst other yield-impacting processes; (ii) that ABA's effectiveness as an agent of stomatal closure can be modulated by coincident ethylene or cytokinin accumulation; and (iii) that enhanced cytokinin production can increase growth and yield by improving foliar stay-green indices under stress, and by improving processes that impact grain-filling and number, and that this can be the result of altered relative abundances of cytokinin and ABA (and other hormones). We describe evidence and novel processes whereby these phenomena are/could be amenable to manipulation through genetic and management routes, such that plant performance and yield can be improved. We explore the possibility that a range of ABA-ethylene and ABA-cytokinin relative abundances could represent targets for breeding/managing for yield resilience under a spectrum of stress levels between severe and mild, and could circumvent some of the pitfalls so far encountered in the massive research effort towards breeding for increases in the complex trait of yield. PMID:22641615

  19. Mutagenesis as a Tool in Plant Genetics, Functional Genomics, and Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Per; Chawade, Aakash; Larsson, Mikael; Olsson, Johanna; Olsson, Olof

    2011-01-01

    Plant mutagenesis is rapidly coming of age in the aftermath of recent developments in high-resolution molecular and biochemical techniques. By combining the high variation of mutagenised populations with novel screening methods, traits that are almost impossible to identify by conventional breeding are now being developed and characterised at the molecular level. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the various techniques and workflows available to researchers today in the field of molecular breeding, and how these tools complement the ones already used in traditional breeding. Both genetic (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes; TILLING) and phenotypic screens are evaluated. Finally, different ways of bridging the gap between genotype and phenotype are discussed. PMID:22315587

  20. A method for trapping breeding adult American Oystercatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    We present an efficient and effective method for trapping adult, breeding American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) that minimizes disturbance to nesting birds and the risk of trapping injuries. We used a remote controlled mechanical decoy to lure territorial adults to a leg-hold noose-mat trap. We trapped 25 birds over two seasons and were successful on 54% of our trapping attempts in 2003. We only trapped birds before the breeding season or between nesting attempts to reduce nest-site disturbance.

  1. Influence of outliers on accuracy estimation in genomic prediction in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Estaghvirou, Sidi Boubacar Ould; Ogutu, Joseph O; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Outliers often pose problems in analyses of data in plant breeding, but their influence on the performance of methods for estimating predictive accuracy in genomic prediction studies has not yet been evaluated. Here, we evaluate the influence of outliers on the performance of methods for accuracy estimation in genomic prediction studies using simulation. We simulated 1000 datasets for each of 10 scenarios to evaluate the influence of outliers on the performance of seven methods for estimating accuracy. These scenarios are defined by the number of genotypes, marker effect variance, and magnitude of outliers. To mimic outliers, we added to one observation in each simulated dataset, in turn, 5-, 8-, and 10-times the error SD used to simulate small and large phenotypic datasets. The effect of outliers on accuracy estimation was evaluated by comparing deviations in the estimated and true accuracies for datasets with and without outliers. Outliers adversely influenced accuracy estimation, more so at small values of genetic variance or number of genotypes. A method for estimating heritability and predictive accuracy in plant breeding and another used to estimate accuracy in animal breeding were the most accurate and resistant to outliers across all scenarios and are therefore preferable for accuracy estimation in genomic prediction studies. The performances of the other five methods that use cross-validation were less consistent and varied widely across scenarios. The computing time for the methods increased as the size of outliers and sample size increased and the genetic variance decreased. PMID:25273862

  2. Plant Breeding and Drought in C3 Cereals: What Should We Breed For?

    PubMed Central

    ARAUS, J. L.; SLAFER, G. A.; REYNOLDS, M. P.; ROYO, C.

    2002-01-01

    Drought is the main abiotic constraint on cereal yield. Analysing physiological determinants of yield responses to water may help in breeding for higher yield and stability under drought conditions. The traits to select (either for stress escape, avoidance or tolerance) and the framework where breeding for drought stress is addressed will depend on the level and timing of stress in the targeted area. If the stress is severe, breeding under stress‐free conditions may be unsuccessful and traits that confer survival may become a priority. However, selecting for yield itself under stress‐alleviated conditions appears to produce superior cultivars, not only for optimum environments, but also for those characterized by frequent mild and moderate stress conditions. This implies that broad avoidance/tolerance to mild–moderate stresses is given by constitutive traits also expressed under stress‐free conditions. In this paper, we focus on physiological traits that contribute to improved productivity under mild–moderate drought. Increased crop performance may be achieved through improvements in water use, water‐use efficiency and harvest index. The first factor is relevant when soil water remains available at maturity or when deep‐rooted genotypes access water in the soil profile that is not normally available; the two latter conditions become more important when all available water is exhausted by the end of the crop cycle. Independent of the mechanism operating, a canopy able to use more water than another would have more open stomata and therefore higher canopy temperature depression, and 13C discrimination (Δ13C) in plant matter. The same traits would also seem to be relevant when breeding for hot, irrigated environments. Where additional water is not available to the crop, higher water‐use efficiency (WUE) appears to be an alternative strategy to improve crop performance. In this context Δ13C constitutes a simple but reliable measure of WUE. However, in

  3. Genetic improvement of the Pee Dee cotton germplasm collection following seventy years of plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term plant breeding programs develop genetic resources that constitute the baseline potential of crop production systems. Over the course of time, through long-term plant breeding efforts, the volume of genetic resources developed is extensive. Knowledge of the performance and genetic propertie...

  4. Plant breeding for harmony between agriculture and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop improvements made since the 1950’s coupled with inexpensive agronomic inputs (fertilizers, herbicides, etc.) have resulted in agricultural production that has kept pace with population growth. Breeding programs primarily focus on improving a crop’s environmental adaptability and biotic stress t...

  5. Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

    PubMed

    Bouis, Howarth E

    2003-05-01

    Can commonly-eaten food staple crops be developed that fortify their seeds with essential minerals and vitamins? Can farmers be induced to grow such varieties? If so, would this result in a marked improvement in human nutrition at a lower cost than existing nutrition interventions? An interdisciplinary international effort is underway to breed for mineral- and vitamin-dense varieties of rice, wheat, maize, beans and cassava for release to farmers in developing countries. The biofortification strategy seeks to take advantage of the consistent daily consumption of large amounts of food staples by all family members, including women and children as they are most at risk for micronutrient malnutrition. As a consequence of the predominance of food staples in the diets of the poor, this strategy implicitly targets low-income households. After the one-time investment is made to develop seeds that fortify themselves, recurrent costs are low and germplasm may be shared internationally. It is this multiplier aspect of plant breeding across time and distance that makes it so cost-effective. Once in place, the biofortified crop system is highly sustainable. Nutritionally-improved varieties will continue to be grown and consumed year after year, even if government attention and international funding for micronutrient issues fades. Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas. Biofortification and commercial fortification are, therefore, highly complementary. Breeding for higher trace mineral density in seeds will not incur a yield penalty. Mineral-packed seeds sell themselves to farmers because, as recent research has shown, these trace minerals are essential in helping plants resist disease and other environmental stresses. More seedlings

  6. State of the science and challenges of breeding landscape plants with ecological function

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, H Dayton; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Colson, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Exotic plants dominate esthetically-managed landscapes, which cover 30–40 million hectares in the United States alone. Recent ecological studies have found that landscaping with exotic plant species can reduce biodiversity on multiple trophic levels. To support biodiversity in urbanized areas, the increased use of native landscaping plants has been advocated by conservation groups and US federal and state agencies. A major challenge to scaling up the use of native species in landscaping is providing ornamental plants that are both ecologically functional and economically viable. Depending on ecological and economic constraints, accelerated breeding approaches could be applied to ornamental trait development in native plants. This review examines the impact of landscaping choices on biodiversity, the current status of breeding and selection of native ornamental plants, and the interdisciplinary research needed to scale up landscaping plants that can support native biodiversity. PMID:26504560

  7. The plant breeding industry after pure line theory: Lessons from the National Institute of Agricultural Botany.

    PubMed

    Berry, Dominic

    2014-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Johannsen proposed his pure line theory and the genotype/phenotype distinction, work that is prized as one of the most important founding contributions to genetics and Mendelian plant breeding. Most historians have already concluded that pure line theory did not change breeding practices directly. Instead, breeding became more orderly as a consequence of pure line theory, which structured breeding programmes and eliminated external heritable influences. This incremental change then explains how and why the large multi-national seed companies that we know today were created; pure lines invited standardisation and economies of scale that the latter were designed to exploit. Rather than focus on breeding practice, this paper examines the plant varietal market itself. It focusses upon work conducted by the National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB) during the interwar years, and in doing so demonstrates that, on the contrary, the pure line was actually only partially accepted by the industry. Moreover, claims that contradicted the logic of the pure line were not merely tolerated by the agricultural geneticists affiliated with NIAB, but were acknowledged and legitimised by them. The history of how and why the plant breeding industry was transformed remains to be written. PMID:24650856

  8. Translational genomics for plant breeding with the genome sequence explosion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Jeong, Haneul; Satyawan, Dani; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2016-04-01

    The use of next-generation sequencers and advanced genotyping technologies has propelled the field of plant genomics in model crops and plants and enhanced the discovery of hidden bridges between genotypes and phenotypes. The newly generated reference sequences of unstudied minor plants can be annotated by the knowledge of model plants via translational genomics approaches. Here, we reviewed the strategies of translational genomics and suggested perspectives on the current databases of genomic resources and the database structures of translated information on the new genome. As a draft picture of phenotypic annotation, translational genomics on newly sequenced plants will provide valuable assistance for breeders and researchers who are interested in genetic studies. PMID:26269219

  9. BreedVision — A Multi-Sensor Platform for Non-Destructive Field-Based Phenotyping in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Mentrup, Daniel; Möller, Kim; Wunder, Erik; Alheit, Katharina; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias; Müller, Joachim; Rahe, Florian; Ruckelshausen, Arno

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the food and energy security of an increasing World population likely to exceed nine billion by 2050 represents a major challenge for plant breeding. Our ability to measure traits under field conditions has improved little over the last decades and currently constitutes a major bottleneck in crop improvement. This work describes the development of a tractor-pulled multi-sensor phenotyping platform for small grain cereals with a focus on the technological development of the system. Various optical sensors like light curtain imaging, 3D Time-of-Flight cameras, laser distance sensors, hyperspectral imaging as well as color imaging are integrated into the system to collect spectral and morphological information of the plants. The study specifies: the mechanical design, the system architecture for data collection and data processing, the phenotyping procedure of the integrated system, results from field trials for data quality evaluation, as well as calibration results for plant height determination as a quantified example for a platform application. Repeated measurements were taken at three developmental stages of the plants in the years 2011 and 2012 employing triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack L.) as a model species. The technical repeatability of measurement results was high for nearly all different types of sensors which confirmed the high suitability of the platform under field conditions. The developed platform constitutes a robust basis for the development and calibration of further sensor and multi-sensor fusion models to measure various agronomic traits like plant moisture content, lodging, tiller density or biomass yield, and thus, represents a major step towards widening the bottleneck of non-destructive phenotyping for crop improvement and plant genetic studies. PMID:23447014

  10. BreedVision--a multi-sensor platform for non-destructive field-based phenotyping in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Mentrup, Daniel; Möller, Kim; Wunder, Erik; Alheit, Katharina; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter; Reif, Jochen C; Würschum, Tobias; Müller, Joachim; Rahe, Florian; Ruckelshausen, Arno

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the food and energy security of an increasing World population likely to exceed nine billion by 2050 represents a major challenge for plant breeding. Our ability to measure traits under field conditions has improved little over the last decades and currently constitutes a major bottleneck in crop improvement. This work describes the development of a tractor-pulled multi-sensor phenotyping platform for small grain cereals with a focus on the technological development of the system. Various optical sensors like light curtain imaging, 3D Time-of-Flight cameras, laser distance sensors, hyperspectral imaging as well as color imaging are integrated into the system to collect spectral and morphological information of the plants. The study specifies: the mechanical design, the system architecture for data collection and data processing, the phenotyping procedure of the integrated system, results from field trials for data quality evaluation, as well as calibration results for plant height determination as a quantified example for a platform application. Repeated measurements were taken at three developmental stages of the plants in the years 2011 and 2012 employing triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack L.) as a model species. The technical repeatability of measurement results was high for nearly all different types of sensors which confirmed the high suitability of the platform under field conditions. The developed platform constitutes a robust basis for the development and calibration of further sensor and multi-sensor fusion models to measure various agronomic traits like plant moisture content, lodging, tiller density or biomass yield, and thus, represents a major step towards widening the bottleneck of non-destructive phenotyping for crop improvement and plant genetic studies. PMID:23447014

  11. Enrichment of food staples through plant breeding: a new strategy for fighting micronutrient malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bouis, H

    1995-01-01

    The 4 strategies for reducing micronutrient malnutrition are supplementation, fortification, dietary diversification, and disease reduction. Arguments are adduced for investing in a 5th strategy, plant breeding. This long-term strategy has already been taken by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a group of 17 agricultural research centers seeking to raise farm productivity in developing countries. A coordinated plan has been developed involving collaborative research on 5 major staple food crops (rice, wheat, maize, beans, and cassava) between 5 core research institutes. The feasibility of a plant breeding strategy hinges on 5 core questions: 1) the scientific feasibility and the time needed to breed staple food varieties whose seeds are micronutrient-dense, 2) the effect of breeding micronutrient-dense seeds on plant yields, 3) whether breeding for micronutrient-dense seeds will change processing or consumer characteristics of staple foods, 4) whether micronutrient bioavailability will be increased to a significant degree in staples, and 5) the existence of other inexpensive, sustainable strategies for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. Zinc-dense wheat varieties, developed at the Waite Agricultural Research Institute of the University of Adelaide, are already being grown in Australia. 10 years may be required before nutritionally-improved varieties could be available for commercial production by farmers in developing countries. Such small amounts will not alter the appearance, taste, texture, or cooking quality of foods. If the presently low iron content of food staples could be increased by a factor of 3.5 this would double bioavailable iron. This strategy does hold promise for significantly reducing recurrent expenditures required for these higher-cost, short-run programs by significantly reducing the numbers of people requiring treatment. It would seem prudent to invest now in a plant breeding strategy to maintain momentum

  12. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  13. Fantasy Seed Company: A Role Playing Game for Plant Breeding Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Steve S.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding plant breeding as well as procedures and issues of seed companies are skills students studying agronomy need to acquire. Simulation games can be effective teaching tools in developing higher-order thinking skills of students. The "Fantasy Seed Company" game was developed to create motivated learners by allowing students to run a mock…

  14. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  15. Following the genes that make resistant plants: shared tools for breeding and pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although plant pathology and breeding are distinct disciplines with unique perspectives, they frequently share a common goal: that of identifying and understanding durable resistance, the kind of resistance that will not be overcome quickly and will remain effective against a wide array of isolates....

  16. The intersection of plant breeding, human health, and nutritional security: Lessons learned and future perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, concerns about global, sustainable, and nutritional security have gained substantial momentum propelled by rapid increases in global population and food insecurity. Historically, plant breeding has played a key role in improving crop yield to keep pace with the rising global populat...

  17. Plant breeding with genomic selection: potential gain per unit time and cost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based ph...

  18. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose. PMID:25806436

  19. Toward breeding new land-sea plant hybrid species irrigable with seawater for dry regions

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A plant species growing in sea or coastal saltmarsh is greatly tolerant to high concentrations of salts, and a plant species growing in desert or dry regions is highly tolerant to drought. Breeding a new plant hybrid species from both species by means of cellular grafting, genome fusion or nuclear transfer would generate, at least in theory, a hybrid plant species that should be strongly tolerant to harsh aridity and salinity and would be potentially irrigable with seawater. Such prospective species can be used for example as a fodder, biofuel crop or stabilizer species to protect soil from wind erosion and sandy storms in dry regions. Breeding such species would change the surface of the world and help to solve major challenges of starvation, malnutrition and poverty. Here, I propose potential approaches that would be worthy of investigation toward this purpose. PMID:25806436

  20. Transgenerational response to stress in plants and its application for breeding.

    PubMed

    Bilichak, Andriy; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2016-03-01

    A growing number of reports indicate that plants possess the ability to maintain a memory of stress exposure throughout their ontogenesis and even transmit it faithfully to the following generation. Some of the features of transgenerational memory include elevated genome instability, a higher tolerance to stress experienced by parents, and a cross-tolerance. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clear, a likely contributing factor is the absence of full-scale reprogramming of the epigenetic landscape during gametogenesis; therefore, epigenetic marks can occasionally escape the reprogramming process and can be passed on to the progeny. To date, it is not entirely clear which part of the epigenetic landscape is more likely to escape the reprogramming events, and whether such a process is random or directed and sequence specific. The identification of specific epigenetic marks associated with specific stressors would allow generation of stress-tolerant plants through the recently discovered techniques for precision epigenome engineering. The engineered DNA-binding domains (e.g. ZF, TALE, and dCas9) fused to particular chromatin modifiers would make it possible to target epigenetic modifications to the selected loci, probably allowing stress tolerance to be achieved in the progeny. This approach, termed epigenetic breeding, along with other methods has great potential to be used for both the assessment of the propagation of epigenetic marks across generations and trait improvement in plants. In this communication, we provide a short overview of recent reports demonstrating a transgenerational response to stress in plants, and discuss the underlying potential molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon and its use for plant biotechnology applications. PMID:26944635

  1. Breeding crop plants with deep roots: their role in sustainable carbon, nutrient and water sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The soil represents a reservoir that contains at least twice as much carbon as does the atmosphere, yet (apart from ‘root crops’) mainly just the above-ground plant biomass is harvested in agriculture, and plant photosynthesis represents the effective origin of the overwhelming bulk of soil carbon. However, present estimates of the carbon sequestration potential of soils are based more on what is happening now than what might be changed by active agricultural intervention, and tend to concentrate only on the first metre of soil depth. Scope Breeding crop plants with deeper and bushy root ecosystems could simultaneously improve both the soil structure and its steady-state carbon, water and nutrient retention, as well as sustainable plant yields. The carbon that can be sequestered in the steady state by increasing the rooting depths of crop plants and grasses from, say, 1 m to 2 m depends significantly on its lifetime(s) in different molecular forms in the soil, but calculations (http://dbkgroup.org/carbonsequestration/rootsystem.html) suggest that this breeding strategy could have a hugely beneficial effect in stabilizing atmospheric CO2. This sets an important research agenda, and the breeding of plants with improved and deep rooting habits and architectures is a goal well worth pursuing. PMID:21813565

  2. Novel approaches in plant breeding for rhizosphere-related traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of modern varieties has typically been performed in standardized, high fertility conditions with a primary focus on yield. This may have contributed to loss of function of plant genes associated with efficient nutrient acquisition strategies and adaptation to soil-related biotic and abioti...

