Sample records for plant construction effects

  1. Effects of plant root on hydraulic performance of clogging process in subsurface flow constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Guofen; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) have proven to be an efficient ecological technology for the treatment of various kinds of wastewaters. The clogging issue is the main operational problem, which limits its wide application. Clogging is a complicated process with physical (such as physical filtration), biogeochemical and plant-related processes. It was generally stated that suspended solids accumulation and biofilm play dominant roles response for clogging. However, the role of plants in SFCWs clogging remains unclear and debatable. In this paper, the performance of plants in the whole clogging process was addressed based on the lab-experiments between planted and unplanted system by measuring effective porosity, coefficient of permeability of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, flow pattern and transport properties of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by hydraulic performance (e.g. mean residence time, short-circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, hydraulic efficiency factor, etc.) with salt tracer experiments. Plants played different roles in different clogging stage. In the earlier clogging stage, there were no obvious different effects on clogging process between planted and unplanted system. The effective porosity and coefficient of permeability slightly decreased within the planted system, which indicated that plant root restricted the flow of water when the pore spaces were lager. In the middle and later clogging stage, especially, in the later stage, the effective porosity and the coefficient of permeability increased considerably in the plant root zone. Furthermore, the longer retention times and higher hydraulic efficiency factors were gained in the planted system compared to that of unplanted, which implied that growing roots might open the new pore spaces in the substrate. The results are expected to be useful in the design of constructed wetland. Key words: clogging; plant root; salt tracers; hydraulic performance; subsurface flow constructed wetlands

  2. Substrate effect on bacterial communities from constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia treating industrial wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina S. C. Calheiros; Anouk F. Duque; Alexandra Moura; Isabel S. Henriques; António Correia; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been recognized as being able to effectively treat wastewater from municipal and industrial sources. This study focused on the effect of different substrates and long-term operation of horizontal subsurface flow CWs treating tannery wastewater on the bacterial communities. The CWs were planted with Typha latifolia in three types of substrate: two units with different types of

  3. Plant Light Box Construction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    These instructions describe how to construct a plant light box from two stackable plastic file crates that are cut, lined with aluminum foil and lit with a 40/42-watt CFL bulb. This 3-page document includes a complete materials list and 12-step assembly instructions with photographs that illustrate each step. This light box works well for growing Fast Plants.

  4. Effects of plant community and phosphorus loading rate on constructed wetland performance in Florida, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binhe Gu; Thomas Dreschel

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of constructed wetlands with varying plant communities for phosphorus (P) reduction from the\\u000a Everglades Agricultural Area runoff in south Florida. Weekly or biweekly water samples from the inflow and outflow regions\\u000a of 11 test cells (2,000 m2) were analyzed for various forms of P and other selected water quality variables between January 2002 and August 2004.

  5. Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Stottmeister; A. Wießner; P. Kuschk; U. Kappelmeyer; M. Kästner; O. Bederski; R. A. Müller; H. Moormann

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are a natural alternative to technical methods of wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of the complex processes caused by the plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater, and how they all interact with each other, is still rather incomplete.In this article, a closer look will be taken at the mechanisms of both plants in constructed wetlands

  6. Effects of belowground resource use comlementarity on invasion of constructed grassland plant communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia S. Brown; Kevin J. Rice

    2010-01-01

    At two field sites that differed in fertility, we investigated how species richness, functional group diversity, and species\\u000a composition of constructed plant communities influenced invasion. Grassland communities were constructed to be either functionally\\u000a diverse or functionally simple based on belowground resource use patterns of constituent species. Communities were also constructed\\u000a with different numbers of species (two or five) to examine

  7. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Hg,Pb,Mg,Mn,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants and aquatic insects of three acidified (pH [approximately] 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH [approximately] 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicated that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threatened egg production and development of young.

  8. Effects and effectiveness of two RNAi constructs for resistance to Pepper golden mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    PubMed

    Medina-Hernández, Diana; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael Francisco; Tenllado, Francisco; Holguín-Peña, Ramón Jaime

    2013-12-01

    ToChLPV and PepGMV are Begomoviruses that have adapted to a wide host range and are able to cause major diseases in agronomic crops. We analyzed the efficacy of induced resistance to PepGMV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with two constructs: one construct with homologous sequences derived from PepGMV, and the other construct with heterologous sequences derived from ToChLPV. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed an efficacy to decrease the severity of symptoms of 45%, while plants protected with the homologous construct showed an efficacy of 80%. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed a reduction of incidence of 42.86%, while the reduction of incidence in plants protected with the homologous construct was 57.15%. The efficacy to decrease viral load was 95.6% in plants protected with the heterologous construct, and 99.56% in plants protected with the homologous construct. We found, in both constructs, up-regulated key components of the RNAi pathway. This demonstrates that the efficacy of the constructs was due to the activation of the gene silencing mechanism, and is reflected in the decrease of viral genome copies, as well as in recovery phenotype. We present evidence that both constructs are functional and can efficiently induce transient resistance against PepGMV infections. This observation guarantees a further exploration as a strategy to control complex Begomovirus diseases in the field. PMID:24287597

