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1

Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant construction-effects monitoring report, March 1979February 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) initiated construction of the Yellow Creek Nuclear Plant on February 13, 1978, following the issuance of the NPDES permit by the Environmental Protection Agency. TVA developed a Construction Erosion and Sediment Control Plan and an Aquatic Construction Effects Monitoring Study Plan as required in Part III, Sections F and G, respectively, of the National Pollutant

W. J. Pardue; W. G. Harland

1980-01-01

2

Shallow reinforcement effect of plant roots on construction stability of shallow tunnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow roots of plant have reinforcement function. It can improve shear strength of soil mainly by increasing cohesion of root and soil composite. Considering shallow reinforcement influence of plant roots, it can be concluded based on 3D numerical simulation and comparative study that shallow reinforcement effect of plant roots on construction stability of shallow tunnel in weak rock mass mainly

Jinsong Tang; Baolin Xiong

2011-01-01

3

Plant Light Box Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These instructions describe how to construct a plant light box from two stackable plastic file crates that are cut, lined with aluminum foil and lit with a 40/42-watt CFL bulb. This 3-page document includes a complete materials list and 12-step assembly instructions with photographs that illustrate each step. This light box works well for growing Fast Plants.

Program, The W.

4

Power Plant Construction: Productivity and Construction Period.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Power plant capital costs become quite excessive with poor construction labor productivity. Building a power plant often creates a boom town or rapid-population-growth area. Rapid-growth conditions cause housing and service shortages, lowering the quality...

S. C. Schulte

1977-01-01

5

Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands are a natural alternative to technical methods of wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of the complex processes caused by the plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater, and how they all interact with each other, is still rather incomplete.In this article, a closer look will be taken at the mechanisms of both plants in constructed wetlands

U. Stottmeister; A. Wießner; P. Kuschk; U. Kappelmeyer; M. Kästner; O. Bederski; R. A. Müller; H. Moormann

2003-01-01

6

Toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater and effects on constructed wetland plants.  

PubMed

The toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater produced after an activated sludge secondary treatment on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium pratense, a species used as indicator in toxicity tests, was evaluated. Growth was inhibited by wastewater concentrations >25% and undiluted effluent caused a complete germination inhibition. Constructed wetlands (CWs) with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia fruticosa were envisaged to further polish this wastewater. Selection of plant species to use in CWs for industrial wastewater treatment is an important issue, since for a successful establishment they have to tolerate the often harsh wastewater composition. For that, the effects of this wastewater on the growth of Arundo and Sarcocornia were assessed in pot assays. Plants were subject to different wastewater contents (0/50/100%), and both were resilient to the imposed conditions. Arundo had higher growth rates and biomass than Sarcocornia and may therefore be the preferred species for use in CWs treating tannery wastewater. CWs planted with the above mentioned plants significantly decreased the toxicity of the wastewater, as effluent from the CWs outlet stimulated the growth of Trifolium at concentrations <50%, and seed germination and growth even occurred in undiluted effluent. PMID:22908635

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Silva, Gabriela; Quitério, Paula V B; Crispim, Luís F C; Brix, Hans; Moura, Sandra C; Castro, Paula M L

2012-08-01

7

EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

8

Power Plant Construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

1985-01-01

9

Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: effect of plant species.  

PubMed

Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N2O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N2O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N2O m(-2) d(-1). The highest N2O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N2O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N2O formation. PMID:17655987

Wang, Yanhua; Inamori, Ryuhei; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei; Kondo, Takashi; Zhang, Jixiang

2007-07-25

10

Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The response of nitrification potentials, denitrification potentials, and N removal efficiency to the introduction of earthworms and wetland plants in a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Addition of earthworms increased nitrification and denitrification potentials of substrate in non-vegetated constructed wetland by 236% and 8%, respectively; it increased nitrification and denitrification potentials in rhizosphere in vegetated constructed wetland (Phragmites austrail, Typha augustifolia and Canna indica), 105% and 5%, 187% and 12%, and 268% and 15% respectively. Denitrification potentials in rhizosphere of three wetland plants were not significantly different, but nitrification potentials in rhizosphere followed the order of C. indica>T. augustifolia>P. australis when addition of earthworms into constructed wetland. Addition of earthworms to the vegetated constructed significantly increased the total number of bacteria and fungi of substrates (P<0.05). The total number of bacteria was significantly correlated with nitrification potentials (r=913, P<0.01) and denitrification potentials (r=840, P<0.01), respectively. The N concentration of stems and leaves of C. indica were significantly higher in the constructed wetland with earthworms (P<0.05). Earthworms had greater impact on nitrification potentials than denitrification potentials. The removal efficiency of N was improved via stimulated nitrification potentials by earthworms and higher N uptake by wetland plants. PMID:23591133

Xu, Defu; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong

2013-04-13

11

Effects of plant biomass on nitrate removal and transformation of carbon sources in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Denitrification is strongly dependent on carbon quantity and quality in most constructed wetlands (CWs). In this study, four batch CWs were designed, and were fed with nitrate-dominated water to investigate nitrate removal affected by plant and external cattail litter with or without alkali pretreatment. The results showed that the unit with plant and alkali-pretreated litter was more efficient in the initial stage whereas unit with plant and unpretreated litter was superior to other units in the middle and terminal stages. Plant accounted for less than 37% of the nitrate removal in biomass-up added CWs. The different nitrate removal rates were found to be greatly affected by the composition of the plant biomass as well as the quantity and quality of the available organic matters. It was also observed that plant biomass degradation over the period of this study resulted in various N species and concentrations in effluent. PMID:20478703

Wen, Yue; Chen, Yi; Zheng, Nan; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi

2010-05-15

12

Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

Not Available

1986-01-01

13

Modularization Technology in Power Plant Construction  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980's, Hitachi has been developing and applying modularization technology to domestic nuclear power plant construction, and has achieved great rationalization. Modularization is one of the plant construction techniques which enables us to reduce site labor by pre-assembling components like equipment, pipes, valves and platforms in congested areas and installing them using large capacity cranes for cost reduction, better quality, safety improvement and shortening of construction time. In this paper, Hitachi's modularization technologies are described especially from with respect to their sophisticated design capabilities. The application of 3D-CAD at the detailed layout design stage, concurrent design environment achieved by the computer network, module design quantity control and the management system are described. (authors)

Kenji Akagi; Kouichi Murayama; Miki Yoshida; Junichi Kawahata [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan)

2002-07-01

14

47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32.2003 Section...Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account...may be charged directly to the appropriate plant accounts the cost of any...

2012-10-01

15

47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32.2003 Section...Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account...may be charged directly to the appropriate plant accounts the cost of any...

2011-10-01

16

Construction poses highest power plant fire threat  

SciTech Connect

Power plants are more vulnerable to fire during the construction period than at any other time. Data gathered from fires at plant construction sites show that 65% result from cutting and welding activities and that the Control of combustible materials and work processes is the key factor. Contractors need to cooperate on cleanup and to upgrade the quality of temporary buildings on the site. Among the steps which could reduce fire risks are the early installation of water for fire hydrants and automatic sprinklers, testing of tarpaulins for flame retardency, the use of metal or fire retardant scaffolding and forms, approved temporary heating equipment, flushing turbine oil systems before startup, and the use of non-flammable water pipe tubing. Seven safety rules are outlined for welding and cutting procedures. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-03-01

17

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

18

Fast Construction of Plant Architectural Models Based on Substructure Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant structure, representing the physical link among different organs, includes many similar substructures. In this paper, a new method is presented to construct plant architectural models of most plant species. The plant structure is decomposed into a stem, a set of lateral substructures and a terminal substructure, which is called substructure decomposition; then based on substructure decomposition, the plant structures

Hongping Yan; Philippe De Reffye; Chunhong Pan; Bao-gang Hu

2003-01-01

19

Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

1977-12-14

20

7. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING FORM WORK ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION, SHOWING FORM WORK ON INLET (NOTE OLD PLANT AND BLACK STANDPIPE IN BACKGROUND), April 2, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

21

Construction Labor Assessment for Coal Gasification Plant Murphy Hill, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northe...

1980-01-01

22

Power plant construction is over: What do I do now  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, a massive power plant construction program was undertaken in the United States. During the second decade of this construction program, the cost and schedule of many power plants exceeded initial estimates by orders of magnitude. The prudence of utility management came under heavy fire from regulatory bodies, urged on by consumer advocates, pro-environment groups, and

T. B. Thamm; M. Strandell

1990-01-01

23

Modular design and construction techniques for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularization has been proposed as a nuclear power plant design-fabrication approach for increasing the quality and reducing the costs of future plants. The work reported describes a methodology for making the modular design and construction process more systematic and efficient. This methodology is applied to both the design and fabrication processes for power plant modules. The design process is enhanced

Christopher W. Lapp; Michael W. Golay

1997-01-01

24

Construction of marker-free transplastomic plants.  

PubMed

Because of its prokaryotic-type gene expression machinery, maternal inheritance and the opportunity to express proteins at a high level, the plastid genome (plastome or ptDNA) is an increasingly popular target for engineering. The ptDNA is present as up to 10,000 copies per cell, making selection for marker genes essential to obtain plants with uniformly transformed ptDNA. However, the marker gene is no longer desirable when homoplastomic plants are obtained. Marker-free transplastomic plants can now be obtained with four recently developed protocols: homology-based excision via directly repeated sequences, excision by phage site-specific recombinanses, transient cointegration of the marker gene, and the cotransformation-segregation approach. Marker excision technology will benefit applications in agriculture and in molecular farming. PMID:17339108

Lutz, Kerry A; Maliga, Pal

2007-03-06

25

6. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING EAST. (THIS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING EAST. (THIS MAY BE THE FOUNDATION FOR THE NEW STANDPIPE.) March 13, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

26

Construction Costs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: 1973-1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the costs associated with the construction of publicly owned wastewater treatment facilities. These costs are all derived from the actual winning bid documents for treatment plants eligible to receive monies from the Constructin Grant...

1980-01-01

27

Materials Availability for Fusion Power Plant Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power pla...

J. N. Hartley L. E. Erickson R. L. Engel T. J. Foley

1976-01-01

28

Constructing and Planting Fast Plants in a Deli-containter Growing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrated instructions for constructing and planting in the Fast Plants deli-container growing system. This is a stable growing system that is easy to construct for all age learners, and works well for growing Wisconsin Fast Plants. Made from recycled deli-containers, these growing systems can be cleaned and reused for multiple years.

Program, The W.

29

ITER Construction-Plant System Integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

2009-02-01

30

Constructing three-dimensional plant stems model from images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling the three-dimensional (3-D) shape of plant stems is important in the study of plant growth in precision agriculture. To construct a 3-D model of real plant stems from images quickly, a novel volumetric method based on line-based models is proposed. Line-based models are constructed on the coarse 3-D skeleton of the plant stems, then carved with respect to silhouette consistency. The surface points on the plant stems are calculated from line-based models. Finally, a mesh surface model can be extracted from the surface points. The proposed method can give precise results together with low time complexity and space complexity. Experiments based on both synthetic and real data are presented to evaluate the speed and preciseness of the proposed method.

Xia, Dan; Yang, Fei; Xu, Shengyong; Li, Dehua; Li, Qingguang

2012-02-01

31

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20...HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you...

2013-04-01

32

Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3\\/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam

B. Han; J. Kim; Y. Kim; S. Kim; M. Lee; J. Choi; S. Ahn; I. E. Makarov; A. V. Ponomarev

2004-01-01

33

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—I. Removal of oxygen demand, suspended solids and faecal coliforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of BOD, SS and faecal coliforms (FC) from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

34

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—II. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20 month period. Hydraulic

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

35

Cogeneration plant to be constructed using CFBC technology  

SciTech Connect

A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will be used in a cogeneration plant to be constructed in western Pennsylvania by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., of Allentown, Pennsylvania. The plant will burn bituminous waste coal in two CFB boilers. A 30-year supply of fuel for the plant will be obtained from a 30-million-ton waste coal pile adjacent to the site and from another smaller pile in the area. Ash resulting from the combustion process will be returned to the acidic waste coal piles to aid in their reclamation, Air Products said.

Not Available

1990-04-12

36

Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process ...

B. Han J. K. Kim Y. Kim S. M. Kim M. J. Lee

2005-01-01

37

17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of spillway gates. Needle valves at lower left are for bypass. Photographer unknown, March 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

38

Construction plant and equipment management research: thematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A literature review is presented in the subject of construction plant and equipment management (CPeM) to: delineate the subject; consider its development over recent years; and identify principal themes within it. The paper aims to close the gap in knowledge, by using these objectives as a mechanism to observe how research themes relate to primary CPeM functions, and

David J. Edwards; Gary D. Holt

2009-01-01

39

Construction labor assessment for coal gasification plant Murphy Hill, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northern Alabama near Murphy Hill. The project is estimated to require nearly 7000 workers at peak employment in 1985. It is projected that construction will start in early 1981 and be completed in 1988. Nearly 66 percent of all construction craft worker requirements are expected to occur during a 36-month period from 1984 to 1986, and about 25 percent are projected to occur during the 1985 calendar year alone. This construction labor market assessment report is directed toward establishing and analyzing data on construction labor requirements, and labor availability for the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding Murphy Hill, Alabama. The purpose of this report is to examine potential skilled labor shortages and some alternatives for alleviating those shortages, but not to address the array of socioeconomic implications of reducing shortages by training, by attracting workers who move permanently to the job site, or by attracting workers who live temporarily near the site and return home periodically. Parameters and assessments of the Murphy Hill construction labor market have been developed for: the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding the site; the major skilled construction trades involved; the time phase of construction labor demand; and projected craft-specific labor shortfalls. These objectives have been developed within the engineering bounds of the TVA's labor planning memo.

Not Available

1980-11-01

40

75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural...1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a...revised specifications will include new construction units for...

2010-09-29

41

Signalling Network Construction for Modelling Plant Defence Response  

PubMed Central

Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for modelling other biological systems, given that an adequate vocabulary is provided.

Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjasa; Mozetic, Igor; Podpecan, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavrac, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

2012-01-01

42

Universal vectors for constructing artificial microRNAs in plants.  

PubMed

Universal amiRNA vectors (pUAs) for constructing plant amiRNAs in Arabidopsis and rice have been developed. By using type IIg restriction enzyme, BaeI, a single amiRNA construct can be produced using only one PCR and one ligation reaction. Thus, only one pair of primers is required for each amiRNA vector and these can be designed to be compatible with existing or newly developed methods. Because the BaeI recognition sequence is completely digested, there is no modification to the miRNA backbone, therefore avoids the risk of sequence changes that may affect downstream analysis. Based on these vectors, specific amiRNA constructs were created and verified. With optimized parameters, 38-45% colonies for each amiRNA construct contain insertions with the expected orientation, and approximately 80% of these colonies have the correct sequences. PMID:23568377

Zhou, Jie; Yu, Feibo; Chen, Bin; Wang, Xuming; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Ye; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2013-04-09

43

[Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].  

PubMed

Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers. PMID:23745437

He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

2013-03-01

44

Effects of dissolved oxygen on extracellular enzymes activities and transformation of carbon sources from plant biomass: implications for denitrification in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations have often been shown to be important to decomposition rates of plant litter and thus may be a key factor in determining the supply of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbon-dependent denitrification in wetlands. During the 2 months operation, DOC accumulation in anaerobic condition was superior to aerobic condition due to higher activities of hydrolase enzymes and lower hydrolysates converted to gaseous C. Also, much higher denitrification rates were observed in wetland when using anaerobic litter leachate as the carbon source, and the available carbon source (ACS) could be used as a good predictor of denitrification rate in wetland. According to the results of this study, extracellular enzymes activities (EEAs) in wetland would change as a short-term consequence of DO. This may alter balance of litter carbon flux and the characteristics of DOC, which may, in turn, have multiple effects on denitrification in wetlands. PMID:21106370

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Cheng, Jing; Xue, ChongHua; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi

2010-10-30

45

Managing construction risks of AP1000 nuclear power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large and complex construction projects face risk from various sources and the successful completion of such projects depends\\u000a on effective risk management. This study investigates the risk faced by Chinese firms participating in constructing AP1000\\u000a nuclear power plants in China. AP1000 nuclear reactors are new, Generation III+ reactors designed by Westinghouse and to be\\u000a built first in China. The semi-structured

Shufeng Wang; M. I. M. Wahab; Liping Fang

2011-01-01

46

Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

2004-10-06

47

45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

48

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE AMMONIUM NITRATE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST 24, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

49

46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN MILL ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

50

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

51

44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

52

[Water treatment efficiency of constructed wetland plant-bed/ditch systems].  

PubMed

Shijiuyang constructed wetland (SJY-CW) in Jiaxing City adopted plant-bed/ditch systems originated from the natural landscape as its major functioning unit. The constructed root channel technology (CRCT) is the core technique applied within the plant-bed/ditch systems. Monitoring results demonstrated that the wetland had the capability of improving water quality indexes by one rank grade according to the national environmental quality standards for surface water (GB 3838-2002). In order to optimize the water quality improvement function of plant-bed/ditch systems and CRCT, a pilot project in SJY-CW was constructed from May to October, 2010. The project contained 16 independent experimental cells. Orthogonal test design was applied to probe into the effects of constructed root channel layers, plant species combination, and reinforced physical substrates on promoting the water quality amelioration efficiency of the plant-bed/ditch systems. Comprehensively considering water treatment effects, construction difficulty, and construction and maintenance cost, the recommended optimal ways are as follows. Plant straws were preferably paved under subsurface zones by two layers with a gap of 20-30 cm. The preferable plant combination was reed (Phragmites australis) plus wild rice (Zizania caduciflora). Calcite might be applied as alternative reinforced media in some suitable sites of plant-bed/ditch systems. Water treatment effects were compared between pilot project and the whole wetland area of SJY-CW. The results showed that the reinforced pilot project exhibited higher treatment efficiency for nutrients than SJY-CW itself. The removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were increased by about 20% - 40% in the pilot project. This suggested that SJY-CW could release its vast water treatment potential by means of increasing water flux through the subsurface root channel zones of plant beds. Therefore, some adjustment and control measures could be proposed to maintain the tradeoff balance between the potential release and maximization of wetland treatment efficiency and the treated water amount, such as constructing or modifying the hydraulic structures to regulate flow amount through large ditch, redistributing water flow and increasing the water head difference between the two sides of alternate small ditches. PMID:23323409

Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Zhang, Rong-Bin; Chen, Qing-Hua; Wei, Hong-Bin; Wang, Wei-Dong

2012-11-01

53

Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant  

SciTech Connect

Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities. We achieved a construction period of 37 months from the first concrete work to fuel loading (F/L) (51.5 months from the inspection of the foundation (I/F) to the start of commercial operation (C/O)) at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs No. 6 and 7 (KK-6/7), which are the first ABWR plants in the world. At TEPCO's next plant, we think that a construction period of less than 36 months (45 months from I/F to C/O) can be realized based on conventional methods such as early start of equipment installation and blocking of equipment to be brought in advance. Furthermore, we are studying the feasibility of a 21.5-month construction period (30 months from I/F to C/O) with advanced ideas and methods. The important concepts for a 21.5-month construction period are adoption of a new building structure that is the steel plate reinforced concrete (SC) structure and promotion of extensive modularization of equipment and building structure. With introducing these new concepts, we are planning the master schedule (M/S) and finding solutions to conflicts in the schedule of area release from building construction work to equipment installation work (schedule-conflicts.) In this report, we present the shortest construction period and an effective method to put it into practice for the conventional general arrangement (GA) of ABWR. In the future, we will continue the study on the improvement of building configuration and arrangements, and make clear of the concept for large composite modules of building structures and equipment. (authors)

Hiroshi Ijichi; Toshio Yamashita; Masahiro Tsutagawa; Hiroya Mori [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Nobuaki Ooshima; Jun Miura [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan); Minoru Kanechika [Kajima Corporation (Japan); Nobuaki Miura [Shimizu Corporation (Japan)

2002-07-01

54

Temperature, Plants, and Oxygen: How Does Season Affect Constructed Wetland Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature and plant-mediated oxygen transfer continues to draw attention from researchers, practitioners and regulators interested in the use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Because the vast majority of research on constructed wetland performance has been conducted during periods of active plant growth, the true influence of temperature, season, and plant species selection on constructed wetlands performance

OTTO R. STEIN; PAUL B. HOOK

2005-01-01

55

Introduction of sense constructs of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (CYP73A24) in transgenic tomato plants shows opposite effects on flux into stem lignin and fruit flavonoids.  

PubMed

Understanding regulation of phenolic metabolism underpins attempts to engineer plants for diverse properties such as increased levels of antioxidant flavonoids for dietary improvements or reduction of lignin for improvements to fibre resources for industrial use. Previous attempts to alter phenolic metabolism at the level of the second enzyme of the pathway, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase have employed antisense expression of heterologous sequences in tobacco. The present study describes the consequences of homologous sense expression of tomato CYP73A24 on the lignin content of stems and the flavonoid content of fruits. An extensive number of lines were produced and displayed four developmental variants besides a normal phenotype. These aberrant phenotypes were classified as dwarf plants, plants with distorted (curly) leaves, plants with long internodes and plants with thickened waxy leaves. Nevertheless, some of the lines showed the desired increase in the level of rutin and naringenin in fruit in a normal phenotype background. However this could not be correlated directly to increased levels of PAL and C4H expression as other lines showed less accumulation, although all lines tested showed increases in leaf chlorogenic acid which is typical of Solanaceous plants when engineered in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Almost all transgenic lines analysed showed a considerable reduction in stem lignin and in the lines that were specifically examined, this was correlated with partial sense suppression of C4H. Although not the primary purpose of the study, these reductions in lignin were amongst the greatest seen in plants modified for lignin by manipulation of structural genes. The lignin showed higher syringyl to coniferyl monomeric content contrary to that previously seen in tobacco engineered for downregulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. These outcomes are consistent with placing CYP73A24 more in the lignin pathway and having a role in flux control, while more complex regulatory processes are likely to be involved in flavonoid and chlorogenic acid accumulation. PMID:17509629

Millar, David J; Long, Marianne; Donovan, Georgina; Fraser, Paul D; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Danoun, Saida; Bramley, Peter M; Bolwell, G Paul

2007-05-16

56

Introduction of sense constructs of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (CYP73A24) in transgenic tomato plants shows opposite effects on flux into stem lignin and fruit flavonoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding regulation of phenolic metabolism underpins attempts to engineer plants for diverse properties such as increased levels of antioxidant flavonoids for dietary improvements or reduction of lignin for improvements to fibre resources for industrial use. Previous attempts to alter phenolic metabolism at the level of the second enzyme of the pathway, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase have employed antisense expression of heterologous sequences

David J. Millar; Marianne Long; Georgina Donovan; Paul D. Fraser; Alain-Michel Boudet; Saida Danoun; Peter M. Bramley; G. Paul Bolwell

2007-01-01

57

Effects on Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of experiments with plants on the effects of low-dose and low-dose rates of low LET radiation are reported. Experiments were conducted on the effects of x and gamma radiation on the production of yellow-green sectors in maize leaves, growth inhibi...

H. H. Smith

1977-01-01

58

Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

NONE

1995-05-05

59

COST-EFFECTIVE UPGRADING OF A SMALL POTW WITH CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS USING A COOPERATIVE FUNDING AND CONSTRUCTION APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed Wetlands can cost-effectively improve the water quality of the effluent of domestic wastewater treatment plants to a point that ensures compliance with discharge limits and facilitates reuse of the effluent. This paper describes a project that will demonstrate that effectiveness on a cost and treatment basis. The target effluent parameters are ammonia and total phosphorus in the summer months

F. Douglas Mooney; John H. Rodgers; Robert J. Peterson

60

Seasonal changes of plant biomass at a constructed wetland in a livestock watershed area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring was conducted to evaluate the seasonal changes in plant biomass in a free water surface constructed wetland (CW) located in Nonsan City, South Korea. Korea has temperate climate so plant growth is in the summer and senescence during the winter. Plant biomass measurements were taken during the plant life cycle from May to October 2009. Two dominant plant species,

Joan B. Gorme; Marla C. Maniquiz; Soyoung Lee; Lee-Hyung Kim

2012-01-01

61

IMPACT OF PLANT DENSITY AND MICROBIAL COMPOSITION ON WATER QUALITY FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aims: To determine the effects of plant density and microbial community composition associated with wetland plants from different wetland pond on water quality of a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Methods & Results: Water chemistry was monitored weekly for nitrate, orthophosphate and s...

62

Fossil fuel power plant constructibility research: needs and priorities. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investment costs for new power plants have increased dramatically in recent years. One means of lowering plant investment costs would be to reduce construction costs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is exploring the feasibility of conducting a 5-year program to research methods for improving fossil-fueled power plant constructibility. To help identify areas in the life cycle of a power

M. Yesensky; J. E. Freeman

1984-01-01

63

Coal log pipeline pilot plant construction and tests: An update  

SciTech Connect

Coal log pipeline (CLP) is an emerging technology for coal transportation that has many potential values including: (a) it transports twice the amount of coal transported by a coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter; (b) it uses only one-third to one-fourth the water used by a coal slurry pipeline for transporting the same amount of coal; (c) it does not require expensive slurry pumps; (d) dewatering of slurry at the pipeline outlet is much simpler for CLP than slurry pipelines; (e) there is no restart problem; (f) it is adaptable to drag reduction by using polymers and hence is energy efficient; (g) it eliminates air and land polluting problems caused by coal transportation by truck or train; (h) it completely eliminates spontaneous combustion during coal transportation and storage at power plants; (i) it eliminates highway congestion and accidents caused by coal trucks, and eliminates accidents and traffic jam at rail crossings caused by coal trains; (j) it is more economical to use CLP than to use truck and trains to transport coal in many circumstances. Since 1991, extensive research in CLP has been conducted at Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC), University of Missouri-Columbia. The research has been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy, Missouri Department of Economic Development, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and an industry consortium of two dozen companies. The R and D resulted in rapid advancement of the CLP technology. After a pilot plant testing of a complete CLP system, the CLP technology will be ready for commercial use. The pilot plant consists of: (a) A coal log machine that can mass produce 5.4-inch diameter coal logs; (b) A 6-inch-diameter steel pipe 3,000 ft long, equipped with a special pumping system that allows coal logs to bypass the pump unhindered (Being a closed loop, the pipeline can recirculate coal logs through the system indefinitely, for testing coal log abrasion resistance over any distance.); (c) A coal log injection system that can inject long trains (each consisting of 100 logs) into the pipe for testing; (d) A coal log ejection system that can eject the coal logs from the pipe after testing; and (e) An automatic control system for the pipeline, consisting of sensors and computers (PLCs and a SCADA). At the time of writing this abstract (November, 1998), the pilot plant is more than half completed the coal log machine has been built and the pipeline is under construction. The entire system will be completed in Spring 1999, followed by various tests. This paper, to be submitted in June 1999, will contain details on the CLP pilot plant construction and the results of preliminary tests. The test results will cover coal log manufacturing (compaction), coal log abrasion tests in the 6-inch pipe, and test of drag reduction in the 6-inch pipe.

Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Lin, Y.; Burkett, B.

1999-07-01

64

Plant and Invertebrate Community Changes Caused by Flood-Pulsing in a Constructed Riparian Wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002, Kent State University constructed a research facility that includes ten independently flooded wetland basins (10 m X 20 m) along a second order creek. We tested the effects of flood-pulsing on the wetland biota by allowing 5 basins (flood-pulse wetlands) to fluctuate with creek water levels to simulate floodplain marshes, and maintaining 5 basins (static wetlands) at constant water levels. We sampled emergent plants and aquatic invertebrates in 2003 and 2004. Abiotic conditions were different between treatments. We collected 83 plant species, and flood pulsing had strong effects on plant communities. Mean species richness and plant cover were higher in static wetlands, and Sorensen's similarity indices between habitat types decreased over time. Plant biomass increased in all wetlands from 2003 to 2004, but mean biomass was not different between treatments. Many dominant plant species were affected by the flood pulsing treatment. Wetland invertebrate communities were diverse (47 taxa), but we detected few responses. Total abundance, species richness, and numbers of most dominant species were not different between treatments. These results indicate that flood-pulsing acted as a stressor on emergent plant communities, but did not strongly impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

Caiazza, M. K.; Nieset, J. E.; Romito, A.; de Szalay, F. A.