  3. Technology of compact MAb and its application for medicinal plant breeding named as missile type molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Putalun, Waraporn

    2011-03-01

    Single chain fragment-variable (scFv) enhanced solasodine glycoside accumulation in Solanum khasianum hairy root cultures transformed by the ScFv solamargine (As)-scFv gene. The scFv protein was expressed at a high level in inclusion bodies of E. coli. After being renatured, the scFv protein was purified in a one-step manner by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The yield of refolded and purified scFv was 12.5 mg per 100 ml of cell culture. The characteristics of the As-scFv expressed in E. coli and transgenic hairy roots were similar to those of the parent monoclonal antibody (MAb). The expression of scFv protein provides a low cost and a high yield of functional scFv antibody against solamargine. The full linear range of the ELISA assay using scFv was extended from 1.5-10 µg/ml. The expressed anti-solamargine scFv protein could be useful for determination of total solasodine glycoside content in plant samples by ELISA. Solasodine glycoside levels in the transgenic hairy root were 2.3-fold higher than that in the wild-type hairy root based on the soluble protein level and binding activities. The As-scFv expressed in S. khasianum hairy roots enhanced solasodine glycosides accumulation and provide a novel medicinal plant breeding methodology that can produce a high yield of secondary metabolites. PMID:21143130

  4. Managing phenol contents in crop plants by phytochemical farming and breeding-visions and constraints.

    PubMed

    Treutter, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Two main fields of interest form the background of actual demand for optimized levels of phenolic compounds in crop plants. These are human health and plant resistance to pathogens and to biotic and abiotic stress factors. A survey of agricultural technologies influencing the biosynthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds in crop plants is presented, including observations on the effects of light, temperature, mineral nutrition, water management, grafting, elevated atmospheric CO(2), growth and differentiation of the plant and application of elicitors, stimulating agents and plant activators. The underlying mechanisms are discussed with respect to carbohydrate availability, trade-offs to competing demands as well as to regulatory elements. Outlines are given for genetic engineering and plant breeding. Constraints and possible physiological feedbacks are considered for successful and sustainable application of agricultural techniques with respect to management of plant phenol profiles and concentrations. PMID:20479987

  5. 'Do Not Privatize the Giant's Shoulders': Rethinking Patents in Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Bjørnstad, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have increasing impacts on plant breeding. Not only varieties but also germplasm and technologies are protected. Intellectual property has also affected corporate concentration in the seed supply chain. While not very controversial in the USA, it is increasingly controversial in Europe after rulings on plant patents concerning nontransgenic crops in 2015. Both political and industry voices call for new interpretations or legislations. Industry initiatives have opened facilitated patent access systems designated 'free access, but not access for free'. Although praiseworthy, they are voluntary and so far limited to vegetable crops. This Opinion article suggests a mandatory system of declaring IPR use linked to variety registration. This compulsory licensing system with 'toll roads, not road blocks', is likely to reward IPRs without delaying breeding progress. PMID:27016032

  6. Correlations Between Visual Biomass Scores and Forage Yield in Space-Planted Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) Breeding Nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) forage yield remains a prime breeding target for improved variety development. In a world of decreasing forage legume breeding resources, rapidly and cheaply phenotyping plants for the highly quantitative trait of forage yield is vital. Many red clover selection pro...

  7. Genomic selection in plant breeding: knowledge and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Genomic selection,” the ability to select for even complex, quantitative traits based on marker data alone, has arisen from the conjunction of new high throughput marker technologies and new statistical methods needed to analyze the data. This review surveys what is known about these technologies, ...

  8. Plant breeding can be made more efficient by having fewer, better crosses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Crop yields have to increase to provide food security for the world’s growing population. To achieve these yield increases there will have to be a significant contribution from genetic gains made by conventional plant breeding. However, the breeding process is not efficient because crosses made between parental combinations that fail to produce useful varieties consume over 99% of the resources. Results We tested in a rice-breeding programme if its efficiency could be improved by using many fewer, but more judiciously chosen crosses than usual. In a 15-year programme in Nepal, with varietal testing also in India and Bangladesh, we made only six crosses that were stringently chosen on complementary parental performance. We evaluated their success by the adoption and official release of the varieties they produced. We then modelled optimum cross number using assumptions based on our experimental results. Four of the six crosses succeeded. This was a fifty-fold improvement over breeding programmes that employ many crosses where only about one, or fewer, crosses in 200 succeed. Based on these results, we modelled the optimum number of crosses by assuming there would be a decline in the reliability of the breeder’s prediction of the value of each cross as more crosses were made (because there is progressively less information on the traits of the parents). Fewer-cross programmes were more likely to succeed and did so using fewer resources. Making more crosses reduced the overall probability of success of the breeding programme. Conclusions The efficiency of national and international breeding programmes would be increased by making fewer crosses among more carefully chosen parents. This would increase the number of higher yielding varieties that are delivered to farmers and hence help to improve food security. PMID:23391262

  9. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety. PMID:24330272

  10. Comparison of Conventional, Modified Single Seed Descent, and Double Haploid Breeding Methods for Maize Inbred Line Development Using GEM Breeding Crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Good choice of germplasm, breeding methods, and careful evaluation are essential for maize inbred line and hybrid development. Choice of germplasm is particularly important since it may limit genetic gain given even the best breeding methodology and selection strategies. Exotic germplasm has the pot...

  11. A review of brood-site pollination mutualism: plants providing breeding sites for their pollinators.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shoko

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, I review pollination systems in which plants provide breeding sites as a reward for pollination. I divide the pollinators into three groups based upon ovipositing sites and the larval food of insects. The first group consists of ovule parasites found in only five plant lineages, e.g., the fig wasps and yucca moths, pollination systems in which pollinator specificity is very high. The second group is pollen parasitism, primarily by thrips (Thysanoptera), but specificity of the pollinators is low. In the third group, pollinator larvae (Coleoptera and Diptera) develop in decomposed flowers and inflorescences of plants and these adaptations evolved repeatedly via different pathways in various plant taxa. Pollinator specificity varies, and shifts in pollinators may occur between related or unrelated insects. PMID:12579365

  12. Breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti, as assessed by the single-larva survey method*

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T. Ramachandra; Trpis, M.; Gillett, J. D.; Teesdale, C.; Tonn, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The single-larva survey method was employed to study the breeding places and seasonal incidence of Aedes aegypti in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. From May 1968 to May 1969, 28 462 containers of water—located in approximately equal numbers indoors and outdoors—were investigated. The highest frequency of breeding (8.0%) of A. aegypti was observed in tires and motor parts. Drums, barrels, water-pots, and other receptacles left outdoors showed a higher frequency (3.1%) than those kept indoors (0.6%). Metal containers were infested to a greater extent than those made of mud, wood, or other materials; 2.5% of coconut shells, snail shells, etc. and 1.3% of tree holes, plant axils, and cut bamboos were infested. The seasonal prevalence, expressed as a container index, closely followed and paralleled the fluctuations in rainfall. The value of this survey method for both ecological studies and practical control purposes is discussed. PMID:4544149

  13. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  14. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  15. Reproductive success and contaminants in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding at a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dods, Patti L; Birmingham, Erinn M; Williams, Tony D; Ikonomou, Michael G; Bennie, Donald T; Elliott, John E

    2005-12-01

    The uptake and effects of contaminants were measured in the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) at a wastewater treatment site. The study examined reproductive, immunological, and growth endpoints in tree swallows exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and to 4-nonylphenol in wastewater lagoons at the Iona Wastewater Treatment Plant, Vancouver (BC, Canada). Clutch size was significantly lower in tree swallows breeding at Iona Island in 2000 and 2001 compared to the reference site. In 2000, fledging success was significantly lower and mean mass of nestling livers was significantly higher in the tree swallows breeding at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant. Additional factors that may influence reproductive success, such as parental provisioning and diet composition, did not differ significantly between sites. Levels of 4-nonylphenol detected in sediment and insects were elevated at the Iona Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (2000: lagoon sediment 82,000 ng/g dry wt, insects 310 ng/g wet wt; 2001: lagoon sediment 383,900 ng/g dry wt, insects 156 ng/g wet wt) compared to the reference site (2000: pond sediment 1,100 ng/g dry wt, insects not sampled; 2001: pond sediment 642 ng/g dry wt, insects 98 ng/g wet wt). These results indicate that tree swallows might be a useful indicator species for exposure to 4-nonylphenol at wastewater treatment sites: however, further work is necessary to determine the extent of uptake and effects of 4-nonylphenol in riparian insectivorous birds. PMID:16445092

  16. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  17. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  18. [Development and prospect of plant mutation breeding induced by aviation and spaceflight in China].

    PubMed

    Li, J G; Wang, P S; Zhang, J; Jiang, X C

    1999-12-01

    Since 1987, about fifty species, three hundred varieties of crops have been sent in recoverable satellites or high altitude balloon (HAB). The selected lines include a high-yield, disease-resist, and hybrid-vigorous rice line, a recovered line of Japonica rice restoring sterility of Indica rice, a new green pepper strain which grows fruits over 500 g, a disease-resist, high-quality tomato line, a big-pod rape line, a big-fruit white lotus line and a big-bulb lily. The special conditions in the outer space can induce a variety of mutations in the plants and their progeny, which provides a new way for the plant breeding. PMID:12434817

  19. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods

    PubMed Central

    Sands, David C.; Morris, Cindy E.; Dratz, Edward A.; Pilgeram, Alice

    2010-01-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal. PMID:20467463

  20. A Modified Extensigraph Method for Evaluating Dough Properties of Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modified extensigraph method reduced sample quantity to 100 g from 300 g and testing time by half with easy dough preparation compared to the AACC standard extensigraph method, which challenges wheat breeding programs where the sample size is small and evaluations of large numbers of samples are d...

  1. Pollination patterns and plant breeding systems in the Galápagos: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro, Susana; Heleno, Ruben; Olesen, Jens M.; McMullen, Conley K.; Traveset, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of the Galápagos Islands for the development of central concepts in ecology and evolution, the understanding of many ecological processes in this archipelago is still very basic. One such process is pollination, which provides an important service to both plants and their pollinators. The rather modest level of knowledge on this subject has so far limited our predictive power on the consequences of the increasing threat of introduced plants and pollinators to this unique archipelago. Scope As a first step toward building a unified view of the state of pollination in the Galápagos, a thorough literature search was conducted on the breeding systems of the archipelago's flora and compiled all documented flower–visitor interactions. Based on 38 studies from the last 100 years, we retrieved 329 unique interactions between 123 flowering plant species (50 endemics, 39 non-endemic natives, 26 introduced and eight of unknown origin) from 41 families and 120 animal species from 13 orders. We discuss the emergent patterns and identify promising research avenues in the field. Conclusions Although breeding systems are known for <20 % of the flora, most species in our database were self-compatible. Moreover, the incidence of autogamy among endemics, non-endemic natives and alien species did not differ significantly, being high in all groups, which suggests that a poor pollinator fauna does not represent a constraint to the integration of new plant species into the native communities. Most interactions detected (approx. 90 %) come from a single island (most of them from Santa Cruz). Hymenopterans (mainly the endemic carpenter bee Xylocopa darwinii and ants), followed by lepidopterans, were the most important flower visitors. Dipterans were much more important flower visitors in the humid zone than in the dry zone. Bird and lizard pollination has been occasionally reported in the dry zone. Strong biases were detected in the sampling effort

  2. Breeding salmonids for feed efficiency in current fishmeal and future plant-based diet environments

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Cheryl D; Kause, Antti; Koskela, Juha; Ritola, Ossi

    2007-01-01

    The aquaculture industry is increasingly replacing fishmeal in feeds for carnivorous fish with soybean meal (SBM). This diet change presents a potential for genotype-environment (G × E) interactions. We tested whether current salmonid breeding programmes that evaluate and select within fishmeal diets also improve growth and efficiency on potential future SBM diets. A total of 1680 European whitefish from 70 families were reared with either fishmeal- or SBM-based diets in a split-family design. Individual daily gain (DG), daily feed intake (DFI) and feed efficiency (FE) were recorded. Traits displayed only weak G × E interactions as variances and heritabilities did not differ substantially between the diets, and cross-diet genetic correlations were near unity. In both diets, DFI exhibited moderate heritability and had very high genetic correlation with DG whereas FE had low heritability. Predicted genetic responses demonstrated that selection to increase DG and FE on the fishmeal diet lead to favourable responses on the SBM diet. Selection for FE based on an index including DG and DFI achieved at least double FE gain versus selection on DG alone. Therefore, current breeding programmes are improving the biological ability of salmonids to use novel plant-based diets, and aiding the aquaculture industry to reduce fishmeal use. PMID:17612482

  3. Modification of Extensigraph Dough Preparation Method Developed for Wheat Breeding Lines and Commercial Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics - resistance to extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits for the milling and baking industries, and for new wheat varietal selection in wheat breeding programs. Current available techniques or test methods, such as the AACCI extens...

  4. Plant Sexual Systems and a Review of the Breeding System Studies in the Caatinga, a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, ISABEL CRISTINA; LOPES, ARIADNA VALENTINA; SAZIMA, MARLIES

    2006-01-01

    • Backgrounds and Aims The reproductive biology of a community can provide answers to questions related to the maintenance of the intraspecific pollen flow and reproductive success of populations, sharing and competition for pollinators and also questions on conservation of natural habitats affected by fragmentation processes. This work presents, for the first time, data on the occurrence and frequency of plant sexual systems for Caatinga communities, and a review of the breeding system studies of Caatinga species. • Methods The sexual systems of 147 species from 34 families and 91 genera occurring in three Caatinga areas in north-eastern Brazil were analysed and compared with worldwide studies focusing on reproductive biology of different tropical communities. • Key Results The frequency of hermaphrodite species was 83·0 % (122 species), seven of these (or 4·8 % of the total) being heterostylous. Monoecy occurred in 9·5 % (14) of the species, and andromonoecy in 4·8 % (seven). Only 2·7 % (four) of the species were dioecious. A high percentage of hermaphrodite species was expected and has been reported for other tropical ecosystems. With respect to the breeding system studies with species of the Caatinga, the authors' data for 21 species and an additional 18 species studied by others (n = 39) revealed a high percentage (61·5 %) of obligatory self-incompatibility. Agamospermy was not recorded among the Caatinga studied species. • Conclusions The plant sexual systems in the Caatinga, despite the semi-arid climate, are similar to other tropical dry and wet forest communities, including those with high rainfall levels, except for the much lower percentage of dioecious species. The high frequency of self-incompatible species is similar to that reported for Savanna areas in Brazil, and also for dry (deciduous and semideciduous) and humid tropical forest communities. PMID:16377654

  5. Plant Glandular Trichomes as Targets for Breeding or Engineering of Resistance to Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Joris J.; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Alba, Juan M.; Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Schuurink, Robert C.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2012-01-01

    Glandular trichomes are specialized hairs found on the surface of about 30% of all vascular plants and are responsible for a significant portion of a plant’s secondary chemistry. Glandular trichomes are an important source of essential oils, i.e., natural fragrances or products that can be used by the pharmaceutical industry, although many of these substances have evolved to provide the plant with protection against herbivores and pathogens. The storage compartment of glandular trichomes usually is located on the tip of the hair and is part of the glandular cell, or cells, which are metabolically active. Trichomes and their exudates can be harvested relatively easily, and this has permitted a detailed study of their metabolites, as well as the genes and proteins responsible for them. This knowledge now assists classical breeding programs, as well as targeted genetic engineering, aimed to optimize trichome density and physiology to facilitate customization of essential oil production or to tune biocide activity to enhance crop protection. We will provide an overview of the metabolic diversity found within plant glandular trichomes, with the emphasis on those of the Solanaceae, and of the tools available to manipulate their activities for enhancing the plant’s resistance to pests. PMID:23235331

  6. Pollinator limitation and the effect of breeding systems on plant reproduction in forest fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, K. Geetha; Davidar, Priya

    2010-03-01

    Reproduction of plants in fragmented habitats may be limited because of lower diversity or abundance of pollinators, and/or variation in local plant density. We assessed natural fruit set and pollinator limitation in ten species of woody plants in natural and restored fragments in the Pondicherry region of southern India, to see whether breeding system of plants (self-compatible and self-incompatible) affected fruit set. We tested whether the number of flowering individuals in the fragments affected the fruit set and further examined the adult and sapling densities of self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) species. We measured the natural level of fruit set and pollinator limitation (calculated as the difference in fruit set between hand cross-pollinated and naturally pollinated flowers). Our results demonstrate that there was a higher level of pollinator limitation and hence lower levels of natural fruit set in self-incompatible species as compared to self-compatible species. However, the hand cross-pollinated flowers in SC and SI species produced similar levels of fruit set, further indicating that lower fruit set was due to pollinator limitation and not due to lack of cross-compatible individuals in the fragments. There was no significant relation between number of flowering individuals and the levels of natural fruit set, except for two species Derris ovalifolia, Ixora pavetta. In these species the natural fruit set decreased with increasing population size, again indicating pollinator limitation. The adult and sapling densities in self-compatible species were significantly higher than in self-incompatible species. These findings indicate that the low reproductive output in self-incompatible species may eventually lead to lower population sizes. Restoration of pollinator services along with plant species in fragmented habitats is important for the long-term conservation of biodiversity.