  9. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Albers; Michael B. Camardese

    1993-01-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Hg,Pb,Mg,Mn,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants and aquatic insects of three acidified (pH [approximately] 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH [approximately] 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than

  10. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

  11. Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Ye, Chun; Chen, Xia; Xie, Biao; Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Jixiang; Xu, Meina

    2013-03-01

    Methane (CH(4)) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH(4) fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1). Results indicated that the highest CH(4) flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH(4) emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH(4) fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. PMID:23291006

  12. Effect of plant harvesting on the performance of constructed wetlands during winter: radial oxygen loss and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xie, Huijun; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Congcong; Li, Hao

    2015-05-01

    The aboveground tissue of plants is important for providing roots with constant photosynthetic resources. However, the aboveground biomass is usually harvested before winter to maintain the permanent removal of nutrients. In this work, the effects of harvest on plants' involvement in oxygen input as well as in microbial abundance and activity were investigated in detail. Three series of constructed wetlands with integrated plants ("unharvested"), harvested plants ("harvested"), and fully cleared plants ("cleared") were set up. Better performance was found in the unharvested units, with the radial oxygen loss (ROL) rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.59 ?mol O2/h/plant, followed by the harvested units that had relatively lower ROL rates (0.01 to 0.52 ?mol O2/h/plant). The cleared units had the lowest removal efficiency, which had no rhizome resources from the plants. The microbial population and activity were highest in the unharvested units, followed by the harvested and cleared units. Results showed that bacterial abundances and enhanced microbial activity were ten times higher on root surfaces compared with sands. These results indicate that late autumn harvesting of the aboveground biomass exhibited negative effects on plant ROL as well as on the microbial population and activity during the following winter. PMID:25520204

  13. Effects of plant roots on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process in mesocosm vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hua, G F; Zhao, Z W; Kong, J; Guo, R; Zeng, Y T; Zhao, L F; Zhu, Q D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant roots (Typha angustifolia roots) on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process from the perspective of time and space distributions in mesocosm vertical flow-constructed wetlands with coarse sand matrix. For this purpose, a pair of lab-scale experiments was conducted to compare planted and unplanted systems by measuring the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, the flow pattern of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by their hydraulic performance (e.g., mean residence time, short circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, and hydraulic efficiency factor) in salt tracer experiments. The results showed that the flow conditions would change in different clogging stages, which indicated that plants played different roles related to time and space. In the early clogging stages, plant roots restricted the flow of water, while in the middle and later clogging stages, especially the later stage, growing roots opened new pore spaces in the substrate. The roots played an important role in affecting the hydraulic performance in the upper layer (0-30 cm) where the sand matrix had a larger root volume fraction. Finally, the causes of the controversy over plant roots' effects on clogging were discussed. The results helped further understand the effects of plant roots on hydraulic performance during the clogging process. PMID:24994107

  14. COMPOST EFFECT ON WATER RETENTION AND NATIVE PLANT ESTABLISHMENT ON A CONSTRUCTION EMBANKMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost amendment of soil provides multiple benefits. Studies have documented the effect of compost on soil properties, but information reporting benefits to soil and plant establishment on non-agricultural soils are lacking. Our objective was to determine if yard-waste compost application at diff...

  15. Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Typha latifolia and its litter on density and abundance of three denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) were investigated in six laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms. Results showed that the copy numbers of nirS, nirK and nosZ in wetland microcosms were ranged between 10(8)-10(9), 10(6)-10(7) and 10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1), respectively. The presence of T. latifolia encouraged the growth of nirK containing bacteria. Addition of cattail litter could greatly stimulate the growth of bacteria containing nirS and nosZ gene. Path analysis illustrated that the presence of plants and litters had no significant direct impact on denitrifying genes, while it affected the denitrifying genes via alteration of dissolved oxygen and carbon sources. PMID:24565872

  16. An in vivo transient expression system can be applied for rapid and effective selection of artificial microRNA constructs for plant stable genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Basdeo; Chi, Ming; Su, Li; Tang, Haifeng; Tang, Guiliang; Xiang, Yu

    2013-05-20

    The utility of artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) to induce loss of gene function has been reported for many plant species, but expression efficiency of the different amiRNA constructs in different transgenic plants was less predictable. In this study, expressions of amiRNAs through the gene backbone of Arabidopsis miR168a were examined by both Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression and stable plant genetic transformation. A corresponding trend in expression of amiRNAs by the same amiRNA constructs between the transient and the stable expression systems was observed in the experiments. Plant genetic transformation of the constructs that were highly expressible in amiRNAs in the transient agro-infiltration assays resulted in generation of transgenic lines with high level of amiRNAs. This provides a simple method for rapid and effective selection of amiRNA constructs used for a time-consuming genetic transformation in plants. PMID:23706301

  17. General environmental guidelines for evaluating and reporting the effects of nuclear power plant site preparation, plant and transmission facilities construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Emerson; H. T. Hopkins; G. R. Squire; G. M. Sitek