2005-05-01

65

Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 14, 1977  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts that should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include: (1) design and construction interfacing problems; (2) problems relating to the selection and use of permanent materials and construction methods; (3) construction coordination and communication problems; and (4) problems associated with manpower availability and productivity;

Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.

1977-08-10

66

Electron beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater: operation of pilot plant and industrial plant construction.  

PubMed

A pilot plant for treating 1000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with an electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborating the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability for instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in the flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day each, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. PMID:16459806

Han, B; Kim, J; Kim, Y; Choi, J S; Makarov, I E; Ponomarev, A V

2005-01-01

67

42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

68

43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

69

Design and construction challenges facing new power plants located within operating industrial facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although grassroots power plants are still being constructed on virgin sites, many of today's new cogeneration plants are located not only close to the facility they will serve, but actually within the facility itself. Such locations obviously shorten the distance that steam from the cogeneration plant needs to travel. Additional advantages for the new plant can include: Receiving fuel from

J. R. Davie; W. Murphy; J. R. Johanson

1992-01-01

70

Feral biofuel crop effects in constructed wet prairie and oak savannah communities  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the potential effects of feral biofuel crop escapes on constructed plant communities growing in outdoor mesocosms. Mesocosms containing wet prairie or oak savannah communities were exposed to two temperature levels (ambient and elevated) and two moisture levels (cont...

71

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING EAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING EAST SHOWING EXCAVATION AND FORMING; CONSTRUCTION 6 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-4935. J. Anderson, Photographer, 9/21/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

72

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FORMING FOR NORTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 4 AND 5; CONSTRUCTION 21 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1874. Holmes, Photographer, 4/21/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

73

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING OVERALL BLOCK EXTERIOR WALLS; CONSTRUCTION 65 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4976. Holmes, Photographer, 9/26/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

74

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) OVERALL VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) OVERALL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST; CONSTRUCTION 34 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3034. Holmes, Photographer, 6/23/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

75

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DECK FORMING FOR SOUTH SECTION OF OPERATING CORRIDOR; CONSTRUCTION 44 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3624. Holmes, Photographer, 7/25/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

76

Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology  

SciTech Connect

The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

1981-12-01

77

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. III - Design and construction of test plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of a test plant of hydrogen capacity 4 cu Nm\\/hour based on high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis which was built to obtain technical data for the construction of a 20-cu Nm\\/hour pilot plant are outlined. The test plant is a forced circulation system comprised of an electrolyzer, electrolyte circulation line, gas-liquid separator, hydrogen\\/oxygen production gas line, measurement

Y. Kajiwara; S. Maezawa; K. Matsunaga

1981-01-01

78

Technical WOrk Plan for: Construction Effects Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This document is the technical work plan (TWP) for performing the Construction Effects Monitoring (CEM) activity, which is one of 20 testing and monitoring activities included in Performance Confirmation Plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172452]). Collectively, the 20 activities make up the Performance Confirmation Program described in the plan. Each of the other 19 activities will have a separate TWP. This plan, though titled Construction Effects Monitoring, in accordance with the Performance Confirmation Plan, also includes testing that may be performed in addition to monitoring, if required. Performance confirmation is required by regulation 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173273], and was started during site characterization (consistent with the regulation) and will continue until permanent closure of the repository (10 CFR 63.13 1 (b) [DIRS 173273]). This CEM activity has two primary goals: (1) to collect, analyze, and report on repository rock properties data for the purpose of confirming geotechnical and design parameters used in repository design, and (2) to provide information intended to confirm that the ability to retrieve waste from the repository has been preserved. It will be necessary for information from this CEM activity to be evaluated in combination with that obtained from other Performance Confirmation Program activities to achieve these goals. These relationships with other Performance Confirmation Program activities (e.g., drift inspection, subsurface mapping, and seismicity monitoring) will be discussed in later sections of this TWP.

S. Goodin

2006-09-14

79

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Three Plant Species in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three common Appalachian plant species (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus validus L., and Typha latifolia L.) were planted into small-scale constructed wetlands receivingprimary treated wastewater. The experimental design includedtwo wetland gravel depths (45 and 60 cm) and five plantingtreatments (each species in monoculture, an equal mixture of the three species, and controls without vegetation), with two replicates per depth × planting

Jerry Coleman; Keith Hench; Keith Garbutt; Alan Sexstone; Gary Bissonnette; Jeff Skousen

2001-01-01

80

Construction and startup of a wood gasification pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech embarked on the development of a pilot plant for wood gasification research in March 1979. The pilot plant gasifier was designed for a wide range of research. This includes modeling and testing of gasifier feed systems, ash extraction systems, air and steam injection systems, burners, gas cleanup equipment, waste disposal systems, and safety equipment. Potential application to be

A. D. Jape; T. F. McGowan

1982-01-01

81

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. III - Design and construction of test plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and construction of a test plant of hydrogen capacity 4 cu Nm/hour based on high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis which was built to obtain technical data for the construction of a 20-cu Nm/hour pilot plant are outlined. The test plant is a forced circulation system comprised of an electrolyzer, electrolyte circulation line, gas-liquid separator, hydrogen/oxygen production gas line, measurement and control equipment, power conditioning equipment, and auxiliary equipment. The plant is designed to operate using a KOH electrolyte at 20 kg/sq cm pressure and 120 C temperature, and incorporates various safety features for operation monitoring, emergency shutdown and personnel protection. Principle construction materials were selected with a view towards corrosion resistance. Based on preliminary design studies, controlling methods and plant construction were selected to optimize the pressure load oscillation at the separator, and the separator was configured to optimize the void mixing rate.

Kajiwara, Y.; Maezawa, S.; Matsunaga, K.

82

The Small Biogas Plant: Its Construction, Operation and Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet has been prepared in response to the demand for reference material to help interested parties design and operate small biogas plants. It is written in relatively simple language, understandable to people with limited scientific and technical ...

F. D. Maramba E. D. Obias C. C. Taganas

1977-01-01

83

Phased construction of integrated coal-gasification combined-cycled power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is a combined-cycle plant fueled by synthetic fuel gas produced by gasifying coal. It can be constructed in several phases, operating first as a combined-cycle power plant fueled by natural gas. A coal-gasification facility is added later to supply the fuel. The problem is how to design a plant to operate in such

Erbes

1987-01-01

84

Construction and Operation of Small-Scale Fuel Alcohol Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of this cooperative TVA/DOE effort, TVA designed, built, and operated a 10 gal/hr pilot fuel alcohol facility at Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The facility was designed to be relatively energy efficient, relatively simple to construct and operate, and c...

P. C. Badger R. S. Pile C. E. Madewell

1984-01-01

85

Study of nuclear power plant construction in the United States. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

Construction of nuclear power plants in the United States has experienced a serious decline during the last decade and has virtually stopped since 1988. However, the demand for energy in this country continues to grow at an alarming rate. The United States possesses the technology and capital to produce more nuclear-generated electricity. If the need is there and the technology and money are available to meet that need, then why has this specialized industry experienced such a dramatic decline. The answer to this question is not a simple one. Two of the primary reasons for the decline in nuclear power plant construction are: the regulatory demands placed on the industry by the Federal government, and the public's perception of safety regarding the nuclear power industry. The construction of nuclear power plants is obviously a complex and capital-intensive undertaking. The history of nuclear power plant construction in the United States has been one of enormous cost and schedule overruns.

Walden, R.P.

1991-01-01

86

Development of knowledge acquisition methods for knowledge base construction for autonomous plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to enhance safety and reliability of nuclear plant operation, it is strongly desired to construct diagnostic knowledge base without lacking, contradiction, and description inconsistency. An advanced method Knowledge Compiler' has been studied to ...

S. Yoshikawa M. Sasajima Y. Kitamura M. Ikeda R. Mizoguchi

1993-01-01

87

Impact of Space Shuttle Support Facilities Construction on Special Interest Plant Species (Vandenberg AFB, Calif).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the results and conclusions of studies conducted to evaluate the impact of ground support facility construction for the Space Shuttle program at Vandenberg AFB, California on listed and proposed threatened or endangered plant specie...

R. C. Wooten D. Strutz R. Hudson

1977-01-01

88

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING FORMING AND PLACEMENT OF REINFORCING STEEL FOR SOUTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 3, 4 AND 5 AND WEST WALL FOR CELLS 1 AND 2; CONSTRUCTION 13 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS 59-6436. J. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

89

Small biogas plant: its construction, operation and use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This booklet has been prepared to help interested parties design and operate small biogas plants. It is written in relatively simple language, understandable to people with limited scientific and technical training and it takes a practical approach. Because of the pressing demand for food, more fertilizer is needed to raise more crops, but supply is getting less. With a biogas

F. D. Sr. Maramba; E. D. Obias; C. Taganas

1977-01-01

90

ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS IN RECYCLING PLANT IMPLEMENTATION OF RCC (REMAINS OF CIVIL CONSTRUCTION) - CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction sector generates great amount of residues in the whole production chain, from natural resources extraction, production process until remains disposal during product life- cycle, causing social and environmental problems to cities. Due the exposed problem, this work presents a case study in Lençóis Paulista city, through a public investment project to install a construction residues recycling plant. Statistical data

Jair Wagner de Souza; Luiz Carrijo; Edmundo Coube; Benedito Luiz Martins

91

Effects of Wind on Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review surveys the large variety of mechanical interactions between wind and plants, from plant organs to plant systems. These interactions range from leaf flutter to uprooting and seed dispersal, as well as indirect effects on photosynthesis or insect communication. I first estimate the relevant nondimensional parameters and then discuss turbulence, plant dynamics, and the mechanisms of interaction in this context. Some common features are identified and analyzed in relation to the wind engineering of manmade structures. Strong coupling between plants and wind exists, in which the plant motion modifies the wind dynamics. I also present some related biological issues in which the relation between plant life and wind environment is emphasized. [V]oici la lourde nappe/Et la profonde houle et l’océan des blés [Like a sheet/The deep swell on a sea of wheat] Charles Péguy (1873 1914)

de Langre, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

92

Experience with construction of the powerhouse at the Kapchagaisk hydroelectric plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The scheme for organization of the work and the special construction and technical measures adopted tospeed up construction\\u000a of the first stage of the Kapchagaisk hydroelectric plant permitted constructing the powerhouse in 10 months, beginning with\\u000a the first placing of concrete in the bottom of the turbine section and the putting the two units into operation. The experience\\u000a with the

Yu. A. Men'kin; Yu. N. Zinevich

1973-01-01

93

Colonization of a Newly Constructed Commercial Chicken Further Processing Plant with Listeria monocytogenes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a pr...

94

St. Thomas and St. Croix, Virgin Islands, Construction of Desalinization Plants, Project PFL VI-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two 2,250,000 gallon per day sea water desalinization plants are proposed to be constructed. One on St. Thomas, adjacent to the existing desalinization plants and generating facilities at Krum Bay and another on St. Croix, adjacent to that Island's existi...

1972-01-01

95

Constructal Distribution of Solar Chimney Power Plants: Few Large and Many Small  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we show how to use constructal design to distribute solar chimney power production on available land area most efficiently. The solar chimney design is used as an example of solar-driven power plant. We found that the power generated per unit of land area is proportional to the length scale of the power plant, as well as to

S. Lorente; A. Koonsrisuk; A. Bejan

2010-01-01

96

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar...structureâ is defined to mean plant equipment which: (1) Is...structures, as well as other plant equipment located within...excess to the Department's needs. (2) The excess...

2013-07-01

97

Biodiversity Effects on Plant Stoichiometry  

PubMed Central

In the course of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate, the issue of multifunctionality of species communities has recently become a major focus. Elemental stoichiometry is related to a variety of processes reflecting multiple plant responses to the biotic and abiotic environment. It can thus be expected that the diversity of a plant assemblage alters community level plant tissue chemistry. We explored elemental stoichiometry in aboveground plant tissue (ratios of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and its relationship to plant diversity in a 5-year study in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). Species richness and functional group richness affected community stoichiometry, especially by increasing C:P and N:P ratios. The primacy of either species or functional group richness effects depended on the sequence of testing these terms, indicating that both aspects of richness were congruent and complementary to expected strong effects of legume presence and grass presence on plant chemical composition. Legumes and grasses had antagonistic effects on C:N (?27.7% in the presence of legumes, +32.7% in the presence of grasses). In addition to diversity effects on mean ratios, higher species richness consistently decreased the variance of chemical composition for all elemental ratios. The diversity effects on plant stoichiometry has several non-exclusive explanations: The reduction in variance can reflect a statistical averaging effect of species with different chemical composition or a optimization of nutrient uptake at high diversity, leading to converging ratios at high diversity. The shifts in mean ratios potentially reflect higher allocation to stem tissue as plants grew taller at higher richness. By showing a first link between plant diversity and stoichiometry in a multiyear experiment, our results indicate that losing plant species from grassland ecosystems will lead to less reliable chemical composition of forage for herbivorous consumers and belowground litter input.

Abbas, Maike; Ebeling, Anne; Oelmann, Yvonne; Ptacnik, Robert; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Hillebrand, Helmut

2013-01-01

98

Opportunities to expedite the construction of new coal-based power plants  

SciTech Connect

US Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the National Coal Council prepare a study identifying 'which opportunities could expedite the construction of new coal-fired electricity generation.' He also requested that the Council 'examine opportunities and incentives for additional emissions reduction including evaluating and replacing the oldest portion of our coal-fired power plant fleet with more efficient and lower emitting coal-fired plants.' A study group of experts who conducted the work can be found in Appendix D. The National Coal Council found the following: Coal is the fuel of choice now, and will remain so into the future; Natural gas has been the dominant fuel for new power plants in the last decade; Coal provides a pathway for greater energy independence; There is renewed interest in using coal to fuel new power plants; Generators are expected to remain credit worthy; Permitting delays have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Environmental regulatory approaches have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Uncertainty about CO{sub 2} emission reductions has been an impediment to the construction of new coalbased power plants; Incentives are still needed to facilitate the construction of advanced coal-based power plants; Lack of a regional planning approach has been an impediment to the construction of new coal-based power plants; and Infrastructure hurdles are impediments to the construction of new coal-based power plants. The Council's recommendations include: Streamline the permitting process; Recognize the strategic importance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology; Recognize the importance of other coal-based technologies; Encourage regional planning; Continue with meaningful R&D and with technology demonstration; Provide meaningful incentives for the commercialization and deployment of new advanced coal-based technologies. 7 apps.

Thomas G. Kraemer; Georgia Nelson; Robert Card; E. Linn Draper, Jr.; Michael J. Mudd [Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Co. (United States)

2004-07-01

99

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

100

The Effect of Zoning on Housing Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether a more restrictive zoning ordinance actually reduces construction of new housing. This may seem at first to be a trivial issue, since why else would a zoning board make the ordinance more restrictive. However, it is possible for landowners to circumvent the zoning law. For example, they can subdivide their land before the zoning change occurs.

James A. Thorson

1997-01-01

101

Effects of the substrate depth on purification performance of a hybrid constructed wetland treating domestic sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth of substrate in constructed wetlands (CWs) has a significant effect on the construction investment and the purification performance of CWs. In this study, a pilot scale CW system was operated in a domestic sewage treatment plant in Xi’an, China. The experimental systems included three-series CWs systems with substrate depths of 0.1m, 0.3 m and 0.6 m, respectively. Each

Yong-Xiang Ren; Hai Zhang; Chao Wang; Yong-Zhe Yang; Zhen Qin; Yun Ma

2011-01-01

102

High-Throughput Construction of Intron-Containing Hairpin RNA Vectors for RNAi in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the wide use of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) for the analysis of gene function in plants, a high-throughput system for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs is in great demand. Here, we describe a novel restriction-ligation approach that provides a simple but efficient construction of intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) vectors. The system takes advantage of the type IIs restriction enzyme BsaI

Pu Yan; Wentao Shen; XinZheng Gao; Xiaoying Li; Peng Zhou; Jun Duan

2012-01-01

103

Constructs and methods for high-throughput gene silencing in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene silencing can be achieved by transformation of plants with constructs that express self-complementary (termed hairpin) RNA containing sequences homologous to the target genes. The DNA sequences encoding the self-complementary regions of hairpin (hp) RNA constructs form an inverted repeat. The inverted repeat can be stabilized in bacteria through separation of the self-complementary regions by a “spacer” region. When the

Chris Helliwell; Peter Waterhouse

2003-01-01

104

Measuring effectiveness of safety programmes in the Thai construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some safety programmes are more effective than others in improving safety performance at the project level. The effectiveness of safety programmes was evaluated by studying 70 construction projects in the Thai construction sector, examining the relationship between their actual status and associated site safety performance. The actual status was assessed by using an evaluation tool developed in compliance with Thai

Thanet Aksorn; Bonaventura H. W. Hadikusumo

2008-01-01

105

Construction of Vibration Table in an Extended World for Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational issues of the seismic simulation of nuclear power plants are discussed in this chapter. The safety requirement\\u000a of nuclear power plant is high enough to conduct real experiments to evaluate the structural integrity of mechanical components.\\u000a However, such experiments are performed on independent sets of components because the ability of experimental facilities is\\u000a limited. Hence, we are constructing a

Tomonori Yamada; Fumimasa Araya

106

The effect of gravity on plant germination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20 degC under an average light condition of 110 mumol/m^2/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but was maintained above 90%. Since the tube containers were not large enough for long cultivation, shoot and root growth were observed every 12 hours until the sixth day from seeding. The lengths of shoots and roots for each individual plant were measured on the last day. The stem lengths were increased by microgravity but the root lengths were not. Under the negative gravity, negative orthogeotropism and under micro gravity, diageotropism was observed. No significant effect of increased gravity was observed on shoot and root growth.

Takakura, T.; Goto, E.; Tanaka, M.

1996-01-01

107

10-MWe Solar-Thermal Central-Receiver Pilot Plant: Collector Subsystem Foundation Construction. Revision No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bid documents are provided for the construction of the collector subsystem foundation of the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant, including invitation to bid, bid form, representations and certifications, construction contract, and labor standards provisions of the...

1979-01-01

108

Study of nuclear power plant construction in the United States. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of nuclear power plants in the United States has experienced a serious decline during the last decade and has virtually stopped since 1988. However, the demand for energy in this country continues to grow at an alarming rate. The United States possesses the technology and capital to produce more nuclear-generated electricity. If the need is there and the technology

Walden

1991-01-01

109

Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2007-01-01

110

The CAD systems for Chooz-B nuclear power plant construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer-aided design (CAD) integrated system has been set up by the engineering and design departments of Electricite de France and Framatome for the construction of the Chooz nuclear power plant. Such a structure was required due to the development of new microprocessor-based technologies. Indeed, this is the only way to provide consistent mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation and control (I

P. Bacher; G. Beltranda

1988-01-01

111

RATE OF TCE DEGRADATION IN PASSIVE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALLS)  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation reviews a case study at Altus AFB on the extent of treatment of TCE in a passive reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch. It presents data from a tracer test to estimate the rate of ground water flow at the site, and the residence time of water and TCE in...

112

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26

113

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2009-01-01

114

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2010-01-01

115

Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile. PMID:15627565

Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

2005-05-01

116

Preparation of Effective Operating Manuals to Support Waste Management Plant Operator Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective plant operating manuals used in a formal training program can make the difference between a successful operation and a failure. Once the plant process design and control strategies have been fixed, equipment has been ordered, and the plant is constructed, the only major variable affecting success is the capability of plant operating personnel. It is essential that the myriad

2003-01-01

117

Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

1984-02-01

118

H-coal pilot plant. Phase II. Construction. Phase III. Operation. Annual report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

At the request of DOE Oak Ridge, ASFI agreed to assume responsibility for completion of Plant construction in December, 1979, at which time Badger Plants' on-site work was ended. This construction effort consisted of electric heat tracing and insulation of piping and instrumentation. At the close of the reporting period the work was completed, or was projected to be completed, within the ASFI budgeted amounts and by dates that will not impact Plant operations. Engineering design solutions were completed for problems encountered with such equipment as the High Pressure Letdown Valves; Slurry Block Valves; Slurry Pumps; the Bowl Mill System; the Dowtherm System; and the Ebullating Pump. A Corrosion Monitoring Program was established. With the exception of Area 500, the Antisolvent Deashing Unit, all operating units were commissioned and operated during the reporting period. Coal was first introduced into the Plant on May 29, 1980, with coal operations continuing periodically through September 30, 1980. The longest continuous coal run was 119 hours. A total of 677 tons of Kentucky No. 11 Coal were processed during the reporting period. The problems encountered were mechanical, not process, in nature. Various Environmental and Health programs were implemented to assure worker safety and protection and to obtain data from Plant operations for scientific analysis. These comprehensive programs will contribute greatly in determining the acceptability of long term H-Coal Plant operations.

Not Available

1981-02-04

119

49 CFR 242.5 - Effect and construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS General § 242.5 Effect and construction. (a) FRA does not intend, by use of the term conductor in this part, to alter the terms, conditions, or...

2012-10-01

120

Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50° C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small amount of heat is added to the processed solution by the mechanical energy of the contactors. The temperature profiles match the ambient temperature of the laboratory but are nearly 10° C higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated input solution testing provides temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients and are more influenced by the temperature of the inlet solutions than the ambient laboratory temperature. The temperature effects of solution mixing, even at 4000 rpm, were insignificant in any of the studies conducted on lamp oil and water.

Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

2008-09-01

121

Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

JANSKY, M.T.

1999-12-01

122

Construction of a 100 kW solar thermal-electric experimental plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A focusing collector thermal-electric power plant has been erected in Corsica (France). This plant consists of a field of 1176 sq m fixed mirror concentrators, producing heat at 250 C, a stratification thermal energy storage of about 1250 kWh, two power conversion units of 45 kWe each, with a supersonic turbine expanding a heavy organic working fluid, and two cooling towers of 200 kW each. This full-scale prototype has been built mainly to demonstrate the capability of the distributed collector solar plant concept, in the power range from 50 kWe to 1000 kWe, and the temperature range from 150 to 300 C. This paper describes the conceptual design and the performance of the plant and discusses problems that were met during construction.

Boy-Marcotte, J. L.; Dancette, M.; Bliaux, J.; Bacconnet, E.; Malherbe, J.

1985-08-01

123

Planning a Program of School Plant Construction. Research Report, School Plant Planning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of long-term planning, and undesirable conditions resulting from failure to plan, are stressed. General procedures named as essential are--(1) the official approval of the Board of Education before the administration proceeds with long-range planning, (2) the design of the school plant around the educational program it is to serve,…

Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

124

Effective Stimuli for Constructing Reliable Neuron Models  

PubMed Central

The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.

Druckmann, Shaul; Berger, Thomas K.; Schurmann, Felix; Hill, Sean; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

2011-01-01

125

Benthos Community Monitoring of A Dumping Area During Liquid Natural Gas Plant Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the technical-economic substantiation (TES) of the Project “Sakhalin-II — Phase 2”, 2 marine exploration platforms\\u000a are being constructed, one of them in the Lunskoye gas field. They will be connected by pipelines to the oil terminal in Aniva\\u000a Bay (south coast of Sakhalin island) for year round exploration. Another structure, a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant, was\\u000a also

A. D. Samatov; V. S. Labay

126

Physiological parameters of plants as indicators of water quality in a constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Increasing demand for water has stimulated efforts to treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture. Decentralized facilities\\u000a for wastewater treatment became popular as a solution to remote and small communities. These systems mimic natural wetlands,\\u000a cleaning wastewater as they flow through a complex of filter media, microbial fauna, and vegetation. The function of plants\\u000a in constructed wetlands (CWs) has not been

Oren Shelef; Avi Golan-Goldhirsh; Tanya Gendler; Shimon Rachmilevitch

127

Plant operator simulation: benefits and drawbacks for a construction training organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil construction industry in Australia is under pressure to attract, train and retain high numbers of skilled personnel.\\u000a At the same time it is recognized as one of the most dangerous industries in the country. To counteract the safety issues\\u000a and the labor shortages, plant operator training augmented by simulation is being investigated as an alternative to current\\u000a training

Jennifer Tichon; Phil Diver

2010-01-01

128

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendix 2 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, Laboratory permeability, and compaction characteristics representative of Kaolin clays from the aiken, South Carolina vicinity. Included in this report are daily field reports Nos. 1 to 54. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26

129

Estimation of water dynamics in a vertical-flow constructed wetland with a growing plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Vertical-flow constructed wetland (VFCW) is a promising technique for wastewater treatment comparable to conventional wastewater\\u000a treatment plants. The physical, chemical, and biological processes and interactions in a VFCW are highly coupled with water\\u000a movement, and thus the performance of a VFCW to remove contaminants hinges on a better understanding of its water dynamics.\\u000a The aim of this study was to

Ying Ouyang; Shi Ming Luo; Li Hua Cui; Ying Hu Liu; Zhong Qin

2010-01-01

130

Design solutions for water treatment plants constructed on the basis of membrane technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two process circuits for demineralizing makeup water for power units at thermal power stations are considered. One of them is constructed on the basis of a combined plant comprising reverse-osmosis and ion-exchange apparatuses and the other comprises reverse-osmosis and electric deionization apparatuses. The considered circuits are analyzed by way of comparing them with the traditional chemical water demineralization system. Advantages and drawbacks of the new technologies for treating natural water are pointed out.

Panteleev, A. A.; Ryabchikov, B. E.; Zhadan, A. V.; Khoruzhii, O. V.

2012-07-01

131

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

PubMed Central

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity.

D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

2010-01-01

132

Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.  

PubMed

Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how often, and the maintenance (calibration) of monitoring equipment (devices). PMID:17119219

Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

2006-09-01

133

Construction of the effective action in nonanticommutative supersymmetric field theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a general gauge invariant construction of the one-loop effective action for supersymmetric gauge field theories formulated in N=1/2 superspace. Using manifestly covariant techniques (the background superfield method and proper-time representations) adopted to the N=1/2 superspace we show how to define unambiguously the effective action of a matter multiplet (in fundamental and adjoint representations) and the vector multiplet coupled to a background N=1/2 gauge superfield. As an application of this construction we exactly calculate the low-energy one-loop effective action of matter multiplet and SU(2) SYM theory on the Abelian background.

Azorkina, O. D.; Banin, A. T.; Buchbinder, I. L.; Pletnev, N. G.

2006-02-01

134

Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.  

PubMed

Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

2008-06-24

135

77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units...intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit...under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

2012-05-18

136

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

2012-01-01

137

Plasmid construction for genetic modification of dicotyledonous plants with a glycolate oxidizing pathway.  