  7. Blackberry Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant Breeding Reviews has been published since the early 1980s and each edition presents a thorough review of the state of the are on breeding and genetics of specific crop plant. The extensive chapter on blackberry breeding and genetics is organized as follows: INTRODUCTION (Origin and Speciation...

  8. Molecular breeding of tomato lines for mass production of miraculin in a plant factory.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kazuhisa; Yoshida, Riichiro; Kikuzaki, Ayako; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kuroda, Hirofumi; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Takane, Kenichi; Ezura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2010-09-01

    A transgenic tomato line (56B, "Moneymaker") that expresses the miraculin gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was crossed with a dwarf tomato ("Micro-Tom") for the molecular breeding of cultivars that are suitable for miraculin production in a closed cultivation system. Plant size, miraculin accumulation, and self-pruning growth were used as selection indicators for F2 plants. Two lines were chosen for further analysis, bred to the F6 or F7 generation and cultivated in a closed cultivation system. In 56B and the two crossed lines, the concentrations of miraculin in the pericarp were 140, 367, and 343 microg/g FW, respectively. We also estimated that 26.2, 73.6, and 45.9 kg FW/m2 of tomatoes and 2.2, 16.6, and 9.8 mg/m2 of miraculin in the pericarp, respectively, could be harvested per year. These two crossed lines will be useful for the mass production of miraculin, especially in a closed cultivation system. PMID:20695489

  9. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories

    PubMed Central

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems. PMID:27200016

  10. Molecular Breeding to Create Optimized Crops: From Genetic Manipulation to Potential Applications in Plant Factories.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Crop cultivation in controlled environment plant factories offers great potential to stabilize the yield and quality of agricultural products. However, many crops are currently unsuited to these environments, particularly closed cultivation systems, due to space limitations, low light intensity, high implementation costs, and high energy requirements. A major barrier to closed system cultivation is the high running cost, which necessitates the use of high-margin crops for economic viability. High-value crops include those with enhanced nutritional value or containing additional functional components for pharmaceutical production or with the aim of providing health benefits. In addition, it is important to develop cultivars equipped with growth parameters that are suitable for closed cultivation. Small plant size is of particular importance due to the limited cultivation space. Other advantageous traits are short production cycle, the ability to grow under low light, and high nutriculture availability. Cost-effectiveness is improved from the use of cultivars that are specifically optimized for closed system cultivation. This review describes the features of closed cultivation systems and the potential application of molecular breeding to create crops that are optimized for cost-effectiveness and productivity in closed cultivation systems. PMID:27200016

  11. Camelina as a sustainable oilseed crop: contributions of plant breeding and genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Johann; Eynck, Christina

    2015-04-01

    Camelina is an underutilized Brassicaceae oilseed plant with a considerable agronomic potential for biofuel and vegetable oil production in temperate regions. In contrast to most Brassicaceae, camelina is resistant to alternaria black spot and other diseases and pests. Sequencing of the camelina genome revealed an undifferentiated allohexaploid genome with a comparatively large number of genes and low percentage of repetitive DNA. As there is a close relationship between camelina and the genetic model plant Arabidopsis, this review aims at exploring the potential of translating basic Arabidopsis results into a camelina oilseed crop for food and non-food applications. Recently, Arabidopsis genes for drought resistance or increased photosynthesis and overall productivity have successfully been expressed in camelina. In addition, gene constructs affecting lipid metabolism pathways have been engineered into camelina for synthesizing either long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids or high-oleic oils in particular camelina strains, which is of great interest in human food, industrial or biofuel applications, respectively. These results confirm the potential of camelina to serve as a biotechnology platform in biorefinery applications thus justifying further investment in breeding and genetic research for combining agronomic potential, unique oil quality features and biosafety into an agricultural production system. PMID:25706640

  12. Genetic potential of common bean progenies selected for crude fiber content obtained through different breeding methods.

    PubMed

    Júnior, V A P; Melo, P G S; Pereira, H S; Bassinello, P Z; Melo, L C

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal health is of great importance due to the increasing consumption of functional foods, especially those concern-ing diets rich in fiber content. The common bean has been valorized as a nutritious food due to its appreciable fiber content and the fact that it is consumed in many countries. The current study aimed to evaluate and compare the genetic potential of common bean progenies of the carioca group, developed through different breeding methods, for crude fiber content. The progenies originated through hybridization of two advanced strains, CNFC 7812 and CNFC 7829, up to the F7 generation using three breeding methods: bulk-population, bulk within F2 families, and single seed descent. Fifteen F8 progenies were evaluated in each method, as well as two check cultivars and both parents, us-ing a 7 x 7 simple lattice design, with experimental plots comprised of two 4-m long rows. Field trials were conducted in eleven environments encompassing four Brazilian states and three different sowing times during 2009 and 2010. Estimates of genetic parameters indicate differences among the breeding methods, which seem to be related to the different processes for sampling the advanced progenies inherent to each method, given that the trait in question is not subject to natural selection. Variability amongst progenies occurred within the three breeding methods and there was also a significant effect of environment on the progeny for all methods. Progenies developed by bulk-population attained the highest estimates of genetic parameters, had less interaction with the environment, and greater variability. PMID:26125775

  13. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of an Orchid Model Plant Candidate: Erycina pusilla Apply in Tropical Oncidium Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pan, I-Chun; Liao, Der-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Daniell, Henry; Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Chang, Chen; Shih, Ming-Che; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Lin, Choun-Sea

    2012-01-01

    Oncidium is an important ornamental plant but the study of its functional genomics is difficult. Erycina pusilla is a fast-growing Oncidiinae species. Several characteristics including low chromosome number, small genome size, short growth period, and its ability to complete its life cycle in vitro make E. pusilla a good model candidate and parent for hybridization for orchids. Although genetic information remains limited, systematic molecular analysis of its chloroplast genome might provide useful genetic information. By combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and next-generation sequencing (NGS), the chloroplast (cp) genome of E. pusilla was sequenced accurately, efficiently and economically. The cp genome of E. pusilla shares 89 and 84% similarity with Oncidium Gower Ramsey and Phalanopsis aphrodite, respectively. Comparing these 3 cp genomes, 5 regions have been identified as showing diversity. Using PCR analysis of 19 species belonging to the Epidendroideae subfamily, a conserved deletion was found in the rps15-trnN region of the Cymbidieae tribe. Because commercial Oncidium varieties in Taiwan are limited, identification of potential parents using molecular breeding method has become very important. To demonstrate the relationship between taxonomic position and hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, 4 DNA regions of 36 tropically adapted Oncidiinae varieties have been analyzed. The results indicated that trnF-ndhJ and trnH-psbA were suitable for phylogenetic analysis. E. pusilla proved to be phylogenetically closer to Rodriguezia and Tolumnia than Oncidium, despite its similar floral appearance to Oncidium. These results indicate the hybrid compatibility of E. pusilla, its cp genome providing important information for Oncidium breeding. PMID:22496851

  14. Using the choice experiment method in the design of breeding goals in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Ragkos, A; Abas, Z

    2015-02-01

    Market failures are the main cause of poor acknowledgement of the true impact of functional sheep traits on the management and economic performance of farms, which results in their omission from the breeding goal or the estimation of non-representative economic weights in the breeding goal. Consequently, stated-preference non-market valuation techniques, which recently emerged to mitigate these problems, are necessary to estimate economic weights for functional traits. The purpose of this paper is to present an example of the use of a choice experiment (CE) in the estimation of economic weights for sheep traits for the design of breeding goals. Through a questionnaire survey the preferences of sheep farmers are recorded and their marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for 10 production and functional traits is estimated. Data are analysed using random parameter logit models. The results reveal unobserved preference heterogeneity for fertility, adaptability to grazing and resistance to disease, thus highlighting that these traits are appreciated differently by farmers, because their needs are diverse. Positive MWTP is found for Greek breeds, high milk production and lambs with low fat deposition, for which there is high demand in Greek markets. On the other hand, MWTP for the cheese-making ability of milk is negative, stemming from the fact that sheep milk prices in Greece are not formulated according to milk composition. In addition, farmers seem to understand differences between udder shapes and attribute different values to various types. This application of the CE method indicates that communication channels among farmers and breeders should be established in order to enhance market performance and to provide orientation to the design of breeding programmes. Non-market valuation can be used complementarily to market valuation techniques, in order to provide accurate estimates for production and functional traits. PMID:25245334

  15. Comprehensive analysis of the whole transcriptomes from two different pig breeds using RNA-Seq method.

    PubMed

    Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Zukowski, Kacper; Eckert, Robert; Gurgul, Artur; Piórkowska, Katarzyna; Oczkowicz, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing RNA-Seq technology is a powerful tool that creates new possibilities for whole-transcriptome analysis. In our study, the RNA-Seq method was applied to analyze global changes in transcriptome from muscle tissue (m. semimembranosus) in two pig breeds (Pietrain and Polish Landrace, PL). The breeds differ in terms of muscularity, growth rate and reproduction traits. Using three different approaches (deseq, cufflinks and edger) and taking into account the most restrictive criteria, 35 genes differentially expressed between Pietrain and PL pigs were identified. In both breeds, the most abundant were transcripts encoding ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins (TPM3, TCAP, TMOD4, TPM2, TNNC1) and calcium-binding proteins involved in muscle contraction, calcium-mediated signaling or cation transport (CASQ1, MLC2V, SLC25A4, MYL3). In PL pigs, we identified up-regulation of several genes that play crucial roles in reproduction: female gamete generation (BDP1, PTPN21, USP9X), fertilization (EGFR) and embryonic development (CPEB4). In the Pietrain breed, only seven genes were over-expressed (CISH, SPP1, TUBA8, ATP6V1C2, IGKC, predicted LOC100510960 and LOC100626400), and they play important roles in, for example, negative regulation of apoptosis, immune response, cell-cell signaling, cell growth and migration as well as the metabolic process. The functions of the majority of selected genes were consistent with phenotypic variation in investigated breeds; thus, we proposed a new panel of candidate genes that can be associated with economically important pig traits. PMID:24961663

  16. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding. PMID:27069395

  17. Threshold models for genome-enabled prediction of ordinal categorical traits in plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-López, Osval A; Montesinos-López, Abelardo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; de Los Campos, Gustavo; Eskridge, Kent; Crossa, José

    2015-02-01

    Categorical scores for disease susceptibility or resistance often are recorded in plant breeding. The aim of this study was to introduce genomic models for analyzing ordinal characters and to assess the predictive ability of genomic predictions for ordered categorical phenotypes using a threshold model counterpart of the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (i.e., TGBLUP). The threshold model was used to relate a hypothetical underlying scale to the outward categorical response. We present an empirical application where a total of nine models, five without interaction and four with genomic × environment interaction (G×E) and genomic additive × additive × environment interaction (G×G×E), were used. We assessed the proposed models using data consisting of 278 maize lines genotyped with 46,347 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and evaluated for disease resistance [with ordinal scores from 1 (no disease) to 5 (complete infection)] in three environments (Colombia, Zimbabwe, and Mexico). Models with G×E captured a sizeable proportion of the total variability, which indicates the importance of introducing interaction to improve prediction accuracy. Relative to models based on main effects only, the models that included G×E achieved 9-14% gains in prediction accuracy; adding additive × additive interactions did not increase prediction accuracy consistently across locations. PMID:25538102

  18. Threshold Models for Genome-Enabled Prediction of Ordinal Categorical Traits in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Montesinos-López, Osval A.; Montesinos-López, Abelardo; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paulino; de los Campos, Gustavo; Eskridge, Kent; Crossa, José

    2014-01-01

    Categorical scores for disease susceptibility or resistance often are recorded in plant breeding. The aim of this study was to introduce genomic models for analyzing ordinal characters and to assess the predictive ability of genomic predictions for ordered categorical phenotypes using a threshold model counterpart of the Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (i.e., TGBLUP). The threshold model was used to relate a hypothetical underlying scale to the outward categorical response. We present an empirical application where a total of nine models, five without interaction and four with genomic × environment interaction (G×E) and genomic additive × additive × environment interaction (G×G×E), were used. We assessed the proposed models using data consisting of 278 maize lines genotyped with 46,347 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and evaluated for disease resistance [with ordinal scores from 1 (no disease) to 5 (complete infection)] in three environments (Colombia, Zimbabwe, and Mexico). Models with G×E captured a sizeable proportion of the total variability, which indicates the importance of introducing interaction to improve prediction accuracy. Relative to models based on main effects only, the models that included G×E achieved 9–14% gains in prediction accuracy; adding additive × additive interactions did not increase prediction accuracy consistently across locations. PMID:25538102

  19. Patterns in floral traits and plant breeding systems on Southern Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    The harsh climatic conditions and paucity of potential pollinators on Southern Ocean Islands (SOIs; latitude 46°S–55°S) lead to the expectation that anemophily or self-fertilization are the dominant modes of plant sexual reproduction. However, at least some species have showy inflorescences suggesting biotic pollination or dimorphic breeding systems necessitating cross-pollination. This study investigates whether anemophily and self-compatibility are common on SOIs, whether species or genera with these traits are more widespread or frequent at higher latitudes, and whether gender dimorphy is correlated with anemophily, as might occur if reliance on pollinators was a disadvantage. Of the 321 flowering plant species in the SOI region, 34.3 % possessed floral traits consistent with anemophily. Compatibility information was located for 94 potentially self-fertilizing species, of which 92.6 % were recorded as partially or fully self-compatible. Dioecy occurred in 7.1 % of species overall and up to 10.2 % of island floras, but has not clearly arisen in situ. Gynodioecy occurred in 3.4 % of species. The frequency of anemophily and gender dimorphy did not differ between the SOI flora and southern hemisphere temperate reference floras. At the species level, gender dimorphy was positively associated with fleshy fruit, but at the genus level it was associated with occurrence in New Zealand and a reduced regional distribution. Anemophily was more prevalent in genera occurring on subantarctic islands and the proportion of species with floral traits suggestive of biotic pollination was significantly higher on climatically milder, cool temperate islands. These results support the contention that reliance on biotic pollinators has constrained the distribution of species on SOIs; however, it is also clear that the reproductive biology of few SOI species has been studied in situ and many species likely employ a mixed mating strategy combining biotic pollination with self

  20. Genome Wide Association Study of Seedling and Adult Plant Leaf Rust Resistance in Elite Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Liangliang; Turner, M. Kathryn; Chao, Shiaoman; Kolmer, James; Anderson, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf rust is an important disease, threatening wheat production annually. Identification of resistance genes or QTLs for effective field resistance could greatly enhance our ability to breed durably resistant varieties. We applied a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify resistance genes or QTLs in 338 spring wheat breeding lines from public and private sectors that were predominately developed in the Americas. A total of 46 QTLs were identified for field and seedling traits and approximately 20–30 confer field resistance in varying degrees. The 10 QTLs accounting for the most variation in field resistance explained 26–30% of the total variation (depending on traits: percent severity, coefficient of infection or response type). Similarly, the 10 QTLs accounting for most of the variation in seedling resistance to different races explained 24–34% of the variation, after correcting for population structure. Two potentially novel QTLs (QLr.umn-1AL, QLr.umn-4AS) were identified. Identification of novel genes or QTLs and validation of previously identified genes or QTLs for seedling and especially adult plant resistance will enhance understanding of leaf rust resistance and assist breeding for resistant wheat varieties. We also developed computer programs to automate field and seedling rust phenotype data conversions. This is the first GWAS study of leaf rust resistance in elite wheat breeding lines genotyped with high density 90K SNP arrays. PMID:26849364

  1. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and...

  2. Combining partially ranked data in plant breeding and biology: II. Analysis with Rasch model.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many years of breeding experiments, germplasm screening, and molecular biologic experimentation have generated volumes of sequence, genotype, and phenotype information that have been stored in public data repositories. These resources afford genetic and genomic researchers the opportunity to handle ...

  3. Physiological breeding.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  4. A comparison of three methods for assessing raptor diet during the breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, S.B.; Fuller, Mark R.; Titus, K.

    2004-01-01

    Video recording of prey deliveries to nests is a new technique for collecting data on raptor diet, but no thorough comparison of results from traditional methods based on collections of prey remains and pellets has been undertaken. We compared data from these 3 methods to determine relative merits of different methods for assessing raptor diet as part of a study of the breeding-season diet of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in Southeast Alaska. We applied these methods to 5 nests during each of the northern goshawk breeding seasons of 1998 and 1999 and identified 1,540 prey from deliveries, 209 prey from remains, and 209 prey from pellets. The proportions of birds and mammals varied among techniques, as did relative proportions of prey groups and age groups. Prey remains and pellets gave the least-similar diet descriptions. Over 2-day intervals during which data were collected using all 3 methods, prey-delivery data gave more individual prey and prey categories than the 2 other sources of information. We found that prey were not directly tracked in either prey remains or pellets compared with prey delivery videography. Analysis of prey-delivery videography provided the most complete description of diet, and we recommend that studies attempting to describe diet use this technique, at least as part of their methodology.