    1974-01-01

    The various environmental considerations that should be taken into account when describing the expected environmental impacts steamming from nuclear power plant site preparation, plant and transmission facilities constructiion are presented. It is designed to provide environmental report writers a uniform and comprehensive guide by which they may satisfy the requirements of Chapter 4 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)

  18. Effects of plant biomass on nitrogen transformation in subsurface-batch constructed wetlands: a stable isotope and mass balance assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Nitrate is commonly found in the influent of subsurface-batch constructed wetlands (SSB CWs) used for tertiary wastewater treatments. To understand the effects of plants and the litter on nitrate removal, as well as on nitrogen transformation in SSB CWs, six laboratory-scale SSB CW microcosms were set up in duplicate and were operated as batch systems with hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 5d. The presence of Typha latifolia enhanced nitrate removal in SSB CWs, and the N removed by plant uptake was mainly stored in aboveground biomass. Typha litter addition greatly improved nitrate removal in SSB CWs through continuous input of labile organic carbon, and calculated enrichment factors (?) were between -12.1‰--13.9‰ from the nitrogen stable isotope analysis, suggesting that denitrification plays a dominant role in the N removal. Most significantly, simultaneous sulfur-based autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification was observed in CWs. Finally, mass balance showed that denitrification, sedimentation burial and plant uptake respectively contributed 54%-94%, 1%-46% and 7.5%-14.3% to the N removal in CWs. PMID:25000198

  19. A review of plant-pharmaceutical interactions: from uptake and effects in crop plants to phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Brix, Hans

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are commonly found both in the aquatic and the agricultural environments as a consequence of the human activities and associated discharge of wastewater effluents to the environment. The utilization of treated effluent for crop irrigation, along with land application of manure and biosolids, accelerates the introduction of these compounds into arable lands and crops. Despite the low concentrations of pharmaceuticals usually found, the continuous introduction into the environment from different pathways makes them 'pseudo-persistent'. Several reviews have been published regarding the potential impact of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals on arable land. However, plant uptake as well as phytotoxicity data are scarcely studied. Simultaneously, phytoremediation as a tool for pharmaceutical removal from soils, sediments and water is starting to be researched, with promising results. This review gives an in-depth overview of the phytotoxicity of pharmaceuticals, their uptake and their removal by plants. The aim of the current work was to map the present knowledge concerning pharmaceutical interactions with plants in terms of uptake and the use of plant-based systems for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:24481515

  20. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. CAD application to power plant design, construction and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, J.M.; Marinkovich, P.S.; Mysore, R.K.

    1982-05-01

    The nuclear industry, beset with increasing costs of constructing new nuclear plants, needs new initiatives. One, recently developed, is the use of CAD-IGS techniques that are proven beneficial in reducing the construction costs. This methodology had been used successfully in aerospace and automotive industries for many years. Westinghouse CAD-IGS experience with an overseas nuclear plant, now under construction, demonstrates this to be an effective tool for design verification and project management with excellent capabilities for application to new designs and operating plant support. This is accomplished through the CAD plant model and associated data base, which results in reducing human error, more complete preengineering before the start of construction and effective space utilization. Furthermore, the data base accurately represents the as-built plant, which is essential for expediting future plant upgrades. Computer-based modeling is less expensive than the conventional scale modeling and the current technology developments viz. optical scanners, photogrammetry, IGES, and advanced minicomputers will favorably improve the cost-effectiveness.

  2. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  3. Fast Construction of Plant Architectural Models Based on Substructure Decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongping Yan; Philippe De Reffye; Chunhong Pan; Bao-gang Hu

    2003-01-01

    Plant structure, representing the physical link among different organs, includes many similar substructures. In this paper, a new method is presented to construct plant architectural models of most plant species. The plant structure is decomposed into a stem, a set of lateral substructures and a terminal substructure, which is called substructure decomposition; then based on substructure decomposition, the plant structures

  4. 14. VIEW TO WEST, WWP MONROE STREET PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO WEST, WWP MONROE STREET PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  5. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. Constructing and Planting Fast Plants in a Deli-containter Growing System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    Illustrated instructions for constructing and planting in the Fast Plants deli-container growing system. This is a stable growing system that is easy to construct for all age learners, and works well for growing Wisconsin Fast Plants. Made from recycled deli-containers, these growing systems can be cleaned and reused for multiple years.