PubMed

There are many kinds of dicotyledonous C(3) plants, which often release CO(2) fixed by photosynthesis and consume energy in photorespiration. In Escherichia coli, glycolate can be metabolized by an oxidation pathway that has some of the same compounds as dicotyledonous photorespiration. With the bacterial glycolate metabolism pathway, photorespiration of dicotyledonous plants is genetically modified for less CO(2) release and more biomass. In this study, two plasmids involved in this modification were constructed for targeting two enzymes of the glycolate oxidizing pathway, glyoxylate carboligase and tartronic semialdehyde reductase, and glycolate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondria in this pathway. All three enzymes are located in chloroplast by transit peptide derived from Pisum sativum small unit of Rubisco. So far, some crops have been transformed by the two plasmids. Through transformation of the two plasmids, photosynthesis of dicotyledonous plants may be promoted more easily and release less CO(2) into the atmosphere. PMID:21751162

Bai, X L; Wang, D; Wei, L J; Wang, Y

2011-07-06

138

Radiation safety during construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused high levels of source contamination by radionuclides (up to 1.E8 dis./min. per square cm for beta radiation, and 1.E5 dis./min per square cm for alpha radiation) and gamma radiation exposure dose levels in excess of 400 R/h. Moreover, the radiation fields were uneven and inhomogeneous, amongst other things with regard to their spectral characteristics. In a situation of this kind, radiation situation monitoring data are highly important and serve as the basis for design decision, planning of construction and assembly work, and protection of personnel to minimize dose commitments while maintaining the maximum speed of work during construction of the encapsulation. Both traditional and specially developed methods were used to monitor the radiation situation, enabling measurement of radiation risk factors, determination of space-angular distribution of gamma-radiation, and detection of local contamination sources. Radiation situation monitoring results showed that 15 - 80% of the gamma-radiation was coming from nuclear fuel in the plant compound. After the encapsulation had been erected, gamma-radiation levels in the vicinity of unit 4 decreased by a factor of approximately 100. Owing to the high levels of gamma-radiation, the danger of external irradiation of personnel was significantly greater than the danger from internal irradiation. Therefore, the staff were monitored individually for gamma radiation. A review is given of the main radiation safety problems which were solved during design and construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of Chernobyl Nuclear power plant which was destroyed in the accident of 26 April 1986. The paper discusses the technical, organisational and health measures which were used to ensure that radiation safety regulations and standards were observed during construction.

Belovodskiy, L.F. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

139

Does literacy have an effect on stick construction tasks?  

PubMed

Since constructional apraxia is often concomitant with brain lesions, the study of constructional tasks in the non-brain-damaged population might be useful in helping to disentangle other causal factors. This paper explores the performance of illiterate individuals (N = 29) as compared to that of semiliterates (N = 21) and literates (N = 23) in order to see the effect of reading and writing abilities on constructional tasks. Each participant was asked to construct 4 figures based upon models having varying degrees of complexity. A global criterion of lack of fidelity and several analytic criteria (related to distortion, rotation, and disarticulation errors) were used to evaluate performance. Although illiterates generally made more errors than semiliterates and semiliterates more than literates, only some of these differences were statistically significant. Significant differences were found for lack of global fidelity and disarticulation errors when all 4 figures were considered together. Subtler data emerged with respect to single figures. PMID:11011513

Matute, E; Leal, F; Zarabozo, D; Robles, A; Cedillo, C

2000-09-01

140

Changes in the bacterial community structure in two-stage constructed wetlands with different plants for industrial wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study focused on the diversity of bacterial communities from two series of two-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) treating tannery wastewater, under different hydraulic conditions. Series were separately planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis in expanded clay aggregates and operated for 31 months. The effect of plant species, hydraulic loading and unit stage on bacterial communities was addressed through bacterial enumeration and denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Diverse and distinct bacterial communities were found in each system unit, which was related in part to the type of plant and stage position (first or second unit in the series). Numerical analysis of DGGE profiles showed high diversity in each unit with an even distribution of species. No clear relation was established between the sample collection time, hydraulic loading applied and the bacterial diversity. Isolates retrieved from plant roots and substrates of CWs were affiliated with gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, alpha-Proteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Both series were effective in removing organic matter from the inlet wastewater, however, based on batch degradation experiments it seems that biodegradation was limited by the recalcitrant properties of the wastewater. PMID:19303772

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Duque, Anouk F; Moura, Alexandra; Henriques, Isabel S; Correia, António; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2009-03-20

141

Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC(50) 4 ?M) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg/d for 24 d) to healthy rats fed normal diet (protein content 23.9%) increased food intake, body weight gain, lean body mass, and gastrocnemius muscle mass as compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effect of HB administration increased slightly in animals fed a high-protein diet (protein content 39.4%). Both oral (up to 60 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (up to 4 mg/kg) administration of HB showed low androgenic activity when tested in the Hershberger assay. Moreover, HB showed no direct binding to the androgen receptor in vitro. HB treatment was also associated with an improved physical fitness of untrained healthy rats, as evident from a 6.7% increase in lower extremity strength, measured by grip test. In the gastrocnemius muscle of castrated animals, HB treatment significantly increased the number of type IIa and IIb fibers and the cross-sectional area of type I and type IIa fibers. These findings suggest that oral application of HB triggers selective anabolic response with minimal or no androgenic side-effects and begin to elucidate the putative cellular targets for plant brassinosteroids in mammals. PMID:21746867

Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

2011-07-11

142

Effects of Herbicides on Submerged Seed Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of various concentrations of three herbicides on underwater seed plants was investigated. The herbicides used were atrazine, glyphosate, and metribuzin. The plants exposed to one or more of these herbicides were elodea (Elodea canadensis), wild...

D. E. Davis

1980-01-01

143

Effects of gamma Radiation on Peanut Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of radiation on the time of flowering, time of harvesting, quantity of pods, number of seeds, number of branches, plant height, number of chlorophyl, number of mutated plants, and morphological deformations in Arachis hypospea of Macan variety...

Kumala Dewi H. Muryono

1976-01-01

144

A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

Hopkins, A. [Fluor Hanford, Inc, Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

145

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for vertical calciner operation at the plutonium finishing plant  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for construction, installation, and operation of a vertical calciner to stabilize plutonium at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)Complex, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060. The PFP Complex activities are focused on the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium residue left from plutonium weapons material processing activities. The prime purpose of the vertical calciner is to convert plutonium acid solutions to a more stable plutonium oxide. A test calciner has been developed and put in place in the 234-5Z Building. Development testing of this vertical calciner is ongoing. A new vertical calciner will be assembled for actual stabilization operation in Room 230C of the 234-5Z Building. The test calciner may be upgraded or replaced as an alternative to building a new calciner in Room 230C.

Hays, C.B., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-17

146

RADON MITIGATION EFFECTS OF PASSIVE STACKS IN RESIDENTIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effects of passive stacks in mitigating radon levels in residential new construction. Although passive stacks have been installed as a radon resistant measure in new houses, little quantitative data on their performance has been collected. This study invol...

147

The effect of housing construction on population migrations in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population migrations in Israel simultaneously move in two opposite directions: while the initial distribution of new immigrants is primarily focused on big cities of the country's central core, the existing population of these centres tends to move outward, to small settlements where housing is more readily available. The effect of housing construction on population migrations appears to be delayed and

Boris A. Portnov

1998-01-01

148

The Effect of Gender on the Construction of Backward Inferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective in the present study is to examine the effect of gender on primary school students' construction of elaborative backward inferences during text processing. A total of 333 children, aged 10-11 years (n = 158 girls and 175 boys) participated in the study. Each participant completed a backward inference test. The results indicate…

Cakir, Ozler

2008-01-01

149

The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

2008-01-01

150

Effects of High Embankment Construction on Archaeological Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a field study conducted by Caltrans to determine the effects of constructing a 75 foot high embankment over a simulated Native American artifact site on Interstate 15 north of San Diego. The study consisted of excavating two small tes...

A. P. Garfinkel B. L. Lister

1983-01-01

151

Chemical Mowing: Effect of Plant Growth Retardants on Plant Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of the plant growth regulators mefluidide and uniconazole on the root growth of Bermudagrass were assessed for 3 years using a traditional rhizotron. Two rhizotron designs were evaluated. The single rhizotron with the viewing glass side insert...

O. P. Vadhwa

1991-01-01

152

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...N Appendix N to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...

2013-01-01

153

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...N Appendix N to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC...

2013-01-01

154

THE USE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TO PHYTOREMEDIATE EXPLOSIVES-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE MILAN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT, MILAN, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

The groundwaters beneath many Army ammunition plants in the United States are contaminated with explosives. To help address this problem, the USAEC and TVA initiated a field demonstration program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using constructed wetlands for remediating ...

155

Preliminary study of the causes of delays in the construction of selected fossil-fired electric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of a preliminary study to identify and document environmentally related causes of delays in the construction of U.S.-based fossil-fired electrical power plants. An initial survey of industry and agency officials resulted in a preliminary identification of 18 known fossil power plants that had experienced or were experiencing delays in construction. Further evaluation, based upon essentially a random

J. B. Jr. Brown; B. D. Fitting; J. E. Flinn

1976-01-01

156

Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.

1999-10-01

157

A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and

Ho-Wen Chen; Ni-Bin Chang

2002-01-01

158

The state of health and safety in the UK construction industry with a focus on plant operators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using statistics obtained from the Health and Safety Executive, compares accident rates occurring within the UK construction industry to the accident rates occurring within other industries; then assesses and discusses these. Results reveal that the construction industry is arguably the most hazardous industry and has consistently recorded a poor accident record. Off-highway plant and equipment is a considerable contributor to

D. J. Edwards; J. Nicholas

2002-01-01

159

Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings.

Joe R. Cowles; Richard Lemay; Gary Jahns

1988-01-01

160

Impact of plant density and microbial composition on water quality from a free water surface constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To correlate microbial community composition and water quality chan- ges within wetland cells containing varying plant densities and composition in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Methods and Results: Water chemistry was monitored weekly for nitrate, orthophosphate, and suspended solids, at various sites throughout the wetland for 6 months. Treatment ponds with 50% plant cover had about a

A. M. Ibekwe; S. R. Lyon; M. Leddy; M. Jacobson-Meyers

2006-01-01

161

The development of three-dimensional spatial modeling techniques for the construction planning of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of the first phase of a research project on the application of spatial modeling techniques to the process of planning and executing the construction of a nuclear power plant. A computer modeling technique, based on sets of polyhedra and spatial operations, was developed and applied to modeling the components of a nuclear power plant. The objectives

Harold J. Borkin; Jonn F. McIntosh; James A. Turner

1978-01-01

162

Feasibility of physical map construction from fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome libraries of polyploid plant species  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of closely related genomes in polyploid species makes the assembly of total genomic sequence from shotgun sequence reads produced by the current sequencing platforms exceedingly difficult, if not impossible. Genomes of polyploid species could be sequenced following the ordered-clone sequencing approach employing contigs of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and BAC-based physical maps. Although BAC contigs can currently be constructed for virtually any diploid organism with the SNaPshot high-information-content-fingerprinting (HICF) technology, it is currently unknown if this is also true for polyploid species. It is possible that BAC clones from orthologous regions of homoeologous chromosomes would share numerous restriction fragments and be therefore included into common contigs. Because of this and other concerns, physical mapping utilizing the SNaPshot HICF of BAC libraries of polyploid species has not been pursued and the possibility of doing so has not been assessed. The sole exception has been in common wheat, an allohexaploid in which it is possible to construct single-chromosome or single-chromosome-arm BAC libraries from DNA of flow-sorted chromosomes and bypass the obstacles created by polyploidy. Results The potential of the SNaPshot HICF technology for physical mapping of polyploid plants utilizing global BAC libraries was evaluated by assembling contigs of fingerprinted clones in an in silico merged BAC library composed of single-chromosome libraries of two wheat homoeologous chromosome arms, 3AS and 3DS, and complete chromosome 3B. Because the chromosome arm origin of each clone was known, it was possible to estimate the fidelity of contig assembly. On average 97.78% or more clones, depending on the library, were from a single chromosome arm. A large portion of the remaining clones was shown to be library contamination from other chromosomes, a feature that is unavoidable during the construction of single-chromosome BAC libraries. Conclusions The negligibly low level of incorporation of clones from homoeologous chromosome arms into a contig during contig assembly suggested that it is feasible to construct contigs and physical maps using global BAC libraries of wheat and almost certainly also of other plant polyploid species with genome sizes comparable to that of wheat. Because of the high purity of the resulting assembled contigs, they can be directly used for genome sequencing. It is currently unknown but possible that equally good BAC contigs can be also constructed for polyploid species containing smaller, more gene-rich genomes.

2010-01-01

163

TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

2010-01-14

164

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

1991-07-01

165

The information effect: constructive memory, testimony, and epistemic luck  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incorporation of post-event testimonial information into an agent’s memory representation of the event via constructive\\u000a memory processes gives rise to the misinformation effect, in which the incorporation of inaccurate testimonial information\\u000a results in the formation of a false memory belief. While psychological research has focussed primarily on the incorporation\\u000a of inaccurate information, the incorporation of accurate information raises a

Kourken Michaelian

166

The Effects Of Impact Fees On Multifamily Housing Construction &ast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?Development impact fees may create more housing opportunities for lower-income households within suburban areas if there is a fiscal incentive behind the adoption of exclusionary land-use regulations. Using panel data estimation techniques that allow us to control for unobservable heterogeneity and potential endogeneities, we estimate the effects of different types of impact fees on multifamily housing construction using data from

Gregory Burge; Keith Ihlanfeldt

2006-01-01

167

Temperature effects on wastewater nitrate removal in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Constructed wetlands may be used for removal of high nutrient loads in greenhouse wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Temperature affects both the physical and biological activities in wetland systems. Since nitrification and denitrification are temperature-dependent processes, effluent nitrate concentrations will fluctuate due to changes in air and wetland temperature. In a cold climate, constructed wetlands can function in a temperature-controlled, greenhouse environment year-round. This work evaluates four temperature treatments on nitrate removal rates in five planted and five unplanted laboratory-scale wetlands. Wetlands were supplied with a nutrient solution similar to the fertigation runoff solution (100 PPM nitrate-N) used in greenhouse crop production. A first-order kinetic model was used to describe experimental nitrate depletion data and to predict nitrate removal rate constants (k) in the wetlands planted with Iris pseudocoras. The negligible removal in unplanted wetlands was thought to be due to lack of carbon source in the fertigation solution. Between 19 and 23 C is planted systems, k increased from 0.062 to 0.077 h{sup {minus}1}, appeared to peak around 30 C (k = 0.184 h{sup {minus}1}), but decreased at 38 C (k = 0.099h{sup {minus}1}). Based on the Arrhenius equation, k was a first-order exponential function of temperature between 18 and 30 C in planted systems. Quantification of temperature effects on planted and unplanted laboratory-scale constructed wetlands can be sued to enhance the design and management of wastewater treatment wetlands.

Wood, S.L.; Wheeler, E.F.; Berghage, R.D.; Graves, R.E.

1999-02-01

168

Air pollution effects on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume discusses new avenues of research from those who represent the second and third generations of scientists working in the field of oxidant air pollution effects. Eleven papers discuss topics which include: plant-environment interaction, effects of ozone on cell permeability, reaction of ozone with lysozyme, alterations of metabolite pools, ozone injury to cell membranes, pigmentation and physiology of plant

1974-01-01

169

Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.  

PubMed

Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p?plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate polluted water. PMID:23673920

He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

2013-05-15

170

Effect of Ultrasonic Vibrations on Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier studies on the effects of ultrasound on plant growth failed to specify the intensities of ultrasonic vibrations in USSR. This study examines the effect of ultrasound with specified intensity, exposure time, and frequency on the seeds of several pl...

R. S. Limar

1973-01-01

171

Design of a novel system for the construction of vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.  

PubMed

The loxP-Cre site-specific recombination system of phage P1 was used to develop a novel strategy to construct cointegrate vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. A pTi disarmed helper plasmid (pAL1166) was constructed by replacing the oncogenic T-DNA by a loxP sequence and a spectinomycin resistance marker in the octopine-type pTiB6 plasmid. The cre gene was cloned into an unstable incP plasmid. A third plasmid, which did not replicate in Agrobacterium and contained another loxP sequence together with a kanamycin resistance marker, was used to test the system. Electroporation of this third plasmid into an Agrobacterium strain harbouring both pAL1166 and the Cre-encoding plasmid resulted in kanamycin-resistant cells containing a cointegrate between pAL1166 and the incoming plasmid. Cointegration occurred by Cre-mediated recombination at the loxP sites, and the cointegrate was stabilized in the Agrobacterium cells by the loss of the Cre-encoding plasmid shortly after the recombination event had taken place. PMID:1494341

Mozo, T; Hooykaas, P J

1992-12-01

172

Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater.  

PubMed

Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and a sixth unit was left as an unvegetated control. The treatment performance of the systems under two different hydraulic loading rates, 3 and 6 cmd(-1), was assessed. COD was reduced by 41-73% for an inlet organic loading varying between 332 and 1602 kgha(-1)d(-1) and BOD(5) was reduced by 41-58% for an inlet organic loading varying between 218 and 780 kgha(-1)d(-1). Nutrient removal occurred to lower extents. Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were the only plants that were able to establish successfully. Despite the high removal of organic content from the influent wastewater, during 17 months of operation, no significant differences in performance were observed between units. PMID:17320926

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2007-02-23

173

The design and construction of a hot dry rock pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal energy program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is directed toward demonstrating the potential of the hot dry rock (HDR) technology as an alternate energy source. Since the inception of the program, scientists and engineers have perfected drilling and fracturing techniques to create underground reservoirs for the purpose of tapping the potential heat energy from the hot rock in the earth. One of the achievements to date has been the creation of a reservoir at the Laboratory's test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. This reservoir, located at a depth of 12,000 feet below the surface of the earth, has an estimated fluid capacity of one million gallons within the large volume of fractured rock. To evaluate the thermal power potential of this reservoir, preparations are currently underway to conduct a test which will entail the circulation of fluid through the reservoir by the injection of water at high pressures. A major part of the preparations involves the building of a demonstration pilot plant. The process concept poses a number of unique technical challenges with regard to the design and construction of the equipment and facilities. This paper reviews the system design and operating features of this plant. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Ponden, R.F.

1991-01-01

174

The direct carbon dioxide effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its direct effects on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the direct

Jonathan Adams

175

DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Riegel Textile Corporation, Fries, Virginia plant hydroproject. Final technical and construction cost report  

SciTech Connect

The Riegel Textile Corporation completed a 2163 kW generator project at its plant in Fries, Virginia. A new powerhouse was constructed to enclose a used 2900 hp vertical Kaplan turbine and Westinghouse generator. Construction was accomplished without modification to or rehabilitation of an existing dam and required only minor modification to or rehabilitation of an existing dam and required only minor modification to the existing appurtenances. The existing hydro-generation equipment supplies approximately 54% of the 5500 kW required by the Fries plant. With the addition of the new facility, the plant will generate approximately 74% of its total electrical requirements. This demonstrates the viability of utilizing hydro-generation in the operation of an industrial facility. The project annually generates a National Energy Savings of 19,387 barrels of oil equivalent. The project was separated into four phases which lasted a total of 36 months and included construction, erection and demonstration.

Not Available

1982-06-01

176

Appraisal of plant diversity effect of the rebuilding and extension project of National Highway 209 Duchuan to Chunshu section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant diversity evaluation of highway construction of nature reserve is one important task in a construction project. I analyze and appraisal the plant diversity problems caused by the rebuilding and extension project of No.209 national highway Duchuan to Chunshuya section from plant species diversity, plant composition characteristics, vegetation type's diversity and national rare and endangered plants in the construction region. The highway reconstruction through the Savage Valley Nature Reserve basically causes no destructive effects on plant diversity, but there are still some negative effects. In this paper, I put forward scientific, reasonable and feasible measures and methods to the plant diversity protection by combining with the natural environment characteristics of the highway construction region.

Shi, Youhui; Zhang, Qipeng; Li, Haiyan; Dai, Yan

2011-01-01

177

Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements  

SciTech Connect

A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

2009-09-01

178

Obtaining marker-free transgenic soybean plants with optimal frequency by constructing a three T-DNA binary vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining marker-free plants with high efficiency will benefit the environmental release of transgenic crops. To achieve this\\u000a point, a binary vector with three TDNAs was constructed using several mediate plasmids, in which one copy of BAR gene expression cassette and two copies of VIP1 gene expression cassette were included. EHA101 Agrobacterium strain harboring the final construct was applied to transform

Xingguo Ye; Hua Qin

2008-01-01

179

Effects of umbrella palms and wastewater depth on wastewater treatment in a subsurface flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

On-site subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to provide secondary quality effluent. Plants and wetland volume are considered in their design. There have been no studies, however, comparing wastewater treatment at different wastewater depths, and plant effects in wetlands are not completely understood. Investigations were conducted on these variables using four wetland cells 228 m wide by 4.75 m long containing 1 to 5 cm diameter river rock. Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella palms) were planted in one cell, and side-by-side comparisons were made between the planted and a control cell. Side-by-side comparisons were also made between cells with equal surface areas and different depths. At best umbrella palms improved effluent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) by 8%, suspended solids by 6%, and did not improve fecal coliform or P wastewater quality in July. When ambient air temperatures were < or = 12 degrees C during December, plants did not improve most treatment parameters. They did, however, significantly improve NH4+ treatment even when ambient air temperatures were as low as 8 degrees C. Increasing wastewater depth enhanced fecal coliform die-off but did not reduce effluent considered when maximum NH4+ reduction is a BOD5, suspended solids, NH4+, or P in effluent. Umbrella palms should be treatment goal and it is not necessary to reduce other parameters. Surface area was more important to wastewater treatment than depth. PMID:12755448

Stecher, M C; Weaver, R W

2003-04-01

180

Seasonal effect on N2O formation in nitrification in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands are considered to be important sources of nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In order to investigate the contribution of nitrification in N(2)O formation, some environmental factors, plant species and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in active layers have been compared. Vegetation cells indicated remarkable effect of seasons and different plant species on N(2)O emission and AOB amount. Nitrous oxide data showed large temporal and spatial fluctuations ranging 0-52.8 mg N(2)O m(-2)d(-1). Higher AOB amount and N(2)O flux rate were observed in the Zizania latifolia cell, reflecting high potential of global warming. Roles of plants as ecosystem engineers are summarized with rhizosphere oxygen release and organic matter transportation to affect nitrogen transformation. The Phragmites australis cell contributed to keeping high T-N removal performance and lower N(2)O emission. The distribution of AOB also supported this result. Statistical analysis showed several environmental parameters affecting the strength of observed greenhouse gases emission, such as water temperature, water level, TOC, plant species and plant cover. PMID:18782640

Inamori, Ryuhei; Wang, Yanhua; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Zhang, Jixiang; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei

2008-09-07

181

Predicting effectiveness of construction project management: Decision-support tool for competitive bidding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents construction project management effectiveness modelling from the construction management organization\\u000a perspective. The paper reports on construction project performance data collected from construction management companies in\\u000a Lithuania and the United States of America. Construction project management effectiveness model (CPMEM) was established by\\u000a applying artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology. The discussions of project management effectiveness (success) factors\\u000a identified in

Rasa Apanaviciene; Arvydas Juodis

2006-01-01

182

Disturbance of Dabao highway construction on plant species and soil nutrients in Longitudinal Range Gorge Region (LRGR) of Southwestern China.  

PubMed

The disturbance of highway construction upon surrounding vulnerable ecosystems is a common threat in the Longitudinal Range Gorge Region of southwestern China. We evaluated the disturbance of highway on plant species richness and diversity and soil nutrients from adjacent to the highway to 300 m upslope and 100 m downslope in forests and grasslands by setting 12 belt transects in forests and grasslands (six belt transects and six control belt transects, respectively). The results showed that there were some significant variances in belt transects with respective control belt transects for species richness and diversity in both forests and grasslands. Species richness and diversity of trees were lower within a 50-m distance from the highway and more noticeable on the downslope portion. Species richness and diversity of shrubs and herbs appeared higher near highway edge. Both species richness and diversity of herbs were similar in forests. In addition, exotic species, such as Eupatorium adenophorum, were further from the road and more widely dispersed in grasslands. Soil nutrients except total potassium (TK) were lower in the downslope area adjacent to highway edge and showed a significant increase with increasing distance from the highway in both forests and grasslands. This indicates that grasslands acted as microhabitats for exotic species and are more easily to be invaded than forests, especially if disturbed. Once destroyed, plant species and soil nutrients will require a significant amount of time to be restored to control levels. This work illustrates that the effects extend considerably to distances upslope and downslope from the construction site. Given that these changes occurred relatively quickly, the study suggests that the environmental "footprint" grows far beyond the road and adjacent zone of disruption. PMID:18974942

Cui, Baoshan; Zhao, Shuqing; Zhang, Kejiang; Li, Shaocai; Dong, Shikui; Bai, Junhong

2008-10-31

183

Semantics of the transitive construction: prototype effects and developmental comparisons.  

PubMed

This paper investigates whether an abstract linguistic construction shows the kind of prototype effects characteristic of non-linguistic categories, in both adults and young children. Adapting the prototype-plus-distortion methodology of Franks and Bransford (1971), we found that whereas adults were lured toward false-positive recognition of sentences with prototypical transitive semantics, young children showed no such effect. We examined two main implications of the results. First, it adds a novel data point to a growing body of research in cognitive linguistics and construction grammar that shows abstract linguistic categories can behave in similar ways to non-linguistic categories, for example, by showing graded membership of a category. Thus, the findings lend psychological validity to the existing cross-linguistic evidence for prototypical transitive semantics. Second, we discuss a possible explanation for the fact that prototypical sentences were processed differently in adults and children, namely, that children's transitive semantic network is not as interconnected or cognitively coherent as adults'. PMID:22591052

Ibbotson, Paul; Theakston, Anna L; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

2012-05-16

184

Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of vertical flow (VF) constructed wetland systems to treat high-strength (ca. 300mgL?1 of COD and ca. 300mgL?1 total-nitrogen) wastewater under tropical climatic conditions was studied during a 5-month period. Nine 0.8-m diameter experimental VF units (depth 0.6m) were used: three units were planted with Typha angustifolia L., another three units were planted with Cyperus involucratus Rottb and three

Suwasa Kantawanichkul; Supreeya Kladprasert; Hans Brix

2009-01-01

185

Effects of cobalt on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt, a transition element, is an essential component of several enzymes and co-enzymes. It has been shown to affect growth\\u000a and metabolism of plants, in different degrees, depending on the concentration and status of cobalt in rhizosphere and soil.\\u000a Cobalt interacts with other elements to form complexes. The cytotoxic and phytotoxic activities of cobalt and its compounds\\u000a depend on the

Syamasri Palit; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

1994-01-01

186

Vaccine antigen production in transgenic plants: strategies, gene constructs and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable integration of a gene into the plant nuclear or chloroplast genome can transform higher plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, tomato, banana) into bioreactors for the production of subunit vaccines for oral or parental administration. This can also be achieved by using recombinant plant viruses as transient expression vectors in infected plants. The use of plant-derived vaccines may overcome some of

Francesco Sala; M Manuela Rigano; Alessandra Barbante; Barbara Basso; Amanda M Walmsley; Stefano Castiglione

2003-01-01

187

Construction of Pebble Springs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Portland General Electric Company. Supplement No. 4. Docket Nos. 50-514, 50-515.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supplement 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report of Portland General Electric Company's application for construction permits to construct their proposed Pebble Springs Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, located near Arlington, Oregon, has been prepared by the Offi...

1978-01-01

188

WELL CONSTRUCTION AND PURGING EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple well installations of selected casing materials (i.e., polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 304 stainless steel (SS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were constructed and sampled to determine if well purging and construction procedures would significantly bias chemical constitu...

189

Contrasting effects of invasive plants in plant–pollinator networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural organization of mutualism networks, typified by interspecific positive interactions, is important to maintain\\u000a community diversity. However, there is little information available about the effect of introduced species on the structure\\u000a of such networks. We compared uninvaded and invaded ecological communities, to examine how two species of invasive plants\\u000a with large and showy flowers (Carpobrotus\\u000a affine acinaciformis and Opuntia

Ignasi Bartomeus; Montserrat Vilà; Luís Santamaría

2008-01-01

190

Construction of a Chemical-Microbial Pilot Plant for Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cellulosic Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, construction, and operation of a pilot-plant unit to convert waste sugarcane bagasse into microbial single-cell protein by a previously developed process is described. After the bagasse was ground and given a milk alkaline oxidation treatment ...