  5. The Use of Mixture Models to Detect Effects of Major Genes on Quantitative Characters in a Plant Breeding Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Changjian, J.; Xuebiao, P.; Minghong, G.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis based on Elston's model of mixed major locus and polygenic inheritance is extended to include populations of progeny testing such as F(3), B(1s) and B(2s) families derived from F(2) and backcrosses in a cross between two inbred lines. Genetic hypotheses that can be validly tested by the likelihood ratio method in the analysis of a breeding experiment include homogeneity of variances due to environment and/or polygenes with transformable scale effect by Box-Cox power function, random and independent segregation of major genes, invariance of the effects of major genes with population types and additive and dominant models for polygenes. Testing hypotheses in the order suggested here can lead to a gradual simplification of the models and increases the feasibility of the subsequent analysis, but caution must be paid to the possible bias in parameter estimation and hypotheses tests. The procedure is applied to a set of data on plant height of rice with the effects of dwarf genes in crosses among three varieties. Two recessive dwarf genes are shown to be nonallelic and unlinked. One dwarf gene is shown to reduce plant height about 36-56 cm, and another 52-61 cm. The effect of polygenes, estimated as the standard deviation among possible inbred lines derived from these crosses, is about 11.7 cm. Interactions between the dwarf genes and the polygenic background are found, especially for one of the two genes. Both the polygenic effects and the interactions are much smaller than the effects of the major dwarf genes. PMID:8138172

  6. FISH applications for genomics and plant breeding strategies in tomato and other solanaceous crops.

    PubMed

    Szinay, D; Bai, Y; Visser, R; de Jong, H

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the use of advanced fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies for genomics and breeding of tomato and related Solanum species. The first part deals with the major determinants of FISH technology: (1) spatial resolution, which depends on the diffraction limit of the microscope and the type of chromosome, chromatin or isolated DNA fibres as target for the hybridisation; (2) the detection sensitivity, which is limited by the sensitivity and dynamic range of the CCD camera and the quality of the microscope, and the amplification system of the weak signals from tiny probe molecules; (3) simultaneous detection of multiple probes labelled directly or indirectly with up to 5 different fluorophores, whether or not in different combinations and/or mixed at different ratios. The power and usability of such multicolour FISH is indispensable when large numbers of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) or other vectors with genomic DNA are available. Mapping of multiple BACs on chromosomes are powerful instruments confirming their assumed genetic position, whereas pooled BACs for a given chromosome arm will reveal the gaps between the BACs or derived contigs of their physical maps. Tandem and dispersed repeats, which are abundant in the genomes of most species, can be analysed in repeat bar coding FISH, showing the major blocks of repeats in heterochromatin and euchromatin areas. Repeat-rich areas of the chromosomes can also be demonstrated by hybridisation of probed Cot fractions of sheared genomic DNA; a powerful method to elucidate the heterochromatin domains for genomic studies. In addition, unlabelled Cot DNA, as blocking agent in BAC-FISH painting, suppresses repetitive sequences from the BACs to hybridise on the chromosomes. Cross-species BAC-FISH painting with labelled probes from tomato and potato BACs and hybridised on the chromosomes of related species, under appropriate conditions, is a powerful instrument to demonstrate chromosomal

  7. Method to improve drought tolerance in plants

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Kwak, June Myoung

    2003-10-21

    A method to increase drought resistance in plants is provided. The method comprises inhibiting or disabling inward-rectifying K.sup.+ (K.sup.+.sub.in) channels in the stomatal guard cells of the plant.

  8. Plant proteomics methods and protocols.

    PubMed

    Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2014-01-01

    In this first, introductory chapter, it is intended to summarize from a methodological point of view the state of the art in plant proteomics, focusing on mass spectrometry-based strategies. Thus, this chapter is mainly directed at beginners or at those trying to get into the field, rather than at those with real experience or a long trajectory in plant proteomics research. The different alternative workflows, methods, techniques, and protocols from the experimental design to the data analysis will be briefly commented, with cross references to previous monographs and reviews, as well as to the rest of the book chapters. The difficulty of working with proteins, together with the power, limitations, and challenges of the approach will also be briefly discussed.Proteins, as molecular entities, and the cell proteome, as a whole, are much more complex than what we thought in the past and can be studied in a single experiment. Because of that, fractionation and complementary strategies are required for its study. The MS analysis of complex samples may result in up to 100,000-peptide spectra that cannot be easily analyzed with standard procedures. Therefore, proteomics, more than other -omics, needs a dry lab, time, and an effort in data mining.As main conclusion, it can be stated that proteomics is in its beginnings. It is starting to make important contributions to a proper gene annotation, identification, and characterization of gene products or protein species and to the knowledge of living organisms, having also an enormous application potential to translational research. However, and despite its great potential, and as in any other experimental approach, it is far from being a Pandora's Box. In the case of plant research, the full potential of proteomics is quite far from being totally exploited, and second-, third-, and fourth-generation proteomics techniques are still of very limited use. Most of the plant proteomics papers so far published belong to the

  9. Physical methods for genetic plant transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2012-09-01

    Production of transgenic plants is a routine process for many crop species. Transgenes are introduced into plants to confer novel traits such as improved nutritional qualities, tolerance to pollutants, resistance to pathogens and for studies of plant metabolism. Nowadays, it is possible to insert genes from plants evolutionary distant from the host plant, as well as from fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals. Genetic transformation requires penetration of the transgene through the plant cell wall, facilitated by biological or physical methods. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic plant transformation and to describe the basic physics behind them.

  10. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  11. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes. PMID:26085450

  12. A review of the latest concepts in molecular plant pathology and applications to potato breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Co-evolution between pathogens and plants has led to the development of a range of constitutive and inducible resistance mechanisms that help plants survive pathogen attack. Different models have been proposed to describe the plant immune system. The most popular current model indicates that plants ...

  13. A Modified Alveograph Method for Dough Evaluation of Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics, such as resistance-to-extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits evaluated in wheat-based food industries and wheat breeding programs. However, small sample size, rapid testing time, and large sample throughput are necessary in breed...

  14. Genetic, evolutionary and plant breeding insights from the domestication of maize

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Sarah; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of maize began nine thousand years ago when Mexican farmers started to collect the seeds of the wild grass, teosinte. Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance. Genome comparisons between varieties of maize, teosinte and other grasses are beginning to identify the genes responsible for the domestication of modern maize and are also providing ideas for the breeding of more hardy varieties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05861.001 PMID:25807085

  15. Genetic, evolutionary and plant breeding insights from the domestication of maize.

    PubMed

    Hake, Sarah; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of maize began nine thousand years ago when Mexican farmers started to collect the seeds of the wild grass, teosinte. Invaluable as a food source, maize permeated Mexican culture and religion. Its domestication eventually led to its adoption as a model organism, aided in large part by its large chromosomes, ease of pollination and growing agricultural importance. Genome comparisons between varieties of maize, teosinte and other grasses are beginning to identify the genes responsible for the domestication of modern maize and are also providing ideas for the breeding of more hardy varieties. PMID:25807085

  16. [Studies of the relationship between the breeding efficiency of anther culture and the use of different hybrid generations as anther-donor plants in wheat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-She; Li, Jing-Qi; Zou, Shu-Fang; Yan, Wen-Xian; Yang, Jin-Rong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Gang

    2002-10-01

    The wheat haploid plantlets from anther culture were of theoretical and applied interest. Induced haploid spirophytes may play a key role, not only in increasing the efficiency of breeding programs by producing pure lines rapidly, but also in the elucidation of fundamental genetics. However large number of experiments turned out that there are many problems with low rate of green plantlet from anther culture, difficulties of saving plantlets though summer, low rate of double chromosome, extrusive contradiction between technique of wheat anther culture and variety improvement. So wheat anther culture has not played a role in wheat breeding. Studies were carried out on the relationship between the breeding efficiency of anther culture and the use of different hybrid generations as anther-donor plants in wheat. It was shown that previously the low breeding efficiency of anther culture in wheat cross breeding was mainly due to the use of F1 as anther donors. Experimental results demonstrated that the breeding efficiency of anther culture in F1 generation was very low, especially when the doubled haploid population was very small. Based on the experimental results as well as the theoretical analysis this paper proposes that the use of F2 or F3 (especially F3) as anther donors in combination with the conventional selection in the fields will increase the breeding efficiency of anther culture. Under the guidance of this proposal two wheat varieties have been developed within 5-7 years through anther culture. PMID:12561475

  17. Vegetable Seedling Breeding with Biochar Produced from Invasive Plant Biomass in South West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Tian, Yanfang; Liu, Cheng; Cao, Jianhua; Lin, Qimei; Zhao, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) is an invasive plant widely colonized in the southwest part of China, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan. It is estimated that the total biomass of this small shrub in China can be as much as 30 million tones. Many methods have been developed to control its malignant expansion, mostly by using its leaves as feed for livestock. Its stem is difficult to use, although it accounts for more than 90% of its total biomass. A biochar production system, using the stems of Crofton Weed as feedstock, was established at Xi-Yu Biological Science and Technology Company, Pan-Zhi-hua, Sichuan Province, China. The system is composed of feeder, hot-air dryer, pyrolyser, activator, steam producer, and biochar-based fertilizer producer. The energy for producing hot-air to pre-dry the feedstock and steam to activate the carbonized material comes from the re-use of the heat yielded from the pyrolysis process. The whole system is in a high level of automation and energy efficiency. With this system, local farmers can improve their income by collecting stems of Crofton Weed and selling them to the producer. It is a practical way to control this kind of invasive plant by offering economic value for the local people. The biochar can be used to produce new seedling substrate by replacing peat to protect wetland resource. The biochar seedling media was produced in a simple way and the effects on growth of vegetable seedlings was evaluated. Results showed that the response of vegetable seeds to the biochar seedling media was different, meaning more detailed studies need to done to find the reasons for some kinds of seeds failed to germinate in the tested biochar seedling media. This research was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China under the Public Industry Science and Technology Project (201103027).

  18. Analysis of a polymorphism in the DGAT1 gene in 14 cattle breeds through PCR-SSCP methods.

    PubMed

    Ripoli, M V; Corva, P; Giovambattista, G

    2006-06-01

    The diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. Recent work have evidenced a significant association between lysine at amino acid position 232 with elevated milk fat content, while an alanine at this position is associated with lowered milk fat content. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and inexpensive PCR-SSCP assay in order to discriminate the CG/AA alleles in exon 8 of the DGAT1 gene. In addition, this method was used to analyze the polymorphism of the DGAT1 through PCR-SSCP methods in 14 populations of cattle from Argentine, Bolivia and Uruguay. The PCR primers were designed from GenBank reported sequences. In this study, we found three PCR-SSCP variants, which were denominated from "A" to "C". However, DNA sequencing analysis showed that "A" variant corresponded with the A allele, while both "B" and "C" observed pattern have the motif AA at positions 10,433-10,434 (K allele), being two alternative conformations of the same DNA sequence. Both variants were detected within each breed with the exception of Hereford, and the heterozygosity varied between 0.000 and 0.524. The gene frequency analysis evidenced significant differences among the studied breeds (F(ST) = 0.325, p = 0.000). European Bos taurus breeds, with the exception of Jersey breed, showed the lowest frequency of the K allele, while highest K allele frequencies were harboured by Bos indicus type cattle. In addition, unselected South American Creole cattle breeds and the synthetic Brangus breed had intermediate allele frequencies. PMID:16464654

  19. Optimization methods for selecting founder individuals for captive breeding or reintroduction of endangered species.

    PubMed

    Miller, Webb; Wright, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu; Schuster, Stephan C; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2010-01-01

    Methods from genetics and genomics can be employed to help save endangered species. One potential use is to provide a rational strategy for selecting a population of founders for a captive breeding program. The hope is to capture most of the available genetic diversity that remains in the wild population, to provide a safe haven where representatives of the species can be bred, and eventually to release the progeny back into the wild. However, the founders are often selected based on a random-sampling strategy whose validity is based on unrealistic assumptions. Here we outline an approach that starts by using cutting-edge genome sequencing and genotyping technologies to objectively assess the available genetic diversity. We show how combinatorial optimization methods can be applied to these data to guide the selection of the founder population. In particular, we develop a mixed-integer linear programming technique that identifies a set of animals whose genetic profile is as close as possible to specified abundances of alleles (i.e., genetic variants), subject to constraints on the number of founders and their genders and ages. PMID:19908356

  20. Evaluation of the 2b-RAD method for genomic selection in scallop breeding.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Xue; Fu, Qiang; Jiao, Wenqian; Li, Yangping; Li, Tianqi; Wang, Yangfan; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    The recently developed 2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) sequencing method provides a cost-effective and flexible genotyping platform for aquaculture species lacking sufficient genomic resources. Here, we evaluated the performance of this method in the genomic selection (GS) of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) through simulation and real data analyses using six statistical models. Our simulation analysis revealed that the prediction accuracies obtained using the 2b-RAD markers were slightly lower than those obtained using all polymorphic loci in the genome. Furthermore, a small subset of markers obtained from a reduced tag representation (RTR) library presented comparable performance to that obtained using all markers, making RTR be an attractive approach for GS purpose. Six GS models exhibited variable performance in prediction accuracy depending on the scenarios (e.g., heritability, sample size, population structure), but Bayes-alphabet and BLUP-based models generally outperformed other models. Finally, we performed the evaluation using an empirical dataset composed of 349 Yesso scallops that were derived from five families. The prediction accuracy for this empirical dataset could reach 0.4 based on optimal GS models. In summary, the genotyping flexibility and cost-effectiveness make 2b-RAD be an ideal genotyping platform for genomic selection in aquaculture breeding programs. PMID:26754638

  1. Climate change may alter breeding ground distributions of eastern migratory monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via range expansion of Asclepias host plants.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Nathan P

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species' distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  2. Climate Change May Alter Breeding Ground Distributions of Eastern Migratory Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) via Range Expansion of Asclepias Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change can profoundly alter species’ distributions due to changes in temperature, precipitation, or seasonality. Migratory monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) may be particularly susceptible to climate-driven changes in host plant abundance or reduced overwintering habitat. For example, climate change may significantly reduce the availability of overwintering habitat by restricting the amount of area with suitable microclimate conditions. However, potential effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations remain largely unknown, particularly with respect to their milkweed (Asclepias spp.) host plants. Given that monarchs largely depend on the genus Asclepias as larval host plants, the effects of climate change on monarch northward migrations will most likely be mediated by climate change effects on Asclepias. Here, I used MaxEnt species distribution modeling to assess potential changes in Asclepias and monarch distributions under moderate and severe climate change scenarios. First, Asclepias distributions were projected to extend northward throughout much of Canada despite considerable variability in the environmental drivers of each individual species. Second, Asclepias distributions were an important predictor of current monarch distributions, indicating that monarchs may be constrained as much by the availability of Asclepias host plants as environmental variables per se. Accordingly, modeling future distributions of monarchs, and indeed any tightly coupled plant-insect system, should incorporate the effects of climate change on host plant distributions. Finally, MaxEnt predictions of Asclepias and monarch distributions were remarkably consistent among general circulation models. Nearly all models predicted that the current monarch summer breeding range will become slightly less suitable for Asclepias and monarchs in the future. Asclepias, and consequently monarchs, should therefore undergo expanded northern range limits in summer months

  3. Breeding potential of elite Pee Dee germplasm in Upland cotton breeding programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful plant breeding programs begin with parental line selection. Effective parental line selection is facilitated when the breeding potential of candidate parental lines is known. Using topcross families involving germplasm representing eight US public cotton breeding programs, we evaluated th...

  4. Genomic selection & association mapping in rice: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number & statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its ef...

  5. Method for regulation of plant lignin composition

    DOEpatents

    Chapple, Clint

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

  6. QTL mapping of soybean oil content for marker-assisted selection in plant breeding program.

    PubMed

    Leite, D C; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Di Mauro, A O; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to soybean oil content. We used 244 progenies derived from a bi-parental cross of the Lineage 69 (from Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho"/Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Breeding Program) and Tucunaré cultivar. A total of 358 simple sequence repeat (SSR; microsatellite) markers were used to investigate the polymorphism between the parental lines, and for the polymorphic lines all the F2 individuals were tested. Evaluation of the oil content and phenotype was performed with the aid of a Tango equipment by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy, using single F2 seeds and F2:3 progenies, in triplicate. The data were analyzed by QTL Cartographer program for 56 SSR polymorphic markers. Two oil-content related QTLs were detected on K and H linkage groups. The total phenotypic variation explained by QTLs ranged from 7.8 to 46.75% for oil content. New QTLs were identified for the oil content in addition to those previously identified in other studies. The results reported in this study show that regions different from those already known could be involved in the genetic control of soybean oil content. PMID:27050959

  7. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture.