  7. Measurement and prediction of construction plant noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Gill

    1980-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of noise from stationary and mobile sources over realistic ground surfaces were studied. A total of 14 sets of propagation measurements from various types of construction equipment were made. Propagation data indicate that equivalent sound levels from stationary or quasistationary construction equipment propagate with an attenuation rate of approximately 6.76 and 6.13 dB (A) per doubling of distance

  8. 9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE FORMS, April 24, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Construction of marker-free transplastomic plants.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Kerry A; Maliga, Pal

    2007-04-01

    Because of its prokaryotic-type gene expression machinery, maternal inheritance and the opportunity to express proteins at a high level, the plastid genome (plastome or ptDNA) is an increasingly popular target for engineering. The ptDNA is present as up to 10,000 copies per cell, making selection for marker genes essential to obtain plants with uniformly transformed ptDNA. However, the marker gene is no longer desirable when homoplastomic plants are obtained. Marker-free transplastomic plants can now be obtained with four recently developed protocols: homology-based excision via directly repeated sequences, excision by phage site-specific recombinanses, transient cointegration of the marker gene, and the cotransformation-segregation approach. Marker excision technology will benefit applications in agriculture and in molecular farming. PMID:17339108

  10. Construction costs for some aquatic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Spencer; Frederick J. Ryan; Greg G. Ksander

    1997-01-01

    Resource allocation reflects a plant's response to its environment and affects its overall growth and performance in a particular habitat. We measured ash, C, N, and caloric content for various parts of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, Potamogeton nodosus Poir., P. gramineus L., and P. pectinatus L. Mean ash content of vegetative propagules ranged from 2.96 to 5.46%, lower than values

  11. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  12. Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—I. Removal of oxygen demand, suspended solids and faecal coliforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

    1995-01-01

    The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of BOD, SS and faecal coliforms (FC) from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20

  13. Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—II. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

    1995-01-01

    The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20 month period. Hydraulic

  14. 75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ...Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant AGENCY...Specifications for Materials, Equipment and Construction, by revising RUS Bulletin...Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...

  15. Construction plant and equipment management research: thematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Edwards; Gary D. Holt

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – A literature review is presented in the subject of construction plant and equipment management (CPeM) to: delineate the subject; consider its development over recent years; and identify principal themes within it. The paper aims to close the gap in knowledge, by using these objectives as a mechanism to observe how research themes relate to primary CPeM functions, and

  16. Simple construction of plant RNAi vectors using long oligonucleotides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mieko Higuchi; Takeshi Yoshizumi; Tomoko Kuriyama; Hiroko Hara; Chika Akagi; Hiroaki Shimada; Minami Matsui

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the most important technologies currently available for the analysis of gene function. However,\\u000a despite the development of various methods, it is still difficult to construct RNAi vectors for plants with the appropriate\\u000a inverted repeat fragments to produce double-stranded RNA for knockdown experiments. To solve this problem we have developed\\u000a an easy and simple method

  17. Steroid plant hormones: effects outside plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Natalia B; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BS) are the first group of steroid-hormonal compounds isolated from and acting in plants. Among numerous physiological effects of BS growth stimulation and adaptogenic activities are especially remarkable. In this review, we provide evidence that BS possess similar types of activity also beyond plant kingdom at concentrations comparable with those for plants. This finding allows looking at steroids from a new point of view: how common are the mechanisms of steroid bioregulation in different types of organisms from protozoa to higher animals. PMID:25217849

  18. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  19. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 ?moles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber will tremendously increase research opportunities in experimental plant biology. PMID:25965420

  20. [Water treatment efficiency of constructed wetland plant-bed/ditch systems].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Zhang, Rong-Bin; Chen, Qing-Hua; Wei, Hong-Bin; Wang, Wei-Dong

    2012-11-01

    Shijiuyang constructed wetland (SJY-CW) in Jiaxing City adopted plant-bed/ditch systems originated from the natural landscape as its major functioning unit. The constructed root channel technology (CRCT) is the core technique applied within the plant-bed/ditch systems. Monitoring results demonstrated that the wetland had the capability of improving water quality indexes by one rank grade according to the national environmental quality standards for surface water (GB 3838-2002). In order to optimize the water quality improvement function of plant-bed/ditch systems and CRCT, a pilot project in SJY-CW was constructed from May to October, 2010. The project contained 16 independent experimental cells. Orthogonal test design was applied to probe into the effects of constructed root channel layers, plant species combination, and reinforced physical substrates on promoting the water quality amelioration efficiency of the plant-bed/ditch systems. Comprehensively considering water treatment effects, construction difficulty, and construction and maintenance cost, the recommended optimal ways are as follows. Plant straws were preferably paved under subsurface zones by two layers with a gap of 20-30 cm. The preferable plant combination was reed (Phragmites australis) plus wild rice (Zizania caduciflora). Calcite might be applied as alternative reinforced media in some suitable sites of plant-bed/ditch systems. Water treatment effects were compared between pilot project and the whole wetland area of SJY-CW. The results showed that the reinforced pilot project exhibited higher treatment efficiency for nutrients than SJY-CW itself. The removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen were increased by about 20% - 40% in the pilot project. This suggested that SJY-CW could release its vast water treatment potential by means of increasing water flux through the subsurface root channel zones of plant beds. Therefore, some adjustment and control measures could be proposed to maintain the tradeoff balance between the potential release and maximization of wetland treatment efficiency and the treated water amount, such as constructing or modifying the hydraulic structures to regulate flow amount through large ditch, redistributing water flow and increasing the water head difference between the two sides of alternate small ditches. PMID:23323409