C. D. Callihan C. E. Dunlap

1971-01-01

191

The exhaust detritiation system for the jet active gas handling plant; Engineering, construction, installation and first commissioning results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the engineering, construction and installation of the Exhaust Detritiation System for the JET Active Gas (Tritium) Handling Plant. Commissioning results without tritium indicated that the system has met the design requirements and operating parameters. Hydrogen and methane were fully oxidized. Dew point of -60°C was observed in the drier outlet. Tests carried out with substances potentially harmful

D. P. Wong; J. L. Hemmerich; J. J. Monahan

1992-01-01

192

Linear transgene constructs lacking vector backbone sequences generate transgenic rice plants which accumulate higher levels of proteins conferring insect resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biolistic transformation was used to introduce genes encoding the insecticidal proteins snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) and cry1Ac Bt toxin (d-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis) into elite rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Plant transformation was carried out in parallel experiments simultaneously by using either whole plasmids containing suitable gene constructs, or the corresponding minimal gene cassettes, which were linear DNA fragments

Nguyen Thi Loc; Porntip Tinjuangjun; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Paul Christou; John A. Gatehouse

2002-01-01

193

Loss of Plant Biodiversity Over a Seven-Year Period in Two Constructed Wetlands in Central New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

Kearney, Miranda A.; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

2013-05-01

194

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for Massachusetts: Construction Laborer Crushed by Unattended Rolling Street Sweeper at Asphalt Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On June 19, 1996 a 13 year old male occasional construction laborer was fatally injured when he was crushed beneath an unattended rolling street sweeper at an asphalt plant, owned by his father. The victim was walking away from the sweeper at the time of ...

1997-01-01

195

Ventilation in Connection with Vacuum Impregnation. The Construction of an Impregnation Plant with a Good Working Environment and Energy Saving for the Impregnation of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two different impregnation plants have been studied. The content of white spirit in air during impregnation, loading, unloading and storing have been recorded. The results have been used to construct a demonstration plant which is described in the report....

O. Hermansson E. von Gertten

1982-01-01

196

Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

1998-09-30

197

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND NITROGEN BALANCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Constructed wetlands have been found to be effective in removing large amounts of N (more than 20 Kg N/ha/day) from animal wastewater. At lower loading rates, plant uptake and soil accumulation are significant components of N removal. However, once the loading rate exceeds 10 kg N/ha/day, plant and ...

198

The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 μl\\/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was

R. Beard; M. Harrison

1990-01-01

199

Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (? ? < 0). High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of statoliths is the only significant effect of the magnetic field on plant cells and organs in the tested magnetic systems.

Kuznetsov, O.

200

Effects of herbivore identity on plant fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores are pervasive, yet their effects on plant fecundity are often variable. One potential source of variation in herbivore impacts results from differing feeding modes of herbivores. We examined the relative importance of inflorescence-feeding insects versus large ungulates in affecting the fecundity of Balsamorhiza sagittata (Asteraceae), a dominant native perennial forb in western Montana, USA. We quantified these effects across

Lindsay K. Amsberry; John L. Maron

2006-01-01

201

Constructs of highly effective heat transport paths by bionic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization approach based on the biological evolution principle is used to construct the heat transport paths for volume-to-point\\u000a problem. The transport paths are constructed by inserting high conductivity materials in the heat conduction domain where\\u000a uniform or nonuniform heat sources exist. In the bionic optimization process, the optimal constructs of the high conductivity\\u000a material are obtained by numerically simulating

Xinguang Cheng; Zhixin Li; Zengyuan Guo

2003-01-01

202

Construction of T cell hybridomas secreting allogeneic effect factor  

PubMed Central

T cell hybridoma lines were constructed by fusion of DBA/2 alloantigen- activated T cell blasts with the AKR thymoma line BW5147. Certain of the hybridomas prepared in this manner secreted spontaneously into their culture supernates biologically active molecules that displayed B cell- and T cell-activating properties characteristic of allogeneic effect factor (AEF). Cell surface phenotype analysis documented that the hybridomas were, indeed, somatic cell hybrids between the two respective partner cells used for fusion. The B cell-activating properties of these hybridoma supernates was demonstrated by their capacity to stimulate T cell-depleted spleen cells to respond in vitro to T-dependent antigens. The T cell-activating properties of these hybridoma supernates was verified by their capacity to stimulate autonomous development of self-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and by their capacity to exert mitogenic effects on unprimed T cells. The biologically active molecules secreted by these hybridomas were, like conventional AEF, inhibitable by specific anti-Ia antibodies thus indicating the presence of Ia determinants on the relevant hybridoma products. Finally, these AEF-secreting hybridomas could be stimulated to proliferate and to secrete increased quantities of AEF when exposed to the specific alloantigen-bearing target cells to which the T cell blasts had been originally sensitized.

1980-01-01

203

One-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning intron-containing hairpin RNA constructs for RNAi in plants.  

PubMed

*The hairpin-based RNA interference (RNAi) technique plays an important role in exploring gene function in plants. Although there are several methods for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs, these methods usually need multiple relatively laborious, time-consuming or high-cost cloning steps. Here we describe a one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC) method for making intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) constructs by our vector pRNAi-LIC. *To generate the ihpRNA constructs with zero-background, this method only requires treating two PCR products of target gene flanked with different LIC sequences and SmaI-linearized pRNAi-LIC vector by T4 DNA polymerase respectively, and then transforming these treated DNA mixture into Escherichia coli. *The ihpRNA constructs generated with our OZ-LIC RNAi vector can efficiently induce not only transient silencing of the exogenous marker genes and the endogenous resistance-related Nicotiana benthamiana SGT1 gene, but also stable transgenic suppression of Arabidopsis SGT1b gene. *Our new OZ-LIC method and RNAi vector will represent a powerful tool for gene knockdown in plants and may facilitate high-throughput determination of plant gene function. PMID:20406406

Xu, Guoyong; Sui, Ning; Tang, Yang; Xie, Ke; Lai, Yizhen; Liu, Yule

2010-04-12

204

Strategies for effective mosquito control in constructed treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands hold considerable promise for providing water quality and wildlife habitat benefits. At the same time, constructed wetlands have been described as “mosquito-friendly habitats” and may raise potential conflicts with neighboring human populations. Conflicts arise because some design features, such as shallow water and emergent vegetation that are essential for optimizing water quality polishing, can result in undesirable increases

Robert L. Knight; William E. Walton; George F O’Meara; William K. Reisen; Roland Wass

2003-01-01

205

Effect of cadmium on symbiotic soybean plants  

SciTech Connect

The potential for environmental contamination by cadmium (Cd) has increased significantly in recent years. Since Cd may be hazardous to living systems, a study was conducted to investigate: (1) the existence of Rhizobium japonicum strains tolerant to Cd, (2) the Cd effect on the symbiosis between host soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and R. japonicum strains with different Cd tolerances, and (3) interactions and distribution of Cd and other elements in the host when biomass is decreased by Cd. The existence of R. japonicum strains tolerant to Cd was assessed by comparing growth curves of 10 different strains growing in a basal medium with gluconate, yeast extract, L-arabinose, and Cd (0, 3.5, 7, 14, and 28 ..mu..g/ml). Strain 3Ilb110 (110) exhibited a tolerance to Cd after an initial lag in growth, while strain 3Ilb123 (123) was susceptible. Strains 110 and 123 were used to inoculate plants growing in nutrient solution with Perlite as a support medium to evaluate the plant-rhizobial interactions in the presence of 0, 2.2, 6.7, 10.1, and 20.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, respectively. Plants were harvested and tops, roots, and nodules were analyzed 23 days after starting Cd application. Cadmium decreased dry matter production of tops, roots, and nodules. Plants inoculated with strain 123 accumulated significantly more dry matter in nodules than those with strain 110. However, in the presence of 0 and 2.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, plants innoculated with strain 110 accumulated significantly more N than plants innoculated with strain 123. Nutrient imbalances were observed in the presence of Cd. It is suggested that the interactions of Cd with some nutrients may contribute to Cd toxicity in soybean plants. In this study the most pronounced Cd effect was on Fe and Mn nutrition, rather than Zn as had been previously reported.

Borges, A.C.; Wollum, A.G. II

1981-04-01

206

Vaccine antigen production in transgenic plants: strategies, gene constructs and perspectives.  

PubMed

Stable integration of a gene into the plant nuclear or chloroplast genome can transform higher plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, tomato, banana) into bioreactors for the production of subunit vaccines for oral or parental administration. This can also be achieved by using recombinant plant viruses as transient expression vectors in infected plants. The use of plant-derived vaccines may overcome some of the major problems encountered with traditional vaccination against infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and tumours. They also offer a convenient tool against the threat of bio-terrorism. State of the art, experimental strategies, safety and perspectives are discussed in this article. PMID:12531364

Sala, Francesco; Manuela Rigano, M; Barbante, Alessandra; Basso, Barbara; Walmsley, Amanda M; Castiglione, Stefano

2003-01-30

207

Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent. PMID:23168635

Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

2013-01-01

208

Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew during the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment.

Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, Richard; Jahns, Gary

1988-12-01

209

Microgravity effects on plant growth and lignification.  

PubMed

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew under the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment. PMID:11539286

Cowles, J R; Lemay, R; Jahns, G

1988-01-01

210

Disturbance of Dabao highway construction on plant species and soil nutrients in Longitudinal Range Gorge Region (LRGR) of Southwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disturbance of highway construction upon surrounding vulnerable ecosystems is a common threat in the Longitudinal Range\\u000a Gorge Region of southwestern China. We evaluated the disturbance of highway on plant species richness and diversity and soil\\u000a nutrients from adjacent to the highway to 300 m upslope and 100 m downslope in forests and grasslands by setting 12 belt transects\\u000a in forests and

Baoshan Cui; Shuqing Zhao; Kejiang Zhang; Shaocai Li; Shikui Dong; Junhong Bai

2009-01-01

211

BSM2 Plant-Wide Model construction and comparative analysis with other methodologies for integrated modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new methodology for integrated modelling of the WWTP has been used for the construction of the Benchmark Simulation Model N82 (BSM2). The transformations-approach proposed in this methodology does not require the development of specific transformers to interface unit process models and allows the construction of tailored models for a particular WWTP guaranteeing the mass and charge

P. Grau; P. Vanrolleghem; E. Ayesa

2007-01-01

212

Are Animals "More Alive" than Plants? Animistic-Anthropocentric Construction of Life Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the characteristics students use in attributing value to and classifying the living things; the relational construction of the life concepts and the living things and the place of human in this construction. Participants were first-year high school students from seven schools in Izmir (a large western city in Turkey). An…

Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Aydin, Halil

2009-01-01

213

SHORT-TERM BEHAVIOUR OF CONSTRUCTED REED BEDS : PILOT PLANT EXPERIMENTS UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of research on constructed wetlands have revealed the need for better insight in internal processes and better design and management tools. Current research is therefore increasingly oriented towards modelling, especially dynamic modelling. These models require large and high- frequency datasets for calibration and validation purposes but at present little is known about the short-term behaviour of constructed wetlands. This

Diederik Rousseau; Dieter Geenens; Peter A. Vanrolleghem; Niels De Pauw

214

Bioconcentration of triclosan, methyl-triclosan, and triclocarban in the plants and sediments of a constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands are a potential method for the removal of two pharmaceutical and personal care products from wastewater effluent. Triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol) and triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanillide) are antimicrobial agents added to a variety of consumer products whose accumulation patterns in constructed wetlands are poorly understood. Here, we report the accumulation of TCS, its metabolite methyl-triclosan (MTCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]), and TCC in wetland plant tissues and sediments. Three wetland macrophytes: Typha latifolia, Pontederia cordata, and Sagittaria graminea were sampled from a constructed wetland in Denton, Texas, USA. MTCS concentrations were below the method detection limit (MDL) for all species. TCS root tissue concentrations in T. latifolia were significantly greater than root concentrations in P. cordata (mean±SE in ng g(-1): 40.3±11.3 vs. 15.0±1.9, respectively), while for TCC, shoot tissue concentrations in S. graminea were significantly greater than in T. latifolia (22.8±9.3 vs. 9.0 (MDL), respectively). For both TCS and TCC, T. latifolia root tissue concentrations were significantly greater than shoot concentrations (TCS: 40.3±11.3 vs. 17.2±0.2, TCC: 26.0±3.6 vs. 9.0, (MDL)). TCC concentrations in P. cordata roots were significantly greater than in shoots (34.4±5.3 vs. 15.4±2.8, respectively). TCS concentrations in T. latifolia roots and sediments and TCC concentrations in sediments generally decreased from wetland inflow to outflow. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting species and tissue specific differences in the accumulation of TCS and TCC in plants from an operational constructed wetland. The species specific differences in bioaccumulation suggest TCS and TCC removal from constructed wetlands could be enhanced through targeted plantings. PMID:22483729

Zarate, Frederick M; Schulwitz, Sarah E; Stevens, Kevin J; Venables, Barney J

2012-04-06

215

The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants  

SciTech Connect

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 {mu}l/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was measured under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} conditions for three weeks. Plants grown under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions were significantly taller and showed earlier flower development. These plants also contained greater protein content per gram fresh weight. Crude leaf extracts was used as a source of pentose-5-isomerase which controls the conversion of ribose-5-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate in carbon fixation. The activity of this enzyme was measured spectrophotometrically and found to be somewhat greater in plants grown under the higher CO{sub 2} conditions. These physiological changes associated with elevated CO{sub 2} can be used as an introduction to the greenhouse effect as well as to study the regulation of carbon fixation.

Beard, R.; Harrison, M. (Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV (USA))

1990-05-01

216

Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

1980-12-01

217

Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands offer an effective means for treatment of wastewater from a variety of sources. An understanding of the microbial ecology controlling nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycles in constructed wetlands has been identified as the greatest gap for optimizing performance of these promising treatment systems. It is suspected that operational factors such as plant types and hydraulic operation influence the subsurface wetland environment, especially redox, and that the observed variation in effluent quality is due to shifts in the microbial populations and/or their activity. This study investigated the biofilm associated sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (using the dsrB and amoA genes, respectively) by examining a variety of surfaces within a model wetland (gravel, thick roots, fine roots, effluent), and the changes in activity (gene abundance) of these functional groups as influenced by plant species and season. Molecular techniques were used including quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), both with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment. PMA treatment is a method for excluding from further analysis those cells with compromised membranes. Rigorous statistical analysis showed an interaction between the abundance of these two functional groups with the type of plant and season (p?planted vs. unplanted microcosms. For ammonia oxidizing bacteria, season had the greatest impact on gene abundance and diversity (higher in summer than in winter). Overall, the primary influence of plant presence is believed to be related to root oxygen loss and its effect on rhizosphere redox. PMID:22961363

Faulwetter, Jennifer L; Burr, Mark D; Parker, Albert E; Stein, Otto R; Camper, Anne K

2012-09-08

218

Wetlands and Aquatic Processes Temperature and Wetland Plant Species Effects on Wastewater Treatment and Root Zone Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of operational data for full-scale systems in- dicate that SSWs can meet effluent criteria in cold cli- Constructed wetlands are widely used for wastewater treatment, mates, and that temperature effects on removal of or- but there is little information on processes affecting their performance in cold climates, effects of plants on seasonal performance, or plant ganic matter (OM) may

Winthrop C. Allen; Paul B. Hook; Joel A. Biederman; Otto R. Stein

219

Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants. PMID:24092003

Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

2013-10-05

220

[Obtaining marker-free transgenic soybean plants with optimal frequency by constructing three T-DNAs binary vector].  

PubMed

Obtaining marker-free plants with high efficiency will benefit the environmental release of transgenic crops. To achieve this point, a binary vector pNB35SVIP1 with three T-DNAs was constructed by using several mediate plasmids, in which one copy of bar gene expression cassette and two copies of VIP1 gene expression cassette were included. EHA101 Agrobacterium strain harboring the final construct was applied to transform soybean (Glycine max) cotyledon nodes. Through 2 - 3 months regeneration and selection on 3 - 5mg/L glufosinate containing medium, transgenic soybean plants were confirmed to be obtained at 0.83% - 3.16%, and co-transformation efficiency of both gene in the same individual reached up to 86.4%, based on southern blot test. By the analysis of PCR, southern blot and northern blot combining with leaf painting of herbicide in T1 progenies, 41 plants were confirmed to be eliminated of bar gene with the frequency of 7.6% . Among the T1 populations tested, the loss of the alien genes happened in 22.7% lines, the silence of bar gene took place in 27.3% lines, and VIP1 gene silence existed in 37.1% marker-free plants. The result also suggested that the plasmid with three T-DNAs might be an ideal vector to generate maker-free genetic modified organism. PMID:17366903

Ye, Xing-Guo; Qin, Hua

2007-01-01

221

Morning warming-up exercise—effects on musculoskeletal fitness in construction workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects on muscle stretchability, joint flexibility, muscle strength and endurance in construction workers of a 3-month period of a 10-min morning warming-up exercise (MWU), performed at the building site every working day. Thirty construction workers participated in the program. Seventeen construction workers at other building sites served as controls. Muscle

Eva Holmström; Björn Ahlborg

2005-01-01

222

Simple construction of chimeric hairpin RNA for virus resistance in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA silencing has been adopted to develop virus-resistant plants through expression of virus-derived hairpin RNAs. Due to the high sequence specificity of RNA silencing, this technology has been limited to the targeting of single viruses. Simultaneous targeting of multiple viruses or plant genes can be achieved by using a chimeric cassette. In this study, a simple method was developed to

Pu Yan; Shuchang Wang; Wentao Shen; Xinzheng Gao; Jinyan Wu; Peng Zhou

2010-01-01

223

Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The prim...

D. Meikrantz J. Law M. Greenhalgh T. Garn

2008-01-01

224

Problems and Experience of Regulatory Review Associated with Plant Construction and Commissioning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work of the Assessment Branch of NII covering the regulatory review during design safety assessment, construction, commissioning and operation is described commencing with the nuclear licensing procedure through license variations and conditions attac...

W. Commander

1979-01-01

225

Winter study of power plant effects  

SciTech Connect

As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.

Patrinos, A.A.N.

1980-10-01

226

The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)|

Hosie, Thomas W.

1975-01-01

227

Preschoolers Effectively Tutor Novice Classmates in a Block Construction Task.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined whether preschool-age experts (with task experience) would spontaneously assist novices (without task experience) when working in pairs on constructing a house with blocks. Found that experts were more likely to provide nonverbal assistance than verbal assistance, with modeling how to combine blocks being most frequent. The most frequent…

Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Nisbet, Valerie S.

2002-01-01

228

Mood and constructive memory effects on social judgement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a theoretical model of the mood-cognition interface, the prediction is derived and tested empirically that positive mood enhances constructive memory biases. After reading an ambiguous personality description, participants received a positive or negative mood treatment employing different films. Within each mood group, half of the participants were then questioned about the applicability of either desirable or undesirable personality

Klaus Fiedler; Judith Asbeck; Stefanie Nickel

1991-01-01

229

Cost-Effective Responses to Terrorist Risks in Constructed Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and the potential for future terrorist attacks have changed the way the owners and managers of constructed facilities approach homeland security-related issues. This report presents a t...

R. E. Chapman C. J. Leng

2004-01-01

230

Maritime and construction aspects of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant ships, detailed report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant-ships to produce energy-intensive products at sea is considered. Such OTEC plant-ships would use the temperature difference between the warm surface layer and the cold deep layers of a tropical ocean to drive a heat engine to produce electric power that, in turn, would be used to produce ammonia, aluminum, liquid hydrogen,

W. H. Avery; R. W. Blevins; G. L. Dugger; E. J. Francis

1976-01-01

231

The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland  

SciTech Connect

The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in constructed wetlands was studied by running a synthetic wastewater through a model, laboratory-scale gravel-filled constructed wetland (in which no plants were grown). The wetland was operated at temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C in an environmentally controlled chamber. An influent ammonia concentration of 45 mg/L as nitrogen was used to simulate typical domestic wastewater. For temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C, the wetland model achieved ammonia removal and nitrification of 45, 44, 56, and 65%, respectively. Thus, over the 18 C temperature range ammonia-nitrogen removal and nitrification rates varied only 20%. There was a net decrease in nitrogen as water passed through the wetland; this could be the result of cell growth or denitrification. Measurements were taken at the inlet, outlet, and four additional locations along the length of the reactor. Measurements were also taken at three different depths. Along the length of the reactor, nearly all nitrification was achieved in the first half of the reactor, then stopped because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Nitrification occurred slightly faster at the top of the reactor than at the bottom.

Lee, M.A.; Stansbury, J.S.; Zhang, T.C.

1999-05-01

232

Possible Effects of Genetically Modified Plants on Insects in the Plant Food Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: During the last years, there has been increasing focus on the environmental effects of genetically modified plants, not only hybridization and gene flow, but also effects on insects. A general overview of possible effects of genetically modified plants on insects ,is presented. Insects from different levels of the plant food web ,are included: herbivores (pests and non-pests), pollinators, predators\\/parasitoids

Eline B. Hågvar; Solveig Aasen

233

Construction of a Der p2-transgenic plant for the alleviation of airway inflammation.  

PubMed

In clinical therapy, the amount of antigen administered to achieve oral tolerance for allergic diseases is large, and the cost is a major consideration. In this study, we used tobacco plants to develop a large-scale protein production system for allergen-specific immunotherapy, and we investigated the mechanisms of oral tolerance induced by a transgenic plant-derived antigen. We used plants (tobacco leaves) transgenic for the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 2 (Der p2) antigen to produce Der p2. Mice received total protein extract from Der p2 orally once per day over 6 days (days 0-2 and days 6-8). Mice were also sensitized and challenged with yeast-derived recombinant Der p2 (rDer p2), after which the mice were examined for airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation. After sensitization and challenge with rDer p2, mice that were fed with total protein extracted from transgenic plants showed decreases in serum Der p2-specific IgE and IgG1 titers, decreased IL-5 and eotaxin levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, and eosinophil infiltration in the airway. In addition, hyper-responsiveness was also decreased in mice that were fed with total protein extracted from transgenic plants, and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells were significantly increased in mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, splenocytes isolated from transgenic plant protein-fed mice exhibited decreased proliferation and increased IL-10 secretion after stimulation with rDer p2. The data here suggest that allergen-expressing transgenic plants could be used for therapeutic purposes for allergic diseases. PMID:21602845

Lee, C C; Ho, H; Lee, K T; Jeng, S T; Chiang, B L

2011-05-23

234

Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient.  

PubMed

Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the framework of the Jena Experiment we determined plant community productivity (in 2004 and 2007) and performance of two phytometer plant species [Centaurea jacea (herb) and Lolium perenne (grass); in 2007 and 2008] in a plant species (from one to 16) and functional group richness gradient (from one to four). We sampled earthworm subplots and subplots with decreased earthworm density and reduced aboveground competition of phytometer plants by removing the shoot biomass of the resident plant community. Earthworms increased total plant community productivity (+11%), legume shoot biomass (+35%) and shoot biomass of the phytometer C. jacea (+21%). Further, phytometer performance decreased, i.e. belowground competition increased, with increasing plant species and functional group richness. Although single plant functional groups benefited from higher earthworm numbers, the effects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed affect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. However, belowground competition was modified by earthworms as reflected by increased productivity of the phytometer C. jacea. Moreover, particularly legumes benefited from earthworm presence. Considering also previous studies, we suggest that earthworms and legumes form a loose mutualistic relationship affecting essential ecosystem functions in temperate grasslands, in particular decomposition and plant productivity. Further, earthworms likely alter competitive interactions among plants and the structure of plant communities by beneficially affecting certain plant functional groups. PMID:19526252

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C W; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

2009-06-13

235

PLANT AND MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND DYNAMICS IN A MISSISSIPPI DELTA CONSTRUCTED WETLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A vegetated waterway in Sunflower County, Mississippi was converted in April 2002 to a three cell constructed wetland by erection of three dams and excavation to yield a capacity of about 1.3 million liters. An excavated area formed the thrid and final cell. This cell was populated by diverse asse...

236

Concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a bi...

J. K. N. Gbagbo

1997-01-01

237

Performance of a Pilot-Scale Biofilters and Constructed Wetland with Ornamental Plants in Greywater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially treated black water from septic tanks and grey water from households in Kuching City were polluting the Sarawak River. A pilot scale ecological sanitation was implemented where blackwater was held in septic tanks and greywater was channeled to a grease trap, biofilters and a constructed wetland before discharge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of

Teck-Yee Ling; Kasing Apun; Siti-Rubiah Zainuddin

238

Development of series of gateway binary vectors, pGWBs, for realizing efficient construction of fusion genes for plant transformation.  

PubMed

We developed a new series of binary vectors useful for Gateway cloning to facilitate transgenic experiments in plant biotechnology. The new system, Gateway Binary Vectors (pGWBs) realized efficient cloning, constitutive expression using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the construction of fusion genes by simple clonase reaction with an entry clone. The reporters employable in this system are beta-glucuronidase (GUS), synthetic green fluorescent protein with S65T mutation (sGFP), luciferase (LUC), enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP), and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP). The tags available are 6xHis, FLAG, 3xHA, 4xMyc, 10xMyc, GST, T7-epitope, and tandem affinity purification (TAP). In total, 13 kinds of reporter or tag were arranged and were almost applicable to both N- and C-fusions. The pGWBs could be used for many purposes, such as promoter::reporter analysis, observation of subcellular localization by the expression of proteins fused to a reporter or tag, and analysis of protein-protein interaction by copurification and immunodetection experiments. The pGWBs were constructed with modified pBI101 containing a CaMV35S promoter-driven hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) gene as the second selection marker. We also constructed pGWBs with the marker HPT driven by the nopaline synthase promoter. By using the pGWB system, the expression of tagged proteins, and the localization of GFP-fused proteins were easily analyzed. Moreover, tissue-specific and inducible gene expression using a promoter was also monitored with pGWBs. It is expected that, the pGWB system will serve as a powerful tool for plasmid construction in plant research. PMID:17697981

Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kurose, Takayuki; Hino, Takeshi; Tanaka, Katsunori; Kawamukai, Makoto; Niwa, Yasuo; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Jinbo, Tetsuro; Kimura, Tetsuya

2007-07-01

239

Effects on Milk of Transportation Through a Pilot-Plant Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the investigation was to examine the feasibility of transporting milk for long distances through pipelines and to study the factors which could influ- ence the quality of milk in this form of transportation. A pilot-plant pipeline system was de- signed and constructed to simulate the ac- tual conditions of pipeline flow. Effects of pumping on milk quality

E. D. Paneras; W. K. Jordan

1968-01-01

240

UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) Model Form of Licensing and Engineering Services Agreement for the Construction of a Fertilizer Plant Including Guidelines and Technical Annexures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses contracts for the licensing and engineering services needed for the construction of a fertilizer plant. It presents a UNIDO model form of such an agreement containing (1) general and specific guidelines (2) the text of the agreement, ...

1983-01-01

241

PASSIVE RADON CONTROL FEATURE EFFECTIVENESS IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses passive radon control feature effectiveness in new house construction in South Central Florida. he State of Florida has a draft radon standard for new construction. his study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in...