    PubMed

    González-Plaza, Juan J; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species. PMID:26973682

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis Using Olive Varieties and Breeding Progenies Identifies Candidate Genes Involved in Plant Architecture

    PubMed Central

    González-Plaza, Juan J.; Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; García-López, Carmen; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Luque, Francisco; Trelles, Oswaldo; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; De La Rosa, Raúl; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2016-01-01

    Plant architecture is a critical trait in fruit crops that can significantly influence yield, pruning, planting density and harvesting. Little is known about how plant architecture is genetically determined in olive, were most of the existing varieties are traditional with an architecture poorly suited for modern growing and harvesting systems. In the present study, we have carried out microarray analysis of meristematic tissue to compare expression profiles of olive varieties displaying differences in architecture, as well as seedlings from their cross pooled on the basis of their sharing architecture-related phenotypes. The microarray used, previously developed by our group has already been applied to identify candidates genes involved in regulating juvenile to adult transition in the shoot apex of seedlings. Varieties with distinct architecture phenotypes and individuals from segregating progenies displaying opposite architecture features were used to link phenotype to expression. Here, we identify 2252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated to differences in plant architecture. Microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR carried out on genes with functional annotation likely related to plant architecture. Twelve of these genes were further analyzed in individual seedlings of the corresponding pool. We also examined Arabidopsis mutants in putative orthologs of these targeted candidate genes, finding altered architecture for most of them. This supports a functional conservation between species and potential biological relevance of the candidate genes identified. This study is the first to identify genes associated to plant architecture in olive, and the results obtained could be of great help in future programs aimed at selecting phenotypes adapted to modern cultivation practices in this species. PMID:26973682

  10. Compositions and methods for improved plant feedstock

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Hui; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-12-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin content and composition in plants and achieving associated benefits therefrom involving altered expression of newly discovered MYB4 transcription factors. Nucleic acid constructs for modifying MYB4 transcription factor expression are described. By over-expressing the identified MYB4 transcription factors, for example, an accompanying decrease in lignin content may be achieved. Plants are provided by the invention comprising such modifications, as are methods for their preparation and use.

  11. Harvesting the promising fruits of genomics: applying genome sequencing technologies to crop breeding.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Terauchi, Ryohei; McCouch, Susan R

    2014-06-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are being used to generate whole genome sequences for a wide range of crop species. When combined with precise phenotyping methods, these technologies provide a powerful and rapid tool for identifying the genetic basis of agriculturally important traits and for predicting the breeding value of individuals in a plant breeding population. Here we summarize current trends and future prospects for utilizing NGS-based technologies to develop crops with improved trait performance and increase the efficiency of modern plant breeding. It is our hope that the application of NGS technologies to plant breeding will help us to meet the challenge of feeding a growing world population. PMID:24914810

  12. A comparison of two collection methods for estimating abundance and parity of Anopheles albimanus in breeding sites and villages of southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, A; Rodríguez, M H; Rodríguez, A D; Roberts, D R

    1997-09-01

    The abundance and age structure of Anopheles albimanus populations were estimated by UV updraft light traps and human landing catches within villages and in nearby breeding sites of southern México. Four villages and 5 breeding sites were selected for the study. Light trap and human landing catches were simultaneously carried out in each breeding site and each village. Anopheles albimanus was the most abundant malaria vector caught in breeding sites and in villages. Significant differences in overall An. albimanus abundance among villages and among breeding sites were detected only by human landing catches. In both villages and breeding sites, more mosquitoes were captured by 1 human bait (34.3 +/- 6.3 and 14.6 +/- 2.9, respectively) than by one light trap (15.9 +/- 3.3 and 2.4 +/- 0.3 respectively) collection. After pooling, no significant differences were detected in the abundance estimated by each method in breeding sites and villages. A significant correlation of numbers of specimens between methods was detected. Age structure was different between samples from breeding sites and villages, with more gravid females collected in breeding sites, whereas more nulipars were collected in villages. By collection method, age structure was also different both in breeding sites and in villages. In breeding sites, the percentage of parous females was significantly higher in human landing catches, whereas the percentage of gravid females was significantly higher in light traps. In villages, only the percentage of gravid females was significantly higher in light traps. Our results suggests that UV light traps could be used to measure several entomological parameters of An. albimanus populations because both abundance variations and parity rates were similarly detected by both methods. PMID:9383764

  13. RNA Interference (RNAi) Induced Gene Silencing: A Promising Approach of Hi-Tech Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Adnan; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Kim, Chang-Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics that has significant impact on crop improvement which permits down-regulation in gene expression with greater precise manner without affecting the expression of other genes. RNAi mechanism is expedited by small molecules of interfering RNA to suppress a gene of interest effectively. RNAi has also been exploited in plants for resistance against pathogens, insect/pest, nematodes, and virus that cause significant economic losses. Keeping beside the significance in the genome integrity maintenance as well as growth and development, RNAi induced gene syntheses are vital in plant stress management. Modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. This novel approach opens new avenues for crop improvement by developing disease resistant, abiotic or biotic stress tolerant, and high yielding elite varieties. PMID:25332689

  14. Evaluating wild grapevine germplasm with genotyping-by-sequencing methods for conservation, preservation, genetics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS cold hardy grapevine germplasm represents one of the best collections of publically available grapevine material for grape breeding and improvement. The repository holds in excess of 1300 different grapevine genotypes, with roughly a quarter made up of wild grapevine species. Efforts ...

  15. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  16. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  17. A Direct Comparison of Remote Sensing Approaches for High-Throughput Phenotyping in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Chapman, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30–100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5–1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency. PMID:27536304

  18. A Direct Comparison of Remote Sensing Approaches for High-Throughput Phenotyping in Plant Breeding.

    PubMed

    Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P; Chapman, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30-100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5-1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency. PMID:27536304

  19. Evaluation of a Stable Isotope Method to Mark Naturally-Breeding Larval Mosquitoes for Adult Dispersal Studies

    PubMed Central

    HAMER, GABRIEL L.; DONOVAN, DANIELLE J.; HOOD-NOWOTNY, REBECCA; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark–release–recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culexpipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either δ15N or δ13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal. PMID:22308772

  20. Progress toward breeding for Verticillium wilt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  1. Progress Toward Breeding for Verticillium Wilt Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt is a persistent and serious problem in potato production. Host plant resistance offers an attractive long-term control method. Breeding progress depends on access to germplasm carrying resistance genes. This study was carried out to identify sources of Verticillium wilt resistan...

  2. Physiological and cellular aspects of phytotoxicity tolerance in plants: the role of membrane transporters and implications for crop breeding for waterlogging tolerance.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Sergey

    2011-04-01

    Waterlogging affects large areas of agricultural land, resulting in severe economic penalties because of massive losses in crop production. Traditionally, plant breeding for waterlogging tolerance has been based on the field assessment of a range of agronomic and morphological characteristics. This review argues for a need to move towards more physiologically based approaches by targeting specific cellular mechanisms underling key components of waterlogging tolerance in plants. Also, while the main focus of researchers was predominantly on plant anoxia tolerance, less attention was given to plant tolerance to phytotoxins under waterlogged conditions. This paper reviews the production of major elemental and organic phytotoxins in waterlogged soils and describes their adverse effects on plant performance. The critical role of plasma membrane transporters in plant tolerance to secondary metabolite toxicity is highlighted, and ionic mechanisms mediating the this tolerance are discussed. A causal link between the secondary metabolite-induced disturbances to cell ionic homeostasis and programmed cell death is discussed, and a new ethylene-independent pathway for aerenchyma formation is put forward. It is concluded that plant breeding for waterlogging tolerance may significantly benefit from targeting mechanisms of tolerance to phytotoxins. PMID:21563365

  3. Systems of artificial lighting at the Phytotron of Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute (Odessa)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernozubov, Adolf

    1994-01-01

    At the Odessa Phytotron we have installed over 50 climatic chambers and cabinets made by various companies of the United States, Canada, Germany and U.S.S.R. They employ different light sources including Sylvania fluorescent lamps of various types, fluorescent lamps produced in the former Soviet Union with a special luminophore, ordinary tungsten lamps, xenon, mercury, mercury-iodide, sodium, etc. Our objective in lighting is that the intensity distribution over the wave lengths should be maximal in the photosynthetically active part of the spectrum and minimal in the IR part to avoid plant sterilization. Phytotrons are extremely energy consuming entities, and the large part of their energy consumption falls into the lighting category in our electric bills. Therefore, we are in a constant search of the processes to reduce energy. However, the main way to increase effectiveness would be the development of new types of light sources, which would come close to the threshold of 150 to 200 lumens per watt.

  4. A numerical method for power plant simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Carcasci, C.; Facchini, B.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes a highly flexible computerized method of calculating operating data in a power cycle. The computerized method presented here permits the study of steam, gas and combined plants. Its flexibility is not restricted by any defined cycle scheme. A power plant consists of simple elements (turbine, compressor, combustor chamber, pump, etc.). Each power plant component is represented by its typical equations relating to fundamental mechanical and thermodynamic laws, so a power plant system is represented by algebraic equations, which are the typical equations of components, continuity equations, and data concerning plant conditions. This equation system is not linear, but can be reduced to a linear equation system with variable coefficients. The solution is simultaneous for each component and it is determined by an iterative process. An example of a simple gas turbine cycle demonstrates the applied technique. This paper also presents the user interface based on MS-Windows. The input data, the results, and any characteristic parameters of a complex cycle scheme are also shown.

  5. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Marie F.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Kirkwood, Jay S.; Collins, Carl C.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Jahn, Courtney E.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end products of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  6. Non-targeted Metabolomics in Diverse Sorghum Breeding Lines Indicates Primary and Secondary Metabolite Profiles Are Associated with Plant Biomass Accumulation and Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Marie F; Heuberger, Adam L; Kirkwood, Jay S; Collins, Carl C; Wolfrum, Edward J; Broeckling, Corey D; Prenni, Jessica E; Jahn, Courtney E

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging method to improve our understanding of how genetic diversity affects phenotypic variation in plants. Recent studies have demonstrated that genotype has a major influence on biochemical variation in several types of plant tissues, however, the association between metabolic variation and variation in morphological and physiological traits is largely unknown. Sorghum bicolor (L.) is an important food and fuel crop with extensive genetic and phenotypic variation. Sorghum lines have been bred for differing phenotypes beneficial for production of grain (food), stem sugar (food, fuel), and cellulosic biomass (forage, fuel), and these varying phenotypes are the end products of innate metabolic programming which determines how carbon is allocated during plant growth and development. Further, sorghum has been adapted among highly diverse environments. Because of this geographic and phenotypic variation, the sorghum metabolome is expected to be highly divergent; however, metabolite variation in sorghum has not been characterized. Here, we utilize a phenotypically diverse panel of sorghum breeding lines to identify associations between leaf metabolites and morpho-physiological traits. The panel (11 lines) exhibited significant variation for 21 morpho-physiological traits, as well as broader trends in variation by sorghum type (grain vs. biomass types). Variation was also observed for cell wall constituents (glucan, xylan, lignin, ash). Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of leaf tissue showed that 956 of 1181 metabolites varied among the lines (81%, ANOVA, FDR adjusted p < 0.05). Both univariate and multivariate analyses determined relationships between metabolites and morpho-physiological traits, and 384 metabolites correlated with at least one trait (32%, p < 0.05), including many secondary metabolites such as glycosylated flavonoids and chlorogenic acids. The use of metabolomics to explain relationships between two or more morpho

  7. Current methods for detecting ethylene in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Simona M.; Mandon, Julien; Arslanov, Denis; De Pessemier, Jérôme; Hermans, Christian; Harren, Frans J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In view of ethylene's critical developmental and physiological roles the gaseous hormone remains an active research topic for plant biologists. Progress has been made to understand the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and the mechanisms of perception and action. Still numerous questions need to be answered and findings to be validated. Monitoring gas production will very often complete the picture of any ethylene research topic. Therefore the search for suitable ethylene measuring methods for various plant samples either in the field, greenhouses, laboratories or storage facilities is strongly motivated. Scope This review presents an update of the current methods for ethylene monitoring in plants. It focuses on the three most-used methods – gas chromatography detection, electrochemical sensing and optical detection – and compares them in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time response and price. Guidelines are provided for proper selection and application of the described sensor methodologies and some specific applications are illustrated of laser-based detector for monitoring ethylene given off by Arabidopsis thaliana upon various nutritional treatments. Conclusions Each method has its advantages and limitations. The choice for the suitable ethylene sensor needs careful consideration and is driven by the requirements for a specific application. PMID:23243188

  8. Cellulosic Feedstock for Renewable Fuels - Prospective on Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifying plants through breeding is one method of improving efficiency of dedicated feedstock for biofuels. Besides improving yield, distinct cell wall components or concentrations of minerals within the plant may need to be altered. There are two main processes for conversion of biomass feedstoc...

  9. Molecular plant breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Nevertheless, the number of farmers, small as well as large, who are adopting the new seeds and new technology is increasing very rapidly, and the increase in numbers during the past three years has been phenomenal.” – Dr. Norman Borlaug This excerpt from Dr. Norman Borlaug’s Nobel Lecture at the...

  10. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  11. Investigations of methods of determining abundance of breeding mourning doves in certain eastern states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duvall, A.J.; Robbins, C.S.

    1952-01-01

    A call count over a 20 mile route (beginning 1/2 hour before local official sunrise and with 20 stops of 3 minutes duration 1 mile apart) gives a more practical index to the abundance of mourning doves in the breeding season than roadside counts and area population studies tried in 1950. Calling activities showed relatively high peaks and low depressions during April and May of 1951, with a plateau in June; a decline in calling was noted after July 3, and continued until September 11, when activity apparently ceased. Although there seems to be a direct correlation between the total number of doves heard and the total number of calls recorded, available evidence indicates that the breeding index should still be based on the number of doves heard. In general, more doves were heard calling than were seen up to about mid-July, 1951, after which time doves became conspicuous and relatively few were heard; and there was an increase in doves seen from July through September with a noticeable decline in October in cental Maryland. Very little difference was noted between morning and evening roadside counts from the end of July through October, although one route indicated that morning was more favorable. Our data probably are too meager to determine if any significant difference exists. A statistical analysis of calling counts covering the period from May 15-June 26, 1951 indicates that with 3 routes, 12 trips per route must be made in order to reflect a 15 percent change. Calling counts should begin in this area (central Maryland and northeastern Virginia) no later than May 15, and the counts must be completed by the end of the third week in June to conform to the present schedule of formulating hunting regulations.

  12. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions

  13. Facilitated by nature and agriculture: performance of a specialist herbivore improves with host-plant life history evolution, domestication, and breeding.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Flores, Amanda M; DeWitt, Thomas J; Bernal, Julio S

    2013-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores are predicted to change as plant lineages diversify, and with domestication and subsequent selection and breeding in the case of crop plants. We addressed whether defense against a specialist herbivore declined coincidently with life history evolution, domestication, and breeding within the grass genus Zea (Poaceae). For this, we assessed performance of corn leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis) following colonization of one of four Zea species containing three successive transitions: the evolutionary transition from perennial to annual life cycle, the agricultural transition from wild annual grass to primitive crop cultivar, and the agronomic transition from primitive to modern crop cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was measured through seven variables relevant to development speed, survivorship, fecundity, and body size. The plants included in our study were perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), Balsas teosinte (Zea mays parviglumis), a landrace maize (Zea mays mays), and a hybrid maize. Perennial teosinte is a perennial, iteroparous species, and is basal in Zea; Balsas teosinte is an annual species, and the progenitor of maize; the landrace maize is a primitive, genetically diverse cultivar, and is ancestral to the hybrid maize; and, the hybrid maize is a highly inbred, modern cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was poorest on perennial teosinte, intermediate on Balsas teosinte and landrace maize, and best on hybrid maize, consistent with our expectation of declining defense from perennial teosinte to hybrid maize. Overall, our results indicated that corn leafhopper performance increased most with the agronomic transition, followed by the life history transition, and least with the domestication transition. PMID:23868032

  14. Apricot Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...

  15. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding In Rosaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RosBREED will create a national, dynamic, sustained effort in research, infrastructure establishment, training, and extension for applying marker-assisted breeding (MAB) to deliver improved plant materials more efficiently and rapidly. The Rosaceae family (including apple, peach, sweet and tart cher...

  16. Breeding L-arginine-producing strains by a novel mutagenesis method: Atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Guo, Yanfeng; Xu, Kai; Su, Cunsheng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2016-07-01

    A plasma jet, driven by an active helium atom supplied with an atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) biological breeding system, was used as a novel method to breed L-arginine high-yielding strains. A mutant with resistance to L-homoarginine and 8-azaguaine, ARG 3-15 (L-HA(r), 8-AG(r), L-His(-)), was screened after several rounds of screening. The L-arginine production of these mutants was more than that of the original strain, increased by 43.79% for ARG 3-15. Moreover, N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase activity of these mutants was also increased. After a series of passages, the hereditary properties of these mutants were found to be stable. Interestingly, beet molasses was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and benefited to increase the productivity by 5.88%. Moreover, the fermentation with 1.0 g/L betaine could produce 9.33% more L-arginine than without betaine. In fed-batch fermentation, C. glutamicum ARG 3-15 began to produce L-arginine at the initial of logarithmic phase, and continuously increased over 24 hr to a final titer of 45.36 ± 0.42 g/L. The L-arginine productivity was 0.571 g/L/hr and the conversion of glucose (α) was 32.4% after 96 hr. These results indicated that C. glutamicum ARG 3-15 is a promising industrial producer. PMID:26460578

  17. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM) Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Timperio, Anna Maria; Zolla, Lello; Bongiorni, Silvia; Valentini, Alessio; Pariset, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM), formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics. PMID:22253986

  18. THE USDA PECAN BREEDING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper outlines how the USDA Pecan Breeding Program is operated to produce superior new cultivars that are given names of Native American peoples, and released for planting in new pecan orchards. The USDA conducts the largest pecan breeding and genetics program in the world. The program is div...

  19. Tissue-Culture Method of Cloning Rubber Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    Guayule plant, a high-yield rubber plant cloned by tissue-culture method to produce multiple new plants that mature quickly. By adjusting culture medium, excised shoot tip produces up to 50 identical guayule plants. Varying concentration of cytokinin, single excised tip produces either 1 or several (up to 50) new plants.