  1. 47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. 48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE AMMONIUM NITRATE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST 24, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  3. 46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN MILL ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. 44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  5. 45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. Effects of Plant Closing on Employee Attitudes: The Case of the GE Plant in Columbia, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Crofford, Amy Beth

    A study examined the effects of plant closing on hourly production employees' attitudes and behavior intentions at a General Electric (GE) plant in Columbia, Tennessee. A survey was constructed and used to collect data from 5 percent of the 400 hourly employees in November 1993, shortly after the announcement of the plant closing. The survey…

  7. Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-05

    A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

  8. Example G Cost of construction of nuclear power plants Description of data

    E-print Network

    Reid, Nancy

    Example G Cost of construction of nuclear power plants Description of data Table G.1 gives data) CT Use of cooling tower (=1) BW Nuclear steam supply system manufactured by Babcock-Wilcox (=1) N Cumulative number of power plants constructed by each architect-engineer PT Partial turnkey plant (=1

  9. DESIGN MANUAL: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND AQUATIC PLANT SYSTEMS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication is a compilation of all available design and operating criteria for the various constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems. opics discussed include: aquatic treatment systems, environmental and health considerations, design of constructed wetlands, design of ...

  10. Effectiveness of 4D construction modeling in detecting time-space conflicts of construction sites 

    E-print Network

    Nigudkar, Narendra Shriniwas

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated whether 4D construction model effectively helps project participants on construction sites in detecting time-space conflicts in the schedule. Previous researchers on construction space management typically modeled space...

  11. Effectiveness of 4D construction modeling in detecting time-space conflicts of construction sites

    E-print Network

    Nigudkar, Narendra Shriniwas

    2005-11-01

    This research investigated whether 4D construction model effectively helps project participants on construction sites in detecting time-space conflicts in the schedule. Previous researchers on construction space management typically modeled space...

  12. 43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  13. 42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  14. Herbicide Effects on Plant Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of herbicides on plant disease is an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of integrated pest management. Furthermore, these interactions can be crucial contributors to the success or failure of the biocontrol of weeds with microbes. Indirectly, through their strong effects on pla...

  15. Example G Cost of construction of nuclear power plants Description of data

    E-print Network

    Reid, Nancy

    1 Example G Cost of construction of nuclear power plants Description of data Table G.1 gives-east region (=1) CT Use of cooling tower (=1) BW Nuclear steam supply system manufactured by Babcock-Wilcox (=1) N Cumulative number of power plants constructed by each architect-engineer PT Partial turnkey

  16. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING OVERALL BLOCK EXTERIOR WALLS; CONSTRUCTION 65 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4976. Holmes, Photographer, 9/26/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING EAST SHOWING EXCAVATION AND FORMING; CONSTRUCTION 6 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-4935. J. Anderson, Photographer, 9/21/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DECK FORMING FOR SOUTH SECTION OF OPERATING CORRIDOR; CONSTRUCTION 44 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3624. Holmes, Photographer, 7/25/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) OVERALL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) OVERALL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST; CONSTRUCTION 34 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3034. Holmes, Photographer, 6/23/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Risk Framework for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant Construction 

    E-print Network

    Yeon, Jaeheum 1981-

    2012-12-11

    Uncertainty can be either an opportunity or a risk. Every construction project begins with the expectation of project performance. To meet the expectation, construction projects need to be managed through sound risk assessment and management...

  1. Diverting water at dams during construction of hydro plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kneitz

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimates that hydropower could contribute another 24,000 MW of electricity to the US power supply by building new plants at existing dams. (Conventional hydro currently contributes about 71,800 MW of electricity.) When installing a plant at an existing dam, it is often feasible to connect the plant to the existing outlet works of the

  2. Evapotranspiration from pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with Phragmites australis in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mirco; Toscano, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of evapotranspiration (ET) experiments carried out in Southern Italy (Sicily) in a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) made of a combination of vegetated (Phragmites australis) and unvegetated sub-surface flow beds. Domestic wastewater from a conventional wastewater treatment plant was used to fill the beds. Microclimate data was gathered from an automatic weather station close to the experimental plant. From June to November 2009 and from April to November 2010, ET values were measured as the amount of water needed to restore the initial volume in the beds after a certain period. Cumulative reference evapotranspiration (ET(0)) was similar to the cumulative ET measured in the beds without vegetation (ET(con)), while the Phragmites ET (ET (phr) ) was significantly higher underlining the effect of the vegetation. The plant coefficient of P. australis (K(p)) was very high (up to 8.5 in August 2009) compared to the typical K(c) for agricultural crops suggesting that the wetland environment was subjected to strong "clothesline" and "oasis" effects. According to the FAO 56 approach, K(p) shows different patterns and values in relation to growth stages correlating significantly to stem density, plant height and total leaves. The mean Water Use Efficiency (WUE) value of P. australis was quite low, about 2.27 g L(-1), probably due to the unlimited water availability and the lack of the plant's physiological adaptations to water conservation. The results provide useful and valid information for estimating ET rates in small-scale constructed wetlands since ET is a relevant issue in arid and semiarid regions. In these areas CW feasibility for wastewater treatment and reuse should also be carefully evaluated for macrophytes in relation to their WUE values. PMID:23383642