242

Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) in Improving Runoff Water Quality From Construction Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erosion from construction sites significantly affects water quality in receiving streams. A rainfall simulator was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for controlling erosion from construction sites. Erosion control methods investigated included dry and liquid applications of polyacrylamide (PAM), hydroseed, and straw mulch. Fertilizer was also applied to each plot to examine the effectiveness of the methods in

Michelle L. Soupir; Saied Mostaghimi; Amanda Masters; Katherine A. Flahive; David H. Vaughan; Aida Mendez; Phillip W. McClellan

2004-01-01

243

The situated person: Effects of construct accessibility on situation construals and interpersonal perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies examined the interrelationship between primed constructs, situation construal, and person perception. Previous research on priming and person perception has generally neglected the situational context. We predicted that when rich situational information is included, primed constructs can lead to assimilation effects on situation construals, which can in turn lead to contrast effects in person perceptions. Study 1 demonstrated that

Aaron C. Kay; S. Christian Wheeler; Dirk Smeesters

2008-01-01

244

Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

2002-11-30

245

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

Not Available

1988-02-26

246

Monolithizing the joints in pipelines during construction of the Zagorsk water storage power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The stockholder firm “Gidrospetsstroi” first developed, made feasible, and completely mastered a new procedure for work involving the monolithizing of large-diameter steel-reinforced-concrete pipelines in the domestic practice of special operations. 978 butt joints between individual elements have been successfully grouted.2.A procedure for monolithizing joints between reinforced-concrete elements in pipelines, which has been implemented in the construction of the Zagorsk

N. V. Dmitriev; V. N. Zhivoderov; Yu. D. Chertykov

1992-01-01

247

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

248

Full-scale investigations of the static deformations of foundations below 1000MW turbine units at nuclear power plants under construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1. Systematic geodesic observations of static deformations should be organized in constructing foundations for turbine units at high-capacity nuclear power plants; the results of these observations will ensure attainment of the required operational control data during construction and operation.

E. A. Bausk; V. K. Kapustin; V. B. Shvets

1985-01-01

249

On Variations of the Stress-Strain State in the Rock Mass During Construction of Underground Chambers for Machine Rooms of Hydroelectric and Pumped-Storage Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the stress-strain state in the rock mass during construction of underground chambers for machine rooms at hydroelectric and pumped-storage power plants indicated that the traditional approach to selection of their construction parameters is in need of revision.

V. N. Zhukov

2001-01-01

250

Evaluation of clogging in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: solids accumulation and hydraulic conductivity reduction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units regarding solids build up and clogging of the filter medium. In order to analyse the causes of this process, which is considered the major operational problem of constructed wetlands, studies were carried out to characterize accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity at specific points of the beds of two wetlands (planted with Typha latifolia and unplanted units) receiving effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating sanitary sewage (population equivalent of 50 inhabitants each unit). The experiments were performed after the units were operating for 2 years and 4 months. This study presents comparative results related to the quantification and characterization of accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity along the length and width of the filter beds. Approximately 80% of the solids found were inorganic (fixed). Near the inlet end, the rate interstitial solids/attached solids was 5.0, while in the outlet end it was reduced to 1.5. Hydraulic conductivity was lower near the inlet of the units (as expected) and, by comparing the planted wetland with the unplanted, the hydraulic conductivity was lower in the former, resulting in larger undesired surface flow. PMID:23508161

De Paoli, André Cordeiro; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

251

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

252

Constructs and Methods for Hairpin RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces an endogenous sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism in most eukaryotic cells. The mechanism can be harnessed to silence genes in plants by expressing self-complementary single-stranded (hairpin) RNA in which the duplexed region has the same sequence as part of the target gene's mRNA. We describe a number of plasmid vectors for generating hairpin RNAs, including those designed

Chris A. Helliwell; Peter M. Waterhouse

2005-01-01

253

PC-based Simulator for Education in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PC-based reactor simulation software PCTRAN was recently expanded to cover light water advanced reactors. The plant models include Generation III+ advanced PWR and BWR. The evolutionary designs are Areva EPR and GE ABWR by adding cooling path redundancy and devises for severe accident mitigation. One-step further is the passive-cooled Westinghouse AP1000 and GE ESBWR. Combined with PCTRAN's models of

Li-chi Cliff Po; Navajo Court

2008-01-01

254

Construction of a plant disease resistance gene from the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco ringspot virus (TobRV) is the type member of the nepoviruses1. It consists of 28-nm isometric particles which contain one or the other of the two single-strand genomic RNAs of 4.8 and 7.2 kilobases (kb) (refs 2 and 3). TobRV infects a wide range of dicotyledonous plants and is the causative agent of the budblight disease of soybean. A small

Wayne L. Gerlach; Danny Llewellyn; Jim Haseloff

1987-01-01

255

Design, construction, operation, and costs of a modern small-scale fuel-alcohol plant  

SciTech Connect

The design used for the Small-Scale Fuel Alcohol Plant (SSFAP) has overcome the major drawbacks of small-scale ethanol production, which are high labor requirements, batch operation, inefficient energy use, and low yields. By incorporating a microprocessor into the plant design, most plant operations have been automated and labor requirements have been reduced. Continuous processing has made energy conservation possible, thus reducing energy requirements. A low-temperature, continuous plug-flow cooker design has made high yields possible. Ethanol has been consistently produced at the SSFAP from corn at a yield of 2.6 gallons (anhydrous) per bushel and an energy requirement of 30,000 to 35,000 Btu/gallon (190-proof). In addition, barley, grain dust, and potato waste have been converted at the SSFAP. The capacity of the SSFAP is 180,000 gallons per year (300 days operation). Competitively priced ethanol is produced at this capacity. DOE intends that the SSFAP design be used as the reference design for small-scale ethanol production.

Leeper, S.A.; Dawley, L.J.; Wolfram, J.H.; Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.; McAtee, R.E.

1982-01-01

256

The counteracting effects of rate of construction on reinforced embankments on rate-sensitive clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previousresearchhasshownthatforconventionalsoils,aslowerconstructionrateleadstohigher embankment stability, while for rate-sensitive soils faster construction mobilizes higher short-term strength as a result of soil viscosity. Thus for rate-sensitive soils, the critical period with respect to the stability of the embankment is after the end of construction. This paper examines the effects of construction rate and PVDs on the short-term failure height and the role pore pressure

R. K. Rowe; C. Taechakumthorn

257

The effects of construction on water quality: a case study of the culverting of Abram Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sediment is a leading cause of impaired water, studies have shown that construction activities incorporating best management\\u000a practices (BMPs) can be conducted without lasting detrimental effects on water quality. This paper examines the water quality\\u000a impacts of a construction project involving the culverting of a creek to allow for the construction of a runway at an airport\\u000a in Cleveland,

Darci L. Houser; Heidi Pruess

2009-01-01

258

Phenotypic plasticity of plant response to herbivore eggs: effects on resistance to caterpillars and plant development.  

PubMed

Herbivory induces direct resistance responses in plants that negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores. Moreover, eggs of herbivorous insects can also activate plant resistance, which in some cases prevents hatching larvae from feeding. Until now, plant-mediated effects of eggs on subsequent herbivory, and the specificity of such responses, have remained poorly understood. We studied the specificity and effects of plant resistance induced by herbivore egg deposition against lepidopteran larvae of species with different dietary breadths, feeding on a wild annual plant, the crucifer Brassica nigra. We examined whether this plant-mediated response affects the growth of caterpillars of a specialist (Pieris brassicae) that feeds on B. nigra leaves and flowers, and a generalist (Mamestra brassicae) that rarely attacks this wild crucifer. We measured growth rates of neonate larvae to the end of their second instar after the larvae had hatched on plants exposed to eggs vs. plants without eggs, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Moreover, we studied the effects of egg deposition by the two herbivore species on plant height and flowering rate before and after larval hatching. Larvae of both herbivore species that developed on plants previously infested with eggs of the specialist butterfly P. brassicae gained less mass compared with larvae that developed on egg-free plants. Plants exposed to butterfly eggs showed accelerated plant growth and flowering compared to egg-free plants. Egg deposition by the generalist moth M. brassicae, in contrast, had no effect on subsequent performance by either herbivore species, or on plant development. Our results demonstrate that B. nigra plants respond differently to eggs of two herbivore species in terms of plant development and induced resistance to caterpillar attack. For this annual crucifer, the retardation of caterpillar growth in response to deposition of eggs by P. brassicae in combination with enhanced growth and flowering likely result in reproductive assurance, after being exposed to eggs from an herbivore whose larvae rapidly reduce the plant's reproductive potential through florivory. PMID:23687896

Pashalidou, Foteini G; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

2013-03-01

259

Industrialized construction of powerhouse walls at the serbryansk hydroelectric plant No. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a In order to ensure the required durability of powerhouses in the Far North it is necessary to take into account the operating\\u000a conditions, namely: the distance between the plant and the industrial centers, the limited possibilities for carrying out\\u000a major repairs, the hydrostatic and dynamic loads on all elements, and the winter and humidity regimens of operation of

N. P. Shargorodskii

1973-01-01

260

Effects of Salicylic Acid on the Bioproductivity of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid is a plant growth regulator that increases plant bioproductivity. Experiments carried out with ornamental or\\u000a horticultural plants in greenhouse conditions or in the open have clearly demonstrated that they respond to this compound.\\u000a Moreover, lower quantities of SA are needed to establish positive responses in the plants. The effect on ornamental plants\\u000a is expressed as the increase in

Alfonso Larqué-Saavedra; Rodolfo Martin-Mex

261

Bacterial community dynamics in horizontal flow constructed wetlands with different plants for high salinity industrial wastewater polishing.  

PubMed

This study is focused on the diversity of bacterial communities from two series of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CW) polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. Each series was planted with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia sp. in a substrate composed by expanded clay and sand. Chemical and biochemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were similar in each series, varying between 58 and 67% (inlet COD 218 ± 28 mg L(-1)) and 60 and 77% (inlet BOD(5) 37 ± 6 mg L(-1)), respectively. High numbers of culturable bacteria were obtained from substrate and root samples - 5.75 × 10(6)-3.95 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) recovered on marine agar and 1.72 × 10(7)-8.46 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) on nutrient agar. Fifty bacterial isolates were retrieved from the CW, related phylogenetically to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. Changes in the bacterial communities, from roots and substrate of each series, related to the plant species, hydraulic loading rates and along CW operation were examined using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The clustering analysis suggested that a diverse and distinct bacterial community inhabits each series, which was related to the type of plant present in each CW. PMID:20692679

Calheiros, C S C; Teixeira, A; Pires, C; Franco, A R; Duque, A F; Crispim, L F C; Moura, S C; Castro, P M L

2010-08-06

262

Species-specific positive effects in an annual plant community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant facilitation studies commonly test the nurse-plant hypothesis wherein an adult shrub species enhances the establishment of associated herbaceous species under its canopy. Using field and glasshouse experiments, this hypothesis is extended by testing the following four predictions: (1) nurse-plant effects can occur between species with similar life- forms and phenologies (2) positive effects are species specific, (3) the outcome

Christopher J. Lortie; Roy Turkington

2008-01-01

263

Herbivore Effects on Plant and Nitrogen Dynamics in Oak Savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores can often control plant dynamics by mediating positive feedbacks in plant species' influence on nutrient cycling. In a 7-yr field experiment in a nitrogen- limited Minnesota oak savanna, we tested whether herbivores accelerated or decelerated nitrogen (N) cycling through their effects on plants. We measured effects of excluding insect (primarily Orthoptera and Homoptera) and mammalian herbivores (primarily white- tailed

Mark E. Ritchie; David Tilman; Johannes M. H. Knops

1998-01-01

264

Positive effects of shade and shelter construction by ants on leafhopper-ant mutualism.  

PubMed

The myrmecophilous five-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus DeLong and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the influence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quinquenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artificially constructed shade. The greatest numbers of leafhoppers and ants were found on plants that received 50% shade. Shelters made by the ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) contained large numbers of leafhoppers and ants but were found only on T. dactyloides exposed to 50% shade in artificially constructed habitats. Additional sampling was conducted on wild gamagrass plants in the field to explore the presence of ants tending leafhoppers in shelters and to evaluate whether ant-constructed shelters protect leafhopper nymphs from parasitoid wasps. Large aggregations of S. geminata in shelters were also found in natural gamagrass habitats. Leafhopper nymphs living in shelters made by S. geminata may be protected against the dryinid wasp parasitoid Anteon ciudadi Olmi. No sheltered nymphs were parasitized by dryinids, whereas 24% of unsheltered nymphs had dryinid parasitism. PMID:19161690

Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Larsen, Kirk J

2008-12-01

265

Short-Term Effectiveness of Constructed Barriers at Protecting Apache Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placement of fish migration barriers (primarily of gabion construction) on select streams is one of the major recovery actions used to isolate and protect upstream populations of Apache trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache from downstream populations of nonnative salmonids. However, the effectiveness of the recovery action has not been evaluated. We evaluated the success of constructed barriers at preventing upstream movement

Lorraine D. Avenetti; Anthony T. Robinson; Christopher J. Cantrell

2006-01-01

266

Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.  

PubMed

It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change. PMID:20528987

Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

2010-05-04

267

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-08-01

268

Analysis of the decision to invest for constructing a nuclear power plant under regulation of electricity price  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of the regulation of electricity prices on the decision to invest in power plants is rationally explained using a real-options approach. Conditions under price regulation are described by a simple model in which the variable cost follows a stochastic process; free market conditions are described using Cortazar's model. The resulting comparison could explain the promotion

Shin'ichiro Takizawa; Atsuyuki Suzuki

2004-01-01

269

[Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].  

PubMed

As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

2013-05-01

270

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

271

Effects of Acid Rain on Plants and Soils in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of acid rain on some California plants and soils were studied. Plants growing in soil were treated with simulated rain on varying acidity. Direct foliar damage was not apparent, other than under extreme conditions which are not normally experience...

J. G. McColl

1981-01-01

272

Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)|

Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

1977-01-01

273

Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: a mesocosm experiment.  

PubMed

We investigated the use of flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) by-products from electric power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms although lower average stem lengths and fewer stems bearing flowers were observed in mesocosms with FGD liners. Potentially phytotoxic boron was significantly higher in the belowground biomass of plants grown in lined mesocosms with low phosphorus loading. A larger-scale, long-term wetland experiment close to full scale is recommended from this two-year mesocosm study to better predict the potentially positive and negative effects of using FGD by-products in constructed wetlands. PMID:11228959

Ahn, C; Mitsch, W J; Wolfe, W E

2001-03-01

274

Effects of prey availability, facultative plant feeding, and plant defenses on a generalist insect predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of feeding interval, access to host plants (thus, a source of sap), and plant defenses on\\u000a the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 design with two feeding intervals (1 day or 5 days) and\\u000a predators living on either tomato plants or plastic plants. Females fed every day had greater body

Adam M. Lambert

2007-01-01

275

Additive effects of exotic plant abundance and land-use intensity on plant-pollinator interactions.  

PubMed

The continuing spread of exotic plants and increasing human land-use are two major drivers of global change threatening ecosystems, species and their interactions. Separate effects of these two drivers on plant-pollinator interactions have been thoroughly studied, but we still lack an understanding of combined and potential interactive effects. In a subtropical South African landscape, we studied 17 plant-pollinator networks along two gradients of relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity. In general, pollinator visitation rates were lower on exotic plants than on native ones. Surprisingly, while visitation rates on native plants increased with relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity, pollinator visitation on exotic plants decreased along the same gradients. There was a decrease in the specialization of plants on pollinators and vice versa with both drivers, regardless of plant origin. Decreases in pollinator specialization thereby seemed to be mediated by a species turnover towards habitat generalists. However, contrary to expectations, we detected no interactive effects between the two drivers. Our results suggest that exotic plants and land-use promote generalist plants and pollinators, while negatively affecting specialized plant-pollinator interactions. Weak integration and high specialization of exotic plants may have prevented interactive effects between exotic plants and land-use. Still, the additive effects of exotic plants and land-use on specialized plant-pollinator interactions would have been overlooked in a single-factor study. We therefore highlight the need to consider multiple drivers of global change in ecological research and conservation management. PMID:23817775

Grass, Ingo; Berens, Dana Gertrud; Peter, Franziska; Farwig, Nina

2013-07-02

276

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON PLANT DISEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Most plant diseases consist of delicate interactions between higher plants and microorganisms. Acidic precipitation represents an environmental stress that has been shown to affect expected development of some diseases and similar phenomena under experimental conditions. From the...

277

Shell and Sabic (Saudi Basic Industries Corp. ) to construct Jubail petrochemical plant  

SciTech Connect

Shell Oil Co.'s Pecten Arabian Ltd. affiliate and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. have agreed to build a $3 billion petrochemical complex at Jubail, Saudi Arabia; the final documents will be signed in late Sept. 1980. The partners will invest about $400 million each in the joint venture, with Saudi public investment funds and commercial banks providing the balance of the funding. Shell will have the right to purchase Saudi crude oil on a long-term basis, as well as some chemical raw materials; the volume of crude made available will be determined by a formula that the Saudis are now developing. One plan under discussion would offer firms options to buy 500 bbl/day of Saudi crude for each $1 million of their investment. The feed for the new plant will be methane and ethane from associated gas now being flared. Product exports are scheduled to begin in late 1985. Product capacities will include (in thousands of metric tons/yr): ethane, 656; chlorine, 333; caustic soda, 377; ethylene dichloride, 454; ethyl benzene, 327; styrene, 295; and crude industrial ethanol, 281. Ships, terminals, and other infrastructure facilities are included in the agreement.

Not Available

1980-07-14

278

The role of plant uptake on the removal of organic matter and nutrients in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Plants in constructed wetlands have several functions related to the treatment processes. It is generally agreed that nutrient uptake is a minor factor in constructed wetlands treating wastewater compared to the loadings applied. For low loaded systems plant uptake can contribute a significant amount to nutrient removal. The contribution of plant uptake is simulated for different qualities of water to be treated using the multi-component reactive transport module CW2D. CW2D is able to describe the biochemical elimination and transformation processes for organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The model for plant uptake implemented describes nutrient uptake coupled to water uptake. Literature values are used to calculate potential water and nutrient uptake rates. For a constructed wetland treating municipal wastewater a potential nutrient uptake of about 1.9% of the influent nitrogen and phosphorus load can be expected. For lower loaded systems the potential uptake is significantly higher, e.g. 46% of the nitrogen load for treatment of greywater. The potential uptake rates could only be simulated for high loaded systems i.e. constructed wetlands treating wastewater. For low loaded systems the nutrient concentrations in the liquid phase were too low to simulate the potential uptake rates using the implemented model for plant uptake. PMID:16042261

Langergraber, G

2005-01-01

279

EFFECT OF METHANOL ON SOME PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants which use the Calvin-Benson pathway to fix Co2 to ribulose-1,5-biphosphate eventually producing two mole- cules of 3-phospholyceric acid (C3 plants) photorespire significantly under direct sunlight. Plants treated with methanol solutions show suppressed photorespiration and greater incorporation of C into organic compounds. Metha- nol enhanced the growth of oil seed rape, soybeans, small bean, cabbage, sugarbeet and ornamental plants. Concen-

Irena Zbiec; Stanislaw Karczmarczyk

280

Evaluation of the use of power-plant pond ash in highway construction, February 1992. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of power plant pond ash (coal ash) for use as a base course material. The pond ash contains both fly ash and bottom ash that have been codisposed of by sluicing to a disposal pond. Test sections included various combinations of fine and coarse ash with a sand-clay granular materials treated with different amounts of portland cement or hydrated lime. A control section was constructed by mechanically stabilizing the sand-clay granular material with washed gravel. All sections received a double bituminous surface treatment as the wearing course. The project was constructed in the Fall of 1987 and the report documents the performance for the ensuing three years. Performance measurements consisted of deflection measurements, distress and rideability surveys, and unconfined compressive strengths of drilled cores. All the test sections and the control section have given good performance through three years of service. No significant distress has been observed in any of the sections. Rideability of all sections is good and is typical of this type surfacing.

Crawley, A.B.

1992-02-01

281

Pretreatment effects of the Micro-polluted Water Supply in the Reservoirs by Subsurface Constructed Wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve water quality of the source of drinking water and mitigate load of drinking water treatment plant,A pilot test was conducted with integrated horizontal flow constructed wetland to pre-treat the Water Supply in the reservoirs of the Yellow Rive. Experiment was carried on in Yuqing Lake Reservoir in Ji'nan city and the water of it comes from

Shuili Yu; Xu Yang; YongSheng Ma; CunHai Xiu; Yan Zhao; XiaoJu Yan

282

Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost-) effectiveness. METHODS\\/DESIGN: In a RCT, 692 participants will

Iris F Groeneveld; Karin I Proper; Allard J van der Beek; Cor van Duivenbooden; Willem van Mechelen

2008-01-01

283

The Effect of Political Unrest on Construction Time for Food Grain Warehouses in Bangladesh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that effect actual construction time in the context of food sector projects in Bangladesh. One of the factors of particular interest is political unrest. The data for the study was obtained from a leading design and construction management company in Bangladesh. The sample size consisted of data for 104 food grain warehouse projects scattered all over the country. The effect of political unrest on construction time was analyzed in conjunction with other known variables of time overrun, such as increase in project cost and delay in procurement of construction materials. The results indicated that the effect local political unrest on construction time was statistically significant even in the presence project cost and procurement of materials variables. It was concluded that political unrest could be included in prediction models used for finding out actual construction time of food grain warehouse projects in Bangladesh. Based on these findings, a prediction model for construction time for such projects was developed.

Choudhury, Ifte

2009-08-17

284

Applying undistorted neural network sensitivity analysis in iris plant classification and construction productivity prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research focuses on the development and applications of a sensitivity analysis technique on multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks (NN), which eliminates distortions on the sensitivity measures due to dissimilar input ranges with different units of measure for input features of both continuous and symbolic types in NN’s practical engineering applications. The effect of randomly splitting the dataset into

Ming Lu; Daniel S. Yeung; Wing W. Y. Ng

2006-01-01

285

Plant Population Effects on Fibre Hemp Morphology and Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a 4-year study into the effect of plant density on the morphology and production of fibre hemp. At high density (180-270 plants m), strong competition for light early in the growing season promoted internode extension (primary growth) and inhibited increase of stem diameter (secondary growth). In relating plant density to fibre hemp production it can therefore

Stefano Amaducci; Marco Errani; Gianpietro Venturi

2002-01-01

286

Approaches for testing herbivore effects on plant population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. As plant invasions pose one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, it is critical to improve both our understanding of invasiveness and strategies for control. Much research into plant invasions and their management, including biological control, assumes strong demographic effects by natural enemies, including herbivores. However, the importance of natural enemies in the regulation of plant populations remains

STACEY L. HALPERN; NORA UNDERWOOD

287

Plant Growth Regulatory Effects of Chicken Litter Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken litter is often used in organic farming as a source of plant food, and to improve soil organic matter and microbial populations. Both positive and negative effects of such an amendment have been reported. Because of the complex interactions involving soil, plant, and microbial populations in the most common test systems, it is difficult to attribute the observed plant

Nasir S. A. Malik; Joe M. Bradford

2007-01-01

288

Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and\\/or\\u000a saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro\\u000a and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production.\\u000a Incorporation and\\/or supplementation of these

Metha Wanapat; Pongthon Kongmun; Onanong Poungchompu; Anusorn Cherdthong; Pichad Khejornsart; Ruangyote Pilajun; Sujittra Kaenpakdee

289

Effects of heavy water on higher plants: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of deuterium substitution are more obvious in higher plants than in microorganisms. In higher plants the response to ²HâO is a graded one with 60 to 70% the maximum level tolerated in the nutrient medium. A primary effect of deuteration appears to be the suppression of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids and terpenes. The inhibitory effects of deuterium

M. I. Blake; R. A. Uphaus; J. J. Katz

1977-01-01

290

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

291

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

292

Effects of Rotenoids on Isolated Plant Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The effects of several rotenoids have been studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber and etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyls mitochondria. The selective inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is characterized by several tests: (a) no effect can be observed on exogenous NADH or succinate oxidation; (b) malate oxidation is inhibited at pH 7.5; (c) one-third decrease of ADP/O ratio appears during malate oxidation at pH 6.5 or during ?-ketoglutarate, citrate, or pyruvate oxidation at a pH about 7; (d) during malate oxidation at pH 6.5, a transient inhibition appears which can be maintained by addition of exogenous oxaloacetate; (e) in potato mitochondria, the inhibition of malate oxidation disappears at pH 6.5 when NAD+ is added. Then, a one-third decrease of the ADP/O ratio can be measured. Such a selective inhibition of complex I is obtained with deguelin, tephrosin, elliptone, OH-12 rotenone, and almost all the rotenoids extracted from Derris roots. The presence of the rings A, B, C, D, E seems to be necessary for the selective inhibition. Opening of the E ring and hydroxylation of the 9 position (rot-2?-enoic acid) give a rotenoid derivative with multisite inhibitory activities on flavoproteins, which are quite comparable to those of common flavonoids such as kaempferol (Ravanel et al. 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 375-378).

Ravanel, Patrick; Tissut, Michel; Douce, Roland

1984-01-01

293

Effects of photochemical oxidants on plants  

SciTech Connect

Photochemical oxidants are found in 'photochemical smog' which is a complex mixture of primary and secondary air pollutants. The photochemical oxidants are secondary air pollutants formed by the action of sunlight on nitrogen oxides and reactive hydrocarbons, their precursors. The most important phytotoxic components produced by these atmospheric photochemical reactions are ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate. Other peroxy compounds, aldehydes, ketones, organic and inorganic acids, aerosols, and nitrogen dioxide also are formed. An analysis and evaluation of the available literature was used to characterize the relationships among emissions, ambient concentrations, effects and to identify the important controlling influences on the formation and effects of photochemical oxidants. The ultimate protection of humans, animals, plants, and materials from photochemical oxidant injury requires reduction of the ambient concentration of the particular air pollutant. The available emission estimates for the precursor compounds indicate that, at least for the foreseeable future, humans and the environment will continue to be impacted by photochemical oxidants. The material for this book was selected to provide a basis for preventive measures at the emission source and at the site of impact; also to provide researchers and students with a comprehensive information base.

Guderian, R.; Tingey, D.T.; Rabe, R.

1984-02-01

294

Treatment of reactive azo dye from textile wastewater by burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) in constructed wetland: Effect of molecular size.  

PubMed

The potential of burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) for the treatment of textile wastewater has been investigated. Reactive red 2; RR2 [MW=615], reactive red 120; RR120 [MW=1469] and reactive red 141; RR141 [MW=1775] were studied in order to determine the effect of molecular size on the efficiency of dye removal by plants in batch systems of constructed wetlands under soil and soil-free conditions. Dye concentrations, total dissolve solids (TDS), conductivity and pH in the effluents, and the relative growth rates (RGR) of plants were measured. The highest efficiency of dye removal during 7 days under soil-free conditions was RR2 (33.09 ?mol(RR2)kg(-1)(FW)), followed by RR120 (13.35 ?mol(RR120)kg(-1)(FW)) and RR141 (10.57 ?mol(RR141)kg(-1)(FW)), respectively. This suggests that the structure and size of dye molecule strongly affects the efficiency of dye removal by plant. The results from a synthetic wetland experiment found that dye removal was 96 % at 4 days and 6 days under soil and soil-free conditions, respectively. Furthermore, plants were able to decrease TDS (42 %), conductivity (50 %) and pH (from 9.5 to 7.4) within 2 days in the synthetic reactive red(141) dye wastewater (SRRW141) under soil-free conditions, thus demonstrating the potential of burhead for textile wastewater treatment. PMID:21644146

Noonpui, Sirikan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

2011-01-01

295

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

296

Effective ribozyme delivery in plant cells.  