  20. Evolutionary outcomes should inform plant breeding and transgenic approaches to drought tolerance in crop species: the importance of xylem traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic-assisted breeding and transgenic approaches to crop improvement are presently targeting phenotypic traits that allegedly confer drought tolerance. A news feature published in Nature Biotechnology last year suggests that these efforts may not be proceeding with sufficient haste, considering t...

  1. 77 FR 75947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Continental U.S. Breeding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... the wood stork may be warranted (75 FR 57426). This proposed rule, in accordance with section 4(b)(3... the criteria of a distinct population segment (DPS) under our 1996 DPS policy (61 FR 4722). We propose... population segments (61 FR 4722). We find that the continental U.S. breeding population of wood stork...

  2. Genome wide association study of seedling and adult plant leaf rust resistance in elite spring wheat breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust is an important disease, threatening wheat production annually. Identification of resistance genes or QTLs for effective field resistance could greatly enhance our ability to breed durably resistant varieties. We applied a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify resista...

  3. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Gregg, K.B.

    2004-01-01

    Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life-cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life-states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as OVFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, I.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as OVFOOF000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kery et al. (submitted), we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capture-recapture (CR) models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state-transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kery et aI., submitted) and Cypripedium reginae (Kery & Gregg, submitted) in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a total of 620 marked

  4. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Bent, Andrew F.; Innes, Roger W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

  5. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  6. 1980 breeding bird censuses

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and the surrounding region, the two breeding bird censuses originated in 1977 were continued in 1980. Coverage was below that of previous years due to illness and travel of some participants, but 11 trips were made to the BNL plot and 8 to the Westhampton plot. Each was censused by separate teams of three volunteer observers. The number of breeding species and number of territorial males on the BNL plot have progressively declined since 1977 but little change has taken place in either number of territories or species composition on the Westhampton plot.

  7. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  8. Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a presence-absence variant of a previously uncharacterized gene and development of educational videos to raise the profile of plant breeding and improve curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haro von Mogel, Karl J.

    Carbohydrate metabolism is a biologically, economically, and culturally important process in crop plants. Humans have selected many crop species such as maize (Zea mays L.) in ways that have resulted in changes to carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and understanding the underlying genetics of this pathway is therefore exceedingly important. A previously uncharacterized starch metabolic pathway mutant, sugary enhancer1 (se1), is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) sweet corn that increases the sugar content while maintaining an appealing creamy texture. This allele has been incorporated into many sweet corn varieties since its discovery in the 1970s, however, testing for the presence of this allele has been difficult. A genetic stock was developed that allowed the presence of se1 to be visually scored in segregating ears, which were used to genetically map se1 to the deletion of a single gene model located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 2. An analysis of homology found that this gene is specific to monocots, and the gene is expressed in the endosperm and developing leaf. The se1 allele increased water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) and decreased amylopectin in maize endosperm, but there was no overall effect on starch content in mature leaves due to se1. This discovery will lead to a greater understanding of starch metabolism, and the marker developed will assist in breeding. There is a present need for increased training for plant breeders to meet the growing needs of the human population. To raise the profile of plant breeding among young students, a series of videos called Fields of Study was developed. These feature interviews with plant breeders who talk about what they do as plant breeders and what they enjoy about their chosen profession. To help broaden the education of students in college biology courses, and assist with the training of plant breeders, a second video series, Pollination Methods was developed. Each video focuses on one or two

  9. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  10. A nondestructive method for continuously monitoring plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, plant growth generally has been measured using destructive methods. This paper describes a nondestructive technique for continuously monitoring plant growth. The technique provides a means of directly and accurately measuring plant growth over both short and long time intervals. Application of this technique to the direct measurement of plant growth rates is illustrated using corn (Zea mays L.) as an example.

  11. ADAPTATION OF AACC METHOD 56-11, SOLVENT RETENTION CAPACITY, FOR USE IN WHEAT BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) profile (AACC method 56-11) is useful in studying flour components contributing to end-use functionality. The method uses four solvents and five grams of flour. Due to the amount of grain needed to produce the required 20 g flour for the SRC test alone, this me...

  12. PosMed-plus: An Intelligent Search Engine that Inferentially Integrates Cross-Species Information Resources for Molecular Breeding of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Makita, Yuko; Kobayashi, Norio; Mochizuki, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Yuko; Asano, Satomi; Heida, Naohiko; Deshpande, Mrinalini; Bhatia, Rinki; Matsushima, Akihiro; Ishii, Manabu; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Iida, Kei; Hanada, Kosuke; Kuromori, Takashi; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Molecular breeding of crops is an efficient way to upgrade plant functions useful to mankind. A key step is forward genetics or positional cloning to identify the genes that confer useful functions. In order to accelerate the whole research process, we have developed an integrated database system powered by an intelligent data-retrieval engine termed PosMed-plus (Positional Medline for plant upgrading science), allowing us to prioritize highly promising candidate genes in a given chromosomal interval(s) of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, Oryza sativa. By inferentially integrating cross-species information resources including genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, localizomes, phenomes and literature, the system compares a user’s query, such as phenotypic or functional keywords, with the literature associated with the relevant genes located within the interval. By utilizing orthologous and paralogous correspondences, PosMed-plus efficiently integrates cross-species information to facilitate the ranking of rice candidate genes based on evidence from other model species such as Arabidopsis. PosMed-plus is a plant science version of the PosMed system widely used by mammalian researchers, and provides both a powerful integrative search function and a rich integrative display of the integrated databases. PosMed-plus is the first cross-species integrated database that inferentially prioritizes candidate genes for forward genetics approaches in plant science, and will be expanded for wider use in plant upgrading in many species. PMID:19528193

  13. Methods of saccharification of polysaccharides in plants

    DOEpatents

    Howard, John; Fake, Gina

    2014-04-29

    Saccharification of polysaccharides of plants is provided, where release of fermentable sugars from cellulose is obtained by adding plant tissue composition. Production of glucose is obtained without the need to add additional .beta.-glucosidase. Adding plant tissue composition to a process using a cellulose degrading composition to degrade cellulose results in an increase in the production of fermentable sugars compared to a process in which plant tissue composition is not added. Using plant tissue composition in a process using a cellulose degrading enzyme composition to degrade cellulose results in decrease in the amount of cellulose degrading enzyme composition or exogenously applied cellulase required to produce fermentable sugars.

  14. Methods and prospects for using molecular data in captive breeding programs: an empirical example using parma wallabies (Macropus parma).

    PubMed

    Ivy, Jamie A; Miller, Adrienne; Lacy, Robert C; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Zoo and aquarium breeding programs rely on accurate pedigrees to manage the genetics and demographics of captive populations. Breeding recommendations are often encumbered, however, by unknown parentage. If an individual has any amount of unknown ancestry, the relationships between that individual and all other individuals in a population are ambiguous, and breeding recommendations cannot be tailored to maximize genetic diversity and minimize inbreeding. In those situations, breeding program management might be improved by the incorporation of molecular data. We developed microsatellite markers for the parma wallaby (Macropus parma) and investigated how genetic data might be used to improve the management of the captive population. The parma wallaby is a small marsupial found in fragmented forests near the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Because the species is of conservation concern, the captive population in North America is managed by recurring breeding recommendations. The effectiveness of the population's management is hampered, however, because over half of the individuals have some amount of unknown ancestry. We used microsatellite data to resolve unknown parentage, described how molecular estimates of relatedness might inform future breeding recommendations, and used computer simulations to investigate how molecular estimates of relatedness among founders might contribute to the genetic management of the population. Our results indicated that microsatellite appraisals of parentage were useful with respect to clarifying pedigrees but that molecular assessments of founder relatedness provided very marginal benefits with regard to the preservation of genetic diversity and the avoidance of inbreeding. PMID:19423700

  15. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Methods Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. Results With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Conclusions Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training

  16. Root phenotyping: from component trait in the lab to breeding.

    PubMed

    Kuijken, René C P; van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Marcelis, Leo F M; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2015-09-01

    In the last decade cheaper and faster sequencing methods have resulted in an enormous increase in genomic data. High throughput genotyping, genotyping by sequencing and genomic breeding are becoming a standard in plant breeding. As a result, the collection of phenotypic data is increasingly becoming a limiting factor in plant breeding. Genetic studies on root traits are being hampered by the complexity of these traits and the inaccessibility of the rhizosphere. With an increasing interest in phenotyping, breeders and scientists try to overcome these limitations, resulting in impressive developments in automated phenotyping platforms. Recently, many such platforms have been thoroughly described, yet their efficiency to increase genetic gain often remains undiscussed. This efficiency depends on the heritability of the phenotyped traits as well as the correlation of these traits with agronomically relevant breeding targets. This review provides an overview of the latest developments in root phenotyping and describes the environmental and genetic factors influencing root phenotype and heritability. It also intends to give direction to future phenotyping and breeding strategies for optimizing root system functioning. A quantitative framework to determine the efficiency of phenotyping platforms for genetic gain is described. By increasing heritability, managing effects caused by interactions between genotype and environment and by quantifying the genetic relation between traits phenotyped in platforms and ultimate breeding targets, phenotyping platforms can be utilized to their maximum potential. PMID:26071534

  17. A comparison in Colorado of three methods to monitor breeding amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.; Muths, E.; Iko, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    We surveyed amphibians at 4 montane and 2 plains lentic sites in northern Colorado using 3 techniques: standardized call surveys, automated recording devices (frog-loggers), and intensive surveys included capture-recapture techniques. Amphibians were observed at 5 sites. Species richness varied from 0 to 4 species at each site. Richness course, the sums of species richness among sites, were similar among methods: 8 for call surveys, 10 for frog-loggers, and 11 for intensive surveys (9 if the non-vocal salamander Ambystoma tigrinum is excluded). The frog-logger at 1 site uncovered Spea bombifrons which was not active during the times when call and intensive surveys were conducted. Relative abundance scores from call surveys failed to reflect a relatively large population of Bufo woodhousii at 1 site and only weakly differentiated among different-sized populations of Pseudacris maculata at 3 other sites. For extensive applications, call surveys have the lowest costs and fewest requirements for highly trained personnel. However, for a variety of reason, call surveys cannot be used with equal effectiveness in all parts of North America.

  18. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  19. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  20. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  1. Wood Storks of the Savannah River Plant: Foraging and breeding ecology: Comprehensive cooling water study final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, M.C.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents the results of studies from 1983 through 1985 that deal with the use of the Savannah River Swamp System (SRSS) by Wood Storks. We examine the locations on the SRSS where storks have been observed foraging on the SRSS, and the time of year when birds were seen in the swamp. We compare measurements of habitat characteristics, water quality, vegetation and prey density at foraging sites on the SRSS with similar measurements at other foraging sites in east-central Georgia. Finally, we examine food demand of storks breeding at the Birdsville colony as an indication of the time of year when the birds would be most in need of food.

  2. Hydrocarbons from plants: Analytical methods and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Melvin

    1980-11-01

    We have suggested that certain plants rich in hydrocarbon-like materials might be cultivated for renewable photosynthetic products. Two species were selected for experimental plantations: Euphorbia lathyris, an annual from seed and Euphorbia tirucalli, a perennial from cuttings, The yield from each species is over 10 barrels of oil/acre/year without genetic or agronomic improvement. In addition to plants, there are trees, such as species of Copaifera in Brazil and other tropical areas, which produce a diesel-like oil upon tapping. Each tree produces approximately 40 liters of hydrocarbon per year, and this material can be used directly by a diesel-powered car. Further efforts to develop plants as alternate energy sources are underway, as well as a continuing search for additional plant species throughout the world which have a similar capability.

  3. A simulation-based breeding design that uses whole-genome prediction in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eiji; Matsunaga, Hiroshi; Onogi, Akio; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Minamikawa, Mai; Suzuki, Akinori; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Nunome, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Miyatake, Koji; Ohyama, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Efficient plant breeding methods must be developed in order to increase yields and feed a growing world population, as well as to meet the demands of consumers with diverse preferences who require high-quality foods. We propose a strategy that integrates breeding simulations and phenotype prediction models using genomic information. The validity of this strategy was evaluated by the simultaneous genetic improvement of the yield and flavour of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), as an example. Reliable phenotype prediction models for the simulation were constructed from actual genotype and phenotype data. Our simulation predicted that selection for both yield and flavour would eventually result in morphological changes that would increase the total plant biomass and decrease the light extinction coefficient, an essential requirement for these improvements. This simulation-based genome-assisted approach to breeding will help to optimise plant breeding, not only in the tomato but also in other important agricultural crops. PMID:26787426

  4. Methods for determining the physiological state of a plant

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, David M.; Sacksteder, Colette

    2003-09-23

    The present invention provides methods for measuring a photosynthetic parameter. The methods of the invention include the steps of: (a) illuminating a plant leaf until steady-state photosynthesis is achieved; (b) subjecting the illuminated plant leaf to a period of darkness; (c) using a kinetic spectrophotometer or kinetic spectrophotometer/fluorimeter to collect spectral data from the plant leaf treated in accordance with steps (a) and (b); and (d) determining a photosynthetic parameter from the spectral data. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for determining the physiological state of a plant.

  5. The aquatic fern Azolla as a natural plant-factory for ammonia removal from fish-breeding fresh wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Pietro; Padovani, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    This study has investigated the potential of an Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis, a marriage between the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae and the aquatic fern (Azolla), to remove ammonia from freshwater fish breeding areas. Experiments were carried out under artificial light of 20, 70, and 140 μmol m(-2) s(-1). We investigated three different water temperatures for the growing Azolla, ranging from sub-optimal to optimal temperatures (15, 22, and 28 °C). The capability of Azolla to remove ammonia from wastewater was demonstrated, and the highest ammonia concentration tolerated by the symbiosis between Azolla-anabaena without any toxic effect on the aquatic ferns was ascertained. The shortest time taken to remove ammonia from wastes, 2.5 cm deep and at 28 °C, was 40 min. The ammonia removal rate (A RR) was both light and temperature dependent and the highest rate (6.394 h(-1)) was attained at light intensity of 140 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and at a temperature of 28 °C; the lowest (0.947 h(-1)) was achieved at 20 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and 15 °C. The depth of the fish-wastewater pool also affected the A RR with the relation between A RR and the depth being a hyperbolic function. PMID:26805923

  6. Vacuolar staining methods in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Scheuring, David; Schöller, Maria; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Löfke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Commercially available fluorescent dyes enable the fast and specific visualization of plant vacuoles, allowing for investigation of membrane dynamics and vacuolar biogenesis in living cells. Here, we describe different approaches tinting the tonoplast or the vacuolar lumen with a range of dyes, and illustrate its utilization with established fluorescent-tagged marker lines. PMID:25408446

  7. Measuring Plant Water Status: A Simple Method for Investigative Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Jay E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method suitable for quantitative studies of plant water status conducted by high school or college students and the calculation of the relative water content (RWC) of a plant. Materials, methods, procedures, and results are discussed, with sample data figures provided. (CS)

  8. Method of preparing and handling chopped plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Bransby, David I.

    2002-11-26

    The method improves efficiency of harvesting, storage, transport, and feeding of dry plant material to animals, and is a more efficient method for harvesting, handling and transporting dry plant material for industrial purposes, such as for production of bioenergy, and composite panels.

  9. Wide adaptation of Green Revolution wheat: international roots and the Indian context of a new plant breeding ideal, 1960-1970.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Marci R

    2015-04-01

    Indian wheat cultivation changed radically in the 1960s due to new technologies and policy reforms introduced during the Green Revolution, and farmers' adoption of 'packages' of modern seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation. Just prior to the Green Revolution, Indian scientists adopted a new plant breeding philosophy--that varieties should have as wide an adaptation as possible, meaning high and stable yields across different environments. But scientists also argued that wide adaptation could be achieved by selecting only plants that did well in high fertility and irrigated environments. Scientists claimed that widely adapted varieties still produce high yields in marginal areas. Many people have criticized the Green Revolution for its unequal spread of benefits, but none of these critiques address wide adaptation-the core tenant held by Indian agricultural scientists to justify their focus on highly productive land while ignoring marginal or rainfed agriculture. This paper also describes Norman Borlaug's and the Rockefeller Foundation's research program in wide adaptation, Borlaug's involvement in the Indian wheat program, and internal debates about wide adaptation and selection under ideal conditions among Indian scientists. It argues that scientists leveraged the concept of wide adaptation to justify a particular regime of research focused on high production agriculture. PMID:25655670

  10. An express route to perfection: Ornamental plant breeders have the tools at their disposal to expedite breeding for specific traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants inherit traits the same way Gregor Mendel observed in his famous experiments with peas in the 1800s. Breeders select parents with one or more desirable traits and then look for superior combinations of these traits in their offspring. Seedlings must be rigorously evaluated for the desirable...

  11. Advanced phenotyping offers opportunities for improved breeding of forage and turf species

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Advanced phenotyping, i.e. the application of automated, high-throughput methods to characterize plant architecture and performance, has the potential to accelerate breeding progress but is far from being routinely used in current breeding approaches. In forage and turf improvement programmes, in particular, where breeding populations and cultivars are characterized by high genetic diversity and substantial genotype × environment interactions, precise and efficient phenotyping is essential to meet future challenges imposed by climate change, growing demand and declining resources. Scope This review highlights recent achievements in the establishment of phenotyping tools and platforms. Some of these tools have originally been established in remote sensing, some in precision agriculture, while others are laboratory-based imaging procedures. They quantify plant colour, spectral reflection, chlorophyll-fluorescence, temperature and other properties, from which traits such as biomass, architecture, photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal aperture or stress resistance can be derived. Applications of these methods in the context of forage and turf breeding are discussed. Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future and will thereby contribute to amended performance of managed grassland agroecosystems. PMID:22362662

  12. Method for producing intact plants containing foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.B.; Margossian, L.J.