  3. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

    2009-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH(4) was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH(4) fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH(4) fluxes but favoured CO(2) production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP<15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. PMID:19110349

  4. Technical WOrk Plan for: Construction Effects Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    2006-09-14

    This document is the technical work plan (TWP) for performing the Construction Effects Monitoring (CEM) activity, which is one of 20 testing and monitoring activities included in Performance Confirmation Plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172452]). Collectively, the 20 activities make up the Performance Confirmation Program described in the plan. Each of the other 19 activities will have a separate TWP. This plan, though titled Construction Effects Monitoring, in accordance with the Performance Confirmation Plan, also includes testing that may be performed in addition to monitoring, if required. Performance confirmation is required by regulation 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173273], and was started during site characterization (consistent with the regulation) and will continue until permanent closure of the repository (10 CFR 63.13 1 (b) [DIRS 173273]). This CEM activity has two primary goals: (1) to collect, analyze, and report on repository rock properties data for the purpose of confirming geotechnical and design parameters used in repository design, and (2) to provide information intended to confirm that the ability to retrieve waste from the repository has been preserved. It will be necessary for information from this CEM activity to be evaluated in combination with that obtained from other Performance Confirmation Program activities to achieve these goals. These relationships with other Performance Confirmation Program activities (e.g., drift inspection, subsurface mapping, and seismicity monitoring) will be discussed in later sections of this TWP.

  5. CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS MODELLING WITH NEURAL NETWORKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasa Apanavi?ien?; Arvydas Juodis

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with important aspects of construction management key factors identification and their relative significance for the construction projects management effectiveness. The approach of artificial neural network allows the construction projects management effectiveness model to be built and to determine the key determinants from a host of possible management factors that influence the project effectiveness in terms of budget

  6. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

  7. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING FORMING AND PLACEMENT OF REINFORCING STEEL FOR SOUTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 3, 4 AND 5 AND WEST WALL FOR CELLS 1 AND 2; CONSTRUCTION 13 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS 59-6436. J. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC50 4 ?M) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg/d for 24 d) to healthy rats fed normal diet (protein content 23.9%) increased food intake, body weight gain, lean body mass, and gastrocnemius muscle mass as compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effect of HB administration increased slightly in animals fed a high-protein diet (protein content 39.4%). Both oral (up to 60 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (up to 4 mg/kg) administration of HB showed low androgenic activity when tested in the Hershberger assay. Moreover, HB showed no direct binding to the androgen receptor in vitro. HB treatment was also associated with an improved physical fitness of untrained healthy rats, as evident from a 6.7% increase in lower extremity strength, measured by grip test. In the gastrocnemius muscle of castrated animals, HB treatment significantly increased the number of type IIa and IIb fibers and the cross-sectional area of type I and type IIa fibers. These findings suggest that oral application of HB triggers selective anabolic response with minimal or no androgenic side-effects and begin to elucidate the putative cellular targets for plant brassinosteroids in mammals.—Esposito, D., Komarnytsky, S., Shapses, S., Raskin, I. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid. PMID:21746867

  9. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  10. PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN KAHL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Knobling; K. Roos

    1962-01-01

    Discussion is given on planning problems which arise in the constraction ; of nuclear power plants and auxiliary facilities. Certain basic concepts in ; regard to such projects are discussed. The experimental nuclear power plant in ; Kahl will initially have a relatively small net electric output of l5000 kw. It ; is intended to provide information on the construction

  11. Effective construction of divergence-free wavelets on the square

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effective construction of divergence-free wavelets on the square S. Kadri Harounaa , V. Perrierb a Abstract We present an effective construction of divergence-free wavelets on the square, with suitable such construction in the context of generic compactly supported wavelets, which allows fast algorithms. Examples

  12. Improved Construction and Project Management for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Westinghouse Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 2000 Day Hill Road, Windsor, CT (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The economic competitiveness of future nuclear power plants is the key issue to the expansion of this vital technology. The challenge is greater today than it has been because of the worldwide trend of deregulation of the power market. Deregulation favors smaller investments with shorter payback times. However, the key economic parameter is the power generation cost and its competitiveness to other sources of electric generation, principally natural gas and coal. The relative competitiveness of these three fuel types today is largely dictated by the availability of domestic sources of both fuel and technology infrastructure. The competitiveness of new nuclear power plants can be improved in any power market environment first by the features of the design itself, second by the approach to construction, and finally by the project structure used to implement the plant, or more importantly, a series of plants. These three aspects form the cornerstone to a successful resurgence of new nuclear power plant construction. (author)