PubMed Central

Hammerhead ribozyme sequences were incorporated into a tyrosine tRNA (tRNA(Tyr)) and compared with nonembedded molecules. To increase the levels of ribozyme and control antisense in vivo, sequences were expressed from an autonomously replicating vector derived from African cassava mosaic geminivirus. In vitro, the nonembedded ribozyme cleaved more target RNA, encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), than the tRNA(Tyr) ribozyme. In contrast, the tRNA(Tyr) ribozyme was considerably more effective in vivo than either the nonembedded ribozyme or antisense sequences, reducing CAT activity to < 20% of the control level. A target sequence (CM2), mutated to be noncleavable, showed no reduction in CAT activity in the presence of the tRNA(Tyr) ribozyme beyond that for the antisense construct. The reduction in full-length CAT mRNA and the presence of specific cleavage products demonstrated in vivo cleavage of the target mRNA by the tRNA(Tyr) ribozyme. The high titer of tRNA(Tyr) ribozyme was a result of transcription from the RNA polymerase III promoter and led to the high ribozyme/substrate ratio essential for ribozyme efficiency. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Perriman, R; Bruening, G; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

1995-01-01

297

Founder effect in crop-plant evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed-crop plants apparently originated from a limited number of mutants in which seed dispersal was changed from that found\\u000a in nondomesticated populations. Seed nonshattering in cultivated plants may be controlled by a single gene or a small number\\u000a of genes. Allopolyploid crop plants were derived from a limited number of interspecific hybridizations followed by chromosome\\u000a doubling. The consequence of this

G. Ladizinsky

1985-01-01

298

An empirical study on the construct and effective mechanism of organizational learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organizational learning construct and its effective mechanism are two research issues. This study is based on a survey\\u000a of 908 managers and employees from 43 companies in different regions of China. The results of exploratory factor analysis\\u000a (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) show that organizational learning in Chinese enterprises is a multi-dimensional\\u000a construct comprising of inter-organizational learning, organization-level

Haibo Yu; Liluo Fang; Wenquan Ling

2009-01-01

299

Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants.  

PubMed

The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal. PMID:23579843

Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W

2013-01-01

300

Grazing effects on plant functional group diversity in Mediterranean shrublands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing is one of the prevalent human activities that even today are taking place inside protected areas with direct or indirect\\u000a effects on ecosystems. In this study we analyzed the effects of grazing on plant species diversity, plant functional group\\u000a (PFG) diversity and community composition of shrublands. We analyzed plant diversity data from 582 sampling plots located\\u000a in 66 protected

Alexandra D. Papanikolaou; Nikolaos M. Fyllas; Antonios D. Mazaris; Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos; Athanasios S. Kallimanis; John D. Pantis

301

Passive Radon Control Feature Effectiveness in New House Construction in South Central Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses passive radon control feature effectiveness in new house construction in South Central Florida. The study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new ...

C. S. Fowler S. E. McDonough A. D. Williamson D. C. Sanchez

1994-01-01

302

The Effects of Personal Construct Group Therapy on Breast Cancer Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of a brief personal construct group therapy on breast cancer survivors (N = 42) randomly assigned to either the treatment or wait-list control condition. The Gottschalk Gleser Content Analysis Scales were used to measure the effects for group across time (preand posttreatment, pretreatment, and…

Lane, Lisbeth G.; Viney, Linda L.

2005-01-01

303

Ecological effects of feral biofuel crops in constructed oak savannah communities - June 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of elevated temperatures and drought on constructed oak savannahs were studied to determine the interactive effects of potentially invasive feral biofuel species and climate change on native grassland communities. A total of 12 sunlit mesocosm were used. Each mesoco...

304

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since relatively little is known about the effects of acid precipitation on growth and productivity of crop plants, a crop survey was initiated to study effects of HâSOâ rain simulants on growth, yield, and quality of selected crops which were chosen to represent diverse taxonomic groups and crop products. Plants were grown in pots in field-exposure chambers and subjected to

C. J. Cohen; L. C. Grothaus; S. C. Perrigan

1981-01-01

305

Effect of Light on Cell Division in Plant Tissue Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIGHT strongly influences many aspects of growth in plants. There have, however, been few studies on the effects of light on cell division in non-green plant tissue cultures. In the course of investigating the physiology of cell division in developing callus cultures of Helianthus tuberosus it has been observed that light can have an inhibitory effect on cell division.

R. S. S. Fraser; U. E. Loening; M. M. Yeoman

1967-01-01

306

Plant species effects on soil nematode communities in experimental grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of 12 different plant species on soil nematode abundance and community composition, and rotifer abundance, in an experimental grassland in Northern Sweden. Monocultures were grown for six or seven growing seasons before sampling. Four monocultures were grasses, four were legumes and four were non-leguminous forbs. Plant species identity had an effect on the nematode community, both

Maria Viketoft; Cecilia Palmborg; Björn Sohlenius; Kerstin Huss-Danell; Jan Bengtsson

2005-01-01

307

Antagonistic effects of seed dispersal and herbivory on plant migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two factors that determine plant migration rates - seed dispersal and population growth - are generally treated independently, despite the fact that many animals simultaneously enhance plant migration rate via seed dispersal, and decrease it via negative effects of herbivory on population growth. Using extensive empirical data, we modelled the antagonistic effects of seed dispersal and herbivory by white-tailed

Mark Vellend; Tiffany M. Knight; John M. Drake

2006-01-01

308

Trichloroethylene removal from groundwater in flow-through columns simulating a permeable reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch.  

PubMed

Groundwater contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative at several sites. A column study was conducted that simulated conditions in a PRB at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma. The reactive matrix was 50% (v/v) shredded tree mulch, 10% cotton gin trash, and 40% sand. The mean residence time of groundwater in the columns was 17 days. The estimated retardation factor for TCE was 12. TCE was supplied at concentrations near 20 microM. Over 793 days of operation, concentrations of TCE in the column effluents varied from 0.1% to 2% of the column influents. Concentrations of cis-DCE, vinyl chloride, ethylene, ethane, and acetylene could account for 1% of the TCE that was removed; however, up to 56% of 13C added as [1,2-13C] TCE in the column influents was recovered as 13C in carbon dioxide. After 383 and 793 d of operation, approximately one-half of the TCE removal was associated with abiotic reactions with FeS that accumulated in the reactive matrix. PMID:17612193

Shen, Hai; Wilson, John T

2007-06-01

309

Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis.  

PubMed

Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) (from an inlet of 420 to 1000 mg L(-1)) and 92% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from an inlet of 808 to 2449 mg L(-1)), and of other contaminants, such as nitrogen, operating at hydraulic retention times of 2, 5 and 7 days. No significant (P<0.05) differences in performance were found between both the series. Overall mass removals of up to 1294 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and 529 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) were achieved for a loading ranging from 242 to 1925 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and from 126 to 900 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1). Plants were resilient to the conditions imposed, however P. australis exceeded T. latifolia in terms of propagation. PMID:19289277

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2009-03-16

310

Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant. FY 1983-84 annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report details the ecological studies, conducted during Fiscal Years FY- 1983 and 1984 by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL), that relate to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. SREL has been contracted to carry out these studies for the Department of Energy (DOE) in order

J. H. K. Pechmann; R. D. Semlitsch; R. M. Lew; D. T. Mayack

1984-01-01

311

Plant population, planting date, and germplasm effects on guayule latex, rubber, and resin yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is a perennial shrub native to the Chihuahuan Desert. While guayule traditionally has been cultivated for rubber, more recently it is being cultivated for its hypoallergenic latex. Other uses including termite resistant wood products and an energy source have also been identified. However, the effects of various agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting dates, plant

T. A. Coffelt; F. S. Nakayama; D. T. Rayb; K. Cornish; C. M. McMahan; C. F. Williams

2009-01-01

312

The Effects of Tannery Wastewater on the Development of Different Plant Species and Chromium Accumulation in Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity tests were performed to assess the effect of tannery wastewater with different treatment levels on two wetland plants,\\u000a Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia, which are frequently used in constructed wetlands (CWs) for water treatment, and thus deepen the knowledge on their capacity\\u000a to withstand the application of industrial wastewater. Trifolium pratense, a plant generally used as an indicator in

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2008-01-01

313

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on cotton plant residue decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the impact of elevated atmospheric COâ concentration on the global environment is hampered due to a lack of understanding of global C cycling. Carbon fixed within plant biomass ultimately enters the soil via plant residues, but the effects of elevated-COâ-grown plant material on decomposition rates and long-term soil C storage are unknown. The objective of this study was to

H. A. Torbert; S. A. Prior; H. H. Rogers

1995-01-01

314

Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.  

PubMed

Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S

2011-01-01

315

Effects of Training Young Black Children in Vocabulary vs. Sentence Construction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment compared the effects of training young black children in vocabulary versus sentence construction to see which type of training would result in greater transfer to other areas of language performance. A total of 144 black children in preschool and kindergarten were randomly assigned to vocabulary training, sentence training, or…

Ammon, Paul R.; Ammon, Mary Sue

316

Effects of beliefs about meaning construction and task instructions on interpretation of narrative text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dimensions of students’ beliefs about meaning construction in reading processes, transmission and transaction beliefs, were studied. According to transmission beliefs, the reader’s task is to understand the author’s intended meaning, while transaction beliefs assign to the reader the role of active meaning constructor. Students’ beliefs were ascertained by means of a questionnaire (Schraw, 2000), and the effects of these

Lucia Mason; Fabio Scirica; Laura Salvi

2006-01-01

317

Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The research objective was to investigate the effect of pulsed wastewater flow on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh (m-p-m) constructed wetlands. From June to October of 2004, each of four, m-p-m wetlands in Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, received a different application of swine wast...

318

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF LATIN SQUARES COUNTERBALANCED FOR IMMEDIATE SEQUENTIAL EFFECTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESCRIBING NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. IT DEALS WITH LATIN SQUARES AS A CONTROL FOR PROGRESSIVE AND ADJACENCY EFFECTS IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS. THE HISTORY OF LATIN SQUARES IS ALSO REVIEWED, AND SEVERAL ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF LATIN AND GRECO-LATIN SQUARES ARE PROPOSED. THE REPORT…

HOUSTON, TOM R., JR.

319

Personal Factors Impacting College Student Success: Constructing College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, a new assessment tool identifying personal variables important to college student success, was constructed using empirical approaches grounded in a conceptual model. The exploratory and confirmatory studies revealed the six-underlying factors: Academic Self-Efficacy, Organization and Attention to…

Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Benton, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

320

Effectiveness of Radon Control Features in New House Construction, South Central Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new houses built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over...

C. S. Fowler S. E. McDonough A. D. Williamson

1996-01-01

321

The effectiveness of the revised scaffold safety standard in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the revised scaffold safety standard in the construction industry and to evaluate time trend analyses on scaffold-related fatalities and injuries, as well as inspections conducted and cited violations of the scaffold safety standard set forth in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1926, Subpart L. Data

A. S. Yassin; J. F. Martonik

2004-01-01

322

IMPROVING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF PRACTITIONERS BY CONSTRUCTING AN EFFECTIVE APPROACH IN SCIENCE TEACHING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been made to construct a different effective approach in science teaching by implementing cooperative learning and discussion to increase achievement in science teaching\\/learning and improve professionals' skills of practitioners in pre-service teacher education. This approach indicates that as teachers know their students well especially regarding cognitive skills, affective domain, and level of achievement, they can separate their

Ahmet Zeki SAKA

323

Effects of an unstable shoe construction on balance in women aged over 50 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundShoes with an unstable sole construction are commonly used as a therapeutic tool by physiotherapists and are widely available from shoe and sporting goods retailers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using an unstable shoe (Masai Barefoot Technology) on standing balance, reactive balance and stability limits.

Nerrolyn Ramstrand; Anna Helena Thuesen; Dennis Brandborg Nielsen; David Rusaw

2010-01-01

324

EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON CONTROL FEATURES IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION - SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new homes built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over high radon potential soil...

325

Effectiveness of guided co-construction versus direct instruction for beginning reading instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment with 178 first-grade pupils, the effects of an experimental beginning reading programme were investigated. Both an experimental and a control group worked with the most frequently used Dutch beginning reading programme, Learning to Read Safely. The instructional approach implemented in the experimental group was guided co-construction (GCC); the instructional approach implemented in the control group was

M. J. Snel; J. Terwel; C. A. J. Aarnoutse; J. F. J. van Leeuwe

2012-01-01

326

The Effects of Construction Probability on Word Durations during Spontaneous Incremental Sentence Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of seven studies, this paper examines acoustic characteristics of the spontaneous speech production of the English dative alternation ("gave the book to the boy/ the boy the book") as a function of the probability of the choice between alternating constructions. Probabilistic effects on the acoustic duration were observed in the…

Kuperman, Victor; Bresnan, Joan

2012-01-01

327

The effect of comments about shoe construction on impact forces during walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCCAW, S. T., M. E. HEIL, and J. HAMILL. The effect of comments about shoe construction on impact forces during walking.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1258 -1264, 2000. Comparisons of ground reaction forces (GRF) during gait are not typically conducted with blinding of the varied shoe characteristic, raising concerns related to the existence of a placebo

STEVEN T. McCAW; MARK E. HEIL; JOSEPH HAMILL

2000-01-01

328

Personal Factors Impacting College Student Success: Constructing College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, a new assessment tool identifying personal variables important to college student success, was constructed using empirical approaches grounded in a conceptual model. The exploratory and confirmatory studies revealed the six-underlying factors: Academic Self-Efficacy, Organization and Attention to…

Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Benton, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

329

Multivariate Effect Size Estimation: Confidence Interval Construction via Latent Variable Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A latent variable modeling method is outlined for constructing a confidence interval (CI) of a popular multivariate effect size measure. The procedure uses the conventional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) setup and is applicable with large samples. The approach provides a population range of plausible values for the proportion of…

Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

2010-01-01

330

Measuring CRM effectiveness: Construct development, validation and application of a process-oriented model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of customer relationship management (CRM) is usually evaluated by outcome indicators such as customer loyalty and business performance. To maintain or improve these indicators, CRM managers should regularly evaluate the progress of CRM practices. In this paper, we propose and develop a construct, called CRM effectiveness (CRME), comprising three dimensions: relationship marketing (RM), customer-focused information technology (CFIT) and

Ja-Shen Chen; H. J. Rebecca Yen; Eldon Y. Li; Russell K. H. Ching

2009-01-01

331

Inhibitory effect of seven Allium plants upon three Aspergillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal activity and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of extracts of garlic, bakeri garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese chive, scallion, onion bulb and shallot bulb against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were examined. These Allium plants possessed antifungal activity, with garlic showing the lowest MFC. With the exception of scallion, the inhibitory effect of Allium plants against three Aspergillus species

Mei-chin Yin; Shih-ming Tsao

1999-01-01

332

Effects of planting density and genotype on loblolly pine stands ...  

Treesearch

Description: We determined the effects of planting density (4- by 4-, 6- by 6-, ... with whole-plot factor planting density (n = 2) and the split-plot factor genotype (n = 8). ... decreased with stand density, and density-dependent mortality occurred in ...

333

Ultrastructural effects of salinity stress in higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity stress induces various types of ultrastructural changes in higher plant cells. These structural changes provide useful information as to the underlying mechanism of salinity stress. In this report the ultrastructural effects of salinity (NaCl) stress in crop plants especially in rice are described based on the research work conducted in our laboratory. Relevant research results are also described and

HIROSHI MIYAKE; SHIRO MITSUYA; M. D. SHAHIDUR RAHMAN

334

Effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of two studies done on the effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values. One study, which examined property values in the vicinity of four Northeastern power plants prior to the March, 1979 TMI accident, found no significant evidence positively or negatively. Using the same analytic approach, residences in the TMI area were surveyed after

Hays B. Gamble; Roger H. Downing

1982-01-01

335

PLANT GROWTH REGULATORY EFFECTS OF CHICKEN LITTER EXTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chicken litter is often used in organic farming as a source of plant food, and to improve soil organic matter and microbial populations. Both positive and negative effects of such an amendment have been reported. Because of the complex interactions involving soil, plant, and microbial populations i...

336

Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mägi, E., T. Järvis, I. Miller: Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 283-287. The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.),

E. Mägi; T. Järvis; I. Miller

2006-01-01

337

Fuel effect of repumping hydroelectric power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic analysis shows that the introduction and use of repumping hydroelectric power plants in the Czechoslovak electrification network would be advantageous. Fuel savings are obtained for repumping efficiencies of up to 73%. At the same time, unidirectional turbines display a higher repumping efficiency than the reversible type machines.

M. Nechleba

1976-01-01

338

Water quality in a surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing tertiary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.  

PubMed

Constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) are unique ecotechnologies that can sustainably treat a range of wastewaters. This study focused on a 0.23 ha vegetated surface-flow CTW polishing nitrate-rich (3-6 mg-N/L) tertiary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water quality was monitored longitudinally in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The CTW cooled water by from around 20 °C to <15 °C in both years. Longitudinal temperature profiles were successfully modeled using an energy balance approach (2009 R(2) = 0.69; 2010 R(2) = 0.92). The magnitude of key model fitting parameters, including albedo (0.1-0.2) and convective transfer coefficient (0.1-0.9 MJ/m(2) d °C), were within ranges reported in the literature. In both years, dissolved oxygen decreased through the wetland from 6-7 mg/L to 3-4 mg/L, yielding an oxygen mass consumption rate of 0.08-0.09 g/m(2) d. Longitudinal nitrate profiles were well represented by the P-k-C* model (2009 R(2) = 0.88; 2010 R(2) = 0.92). First order removal rates were 20.2 m/yr in 2009 and 29.0 m/yr in 2010 at a P value of 6.0. Levels of ammonia and total phosphorus increased negligibly through the wetland, remaining below 0.25 mg/L. This study shows that vegetated surface-flow CTWs are well suited to cool and polish low-BOD nitrate-dominated tertiary effluents with little degradation of other water quality parameters of concern, including phosphorus and ammonia. PMID:22925872

Beutel, Marc W

2012-01-01

339

Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

Downs, R. J.; And Others

340

Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

Downs, R. J.; And Others

341

Construction of one-loop Script N = 4 SYM effective action in the harmonic superspace approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a systematic approach to construct the one-loop Script N = 4 SYM effective action depending on both Script N = 2 vector multiplet and hypermultiplet background fields. Beginning with the formulation of Script N = 4 SYM theory in terms of Script N = 2 harmonic superfields, we construct the one-loop effective action using the covariant Script N = 2 harmonic supergraphs and calculate it in Script N = 2 harmonic superfield form for constant abelian strength Fmn and corresponding constant hypermultiplet fields. The hypermultiplet-dependent effective action is derived and given by integral over the analytic subspace of harmonic superspace. We show that each term in the Schwinger-De Witt expansion of the low-energy effective action is written as integral over full Script N = 2 superspace.

Buchbinder, Ioseph L.; Pletnev, Nikolai G.

2005-09-01

342

Plants Selection Method for Equipment Service Considering Use Effect Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment service increases in which venders have equipments in place of users and receive charge corresponding to effect of use. In this service business, income of venders change by performance that how users operate motors. To promote the business safely, a method of selecting plants where equipments are introduced is necessary, not only increasing expected earnings but also decreasing width of the earnings change. In addition, venders should negotiate interactively with users, so a method of selecting plant combination in a short time is necessary. In this paper, we propose the method for selecting plants combination considering the correlation between plants and using branch and bound approach in short time.

Tani, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Tadasuke; Komoda, Norihisa

343

The effects of plant diversity on nitrous oxide emissions in hydroponic microcosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that plant diversity can improve the wastewater purification efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs), but its effect on the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in CWs has been unknown. To investigate the effect of plant diversity on the N2O emission, we established four plant species richness levels (each level containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 species, respectively) by using 96 hydroponic microcosms. Results showed that plant species richness enhanced the N2O emission, ranging from 27.1 to 115.4 ?g N2O m-2 d-1, and improved nitrate removal (P < 0.001). The presence of Phalaris arundinacea within a given plant community increased the N2O emission (P < 0.001). The presence of Rumex japonicas had no influence on the N2O emissions (P > 0.05), but improved nitrogen removal (P < 0.001). Hence, our study highlights the importance of both plant species richness and species identity in mediating the N2O emission and nitrogen removal in CWs.

Sun, Hongying; Zhang, Chongbang; Song, Changchun; Chang, Scott X.; Gu, Baojing; Chen, Zhengxin; Peng, Changhui; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

2013-10-01

344

Bottom-up multitrophic effects in resprouting plants.  

PubMed

Severe damage often provokes compensatory resprouting of plants, which commonly modify plant morphological and phenological traits. Rapid plant growth often results in poorly defended nutrient-rich foliage, which is more susceptible to foliar-chewing herbivores. It is less known how other guilds of arthropods are affected by plant regrowth. We tested the hypotheses that clipping-induced resprouting and nutrient availability, separately and in combination, would (1) influence plant traits, (2) benefit chewing herbivores, sap-suckers, gallers, and pre-dispersal seed predators, and (3) cascade up to the third trophic level by positively affecting herbivores. Resprouted plants were morphologically and phenologically different from undamaged plants; as a result, seed predation, infestation rate, richness, and diversity of seed predators increased, and species composition was altered. Leaf consumption by chewing herbivores was four times higher on resprouted plants. The number of galls decreased, whereas the abundance of sap-sucking and leaf-chewing insects was not affected. The incidence of predators and parasitoids was also higher on resprouted plants and on plants with nutrients added, but the increase was less pronounced compared to the herbivores they feed on. Thus, the effects of resprouting, contingent on nutrient availability, can propagate simultaneously through two independent tri-trophic level pathways. PMID:22486081

Kersch-Becker, Mônica F; Lewinsohn, Thomas M

2012-01-01

345

Cost effective analysis of recycled products for use in highway construction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over 4.5 billion of non-hazardous wastes are generated in the United States each year. Out of these wastes over 200 million tons of post consumer waste is generated. The disposal of post consumer waste is the responsibility of municipality and society. Four waste materials glass, plastic, rubber tires and paper and paperboard were selected for the detail study. A questionnaire survey was conducted for obtaining input from all state Department of Transportation (DOT) Recyclers and solid waste management facilities in the state of Ohio. Responses received from state DOT stated that they use various recycled materials in highway construction but do not conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of recycle waste materials. The cost of disposal of post consumer waste is increasing, which requires an alternate use for these waste materials. One possible use of these post consumer waste materials is in highway construction. An economic analysis is needed for their cost-effectiveness before using these materials in highway construction. Though these recycled waste materials are expensive compared to virgin material, consideration of the savings in terms of societal cost make these materials cost-effective and attractive to use in highway construction.

Gupta, J.D.

1998-04-01

346

Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling  

SciTech Connect

The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design. For the activities covered under this NOC, the unabated and abated TEDE to the hypothetical MEI is 1.67 E-03 and 8.34 E-01 millirem per year, respectively.

JANSKY, M.T.

2000-05-01

347

USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

348

Effects of Uniconazole on Plant Growth and Water Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyracantha, photinia and dwarf Burford holly were treated with a foliar application or medium drench of uniconazole at three rates to determine uniconazole effects on plant growth. Pyracantha also received a foliar application or medium drench of uniconaz...

J. C. Henderson-Cole

1992-01-01

349

Fertilization and Spacing Effects on Growth of Planted Ponderosa Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fertilizer placed in the planting hole increased height growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) early in the life of the plantation. Later broadcast applications of fertilizer may have had little effect on growth. Wider spacings produce...

P. H. Cochran R. P. Newman J. W. Barrett

1991-01-01

350

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have

Robert S. Bandurski; Aga Schulze

1983-01-01

351

Gastroprotective effects of flavonoids in plant extracts.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to overview the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. In addition, we assessed whether these compounds are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically (i.g.). The following plant-originated flavonoid substances were considered; Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper). The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study where used 100% ethanol was applied i.g. to induce gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment with L-NNA. We conclude that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation. PMID:15800396

Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Ghegotsky, M R

2005-03-01

352

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

353

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration.  

PubMed

Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus. PMID:11542452

Bandurski, R S; Schulze, A

1983-01-01

354

Handbook for the Mechanical Engineer in the Machine Construction Plant. Volume I. Organization and Design Preparation of Repair Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The repair service for process equipment in medium and large plants consists of a centralized or plant-wide service and shop-level repair services. The centralized (plant-wide repair service for equipment includes the department of the chief mechanic of t...

1973-01-01

355

Pretreatment methods for aquatic plant biomass as carbon sources for potential use in treating eutrophic water in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Plant biomass is usually added to constructed wetlands (CW) to enhance denitrification. In this study, we investigated effects of different pretreatments on two common external plant carbon sources, cattail and reed litter. We determined the average ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN), designated as C/N, in water samples after addition of litter subjected to various pretreatments. The C/N in the water samples ranged from 4.8 to 6.4 after addition of NaOH-pretreated cattail litter, which was four to six times greater than that of water from the Yapu River and 3.84-39.15% higher than that of systems that received untreated cattail litter. The C/N of systems that received H(2)SO(4)-pretreated carbon sources varied from 1.7 to 3.6. These two methods resulted in TN and total phosphorus (TP) levels lower than those in river water. The C/N was 1.4-1.7 after addition of CH(3)COOH-pretreated reed litter, which was 34.87-53.83% higher than that of river water. The C/N was 2.5 in systems that received mild alkali/oxidation-pretreated reeds, which was 30.59% higher than that of systems that received non-pretreated reeds. The residue rates of cattail and reed litter subjected to various pretreatments were greater than 60%. Our results showed that NaOH, H(2)SO(4), and mild alkali/oxidation pretreatments were useful to rapidly improve the C/N of river water and enhance denitrification. PMID:23032761

Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Xin; Shang, Jia-Jia; Feng, Yi; Liu, Jia; Lu, Li-Jun

2012-01-01

356

Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of flowering and leafing phenology have dramatically increased during the last few decades because changes in plant\\u000a phenology can be indicative of possible effects of climate change at multiple scales. This article reviews the available literature\\u000a focusing on the effects of urbanization on flowering phenology. The literature of flowering phenology in urban environments\\u000a suggests that spring-blooming plants in a

Kaesha Neil; Jianguo Wu

2006-01-01

357

76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

2011-09-06

358

76 FR 65753 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' in the Federal Register...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

2011-10-24

359

77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

2012-05-21

360

Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of cessation of management on carbohydrate reserves of plants in meadows with different environmental characteristics and plant composition. We recorded storage carbohydrates and seasonal changes for 40 plant species. We asked whether there are differences in responses of carbohydrate reserves in forbs versus graminoids and in plants storing starch versus plants storing osmotically active carbohydrates. We analysed belowground organs before the meadows were mown and at the end of the vegetation season in mown versus recently abandoned plots. Whereas starch and fructans were widely distributed, raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main carbohydrate reserves of the Lamiaceae and Plantago lanceolata. Properties of carbohydrate reserves differed between forbs and graminoids but no difference was found between plants storing starch versus osmotically active carbohydrates. Graminoids had lower carbohydrate concentrations than forbs. We observed a positive effect of mowing on carbohydrate concentrations of graminoids in the dry, calcium-rich meadow and higher seasonal fluctuations of these values in the acid, wet meadow, suggesting that local factors and/or the species pool affect carbohydrate reserves. Despite local conditions, graminoids represent a distinct functional group in meadows from the point of view of their storage economy. We suggest that as well as growth, storage processes should also be considered for understanding the functioning of meadow plant communities. PMID:21309970

Jane?ek, S; Lanta, V; Klimešová, J; Doležal, J

2011-03-01

361

On the effectiveness in implementing a waste-management-plan method in construction  

SciTech Connect

The increasing awareness of waste management concerns from construction and demolition waste has led to the development of waste management as an important function of construction project management. The Hong Kong government started employing the implementation of a waste-management-plan (WMP) method for all construction projects in 2003. During the trial period, the government received different version of feedback from the industry. It also came out that detailed descriptions of waste management procedures in the WMP method largely affect the productivity of companies. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. The result showed that 'Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials' and 'Propose methods for reducing waste' are the main benefits gained from the implementation of the WMP method. However, 'Low financial incentive' and 'Increase in overhead cost' are considered as the major difficulties in the implementation. From that, 'Use of prefabricated building components' is considered as the major effective measure to encourage the implementation of the WMP method.