    1987-04-14

    An in vivo method is described for transforming and regenerating whole dicotyledenous plants comprising: infecting a dicotyledenous plant (P) with Rhizobiaceae bacteria containing virulence functions; a first plasmid containing T-DNA terminal sequences flanking oncogenic factors capable of inducing a shoot-bearing shooty tumor on plant (P), and a second plasmid containing T-DNA terminal sequences flanking heterologous transfer DNA capable of being integrated into nuclear DNA of plant (P) cells wherein the second plasmid does not contain any oncogenic factors; maintaining the infected dicotyledenous plant (P) until shoot-bearing shooty tumor develops on the dicotyledenous plant (P); selecting those shoots, or progeny wherein the progeny are selected from the group consisting of seeds or tubers, that contain transformed cells having heterologous transfer DNA but not any tumorous DNA integrated into their genomes; and utilizing the selected shoots, or progeny to produce whole plants that contain cells having heterologous transfer DNA integrated into their genomes.

  13. Methods and compositions for regulating gene expression in plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beachy, Roger N. (Inventor); Luis, Maria Isabel Ordiz (Inventor); Dai, Shunhong (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Novel chimeric plant promoter sequences are provided, together with plant gene expression cassettes comprising such sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the chimeric plant promoters comprise the BoxII cis element and/or derivatives thereof. In addition, novel transcription factors are provided, together with nucleic acid sequences encoding such transcription factors and plant gene expression cassettes comprising such nucleic acid sequences. In certain preferred embodiments, the novel transcription factors comprise the acidic domain, or fragments thereof, of the RF2a transcription factor. Methods for using the chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors in regulating the expression of at least one gene of interest are provided, together with transgenic plants comprising such chimeric plant promoter sequences and novel transcription factors.

  14. The Effects of Experimental Irrigation on Plant Productivity, Insect Abundance and the Non-Breeding Season Performance of a Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Scott; Marra, Peter P.; Sillett, T. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Migratory bird populations are often limited by food during the non-breeding season. Correlative evidence suggests that food abundance on territories varies among years in relation to rainfall, which affects plant productivity and arthropod biomass. At the Font Hill Nature Preserve in Jamaica, we used an irrigation experiment to test the hypothesis that rainfall affects the condition of wintering American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) via intermediate effects on plant productivity and arthropod abundance. Experimental plots were irrigated in late February and early March to simulate a mid-season pulse of 200 mm of rain. Irrigation maintained soil moisture levels near saturation and had immediate effects on plant productivity. Cumulative leaf abscission over the dry season was 50% lower on experimental plots resulting in greater canopy cover, and we observed significantly higher ground level shoot growth and the flushing of new leaves on about 58% of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum) individuals. Arthropod biomass was 1.5 times higher on irrigated plots, but there was considerable inter-plot variability within a treatment and a strong seasonal decline in biomass. Consequently, we found no significant effect of irrigation on arthropod abundance or redstart condition. We suspect that the lack of an irrigation effect for taxa higher on the trophic chain was due to the small spatial scale of the treatment relative to the scale at which these taxa operate. Although redstart condition was not affected, we did observe turnover from subordinate to dominant territorial individuals on experimental plots suggesting a perceived difference in habitat quality that influenced individual behavior. PMID:23372825

  15. The effects of experimental irrigation on plant productivity, insect abundance and the non-breeding season performance of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Scott; Marra, Peter P; Sillett, T Scott

    2013-01-01

    Migratory bird populations are often limited by food during the non-breeding season. Correlative evidence suggests that food abundance on territories varies among years in relation to rainfall, which affects plant productivity and arthropod biomass. At the Font Hill Nature Preserve in Jamaica, we used an irrigation experiment to test the hypothesis that rainfall affects the condition of wintering American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) via intermediate effects on plant productivity and arthropod abundance. Experimental plots were irrigated in late February and early March to simulate a mid-season pulse of 200 mm of rain. Irrigation maintained soil moisture levels near saturation and had immediate effects on plant productivity. Cumulative leaf abscission over the dry season was 50% lower on experimental plots resulting in greater canopy cover, and we observed significantly higher ground level shoot growth and the flushing of new leaves on about 58% of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum) individuals. Arthropod biomass was 1.5 times higher on irrigated plots, but there was considerable inter-plot variability within a treatment and a strong seasonal decline in biomass. Consequently, we found no significant effect of irrigation on arthropod abundance or redstart condition. We suspect that the lack of an irrigation effect for taxa higher on the trophic chain was due to the small spatial scale of the treatment relative to the scale at which these taxa operate. Although redstart condition was not affected, we did observe turnover from subordinate to dominant territorial individuals on experimental plots suggesting a perceived difference in habitat quality that influenced individual behavior. PMID:23372825

  16. Mutation breeding by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zengliang; Deng, Jianguo; He, Jianjun; Huo, Yuping; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Xuedong; Lui, Guifu

    1991-07-01

    Ion implantation as a new mutagenic method has been used in the rice breeding program since 1986, and for mutation breeding of other crops later. It has been shown, in principle and in practice, that this method has many outstanding advantages: lower damage rate; higher mutation rate and wider mutational spectrum. Many new lines of rice with higher yield rate; broader disease resistance; shorter growing period but higher quality have been bred from ion beam induced mutants. Some of these lines have been utilized for the intersubspecies hybridization. Several new lines of cotton, wheat and other crops are now in breeding. Some biophysical effects of ion implantation for crop seeds have been studied.

  17. Bioinformatic and biometric methods in plant morphology1

    PubMed Central

    Punyasena, Surangi W.; Smith, Selena Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microscopy, imaging, and data analyses have permitted both the greater application of quantitative methods and the collection of large data sets that can be used to investigate plant morphology. This special issue, the first for Applications in Plant Sciences, presents a collection of papers highlighting recent methods in the quantitative study of plant form. These emerging biometric and bioinformatic approaches to plant sciences are critical for better understanding how morphology relates to ecology, physiology, genotype, and evolutionary and phylogenetic history. From microscopic pollen grains and charcoal particles, to macroscopic leaves and whole root systems, the methods presented include automated classification and identification, geometric morphometrics, and skeleton networks, as well as tests of the limits of human assessment. All demonstrate a clear need for these computational and morphometric approaches in order to increase the consistency, objectivity, and throughput of plant morphological studies.

  18. DNA encoding for plant digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Benning, Christoph; Doermann, Peter

    2003-11-04

    The cDNA encoding digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase (DGD1) is provided. The deduced amino acid sequence is also provided. Methods of making and using DGD1 to screen for new herbicides and alter a plant's leaf lipid composition are also provided, as well as expression vectors, transgenic plants or other organisms transfected with said vectors.

  19. Genetic diversity in populations of plants with different breeding and dispersal strategies in a free-flowing boreal river system.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, E; Andersson, E

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the genetic diversity of three plant species: Angelica archangelica (Apiacieae), Bistorta vivipara (Polygonaceae) and Viscaria alpina (Caryophyllaceae) along the free-flowing Vindel River in northern Sweden. The plants differ in reproductive strategy. A archangelica and V. alpina are insect pollinated outbreeders while B. vivipara reproduces with apomixis through bulbils. The seeds of A. archangelica may float for over a year, while the propagules (seeds and bulbils, respectively) of V. alpina and B. vivipara float for less than two days. Genetic diversity was assessed using starch gel electrophoresis. The clonal diversity of B. vivipara measured by Simpson's index (D) ranged between 0.78 and 0.99. Only a few clones were shared between localities. The average percentages polymorphic loci and mean He based on polymorphic loci for V. alpina over all localities were 23.1 and 0.15, respectively. Wright's F-statistics showed a significant overall deficit of heterozygotes. The diversity of A. archangelica was found to increase downstream. Genetic diversity of each species is sufficiently high to be used in studies on hydrochory. Dispersal appears to be related to the floating ability of progagules. PMID:12035618

  20. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil.

    PubMed

    Andraski, B J; Sandstrom, M W; Michel, R L; Radyk, J C; Stonestrom, D A; Johnson, M J; Mayers, C J

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphite-based solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments. PMID:12809299

  1. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Michel, R.L.; Radyk, J.C.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Mayers, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphitebased solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse?? & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments.

  2. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  3. Methods for degrading or converting plant cell wall polysaccharides

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Cherry, Joel

    2008-08-19

    The present invention relates to methods for converting plant cell wall polysaccharides into one or more products, comprising: treating the plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into the one or more products. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying plant cell wall polysaccharides with an effective amount of a spent whole fermentation broth of a recombinant microorganism, wherein the recombinant microorganism expresses one or more heterologous genes encoding enzymes which degrade or convert the plant cell wall polysaccharides into saccharified material; (b) fermenting the saccharified material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  4. Method and apparatus to image biological interactions in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew; Bonito, Gregory M.; Reid, Chantal D.; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2015-12-22

    A method to dynamically image the actual translocation of molecular compounds of interest in a plant root, root system, and rhizosphere without disturbing the root or the soil. The technique makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules of interest and to image their distribution in the plant and/or soil. The method allows for the study and imaging of various biological and biochemical interactions in the rhizosphere of a plant, including, but not limited to, mycorrhizal associations in such regions.

  5. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  6. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  7. Genomic prediction in CIMMYT maize and wheat breeding programs

    PubMed Central

    Crossa, J; Pérez, P; Hickey, J; Burgueño, J; Ornella, L; Cerón-Rojas, J; Zhang, X; Dreisigacker, S; Babu, R; Li, Y; Bonnett, D; Mathews, K

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented in animal and plant species, and is regarded as a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains. Varying levels of genomic prediction accuracy have been obtained in plants, depending on the prediction problem assessed and on several other factors, such as trait heritability, the relationship between the individuals to be predicted and those used to train the models for prediction, number of markers, sample size and genotype × environment interaction (GE). The main objective of this article is to describe the results of genomic prediction in International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's (CIMMYT's) maize and wheat breeding programs, from the initial assessment of the predictive ability of different models using pedigree and marker information to the present, when methods for implementing GS in practical global maize and wheat breeding programs are being studied and investigated. Results show that pedigree (population structure) accounts for a sizeable proportion of the prediction accuracy when a global population is the prediction problem to be assessed. However, when the prediction uses unrelated populations to train the prediction equations, prediction accuracy becomes negligible. When genomic prediction includes modeling GE, an increase in prediction accuracy can be achieved by borrowing information from correlated environments. Several questions on how to incorporate GS into CIMMYT's maize and wheat programs remain unanswered and subject to further investigation, for example, prediction within and between related bi-parental crosses. Further research on the quantification of breeding value components for GS in plant breeding populations is required. PMID:23572121

  8. Genomic prediction in CIMMYT maize and wheat breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Crossa, J; Pérez, P; Hickey, J; Burgueño, J; Ornella, L; Cerón-Rojas, J; Zhang, X; Dreisigacker, S; Babu, R; Li, Y; Bonnett, D; Mathews, K

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) has been implemented in animal and plant species, and is regarded as a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains. Varying levels of genomic prediction accuracy have been obtained in plants, depending on the prediction problem assessed and on several other factors, such as trait heritability, the relationship between the individuals to be predicted and those used to train the models for prediction, number of markers, sample size and genotype × environment interaction (GE). The main objective of this article is to describe the results of genomic prediction in International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center's (CIMMYT's) maize and wheat breeding programs, from the initial assessment of the predictive ability of different models using pedigree and marker information to the present, when methods for implementing GS in practical global maize and wheat breeding programs are being studied and investigated. Results show that pedigree (population structure) accounts for a sizeable proportion of the prediction accuracy when a global population is the prediction problem to be assessed. However, when the prediction uses unrelated populations to train the prediction equations, prediction accuracy becomes negligible. When genomic prediction includes modeling GE, an increase in prediction accuracy can be achieved by borrowing information from correlated environments. Several questions on how to incorporate GS into CIMMYT's maize and wheat programs remain unanswered and subject to further investigation, for example, prediction within and between related bi-parental crosses. Further research on the quantification of breeding value components for GS in plant breeding populations is required. PMID:23572121

  9. A calculation method of plant similarity giving consideration to different plant features.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei-long; Wu, Shui-sheng; Max, Nelson; Wu, Fu-li; Xu, Li-feng

    2015-12-21

    A method to compute the similarity between different plants is proposed, using features of a plant׳s topological structure and peripheral contour, as well as its geometry. The topological structures are described using tree graphs, and their similarity can be calculated based on the edit distance of these graphs. The peripheral contour of a plant is abstracted by its three-dimensional convex hull, which is projected in several directions. The similarity of the different projections is calculated by an algorithm to compute the similarity of two-dimensional shapes. The similarity of the geometrical detail is computed by considering the geometrical properties of different level branches. Finally the overall similarity between different plants is calculated by combining these different similarity measures. The validity of proposed method is evaluated by detailed experiments. PMID:26408336

  10. Variation block-based genomics method for crop plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast with wild species, cultivated crop genomes consist of reshuffled recombination blocks, which occurred by crossing and selection processes. Accordingly, recombination block-based genomics analysis can be an effective approach for the screening of target loci for agricultural traits. Results We propose the variation block method, which is a three-step process for recombination block detection and comparison. The first step is to detect variations by comparing the short-read DNA sequences of the cultivar to the reference genome of the target crop. Next, sequence blocks with variation patterns are examined and defined. The boundaries between the variation-containing sequence blocks are regarded as recombination sites. All the assumed recombination sites in the cultivar set are used to split the genomes, and the resulting sequence regions are termed variation blocks. Finally, the genomes are compared using the variation blocks. The variation block method identified recurring recombination blocks accurately and successfully represented block-level diversities in the publicly available genomes of 31 soybean and 23 rice accessions. The practicality of this approach was demonstrated by the identification of a putative locus determining soybean hilum color. Conclusions We suggest that the variation block method is an efficient genomics method for the recombination block-level comparison of crop genomes. We expect that this method will facilitate the development of crop genomics by bringing genomics technologies to the field of crop breeding. PMID:24929792

  11. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  12. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  13. [Methods for construction of transgenic plant expression vector: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangpu; Yang, Shushen

    2015-03-01

    Construction of recombinant plasmid vector for gene expression is a key step in making transgenic plants and important to study gene function and plant genetic engineering. A right choice of gene construction method can be cost-effective and achieve more diverse recombinant plasmids. In addition to the traditional methods in construction of plant gene expression vectors, such as Gateway technology, three DNA method and one step cloning, a few novel methods have been developed in recent years. These methods include oligonucleotide synthesis-based construction of small fragment gene expression vectors via competitive connection; construction of small RNA expression vector using pre-microRNA; recombination-fusion PCR method which inserts DNA fragments of multiple restriction sites into the target vector; and insertion of a DNA fragment into any region of a linear vector via In-Fusion Kit. Construction of complex vectors with many fragments uses sequence and ligation-independent cloning method, Gibson isothermal assembly or Golden Gate assembly. This paper summarizes our working experience in the area of recombinant vector construction and reports from others with an intention to disseminate ideas about currently widely used DNA recombination methods for plant transformation. PMID:26204753

  14. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  15. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  16. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  17. Irrigation scheduling: advantages and pitfalls of plant-based methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hamlyn G

    2004-11-01

    This paper reviews the various methods available for irrigation scheduling, contrasting traditional water-balance and soil moisture-based approaches with those based on sensing of the plant response to water deficits. The main plant-based methods for irrigation scheduling, including those based on direct or indirect measurement of plant water status and those based on plant physiological responses to drought, are outlined and evaluated. Specific plant-based methods include the use of dendrometry, fruit gauges, and other tissue water content sensors, while measurements of growth, sap flow, and stomatal conductance are also outlined. Recent advances, especially in the use of infrared thermometry and thermography for the study of stomatal conductance changes, are highlighted. The relative suitabilities of different approaches for specific crop and climatic situations are discussed, with the aim of indicating the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches, and highlighting their suitability over different spatial and temporal scales. The potential of soil- and plant-based systems for automated irrigation control using various scheduling techniques is also discussed. PMID:15286143

  18. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  19. Genomic Tools in Cowpea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boukar, Ousmane; Fatokun, Christian A.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds, and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids, and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS)-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS), promises an increase in the number of improved

  20. Comparison of methods for extracting thylakoid membranes of Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Yuan, Shu; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible methods for extracting thylakoid membranes are required for the analysis of photosynthetic processes in higher plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we compare three methods for thylakoid extraction using two different buffers. Method I involves homogenizing the plant material with a metal/glass blender; method II involves manually grinding the plant material in ice-cold grinding buffer with a mortar and method III entails snap-freezing followed by manual grinding with a mortar, after which the frozen powder is thawed in isolation buffer. Thylakoid membrane samples extracted using each method were analyzed with respect to protein and chlorophyll content, yields relative to starting material, oxygen-evolving activity, protein complex content and phosphorylation. We also examined how the use of fresh and frozen thylakoid material affected the extracts' contents of protein complexes. The use of different extraction buffers did not significantly alter the protein content of the extracts in any case. Method I yielded thylakoid membranes with the highest purity and oxygen-evolving activity. Method III used low amounts of starting material and was capable of capturing rapid phosphorylation changes in the sample at the cost of higher levels of contamination. Method II yielded thylakoid membrane extracts with properties intermediate between those obtained with the other two methods. Finally, frozen and freshly isolated thylakoid membranes performed identically in blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments conducted in order to separate multimeric protein supracomplexes. PMID:26337850

  1. Geochemical field method for determination of nickel in plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichen, L.E.