  13. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

    2007-08-25

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland. PMID:17353090

  14. Curvilinear effects of invasive plants on plant diversity: plant community invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  15. Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  16. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  17. A perspective on effective mentoring in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista Hoffmeister; Konstantin P. Cigularov; Julie Sampson; John C. Rosecrance; Peter Y. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to provide a perspective on effective mentoring in the construction industry by examining key mentor characteristics as perceived by construction professionals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 170 union construction workers rated 55 mentor characteristics based on to what extent each was characteristic of a superior, average, or poor mentor. Findings – To identify the

  18. Effective vectors for transformation, expression of heterologous genes, and assaying transposon excision in transgenic plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. G. Jones; L. Shlumukov; F. Carland; J. English; S. R. Scofield; G. J. Bishop; K. Harrison

    1992-01-01

    Progress in plant molecular biology has depended heavily on the availability of effective vectors for plant cell transformation\\u000a and heterologous expression. In this paper we describe the structures of a wide array of plasmids which have proved extremely\\u000a effective in (a) plant transformation, (b) expression of heterologous genes and (c) assaying the activity of transposons in\\u000a transgenic plants. Constructs that

  19. Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

    1998-01-01

    The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

  20. Design, construction and start-up of a modern coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.E.

    1983-05-01

    The planning and design of a 60-oven, 6m replacement coke battery and associated by-products plant for Republic Steel Corp, Chicago, are described together with the constructional methods used and problems experienced through start-up of the facility. Pushing emission control is achieved with a Mitsubishi-type land-based system and changing emission control with a Nippon Steel combination car and land-based system. A Takahax-Hirohax coke-oven gas desulphurization unit is included in the by-product plant. Construction began in March 1979 with the first push in December 1981.

  1. Effective construction of algebraic geometry codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaétan Haché; Dominique Le Brigand

    1995-01-01

    We intend to show that algebraic geometry codes may be constructed easily using blowing-up theory for any projective plane algebraic curve. Our paper is based on a paper by Le Brigand and Risler (1988). We try to be as explicit as possible

  2. Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murali Sambasivan; Yau Wen Soon

    2007-01-01

    The problem of delays in the construction industry is a global phenomenon and the construction industry in Malaysia is no exception. The main purpose of this study is to identify the delay factors and their impact (effect) on project completion. Earlier studies either considered the causes or the effects of project delays, separately. This study takes an integrated approach and

  3. Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile. PMID:15627565

  4. RATE OF TCE DEGRADATION IN PASSIVE REACTIVE BARRIERS CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH (BIOWALLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation reviews a case study at Altus AFB on the extent of treatment of TCE in a passive reactive barrier constructed with plant mulch. It presents data from a tracer test to estimate the rate of ground water flow at the site, and the residence time of water and TCE in...

  5. The CAD systems for Chooz-B nuclear power plant construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bacher; G. Beltranda

    1988-01-01

    A computer-aided design (CAD) integrated system has been set up by the engineering and design departments of Electricite de France and Framatome for the construction of the Chooz nuclear power plant. Such a structure was required due to the development of new microprocessor-based technologies. Indeed, this is the only way to provide consistent mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation and control (I

  6. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  7. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2008-09-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50° C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small amount of heat is added to the processed solution by the mechanical energy of the contactors. The temperature profiles match the ambient temperature of the laboratory but are nearly 10° C higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated input solution testing provides temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients and are more influenced by the temperature of the inlet solutions than the ambient laboratory temperature. The temperature effects of solution mixing, even at 4000 rpm, were insignificant in any of the studies conducted on lamp oil and water.

  8. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This final report describes the coal-fired plant design capable of producing electric power in an environmentally clean manner. The report presents the predicted performance using high sulfur bituminous coal and summarizes the construction activities and changes through completion on November 30, 1983. The construction activities involved: (1) the site excavation and pouring foundations for the PFB process equipment structural tower, control building, dolomite silo, boost compressor, and various equipment footings; (2) the fabrication and erection of the support steel work for the process equipment tower, control building, rail car thaw shed, and particulate scrubber and exhaust stack; (3) the fabrication and erection of the process equipment including the PFB combustor vessel, windbox, in-bed heat exchanger and process piping, the ash recycle system, the gas clean-up system, the ash removal, cooling and storage system, the coal handling, preparation and injection systems, the dolomite receiving, handling, storage and injection systems, the boost air compressor, dryer and receiver systems, the purge instrument and service air systems, the control, instrument and electrical systems, the tower elevator, the cardox, Halon and water fire protection system, etc. In addition, modifications and refurbishment were completed on the existing equipment at the site which was incorporated into the Pilot Plant system. Finally, plans were prepared describing the operating procedures, maintenance requirements, spare parts list, training program and manpower requirements for the proposed Phase IV test evaluation program. 37 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Planning a Program of School Plant Construction. Research Report, School Plant Planning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    The importance of long-term planning, and undesirable conditions resulting from failure to plan, are stressed. General procedures named as essential are--(1) the official approval of the Board of Education before the administration proceeds with long-range planning, (2) the design of the school plant around the educational program it is to serve,…

  10. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  11. Effect of microgravity on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

  12. Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico Eisenhauer; Alexandru Milcu; Norma Nitschke; Alexander C. W. Sabais; Christoph Scherber; Stefan Scheu