Tam, Vivian W.Y. [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, QLD 9726 (Australia)], E-mail: v.tam@griffith.edu.au

2008-07-01

362

Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas bearing catabolic plasmids: Naphthalene degradation and effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two IncP-9 naphthalene degradative plasmids pOV17 and pBS216 were transferred into plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas which were represented by species P. aureofaciens, P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida. The strains with the same plasmid differed significantly by their growth parameters, stability of the plasmid and plant protective effect from naphthalene action. Strains P. putida 53a(pOV17) and P. chlororaphis PCL1391(pOV17) demonstrated

Tatyana O. Anokhina; Olga V. Volkova; Irina F. Puntus; Andrei E. Filonov; Vladimir V. Kochetkov; Alexander M. Boronin

2006-01-01

363

Contrasting effects of resource availability and plant mortality on plant community invasion by Bromus tectorum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positive effect of disturbance on plant community invasibility is one of the more consistent results in invasion ecology.\\u000a It is generally attributed to a coincident increase in available resources (due to the disturbance) that allows non-resident\\u000a plant species to establish (Davis MA, Grime JP Thompson K, J Ecol 88:528–534, 2000). However, most research addressing this\\u000a issue has been in

E. Carol Adair; Ingrid C. Burke; William K. Lauenroth

2008-01-01

364

Comparative evaluation of pilot scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands and plant root mats for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene and MTBE.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate technology options for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and MTBE in constructed wetlands (CWs), a scarcely applied plant root mat system and two horizontal subsurface-flow (HSSF) CWs were investigated. The inflow load of benzene and MTBE were 188-522 and 31-90 mg d(-1)m(-2), respectively. Higher removal efficiencies were obtained during summer in all systems. The benzene removal efficiencies were 0-33%, 24-100% and 22-100% in the unplanted HSSF-CW, planted HSSF-CW and the plant root mat, respectively; the MTBE removal efficiencies amounted to 0-33%, 16-93% and 8-93% in the unplanted HSSF-CW, planted HSSF-CW and the plant root mat, respectively. The volatilisation rates in the plant root mat amounted to 7.24 and 2.32 mg d(-1)m(-2) for benzene and MTBE, which is equivalent to 3.0% and 15.2% of the total removal. The volatilisation rates in the HSSF-CW reached 2.59 and 1.07 mg d(-1)m(-2), corresponding to 1.1% and 6.1% of the total removal of benzene and MTBE, respectively. The results indicate that plant root mats are an interesting option for the treatment of waters polluted with benzene and MTBE under moderate temperatures conditions. PMID:22326241

Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Reiche, Nils; Borsdorf, Helko; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz

2012-01-28

365

Host Effects on Herbivory and Pollination in a Hemiparasitic Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect effects of hosts on interactions between parasites and other species are not well understood, and it may be difficult to predict the outcome of host species effects on parasite performance due to the complexity of potential direct and indirect effects. For example, parasitic plants obtain defensive compounds as well as nutrients from their hosts, and thus many attributes

Lynn S. Adler

2002-01-01

366

EFFECTS OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ON SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested soil, the effect of appl...

367

Potential antileishmanial effect of three medicinal plants.  

PubMed

THE ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE ORGANIC SOLVENT EXTRACTS AND WATER RESIDUE OF THE PLANTS: Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae) (husk), Ambrosia miratima (Astraceae) (aerial shoot) and Azadarichta indica (Meliaceae) (leaves) were tested in vitro against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The study revealed that the extracts of A. nilotica and A. miratima have effectious antileishmanial activity at concentrations (IC(50)) less than 8 ?g/ml, while the extracts of A. indica lack antileishmanial activity. The chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of A. nilotica, the most potent extract, resulted in four TLC fractions. Three of these fractions possessed antileishmanial activity. Phytochemical study of the potent fractions revealed the presence of poly hydroxyl compounds. PMID:23326001

Eltayeb, A; Ibrahim, K

2012-03-01

368

[Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].  

PubMed

Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed. PMID:18637335

Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

2008-04-01

369

Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) in Improving Runoff Water Quality From Construction Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion from construction sites significantly affects water quality in receiving streams. A rainfall simulator was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for controlling erosion from construction sites. Erosion control methods investigated included dry and liquid applications of polyacrylamide (PAM), hydroseed, and straw mulch. Fertilizer was also applied to each plot to examine the effectiveness of the methods in reducing nutrient losses in runoff. Runoff samples were analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonium, total phosphorus (TP), and orthophosphate. Among all treatments investigated, straw mulch was the most effective treatment for controlling TSS and nutrient losses during short term and long term simulations. The low liquid PAM (half the recommended PAM) treatment resulted in the highest reduction in runoff, TSS bound nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and loadings. The study results indicate that a high application rate (twice the recommended rate) of PAM could actually increase runoff and TSS losses. At a low application rate, both liquid and dry PAM were effective in reducing TSS and nutrient losses in runoff. However, application of the liquid form of PAM to construction sites is more practical and perhaps more economical than applying the PAM in the dry form.

Soupir, Michelle L.; Mostaghimi, Saied; Masters, Amanda; Flahive, Katherine A.; Vaughan, David H.; Mendez, Aida; McClellan, Phillip W.

2004-02-01

370

The effect of faba bean plant population on yield, seed quality and plant architecture under irrigation in southern NSW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant population on the grain yield, seed quality and plant architecture of faba beans (Vicia faba) was evaluated in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area of southern NSW in 2006. The faba bean cultivars Farah, Fiesta VF and Nura were sown under irrigated conditions at target plant populations of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 plants\\/m2. To understand

PW Matthews; EL Armstrong; CJ Lisle; ID Menz; PL Shephard

371

Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector\\/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter

E. Ortiz-Vázquez; D. Kaemmer; H. B. Zhang; J. Muth; M. Rodríguez-Mendiola; C. Arias-Castro; Andrew James

2005-01-01

372

Construction and application of a mass spectral and retention time index database generated from plant GC\\/EI-TOF-MS metabolite profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-supervised construction of a mass spectral and retention time index data base (MS\\/RI library) from a set of plant metabolic profiles covering major organs of potato (Solanum tuberosum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum), and Arabidopsis thaliana, was demonstrated. Typically 300–500 mass spectral components with a signal to noise ratio ?75 were obtained from GC\\/EI-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS metabolite profiles of methoxyaminated and trimethylsilylated

Cornelia Wagner; Michael Sefkow; Joachim Kopka

2003-01-01

373

Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission-line construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were significantly reduced on the disturbed area. Diversity increased on the disturbed plot after construction, but

C. D. Johnson; J. R. Beley; T. M. Ditsworth; S. M. Butt

1983-01-01

374

Construction of Effective Electromagnetic Currents for Two-Body Quasipotential Equations  

SciTech Connect

A systematic algebraic approach for the construction of effective electro-magnetic currents consistent with relativistic two-body quasipotential equations is presented. This approach generalizes the Mandelstam formalism and applies it to a generic quasipotential reduction method. The use of Ward-Takahashi identities for the effective currents guarantees conservation of current matrix elements involving any combination of bound and scattering states. This approach is shown to reproduce previous results for current matrix elements for the particular cases of the Gross and Blankenbecler-Sugar equations. A generic method of truncation of the quasipotential effective current with respect to the number of boson exchanges is introduced.

Dmitri Krioukov

1998-09-01

375

Ecotoxicological effects of cadmium on three ornamental plants.  

PubMed

Ecotoxicological effects of cadmium (Cd) on three ornamental plants African marigold (Tagetes erecta), scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) and sweet hibiscus (Abelmoschus manihot) were investigated. Seeds of these plants were exposed to five different concentrations of Cd (0-50 mgl(-1)). Ecotoxicological indexes based on inhibition rate (IC) of seed germination, root and shoot elongation, biomass (fresh weight and dry weight), as well as IC50 (Cd concentration when 50% plants show inhibition) and tolerance indexes (the ratio of maximum root length in an experimental group to that in a control group) were determined. The results indicated that Cd had little effects (p>0.05) on seed germination of the three plants and shoot elongation of scarlet sage (S. splendens). Cadmium had significant (p<0.05) inhibitory effects on root elongation of the three plants and shoot elongation of African marigold (T. erecta). The fresh weight biomass of scarlet sage (S. splendens) was most sensitive to Cd, while that of sweet hibiscus (A. manihot) was least sensitive. On a dry weight basis, African marigold (T. erecta) was the least sensitive, and scarlet sage (S. splendens) was the most sensitive to Cd. Based on IC50 of seed germination, sweet hibiscus (A. manihot) was the most insensitive plant with an IC50 value as high as 428.0 gl(-1). According to Cd-tolerance indexes under the same Cd concentration, sweet hibiscus (A. manihot) was the most tolerant plant whereas scarlet sage (S. splendens) was the most sensitive one. PMID:15910897

Wang, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Xing

2005-06-01

376

Cyclotron-based effects on plant gravitropism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary roots exhibit positive gravitropism and grow in the direction of the gravitational vector, while shoots respond negatively and grow opposite to the gravitational vector. We first demonstrated that the use of a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), which is comprised of a permanent magnetic field and an alternating magnetic field with the frequency resonance of the cyclotron frequency of calcium ions, can change root gravitropism from a positive direction to negative direction. Two-day-old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in a chamber that was placed into a ?-metal shield where this CMF was created. Using this "new model" of a root gravitropic response, we have studied some of its components including the movement of amyloplasts-statoliths in root cap statocytes and the distribution of Ca 2+ ions in the distal elongation zone during gravistimulation. Unlike results from the control, amyloplasts did not sediment in the distal part of a statocyte, and more Ca 2+ accumulation was observed in the upper side of a gravistimulated root for seedlings treated with the CMF. For plants treated with the CMF, it appears that a root gravitropic reaction occurs by a normal physiological process resulting in root bending although in the opposite direction. These results support the hypothesis that both the amyloplasts in the root cap statocytes and calcium are important signaling components in plant gravitropism.

Kordyum, E.; Sobol, M.; Kalinina, Ia.; Bogatina, N.; Kondrachuk, A.

377

Effects of plant gross morphology on predator consumption rates.  

PubMed

We find that spatial structure, and in particular, differences in gross plant morphology, can alter the consumption rates of generalist insect predators. We compared Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and green lacewing larvae, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, consumption rates of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, in homogeneous environments (petri dishes) and heterogeneous environments (whole plants). Spatial complexity is often described as reducing predator success, and we did find that predators consumed significantly more aphids on leaf tissue in petri dishes than on whole plants with the same surface area. However, subtle differences in plant morphology may have more unexpected effects. A comparison of consumption rates on four different isogenic pea morphs (Pisum sativum L.) controlled for surface area indicated that both lady beetles and lacewings were more successful on morphologies that were highly branched. We speculate that predators move more easily over highly branched plants because there are more edges to grasp. PMID:22732608

Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim

2012-06-01

378

Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L  

SciTech Connect

Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

1990-06-01

379

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

380

Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh–pond–marsh constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research objective was to investigate the effect of intermittent wetland drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh–pond–marsh (m–p–m) constructed wetlands. For 16 weeks beginning in June 2002, each of four m–p–m wetlands in Greensboro, NC, USA, received a different application of swine wastewater. The four application schemes were as follows: (1) continuous application; (2) 1 week of no application

M. E. Poach; P. G. Hunt; G. B. Reddy; K. C. Stone; M. H. Johnson; A. Grubbs

2007-01-01

381

Options for Improving the Effectiveness and Potentials for a Sustainable Resource Recovery in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is divided into two parts, one presenting the options to improve the effectiveness of constructed wetlands (CWs)\\u000a by focusing into their associated problems and one investigating the potentials of sustainable resource recovery. To deal\\u000a with the problematic septic tank, one particular system initiated in France aims to treat raw household wastewater solely\\u000a by CWs. It has been proved

Nathasith Chiarawatchai; Ralf Otterpohl

382

Constructing knowledge: An effective use of educational technology for teaching Islamic studies in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 21st century as a digital age is characterized by the increased accessibility of information and knowledge through the\\u000a medium of sophisticated technological tools. The main aim of this article is to show how educational technology can be used\\u000a effectively to help students construct knowledge when teaching Islamic studies in the UK. The first part of this paper summarizes\\u000a the

Ayla Göl

383

Effect of media perfusion rate on cell seeded 3D bone constructs in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tissue culture system we designed that perfuses culture media through 3D porous cellular constructs, this study tested the effects of media perfusion rate on cell viability, proliferation and gene expression within cell-seeded 3D bone scaffolds. Human trabecular bone scaffolds were seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and perfused for one week at flow rates of 0.01, 0.1, 0.2 and

B. D. Porter; S. H. Cartmell; R. E. Guldberg

2002-01-01

384

Environments for Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

1970-01-01

385

Environments for Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)|

Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

1970-01-01

386

The effects of tannery wastewater on the development of different plant species and chromium accumulation in Phragmites australis.  

PubMed

Toxicity tests were performed to assess the effect of tannery wastewater with different treatment levels on two wetland plants, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia, which are frequently used in constructed wetlands (CWs) for water treatment, and thus deepen the knowledge on their capacity to withstand the application of industrial wastewater. Trifolium pratense, a plant generally used as an indicator in toxicity tests, was included as a control. End points measured were germination percentage, shoot length, root elongation, and biomass growth of the plants. When tannery effluent, with a low treatment level, was supplied to the wetland plants germination occurred even at effluent concentrations of 100%, whereas germination of T. pratense was completely inhibited, almost invariably, at effluent concentration of 50%. Higher germination levels were achieved when the plants were exposed to effluent originating from the outlet of constructed wetland pilot units, allowing germination of all tested plants, indicating a significant decrease in its toxicity level. Experiments conducted with the same plants using different growing substrata as the germination matrix, namely expanded clay aggregates (Filtralite MR 3-8 and Filtralite NR 3-8) and two types of sand (fine gravel and standard sand) have shown that higher germination levels were achieved in standard sand and that P. australis was the plant species showing higher germination in all cases, reinforcing the robustness of this plant to environmental stress. The phytoextraction potential of P. australis, was evaluated by subjecting the plant to tannery wastewater supplemented with 50 and 150 mg Cr/L. After 6 weeks of exposure, levels up to 4825, 883, and 627 mg Cr/kg were found in the rhizome, shoot, and leaves, respectively, although phytotoxic signs in the plant were evident. This plant might not be considered a chromium hyperacumulator, but the potential to extract and accumulate this metal on its rhizomes is high. PMID:18214580

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2008-01-24

387

Plant Rhizosphere Effects on Metal Mobilization and Transport  

SciTech Connect

A mechanistic understanding of mobilization or immobilization of nutrient and pollutant metal ions by plants is largely lacking. It begins with a lack of knowledge on the chemical nature of rhizosphere components that are reactive with metal ions. This fundamental knowledge is critical to the design and implementation of phytoremediation for metal-contaminated DOE sites. Therefore, the objectives of this project include (1) To obtain a comprehensive composition of major organic components in plant root exudates as a function of different metal ions and plant species; (2) To examine plant metabolic response(s) to these metal ion treatments, with emphasis on production of metal reactive compounds; (3) To investigate the effect(s) of soil microbial (e.g. mycorrhizae) association on (1) and (2).

Fan, Teresa W.-M; Crowley, David; Higashi, Richard M.

1999-06-01

388

Construction of an intron-containing marker gene: Splicing of the intron in transgenic plants and its use in monitoring early events in Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a commonly used tool for transforming dicotyledonous plants. The underlying mechanism of transformation however is not very well understood. One problem complicating the analysis of this mechanism is the fact that most indicator genes are already active in Agrobacterium, thereby preventing the precise determination of timing and localisation of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. In order to

G. Vancanneyt; R. Schmidt; A. O'Connor-Sanchez; L. Willmitzer; M. Rocha-Sosa

1990-01-01

389

Allelopathic Effects of Volatile Cineoles on Two Weedy Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile monoterpene analogs, 1,4-cineole and 1,8-cineole, have been identified as components of many plant essential oils, but relatively little is known about their biological activities. We compared the effects of 1,4- and 1,8-cineole on two weedy plant species by monitoring germination, mitosis, root and shoot growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic efficiency. 1,4-Cineole severely inhibited growth of roots and shoots,

Joanne G. Romagni; Stacy N. Allen; Franck E. Dayan

2000-01-01

390

Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their\\u000a impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and\\u000a fruit quality parameters and their

Diana Rocio Andrade-Linares; Rita Grosch; Silvia Restrepo; Angelika Krumbein; Philipp Franken

2011-01-01

391

The Composite Effect of Transgenic Plant Volatiles for Acquired Immunity to Herbivory Caused by InterPlant Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles

Atsushi Muroi; Abdelaziz Ramadan; Masahiro Nishihara; Masaki Yamamoto; Rika Ozawa; Junji Takabayashi; Gen-Ichiro Arimura; Frederic Marion-Poll

2011-01-01

392

Construction package No. 11 (RADL Item 7-35) plant electrical equipment installation technical specification: Book 1 of 3  

SciTech Connect

The work of this Contract consists of electrical installation in the Core Area, Secondary Fire Pump Building, meteorological and special heliostat measurements, and other miscellaneous locations at the plant site outside the Core Area, in accordance with the Drawings and as specified herein, complete and ready for use, at the 10 MWe Solar Pilot Plant, near Daggett, California.

Not Available

1980-08-01

393

High-School Students' Reasoning while Constructing Plant Growth Models in a Computer-Supported Educational Environment. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students' reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels ('macro-phenomenological' and 'micro-conceptual' level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their…

Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

2005-01-01

394

CONSTRUCTION OF INFECTIOUS CLONES FOR DOUBLE STRANDED DNA VIRUSES OF PLANTS USING CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC CIRUS AS AN EXAMPLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses of plants are believed to be plant pararetroviruses. Their genome is replicated by reverse transcription of a larger than unit length terminally redundant RNA transcript of the viral genomic DNA using the virus-encoded replicase. In order to produce a cloned, infe...

395

High-School Students' Reasoning while Constructing Plant Growth Models in a Computer-Supported Educational Environment. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students' reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels ('macro-phenomenological' and 'micro-conceptual' level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their…

Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

2005-01-01

396

Heavy metal accumulation in rice plants. Effects on mineral nutrition and possible interaction of plant hormones  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of anthropogenic activities there is a constant increase in water and soil pollution by heavy metals, which may have negative effect on plants. We have studied the effects of Cd and Ni treatments on mineral nutrition of rice plants. six days after germination. Cd (0.1 mM) or Ni (0.5 mM) was added to the nutrient solution where the plants were grown. After 10 days mineral element contents were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after sample digestion with nitric acid (70[degrees]C 24 h) in erlenmeyer flasks. Cd-treated plants accumulated high quantities of this metal (2.28 mg/g DW, 30 fold the value found in controls), and most of it remained in the root (66% of total). A great increase in Ni contents was also observed in Ni-treated plants (3.06 mg/g DW, 28 fold higher than in controls). However, contrary to Cd, Ni accumulated preferentially in shoots (81% of total). Addition of ABA or GA[sub 3] (5 mg/l) to the nutrient solution together with the heavy metal, did not affect Cd uptake by the plants but caused a significant reduction in Ni accumulation in the shoots (60%). In both, Cd- and Ni-treated plants, the uptake of divalent cations (Ca[sup 2][sup +], Mg[sup 2][sup +]) decreased more than 50% with respect to controls. This effect was not modified by hormonal applications, though a trend to reverse the decrease in Ca[sup 2][sup +] caused by Ni was observed.

Rodrigo, M.; Martinez-Cortina, C.; Sanz, A. (Univ. of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)); Escrig, I.; Lopez-Benet, F.J. (Univ. of Jaume I, Castello (Spain))

1993-05-01

397

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

398

Effects of sulfur dioxide on the aquatic plant Elodea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sulfur dioxide upon the green plant cell was investigated with emphasis on the effects of the gas on Elodea canadensis. Toxicity studies were performed in which the relations between concentration of sulfur dioxide, pH of the solution, and duration of exposure were investigated. Changes in the structures of the cell induced by lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of

Brooks

1943-01-01

399

A Mossbauer effect of study of plant and animal fossils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mossbauer effect (ME) spectroscopy is applied to the study of the mechanism of fossilization process and the effect of environmental conditions on plant and animal fossils. The samples are collected near the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt and Libya. The results indicate that fossilization takes place in two stages: (i) an iron mineral is formed which differs according to the geological

N. A. Eissa; H. A. Sallam; B. A. Ashi; M. Y. Hassan; S. A. Saleh

1976-01-01

400

Effects of water quality on silica fouling of desalination plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests with simulated waters in the range of those in a prospective desalination plant were carried out to determine the water quality effects on silica precipitation both in batch and dynamic tests using RO membranes. In this study the effect of cations on silica polymerization was investigated. Previous investigations established that the best operating pH range is below 6.5,

R. Sheikholeslami; S. Tan

1999-01-01

401

Biological effects of lithium: Experimental analysis in plant cytokinesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The biological effects of lithium ions have been studied, using plant cytokinesis in onion root meristems as the experimental model. Lithium induces binucleate cells by inhibiting cell plate formation. Moreover, lithium and caffeine have additive effects on the induction of binucleate cells. Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++ antagonize lithium-induced inhibition of cytokinesis.

J. Becerra; C. L. Encina

1987-01-01

402

Population density of North American elk: effects on plant diversity.  

PubMed

Large, herbivorous mammals have profound effects on ecosystem structure and function and often act as keystone species in ecosystems they inhabit. Density-dependent processes associated with population structure of large mammals may interact with ecosystem functioning to increase or decrease biodiversity, depending on the relationship of herbivore populations relative to the carrying capacity (K) of the ecosystem. We tested for indirect effects of population density of large herbivores on plant species richness and diversity in a montane ecosystem, where increased net aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) in response to low levels of herbivory has been reported. We documented a positive, linear relationship between plant-species diversity and richness with NAPP. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect relationships between population density of herbivores, NAPP, and species diversity. We observed an indirect effect of density-dependent processes in large, herbivorous mammals and species diversity of plants through changes in NAPP in this montane ecosystem. Changes in species diversity of plants in response to herbivory may be more indirect in ecosystems with long histories of herbivory. Those subtle or indirect effects of herbivory may have strong effects on ecosystem functioning, but may be overlooked in plant communities that are relatively resilient to herbivory. PMID:19484268

Stewart, Kelley M; Bowyer, R Terry; Kie, John G; Dick, Brian L; Ruess, Roger W

2009-05-30

403

Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, is the most extensively used herbicide in the history of agriculture. Weed management programs in glyphosate resistant (GR) field crops have provided highly effective weed control, simplified management decisions, and given cleaner harvested products. However, this relatively simple, broad-spectrum, systemic herbicide can have extensive unintended effects on nutrient efficiency and disease severity, thereby threatening its agricultural sustainability. A

G. S. Johal; D. M. Huber

2009-01-01

404

Effective field theory and projective construction for Zk parafermion fractional quantum Hall states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the simpler integer quantum Hall states. Here we show how to apply the projective construction to the Zk parafermion (Laughlin/Moore-Read/Read-Rezayi) FQH states, which occur at filling fraction ?=k/(kM+2) . This allows us to derive the bulk low-energy effective field theory for these topological phases, which is found to be a Chern-Simons theory at level 1 with a U(M)×Sp(2k) gauge field. This approach also helps us understand the non-Abelian quasiholes in terms of holes of the integer quantum Hall states.

Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen, Xiao-Gang

2010-04-01

405

Plant effects on microbial assemblages and remediation of acidic coal pile runoff in mesocosm treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed treatment mesocosm wetland systems comprised of an anaerobic wetland followed by two aerobic wetlands and differing in aerobic wetland composition (real plants, plastic plants, no plants) and order (shallow aerobic wetland followed by deep aerobic wetland or vice versa) were compared to determine if composition or order affect remediation of acidic, metal contaminated water associated with a coal-fired power

Beverly Collins; J. Vaun McArthur; Rebecca R. Sharitz

2004-01-01

406

Effects of the Repeal of Utah's Prevailing Wage Law on the Construction Labor Market.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Government has always been a major purchaser of construction services. In 1987, federal, state and local governments jointly accounted for 20 percent of all construction purchases. As a primary customer to construction services, government holds the poten...

M. Hotchkiss

1993-01-01

407

Effects of Ozone on Gas Exchange in Invasive Forest Plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluations of invasive plant biology have failed to investigate the relationship between leaf structure and effects of ozone among closely related native and non-native plants. When exposed to toxic pollutants plants with lower stomatal density and lower stomatal conductance might experience reduced exposure and consequently be more competitive. To test for systematic differences between invasive and native species, experiments assessed the stomatal density and stomatal conductance of nine non-native invasive species and thirteen native species. Field sites, used for forest surveys, centered on three urban areas including sites with differing ozone levels (low 0-60 ppb, medium 80-99 ppb, high 111-125+ ppb). Three sites were selected within each of the three urban areas, and surveys were taken at each of the nine sites determining the native and non-native plant composition. The low level sites had greater densities of native plants than the high ozone level sites. Leaf impressions revealed a significantly higher (t = 14.13, p < 0.0001) stomatal density for the natives, and a LI-COR 1600 showed significantly higher (Fndf,ddf = 12.88, p = 0.0004) stomatal conductance for native plants. Dissimilar gas-exchange capacities are likely to be linked to the observed differences in plant composition among study sites. The importance of addressing air and biotic pollution grows every year as human health, agriculture, and ecosystem function are negatively affected in new areas.

Elton, E. E.

2006-12-01

408

Effect of Clinostat Rotation on Plant Protoplasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preparatory experiments using fast and slow rotating clinostats to study the effects of simulated weightlessness on cell wall formation and cell division are described. An experiment to be flown on the Space Shuttle in Dec. 1990 is described. The need to ...

T. H. Iversen C. Baggerud O. Rasmussen

1990-01-01

409

Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a Mid-Atlantic Highlands watershed, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Chen, Y.; Viadero, Jr. , R. C.; Wei, X.; Fortney, R.; Hedrick, L. B.; Welsh, S. A.; Anderson, J. T.; Lin, L. -S.

2009-01-01

410

Effects of Temporal Hydrostatic Pressure on Tissue-Engineered Bovine Articular Cartilage Constructs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of temporal hydrostatic pressure (HP) on the properties of scaffoldless bovine articular cartilage constructs. The study was organized in three phases: First, a suitable control for HP application was identified. Second, 10?MPa static HP was applied at three different timepoints (6–10 days, 10–14 days, and 14–18 days) to identify a window in construct development when HP application would be most beneficial. Third, the temporal effects of 10–14-day static HP application, as determined in phase II, were assessed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Compressive and tensile mechanical properties, GAG and collagen content, histology for GAG and collagen, and immunohistochemistry for collagen types I and II were assessed. When a culture control identified in phase I was used in phase II, HP application from 10 to 14 days resulted in a significant 1.4-fold increase in aggregate modulus, accompanied by an increase in GAG content, while HP application at all timepoints enhanced tensile properties and collagen content. In phase III, HP had an immediate effect on GAG content, collagen content, and compressive stiffness, while there was a delayed increase in tensile stiffness. The enhanced tensile stiffness was still present at 8 weeks. For the first time, this study examined the immediate and long-term effects of HP on biomechanical properties, and demonstrated that HP has an optimal application time in construct development. These findings are exciting as HP stimulation allowed for the formation of robust tissue-engineered cartilage; for example, 10?MPa static HP resulted in an aggregate modulus of 273?±?123?kPa, a Young's modulus of 1.6?±?0.4?MPa, a GAG/wet weight of 6.1?±?1.4%, and a collagen/wet weight of 10.6?±?2.4% at 4 weeks.

Elder, Benjamin D.