    1951-01-01

    The use of biogeochemical data in prospecting for nickel emphasizes the need for a simple, moderately accurate field method for the determination of nickel in plants. In order to follow leads provided by plants of unusual nickel content without loss of time, the plants should be analyzed and the results given to the field geologist promptly. The method reported in this paper was developed to meet this need. Speed is acquired by elimination of the customary drying and controlled ashing; the fresh vegetation is ashed in an open dish over a gasoline stove. The ash is put into solution with hydrochloric acid and the solution buffered. A chromograph is used to make a confined spot with an aliquot of the ash solution on dimethylglyoxime reagent paper. As little as 0.025% nickel in plant ash can be determined. With a simple modification, 0.003% can be detected. Data are given comparing the results obtained by an accepted laboratory procedure. Results by the field method are within 30% of the laboratory values. The field method for nickel in plants meets the requirements of biogeochemical prospecting with respect to accuracy, simplicity, speed, and ease of performance in the field. With experience, an analyst can make 30 determinations in an 8-hour work day in the field.

  2. Use of Genetic Markers to Assess Pedigrees of Grape Cultivars and Breeding Program Selections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a plant breeding program, an accurate understanding of pedigrees provides useful guidance for future hybridizations. However, plant breeders' records occasionally contain errors which may mislead future breeding efforts, and there is considerable value in independently testing reported pedigrees...

  3. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  4. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  5. Interrelationships of breed type, USDA quality grade, cooking method, and degree of doneness on consumer evaluations of beef in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    McKenna, D R; Lorenzen, C L; Pollok, K D; Morgan, W W; Mies, W L; Harris, J J; Murphy, R; McAdams, M; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on top loin steaks from different USDA quality grades (Low Choice, High Select or Low Select) and breed-types (English, Continental European Cross or Brahman Cross). In addition, cities within the same region were evaluated for differences in consumer controlled factors and palatability responses. The in-home product test was conducted in Dallas and San Antonio, Texas, USA. Consumers (n=173) evaluated steaks for overall like (OSAT), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), and flavor (FLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Respondents in Dallas cooked their steaks to higher degrees of doneness than did those in San Antonio. Outdoor grilling was the most frequently used method of cookery for steaks in both cities. Generally, consumers in San Antonio gave higher palatability ratings to Choice steaks and Dallas consumers gave higher ratings to Select steaks. The interactions of city×cooking method, breed-type×cooking method, and degree of doneness×cooking method were significant for all palatability attributes. In addition, the interaction of cooking method×quality grade was significant for TEND, JUIC, and FLAV. Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force was determined on a steak from each strip loin. Steaks from Continental European Cross cattle and Low Choice carcasses had the lowest WBS values. Differences in consumer preparation of beef top loin steaks present very unique challenges for the beef industry. Consumer information programs may serve a valuable role in connecting consumer perceptions with the preparation techniques needed to consistently achieve satisfaction. PMID:22064143

  6. Mass recovery methods for trichloroethylene in plant tissue.

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Werth, C. J.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illionis

    2009-06-01

    Monitoring expenses form a significant fraction of the costs associated with remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater sites. A novel monitoring method that could result in significant cost savings is the use of plants as monitoring devices; previous work indicates that plant tissue samples, especially trunk (core) and branch samples, can be used to delineate soil and groundwater plumes at phytoremediation sites. An important factor in reducing the uncertainty associated with this sampling method is development of a technique to analyze, both consistently and accurately, the chemicals stored in plant tissue samples. The present research presents a simple, robust, and inexpensive technique to recover most of the contaminant in plant branch tissue, irrespective of the age or species of the plant. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was the chemical analyzed. A number of headspace and solvent extraction techniques in the literature were evaluated, including headspace extraction at different incubation times and temperatures and solvent extraction using hexane or hot methanol. Extraction using hot methanol was relatively fast, simple, and reliable; this method recovered more than 89% of the TCE present in branches of five different tree species.

  7. Monitoring of air pollution by plants methods and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Steubing, L.; Jager, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ecosystem pollution is often discovered too late for preventive measure to be implemented. Papers include the topics of methods and problems of bioindication of air pollution. The participants discussed passive and active biological monitoring, including mapping of natural vegetation (lichens and mosses, for example) and plant exposure. Morphological and microscopical studies, chemical, physiological and biochemical investigations are presented.

  8. Method of optimizing performance of Rankine cycle power plants

    DOEpatents

    Pope, William L.; Pines, Howard S.; Doyle, Padraic A.; Silvester, Lenard F.

    1982-01-01

    A method for efficiently operating a Rankine cycle power plant (10) to maximize fuel utilization efficiency or energy conversion efficiency or minimize costs by selecting a turbine (22) fluid inlet state which is substantially in the area adjacent and including the transposed critical temperature line (46).

  9. Breeding and biotechnology for improving berry nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Jessica; Battino, Maurizio; Costantini, Elisa; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to increase the content of specific bioactive components of plants, but the manipulation of plant metabolism is still not easy to address. There is an increasing awareness that multiple genetic and environmental factors affect production and accumulation of bioactive compounds, but these factors are rarely taken into account when fruit is marketed. Rigorous and unprejudiced evaluation of scientific evidence requires a defined set of criteria and methods of evaluation, particularly when breeding and biotech programs are aimed of producing new varieties with improved nutritional values combined with high plant production efficiency and fruit quality. In order to develop new genotypes and commercial cultivars the availability of new sources of Quality Attributes (QA) and Nutritional Attributes (NA) should be explored. In the strawberry, wild species such as F. virginiana glauca and F. vesca are good sources of bioactive compounds, but in raspberries the introduction of the wild germplasm (R. parvifolium) did not improve the nutritional quality of fruit. The methods available for detecting fruit TAC, combined with TPH and other quality parameters such as sugars, total acidity and fruit color, can be proposed as excellent tools for developing a fast and reliable program for screening large breeding populations for high nutritional quality genotypes. Furthermore, NA can represent a useful tool to facilitate analysis of "substantial equivalence" of transgenic and control derived fruit. PMID:16498208

  10. Start-up method for coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Farnia, K.; Petit, P.J.

    1983-04-05

    A method is disclosed for initiating operation of a coal gasification plant which includes a gasification reactor and gas cleansing apparatus fabricated in part from materials susceptible to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking the presence of oxygen. The reactor is preheated by combusting a stoichiometric mixture of air and fuel to produce an exhaust gas which is then diluted with steam to produce product gas which contains essentially no free oxygen. The product gas heats the reactor to a temperature profile necessary to maintain autothermic operation of the gasification process while maintaining air oxygen-free environment within the plant apparatus while chlorine is liberated from coal being gasified.

  11. Demographic estimation methods for plants with unobservable life-states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Gregg, K.B.; Schaub, M.

    2005-01-01

    Demographic estimation of vital parameters in plants with an unobservable dormant state is complicated, because time of death is not known. Conventional methods assume that death occurs at a particular time after a plant has last been seen aboveground but the consequences of assuming a particular duration of dormancy have never been tested. Capture-recapture methods do not make assumptions about time of death; however, problems with parameter estimability have not yet been resolved. To date, a critical comparative assessment of these methods is lacking. We analysed data from a 10 year study of Cleistes bifaria, a terrestrial orchid with frequent dormancy, and compared demographic estimates obtained by five varieties of the conventional methods, and two capture-recapture methods. All conventional methods produced spurious unity survival estimates for some years or for some states, and estimates of demographic rates sensitive to the time of death assumption. In contrast, capture-recapture methods are more parsimonious in terms of assumptions, are based on well founded theory and did not produce spurious estimates. In Cleistes, dormant episodes lasted for 1-4 years (mean 1.4, SD 0.74). The capture-recapture models estimated ramet survival rate at 0.86 (SE~ 0.01), ranging from 0.77-0.94 (SEs # 0.1) in anyone year. The average fraction dormant was estimated at 30% (SE 1.5), ranging 16 -47% (SEs # 5.1) in anyone year. Multistate capture-recapture models showed that survival rates were positively related to precipitation in the current year, but transition rates were more strongly related to precipitation in the previous than in the current year, with more ramets going dormant following dry years. Not all capture-recapture models of interest have estimable parameters; for instance, without excavating plants in years when they do not appear aboveground, it is not possible to obtain independent timespecific survival estimates for dormant plants. We introduce rigorous

  12. Nondestructive methods for early detection of damage to living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateyeva, Natalya L.; Matvienko, Gennadii G.; Shul'gina, Lidia A.

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the accomplish experiments determine, that by a method of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll it is possible to spot for cedar an early stage of the stressful factor, bound with presence in ground <>. In our case the laboratory researches provided learning a quantitative contents chlorophyll for plants found in normal and stressful conditions on a basis spectrophotometrical of a method. Natural measurement the observations behind dynamics of a photosynthetic state means of wood plants in vivo enable. For an estimation of this state the fluorescence of chlorophyll on wavelength 685 and 740 nm was used. The optical model of a green leaf was developed for methods of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll. A experiments series on remote research of processes violation of mineral power supply and exchange in plants is carried spent. Was considered the change of the ratios of intensity of a fluorescence of chlorophyll and carotenoids at deficiency. Was designed technique for detection infringement processes of mineral nutrition and change surveyed acidity grounds on laser-induce fluorescent responses of deciduous plants.

  13. Application of optical controlling methods for plants under external influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Taskina, L. A.

    2012-10-01

    The experimental study results of spectral characteristic change of different types of plants influenced by external factors (synthetic superficially active substances, salts of heavy metals and nitrate fertilizers) are presented. Differential optical factor was used as the monitored optical parameter that characterizes the chlorophyll concentration change. The differential backscatter method which has high test-sensitivity and provides with the most complete information on the plant condition was the main optical monitoring method. For understanding the mechanisms of external factor accumulation and influence on plants the confocal fluorescent microscopy method providing contrast micrographs of high resolution was used for microscopic analysis in the study. It was revealed that synthetic superficially active substances and heavy metal presence lead to quasilinear decrease of differential backscatter factor with time. It was shown that the presence of salts of heavy metals in a water solution leads to chlorophyll "binding" which is microscopically shown as their «adhesion» near the cell membranes. On the contrary, the presence of synthetic superficially active substances maintains the uniformity of chlorophyll distribution in a cell, but its concentration falls with increasing the concentration in a major emission. The latter depends on the fact that synthetic superficially active substances solubilize the cell membrane proteins, increasing its penetrability. It causes pigment release ("washing away") from a plant, thereby leading to differential optical factor change. It was shown that nitrate fertilizer presence leads to increase of differential backscatter factor with time which is microscopically connected to increase in chlorophyll concentration.

  14. Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Li, Hong-Bo; Xu, Jia-Yi; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Qiying

    2015-08-01

    We compared four methods to extract arsenic (As) from three different plants containing different As levels for As speciation with the goal of developing a more efficient method, i.e., As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata at 459-7714mgkg(-1), rice seedling at 53.4-574mgkg(-1), and tobacco leaf at 0.32-0.35mgkg(-1). The four methods included heating with dilute HNO3, and sonication with phosphate buffered solution, methanol/water, and ethanol/water, with As being analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Among the four methods, the ethanol/water method produced the most satisfactory extraction efficiency (~80% for the roots and >85% for the fronds) without changing As species based on P. vittata. The lower extraction efficiency from P. vittata roots was attributed to its dominance by arsenate (82%) while arsenite dominated in the fronds (89%). The ethanol/water method used sample:solution ratio of 1:200 (0.05g:10mL) with 50% ethanol and 2h sonication. Based on different extraction times (0.5-2h), ethanol concentrations (25-100%) and sample:solution ratios (1:50-1:300), the optimized ethanol/water method used less ethanol (25%) and time (0.5h for the fronds and 2h for the roots). Satisfactory extraction was also obtained for tobacco leaf (78-92%) and rice seedlings (~70%) using the optimized method, which was better than the other three methods. Based on satisfactory extraction efficiency with little change in As species during extraction from three plants containing different As levels, the optimized method has the potential to be used for As speciation in other plants. PMID:25863504

  15. Plasma cortisol and white blood cell responses in different breeds of bulls: a comparison of two methods of castration.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Larsen, R E; Randel, R D; Hammond, A C; Adams, E L

    1995-04-01

    To determine plasma cortisol and white blood cell response to castration, Angus (n = 12, 21.4 mo of age), Hereford (n = 6, 21.2 mo of age), and Brahman (n = 24, 20.3 mo of age) bulls nearing maturity were either left intact as uncastrated controls (CON), surgically castrated (SUR) after lidocaine, or castrated by latex rubber banding (BAN). Before and through 35 d after castration (castration = d 0), animals were weighed and blood samples were collected for analysis of cortisol and total white blood cell (WBC) count at 2-, 3-, or 7-d intervals. There was a treatment x breed interaction for ADG from d 0 to 7 (P < .05). From d 0 to 14, 0 to 21, 0 to 28, and 0 to 35, ADG tended to be lower for SUR and BAN animals than for CON animals (castrated vs CON, P < or = .13). No significant differences in ADG were observed between SUR and BAN animals during these times. On d 0, from just before treatment to just after treatment, plasma cortisol concentration increased 3.2 ng/mL for SUR and .1 ng/mL for BAN (SEM = +/- .5 ng/mL; SUR vs BAN, P < .03). From d 0 pretreatment to d 2 after treatment, plasma cortisol concentration increased 1.5 ng/mL for castrated (SUR = 2.0 and BAN = 1.1 ng/mL) and decreased 1.6 ng/mL for CON (SEM = +/- .7 ng/mL; P < .04). Plasma cortisol concentration was negatively correlated (P < .001) with BW (r = -.17) and BW change (r = -.19).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628975

  16. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in 'omics' sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  17. Sugars in peach fruit: a breeding perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cirilli, Marco; Bassi, Daniele; Ciacciulli, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has been characterized by a decrease in peach (Prunus persica) fruit consumption in many countries, foremost due to unsatisfactory quality. The sugar content is one of the most important quality traits perceived by consumers, and the development of novel peach cultivars with sugar-enhanced content is a primary objective of breeding programs to revert the market inertia. Nevertheless, the progress reachable through classical phenotypic selection is limited by the narrow genetic bases of peach breeding material and by the complex quantitative nature of the trait, which is deeply affected by environmental conditions and agronomical management. The development of molecular markers applicable in MAS or MAB has become an essential strategy to boost the selection efficiency. Despite the enormous advances in ‘omics’ sciences, providing powerful tools for plant genotyping, the identification of the genetic bases of sugar-related traits is hindered by the lack of adequate phenotyping methods that are able to address strong within-plant variability. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways and physiological mechanisms regulating sugar accumulation in peach fruit, the main advances in phenotyping approaches and genetic background, and finally addressing new research priorities and prospective for breeders. PMID:26816618

  18. Development of a pathology toolbox for genetic and breeding for resistance to rice sheath blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate evaluation of the host response of rice plants to sheath blight disease, Rhizoctonia solani, is important for genetic studies and breeding for improved resistance. In the present study, a method to evaluate the response of a recombinant inbred mapping population, consisting of 574 F10 indiv...

  19. Refining cotton-wick method for 15N plant labelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    The symbiosis Fabaceae/Rhizobiaceae plays a critical role in the nitrogen cycle. It gives the plant the ability to fix high amounts of atmospheric N. A part of this N can be transferred to the soil via rhizodeposition. The contribution of Fabaceae to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, since it is necessary for assessing N benefits for other crops, for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution in sustainable agriculture (Fustec, 2009). The aim of this study was to test and improve the reliability of the 15N cotton-wick method for measuring the soil N derived from plant rhizodeposition (Mahieu et al., 2007). The effects of the concentration of the 15N-urea labelling solution and of the feeding frequency (continuous or pulses) on the assessment of nitrogen rhizodeposition were studied in two greenhouse experiments using the field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and the non-nodulating isoline P2. The plant parts and the soil were prepared for 15N:14N measurements for assessing N rhizodeposition (Mahieu et al., 2009). The fraction of plants' belowground nitrogen allocated to rhizodeposition in both Frisson pea and P2 was 20 to more than 50% higher when plants were labelled continuously than when they were labelled using fortnightly pulses. Our results suggested that when 15N root enrichment was high, nitrogen rhizodeposition was underestimated only for plants that were 15N-fed by fortnightly pulses, and not in plants 15N-fed continuously. This phenomenon was especially observed for plants relying on symbiotic N fixation for N acquisition; it may be linked to the concentration of the labelling solution. In conclusion, N rhizodeposition assessment was strongly influenced by the 15N-feeding frequency and the concentration of the labelling solution. The estimation of N rhizodeposition was more reliable when plants were labelled continuously with a dilute solution of 15N urea. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu

  20. Underwater Photosynthesis of Submerged Plants – Recent Advances and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy D.; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    We describe the general background and the recent advances in research on underwater photosynthesis of leaf segments, whole communities, and plant dominated aquatic ecosystems and present contemporary methods tailor made to quantify photosynthesis and carbon fixation under water. The majority of studies of aquatic photosynthesis have been carried out with detached leaves or thalli and this selectiveness influences the perception of the regulation of aquatic photosynthesis. We thus recommend assessing the influence of inorganic carbon and temperature on natural aquatic communities of variable density in addition to studying detached leaves in the scenarios of rising CO2 and temperature. Moreover, a growing number of researchers are interested in tolerance of terrestrial plants during flooding as torrential rains sometimes result in overland floods that inundate terrestrial plants. We propose to undertake studies to elucidate the importance of leaf acclimation of terrestrial plants to facilitate gas exchange and light utilization under water as these acclimations influence underwater photosynthesis as well as internal aeration of plant tissues during submergence. PMID:23734154

  1. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books...

  2. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  3. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  4. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  5. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  6. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  7. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  8. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  9. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  10. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...