2009-01-01

411

The Composite Effect of Transgenic Plant Volatiles for Acquired Immunity to Herbivory Caused by Inter-Plant Communications  

PubMed Central

A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos) including (E)-?-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2) that were constitutively overexpressing (E)-?-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai). In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants) placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications.

Muroi, Atsushi; Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Nishihara, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

2011-01-01

412

The composite effect of transgenic plant volatiles for acquired immunity to herbivory caused by inter-plant communications.  

PubMed

A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos) including (E)-?-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2) that were constitutively overexpressing (E)-?-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai). In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants) placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications. PMID:22022359

Muroi, Atsushi; Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Nishihara, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

2011-10-12

413

Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime because of the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation, and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Construction at Locations B or C would not result in direct impacts to wetlands. However, the hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. The impacts at Location A may potentially be avoided by an alternative routing of the entrance road, or mitigation may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the State of Ohio. Unavoidable impacts to isolated wetlands may require an Isolated Wetlands Permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor for the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found in this part of Ohio, which in many cases involve previously disturbed habitats.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2005-09-09

414

High-school students' reasoning while constructing plant growth models in a computer-supported educational environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students' reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels (`macro-phenomenological' and `micro-conceptual' level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their ability to shift between or within these levels. The focus is on the types of

Marida Ergazaki; Vassilis Komis; Vassiliki Zogza

2005-01-01

415

Effects of Hypoxia on Animal Burrow Construction and Consequent Effects on Sediment Redox Profiles  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous studies investigating the effects of hypoxia on benthic infauna and consequent effects on sediment chemistry provide only correlative results from the field. In order to establish causation and isolate effects of hypoxia on individual species, we conducted a laboratory ...

416

[Cardioprotective effects of adaptogens of plant origin].  

PubMed

The experiments performed on emotional--painful stress model in rats demonstrated cardioprotective activity of adaptogens of vegetable origin (rodiolae, eleutherococcus, levsea, p-tyrosol). Preliminary injection of rodiolae extract was found to prevent stress--induced increase in cAMP level and cGMP content decrease in heart. We can conclude that adaptogens cardioprotective effect may be the drugs to prevent stressor change in cyclic nucleotides level in myocardium. PMID:8054618

Maslova, L V; Lishmanov, Iu B; Maslov, L N

1993-03-01

417

Effect of Animal Facility Construction on Basal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Renin-Aldosterone Activity in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Although loud noise and intense vibration are known to alter the behavior and phenotype of laboratory animals, little is known about the effects of nearby construction. We studied the effect of a nearby construction project on the classic stress hormones ACTH, corticosterone, renin, and aldosterone in rats residing in a barrier animal facility before, for the first 3 months of a construction project, and at 1 month after all construction was completed. During some of the construction, noise and vibrations were not obvious to investigators inside the animal rooms. Body weight matched for age was not altered by nearby construction. During nearby construction, plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and aldosterone were approximately doubled compared with those of pre- and postconstruction levels. Expression of CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, CRH receptor and POMC mRNA in the anterior pituitary, and most mRNAs for steroidogenic genes in the adrenal gland were not significantly changed during construction. We conclude that nearby construction can cause a stress response without long-term effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis gene expression and body weight.

Bruder, Eric D.; Cullinan, William E.; Ziegler, Dana R.; Cohen, Eric P.

2011-01-01

418

Use of filler limestone and construction and demolition residues for remediating soils contaminated with heavy metals: an assessment by means of plant uptake.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greenhouse trial was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (lettuce, broccoli and alfalfa), different parts of which are destined for human and animal consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). The plants were cultivated in four types of soil, one uncontaminated (T1), one soil collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera (T2), the third being remediated with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (T3) and the four remediated with filler limestone (T4). To determine the metal content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. The DTPA-extractable content was also determined to calculate the bioavailable amount of metal. Finally, the translocation factor (TF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were calculated. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer and Cd, Pb and Zn was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Samples of the leached water were also obtained and analyzed. According to our results, the retention of the studied elements varies with the type of plant and is strongly decreased by the incorporation of filler limestone and/or construction and demolition residues to the soils. This practice represents a suitable way to reduce the risk posed to the biota by the presence of high levels of heavy metal in soil.

Banegas, Ascension; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen

2010-05-01

419

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-14

420

Constructing maintenance proficiency tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for constructing maintenance proficiency tests is described. Test construction, in the context of developing a maintenance proficiency testing program for nuclear power plants, is discussed. Evaluations of utility needs and industry requirements are requisite precursors to test development. Task analyses form foundational work that is utilized during the test construction process. The advantages and disadvantages of two test

S. C. Fischer; A. Spiker; J. Geiwitz

1992-01-01

421

IMPACT OF PLANT DENSITY AND MICROBIAL COMPOSITION ON WATER QUALITY FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Prado Wetlands in Chino, CA is a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland consisting of 50 shallow ponds that treats approximately 50% of Santa Ana River water prior to its passage to Orange County, CA where it is used for groundwater recharge. The main function of Prado Wetlands has been t...

422

CLONING AND CONSTRUCTION OF SINGLE-CHAIN VARIABLE FRAGMENTS (SCFV)TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS AND PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The variable regions of heavy and light chain genes were cloned from the RNA of mouse hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibodies specific to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The cloned genes were constructed into single-chain variable fragments (scFv) in combination with various promoters and tr...

423

Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2009-01-01

424

Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission line construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were signficantly reduced on the disturbed area. Our results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods

C. D. Johnson; J. R. Beley; T. M. Ditsworth; S. M. Butt

1983-01-01

425

Determination of diffusivities in the Rustler Formation from exploratory-shaft construction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The construction of an exploratory shaft 12 feet in diameter into the Salado Formation (repository horizon for transuranic waste material) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico affected water-levels in water-bearing zones above the repository horizon. By reading the construction history of the exploratory shaft, an approximation of construction-generated hydraulic stresses at the shaft was made. The magnitude of the construction-generated stresses was calibrated using the hydrographs from one hydrologic test pad. Whereas flow rates from the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members in the Rustler Formation into the exploratory shaft were unknown, the ratio of transmissivity to storage (diffusivity) was determined by mathematically simulating the aquifers and the hydrologic stresses with flood-wave-response digital model. These results indicate that the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation can be modeled as homogeneous, isotropic, and confined water-bearing zones. One simple and consistent explanation, but by no means the only explanation, of the lack of a single diffusivity value in the Culebra aquifer is that the open-hole observation wells at the hydrologic test pads dampen the amplitude of water-level changes. (USGS)

Stevens, Ken; Beyeler, Walt

1985-01-01

426

Effects of golf course construction and operation on water chemistry of headwater streams on the Precambrian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of golf course construction and operation on the water chemistry of Shield streams, we compared the water chemistry in streams draining golf courses under construction (2) and in operation (5) to streams in forested reference locations and to upstream sites where available. Streams were more alkaline and higher in base cation and nitrate concentrations downstream of

Jennifer G. Winter; Peter J. Dillon

2005-01-01

427

Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

428

Effect of vegetation in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with a low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon.  

PubMed

In order to characterize the effect of vegetation on performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) treating low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs (planted with Phragmites australis and unplanted) treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with MCB (monochlorobenzene, as a low chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 10 mg L(-1)), and PCE (perchloroethylene, as a high chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 2 mg L(-1)), were examined. With mean MCB inflow load of 299 mg m(-2) d(-1), the removal rate was 58 and 208 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted and planted wetland, respectively, after 4 m from the inlet. PCE was almost completely removed in both wetlands with mean inflow load of 49 mg m(-2) d(-1). However, toxic metabolites cis-1,2-DCE (dichloroethene) and VC (vinyl chloride) accumulated in the unplanted wetland; up to 70% and 25% of PCE was dechlorinated to cis-1,2-DCE and VC after 4 m from the inlet, respectively. Because of high sulphate concentration (around 850 mg L(-1)) in the groundwater, the plant derived organic carbon caused sulphide formation (up to 15 mg L(-1)) in the planted wetland, which impaired the MCB removal but not statistically significant. The results showed significant enhancement of vegetation on the removal of the low chlorinated hydrocarbon MCB, which is probably due to the fact that aerobic MCB degraders are benefited from the oxygen released by plant roots. Vegetation also stimulated completely dechlorination of PCE due to plant derived organic carbon, which is potentially to provide electron donor for dechlorination process. The plant derived organic carbon also stimulated dissimilatory sulphate reduction, which subsequently have negative effect on MCB removal. PMID:22832338

Chen, Zhongbing; Wu, Shubiao; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz; Kuschk, Peter

2012-07-23

429

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene.

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

430

Effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.  

PubMed

The dry forests of southern India, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (Panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. Yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. Consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. I studied the impacts of the exotic plant Lantana camara on understory vegetation in a dry-forest tiger habitat in southern India. I compared the richness, composition, and abundance of tree seedlings, herbs, and shrubs and the abundance of grass among plots in which Lantana was cleared or left standing. These plots were distributed across two blocks-livestock free and livestock grazed. Removal of Lantana had an immediate positive effect on herb-shrub richness in the livestock-free block, but had no effect on that of tree seedlings in either livestock block. Tree-seedling and herb-shrub composition differed significantly between Lantana treatment and livestock block, and Lantana removal significantly decreased survival of tree seedlings. Nevertheless, the absence of trees, in any stage between seedling and adult, indicates that Lantana may stall tree regeneration. Lantana removal decreased the abundance of all understory strata, probably because forage plants beneath Lantana are less accessible to herbivores, and plants in Lantana-free open plots experienced greater herbivory. Reduced access to forage in invaded habitats could negatively affect ungulate populations and ultimately compromise the ability of these forests to sustain prey-dependent large carnivores. Additional research focused on understanding and mitigating threats posed by exotic plants may be crucial to the long-term protection of these forests as viable tiger habitats. PMID:20067493

Prasad, Ayesha E

2010-01-11

431

Effects of plant gross morphology on predator searching behaviour.  

PubMed

Plant morphology influences insect predators' abilities to capture prey and control pest populations. Several mechanisms for this effect of plants on predator foraging have been proposed. In particular, it is often claimed that increased complexity of plant structures may increase search time and reduce foraging success. Using time-lapse photography we recorded search paths, and compared the total path lengths, percentages of plants searched, and path tortuosity of adult multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis Pallas) and green lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea Stephens) foraging for pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) on pea near-isolines (Pisum sativum L.) that differed in shape. We found that H. axyridis searched leafy morphologies less thoroughly than those with more branches, while C. carnea larvae search paths did not differ on any of the pea morphologies. In addition, the ability of H. axyridis to attach to plants and maneuver was increased on morphologies with many branches and edges, while C. carnea was able to attach to all morphologies. Both species, however, had significantly reduced predation success on inverted leaf surfaces. We conclude that undersides of leaves, far from the leaf margin, may serve as partial prey refugia. In addition, we find increased plant branching or an increase in other morphological features which provide predator attachment points may promote foraging success. PMID:22732609

Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim

2012-06-01

432

Long-term effects of heavy metals on aquatic plants  

SciTech Connect

In long-term experiments lasting up to 73 days the effect of rather low levels of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium on the growth and metal uptake was studied by investigating four aquatic plant species: Elodea nuttallii, Callitriche plataycarpa, Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemma gibba. Except Elodea, which was already very sensitive to 5 ..mu..mol Cu 1/sup -1/, no differentiation in growth or mortality could be detected depending on species or elements. There was a clear differentiation between the uptake levels of the heavy metals with regard to the plant species, resulting in a higher heavy metal content in the submerged species in comparison to the floating ones. For zinc, lead and cadmium, an equal ratio was detected between the concentration in the medium and in the plant tissue independent of the plant species. The involvement of roots in element absorption by aquatic plants and the possibility of using aquatic plants as indicators of heavy metal pollution in Dutch waters are discussed.

van der Werff, M.; Pruyt, M.J.

1982-01-01

433

Inhibitory effects of Korean plants on HIV-1 activities.  

PubMed

In the search for novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) agents from natural sources, 49 MeOH extracts of Korean plants were screened for their inhibitory effects against RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 protease, and anti-HIV-1 activity. Regarding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Cornus kousa (stem and leaf), Limonium tetragonum (root) and Mallotus japonicus (stem) showed significant inhibitory activity on RT activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of 8.9, 6.3, 7.5 and 11.9 microg/mL, respectively, whereas Agrimonia pilosa was also active against RNase H activity (IC(50) = 98.4 microg/mL). Four plants, namely Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Atractylodes japonica (root), Clematis heracleifolia (whole plant) and Syneilesis palmata (whole plant), were appreciably active (<35%) against recombinant HIV-1 protease at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum (root) showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity (ED(50) = 12.5 microg/mL) with a favourable SI value of 16. PMID:11536375

Min, B S; Kim, Y H; Tomiyama, M; Nakamura, N; Miyashiro, H; Otake, T; Hattori, M

2001-09-01

434

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

1987-03-01

435

Improved Gateway binary vectors: high-performance vectors for creation of fusion constructs in transgenic analysis of plants.  

PubMed

We made a series of improved Gateway binary vectors (pGWBs) for plant transformation. Fifteen different reporters and tags, sGFP, GUS, LUC, EYFP, ECFP, G3GFP, mRFP, 6xHis, FLAG, 3xHA, 4xMyc, 10xMyc, GST, T7, and TAP, were employed. Some vectors carry the 2x35S-Omega promoter for higher-level expression. The kanamycin- and hygromycin-resistant markers are independently available for each of the 43 types of vectors, thus an additional transformation of once-transformed plants can be carried out easily. Their small size and high-copy number in Escherichia coli make possible easier handling at plasmid preparation and sequencing. Improved pGWBs should be a powerful tool for transgenic research in plants. PMID:17690442

Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Takamasa; Murata, Satoko; Nakamura, Shinya; Hino, Takeshi; Maeo, Kenichiro; Tabata, Ryo; Kawai, Tsutae; Tanaka, Katsunori; Niwa, Yasuo; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kenzo; Kimura, Tetsuya; Ishiguro, Sumie

2007-08-07

436

Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

2012-01-01

437

Construction of Koshkonong Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Power and Light Company, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, Madison Gas and Electric Company. Docket Nos. STN-50-502, STN-50-503.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A safety evaluation of Wisconsin Electric Power Company's application for a license to construct and operate the nuclear plant located in Jefferson County, Wisconsin, has been prepared. The evaluation consists of a technical review and staff evaluation of...

1975-01-01

438

10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant: Solar Facilities Design Integration. Construction Package No. 10 (RADL Item 7-34) Field Erected Tanks. Part 1. Thermal Storage Unit (TUS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final design, fabrication and erection of two different tanks upon foundations are given. Technical specifications and supplemental construction drawings are included for both the thermal storage unit and the plant support system caloria makeup tank f...

1980-01-01

439

Genetic Effect on Carbon-Isotope Composition of a Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopes of organic sediments are potential tools in investigating a wide spectrum of geological problems. These include paleoclimate, paleoecology, and the origin of life. The quality of the information the tools provides depends largely on our knowledge on the factors determining the isotopic composition of a plant. This is because most biogenic organic sediments are derived from plants. The factors can be grouped into internal and external. The internal factors are ultimately attributable to the genetic make-up of a plant. The most well known internal factor is the photosynthetic pathway. Others include structure of the leave tissue and metabolic characteristics of a plant. External factors are concentration and the isotopic composition of the source CO2 and the physical and chemical conditions of the plant's growth environments. This study addresses primarily the genetic effect, the internal factors. Based on the results of two suites of natural plant samples, it is concluded that the difference in photosynthetic pathway entails about 20.0 % of spread in terms of ä13CPDB values. Genetic effect is also accountable for up to 7.0 to 8.0 % spread in ä13CPDB values within a single category of photosynthetic pathway (i.e. the Calvin cycle). With constrains from the relevant known knowledge, it is concluded that the ä13CPDB values of terrestrial plants are probably ranging from - 8.0 to equal or less than -44.9 %. This range of ä13CPDB values may also be considered the bio-signature of organic sediments of great antiquity.

Yeh, H.

2005-05-01

440

Effect of dietary plant extracts mixture on pork meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a plant extracts mixture including carvacrol (oregano), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamom), and capsicum oleoresin (Mexican pepper) on the meat quality of pigs. The study was carried out on 60 pigs, divided into two groups (control and experimental), 30 pigs each. The control group was given a basal diet and the experimental

A. Ko?odziej-Skalska; A. Rybarczyk; B. Matysiak; E. Jacyno; A. Pietruszka; M. Kaw?cka

2011-01-01

441

EFFECTS OF OZONE ON PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Foliar injury to vegetation is one of the earliest and most obvious manifestations of O3 injury. However, the O3 effects are not limited to visible injury; impacts can range from reduced plant growth, decreased yield, changes in crop quality and alterations in susceptibility to a...

442

Hydrogel substrate amendment alleviates drought effects on young citrus plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water deficits affect citrus physiology, yield, fruit size and quality. Citrus can respond to drought stress conditions through endogenous hormonal regulation of water status and leaf abscission. In this work, we assayed the efficiency of an amendment to soilless media in delaying the drought stress effect in young citrus seedlings and trees. Substrate amendment promoted plant survival of citrus seedlings

Vicent Arbona; Domingo J. Iglesias; Josep Jacas; Eduardo Primo-Millo; Manuel Talon; Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas

2005-01-01

443

Effect of Nighttime Temperature on Tomato Plant Defensive Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that the amplitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations has been decreasing, mainly via warmer night temperatures, we examined the effects of nighttime temperature on concentration of the catecholic phenolics chlorogenic acid and rutin in tomato plants. A two-factor design, with carbon dioxide (350 ppm and 700 ppm) and nighttime temperature (14, 15, 16, 17, and 18°C, with a 26°C daytime

M. Bradfield; N. Stamp

2004-01-01

444

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-21

445

Performance report on construction and operation of a demonstration/educational/operating small-scale alcohol plant  

SciTech Connect

The North Dakota State School of Science has successfully built and operated a demonstration/educational/operating small-scale alcohol plant. The college purchased and provided the equipment, provided for teachers and supervision, and developed the curriculum for the workshops. Further purpose of the grant was to establish a center to train and educate farmers and others to safely produce and use alcohol fuels; to assist in developing the decision-making tools needed to engage in production; and to provide technical assistance and consumer protection information. Participants were taught how to design and build their own plants and how to process crops into alcohol and other valuable by-products. Participants observed the demonstration small-scale plant and watched alcohol being made. Laboratory experiences included cooking and fermenting crops, distilling, plant design and engine modification to utilize the alcohol. Discussions were held on the nutritional value of the wet mash, economics, markets and uses of bi-products and legal and financing concerns.

Not Available

1981-04-30

446

Preparation of a design study for the construction of a 2 million tons\\/annum commercial scale hydrogenation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project study for a coal hydrogenation complex with premium gasoline as main product is presented. The plant is designed to operate at 300 bar pressure. Preheating of the coal paste was improved by utilizing process effluent heat. Applying heat integration to maximum extent a calorific yield 66 % is achieved. Hydrogen demand is covered by pressured gasification of the

J. Bernert; A. R. Ellinghaus; W. Hoffmann; C. Warnstaedt; H. Dohren; G. Holzapfel; U. Krieger; L. Lauer

1983-01-01

447

The sequence coding and search system: An approach for constructing and analyzing event sequences at commercial nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the importance of the collection, assessment, and feedstock of operating experience data from commercial nuclear power plants and has centralized these activities in the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). Such data is essential for performing safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns to identify undesirable

Mays

1989-01-01

448

Evaluation of the use of power-plant pond ash in highway construction, February 1992. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the use of power plant pond ash (coal ash) for use as a base course material. The pond ash contains both fly ash and bottom ash that have been codisposed of by sluicing to a disposal pond. Test sections included various combinations of fine and coarse ash with a sand-clay granular materials

Crawley

1992-01-01

449

Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.  

PubMed

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2012-03-01

450

Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

2012-03-01

451

Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

NONE

1994-06-01

452

[Effects of soil PAHs pollution on plant ecophysiology].  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the ubiquitous organic persistent pollutants in natural environments (especially in soil), giving serious potential risks to the eco-environment, plants, and human beings. At present, the remediation of PAHs-polluted soil is one of the hot topics in the research fields of soil and environment. Phytoremediation is one of the environmental restoration techniques with most potentiality. This paper reviewed the newest progress in the researches of the effects of soil PAHs pollution and its combined stress with other pollutants on the plant growth, morphological structure, photosynthesis, and antioxidant system, and prospected the important fields and hotspots of related researches in the future. PMID:24015545

Xu, Sheng; Wang, Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Xing-Yuan; Su, Dao-Yan; Li, Bo; Li, Mei

2013-05-01

453

Analytical simulation of the champagne effect in CAES power plants  

SciTech Connect

The champagne effect is a two-phase flow instability that could occur in a hydraulically compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plant. This effect is a direct result of the solubility of high-pressure air in water. The buoyancy effect resulting from air bubbles in the compensating water shaft could lead to a pressure imbalance which causes the water to accelerate. A thorough understanding of the dynamics of this effect and control measures for avoiding deleterious consequences is necessary if commercial CAES power plants are to be successfully built and operated. The governing physical mechanisms of the champagne effect have been incorporated into a computer simulation model. The model is based on a one-dimensional, drift flux representation of the two-phase flow in the water compensating shaft. The model includes a comprehensive simulation for the rate of release of air from solution during the flow transient. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that by proper design of the system, including a U-bend and flow restriction, the champagne effect should not be a major deterent to the commercialization of this type of CAES power plant.

Giramonti, A.J.; Smith, E.B.

1983-11-01

454

Effect of Sequential Planting, Plant Replacement, and Planting Date on Marketable Yield of Bell Pepper, Capsicum annuum var. annuum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earliest plantings of the bell pepper cv. Pip were on 16 May 1990 and 15 April 1991 at Lane, Okla. Additional plantings were at monthly intervals through July. Peppers were harvested weekly. Plants of the earliest plantings had marketable yields of approximately 21 Mg. ha-'. Marketable yields of later plantings were no higher than 8.6 Mg, ha-'. Combined marketable yields

V. M. Russo

1995-01-01

455

Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2010-05-01

456

Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality. The investigators therefore reviewed the published scientific research to determine the effectiveness of plant-based diets in modifying plasma lipid concentrations. Twenty-seven randomized controlled and observational trials were included. Of the 4 types of plant-based diets considered, interventions testing a combination diet (a vegetarian or vegan diet combined with nuts, soy, and/or fiber) demonstrated the greatest effects (up to 35% plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction), followed by vegan and ovolactovegetarian diets. Interventions allowing small amounts of lean meat demonstrated less dramatic reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, plant-based dietary interventions are effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations. PMID:19766762

Ferdowsian, Hope R; Barnard, Neal D

2009-10-01

457

Effects of hypoxia on animal burrow construction and consequent effects on sediment redox profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of mild hypoxia on the burrowing behavior of three marine species (the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, the polychaete worm Neanthes virens, and the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus) and consequent effects on sediment redox profiles. Animals were introduced into defaunated sediment and allowed to burrow for four months at mildly hypoxic (2 mg l?1)

Eric J. Weissberger; Laura L. Coiro; Earl W. Davey

2009-01-01

458

Matrix effects on plant-frugivore and plant-predator interactions in forest fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural features of both habitat remnants and surrounding matrix can be important for explaining plant population dynamics\\u000a and ecosystem functions in human-impacted landscapes. However, little is known about how the structural features of the adjacent\\u000a matrix affect biotic interactions and whether such context effects are subject to temporal variations. Using the hawthorn\\u000a Crataegus monogyna in northern Spain, we studied matrix

José M. Herrera; Daniel García; Juan M. Morales

2011-01-01

459

Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

Belyavskaya, N.

460

Effect of lesser tuberosity osteotomy size and repair construct during total shoulder arthroplasty.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Lesser tuberosity osteotomy has been shown to decrease postoperative subscapularis dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of osteotomy thickness and suture configuration on repair integrity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One side of 12 matched-pair cadaveric shoulders was randomly assigned to either a thick osteotomy (100% of lesser tuberosity height) or a thin osteotomy (50% of height). Both sides of the matched pairs were given the same repair, either (1) compression sutures or (2) compression sutures plus 1 tension suture. This created 4 groups of 6 paired specimens. Computed tomography imaging was used to measure tuberosity dimensions before and after osteotomy to validate fragment height and area. The repairs were loaded cyclically and then loaded to failure. A video system measured fragment displacement. The percent area of osteotomy contact was calculated from the computed tomography and displacement data. RESULTS: The average initial displacement was less in the thin osteotomy groups (P = .011). Adding a tension suture negated this difference. A significant number of thin repair sites compared with thick repair sites remained intact during load-to-failure testing (P = .001). No difference occurred because of maximum load between the repair groups (P = .401), and construct stiffness was greater when a tension suture was used (P = .032). The percent area of osteotomy contact showed no differences between the osteotomy (P = .431) and repair (P = .251) groups. CONCLUSION: The study showed that thin osteotomies displaced less than thick osteotomies. Adding a tension band improved construct stability and eliminated some failure modes. Our ideal repair was a thin wafer with both tension and compression sutures. This construct had smaller total displacement, a high osteotomy percent contact area, and a high maximum load. PMID:23770112

Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claude D; Brown, Brandon T; Degravelle, Martin; Sawardeker, Prasad; Weir, David M; Latona, Carmen R; Miller, Mark Carl

2013-06-14

461

Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.  

PubMed

Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (? = 0.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW-CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW-CP system. PMID:22976119

Ouyang, Ying

2012-09-14

462

Interactive Effects of Nutrient and Mechanical Stresses on Plant Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. Methods An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Key Results Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. Conclusions These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species.

Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

2007-01-01

463

Preliminary study of the effect of pumped-storage plant operation on zooplankton  

SciTech Connect

The hydromechanical effect of hydroelectric stations on zooplankton is customarily regarded as a constantly acting and comparatively harmless factor, since its destruction is inevitable when water masses are passed through hydroelectric stations, but its capacity for restoration is high (i.e., destruction of the zooplankton of the forebay is compensated by its production in the after bay). It is not known how correct such an opinion is, or what is the true balance of losses and reproduction of zooplankton in the forebays and after bays of hydroelectric stations. However, hydroelectric plants of a new type, pumped-storage plants, have been constructed in recent years and others are planned for the Dnieper reservoirs. The operational principle and purpose of these plants is that they employ special vertical turbine-electric pumps that pump water at night from the reservoirs into pumped-storage facilities at high levels, and then release this water during daytime peaks through pipes to the turbines that generate additional electric power. Such pumped-storage plants are planned, in particular, as part of the Danube-Dnieper water economy complex and for some reservoirs in the North European regions of the USSR.

Tseyeb, Y.Y.; Zhdanova, G.A.

1980-01-01

464

[Ecological control effects of Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem on litchi pests].  

PubMed

An investigation on the community structure and dynamics of litchi pests and their natural enemies in constructed Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem and single L. chinensis ecosystem showed that the total amount of litchi pests in the complex plant ecosystem was 61.27% of that in the single ecosystem in whole year, and only 50.45% in May, the key time for fruit development, which suggested that there was an interaction between D. intortum and L. chinensis. D. intortum and L. chinensis had a few common pests, but many common natural enemies. D. intortum florescence in winter provided shelter and substitutive food for the natural enemies of pests to survive in the extreme environmental conditions in winter. L. chinensis florescence was on the heel of D. intortum florescence, which provided better conditions for the natural enemies to survive and multiply. During florescence and fruit development stages of L. chinensis (from March to June), the predator/prey ratio in complex plant system was 4.22, 2.34, 2.2 and 20.63 times of that in single plant system in March, April, May and June, respectively, indicating the good control effect on pests of L. chinensis. PMID:16689252

Ouyang, Gecheng; Yang, Yueping; Liu, Deguang; Xiong, Jinjun; Huang, Mingdu

2006-01-01

465

Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants.  

PubMed

Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on pl