    2009-01-01

    Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their

  13. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

  14. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  15. Tracer studies and hydraulic behaviour of planted and un-planted vertical-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Cota, R S; von Sperling, M; Penido, R C S

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the hydraulic behaviour of three intermittently-fed vertical flow wetland units operated in parallel, designed for the treatment of raw wastewater generated in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The system was designed to serve 100 PE (-1 m2/PE). The first filter was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia), the second with Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp.) and the third was maintained without plants (control unit). NaCl tracer tests were conducted to determine the residence time distribution. The tests were done with water when the system was unused (clean media) and also after an 11-month operation period with wastewater (used media), using two different dosing regimes (lower and higher frequency). Results showed a strong tendency towards the hydraulic completely mixed regime. A great dispersion in the units and the presence of short circuiting and dead zones were observed. The unsaturated condition in a large volume of the filter, even during the draining stage, was confirmed for the three units. The dosing regime, the resting period duration, the age of the filter and the presence of plants were found to influence the hydraulic processes in the units. PMID:22214051

  16. Nutrient Removal in Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands Treating Eutrophic River Water: Assessment of Plants, Intermittent Artificial Aeration and Polyhedron Hollow Polypropylene Balls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianqiang Tang; Suiliang Huang; Miklas Scholz; Jinzhong Li

    2009-01-01

    Seven experimental pilot-scale subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands were designed to assess the effect of plants\\u000a [Typha latifolia L. (cattail)], intermittent artificial aeration and the use of polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls (PHPB) as part of the\\u000a wetland substrate on nutrient removal from eutrophic Jinhe River water in Tianjin, China. During the entire running period,\\u000a observations indicated that plants played a negligible

  17. Effects of managed impoundments and herbivory on wetland plant production and stand structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Johnson Randall; A. Lee Foote

    2005-01-01

    Managed impoundments, a form of structural marsh management, have been used to enhance plant production in the rapidly-eroding\\u000a marshes of coastal Louisiana, USA, yet few studies have quantified their effects by measuring plant production before and\\u000a after impoundment construction. We tested the effects of structural marsh management on the annual aboveground production\\u000a and plant stand structure (stem density and stem

  18. Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    LETTER Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity Cameron productivity and plant coexistence. Using additive partitioning of biodiversity effects developed in plant biodiversity studies, we demonstrate that this positive relationship can be driven by complementarity effects

  19. Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianguo Liu; Yuan Dong; Hai Xu; Deke Wang; Jiakuan Xu

    2007-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl?1 was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%.

  20. Physiological parameters of plants as indicators of water quality in a constructed wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oren Shelef; Avi Golan-Goldhirsh; Tanya Gendler; Shimon Rachmilevitch

    Introduction  Increasing demand for water has stimulated efforts to treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture. Decentralized facilities\\u000a for wastewater treatment became popular as a solution to remote and small communities. These systems mimic natural wetlands,\\u000a cleaning wastewater as they flow through a complex of filter media, microbial fauna, and vegetation. The function of plants\\u000a in constructed wetlands (CWs) has not been

  1. Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Rajendran; S. Rajeswari

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion in wet lime\\/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The\\u000a frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious\\u000a threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their\\u000a life expectancy. The present

  2. Changes in the bacterial community structure in two-stage constructed wetlands with different plants for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Duque, Anouk F; Moura, Alexandra; Henriques, Isabel S; Correia, António; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2009-07-01

    This study focused on the diversity of bacterial communities from two series of two-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) treating tannery wastewater, under different hydraulic conditions. Series were separately planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis in expanded clay aggregates and operated for 31 months. The effect of plant species, hydraulic loading and unit stage on bacterial communities was addressed through bacterial enumeration and denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Diverse and distinct bacterial communities were found in each system unit, which was related in part to the type of plant and stage position (first or second unit in the series). Numerical analysis of DGGE profiles showed high diversity in each unit with an even distribution of species. No clear relation was established between the sample collection time, hydraulic loading applied and the bacterial diversity. Isolates retrieved from plant roots and substrates of CWs were affiliated with gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, alpha-Proteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Both series were effective in removing organic matter from the inlet wastewater, however, based on batch degradation experiments it seems that biodegradation was limited by the recalcitrant properties of the wastewater. PMID:19303772

  3. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

  4. Contrasting effects of invasive plants in plant–pollinator networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignasi Bartomeus; Montserrat Vilà; Luís Santamaría

    2008-01-01

    The structural organization of mutualism networks, typified by interspecific positive interactions, is important to maintain\\u000a community diversity. However, there is little information available about the effect of introduced species on the structure\\u000a of such networks. We compared uninvaded and invaded ecological communities, to examine how two species of invasive plants\\u000a with large and showy flowers (Carpobrotus\\u000a affine acinaciformis and Opuntia

  5. Worldwide construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle

  6. Treatment of freshwater fish farm effluent using constructed wetlands: the role of plants and substrate.

    PubMed

    Naylor, S; Brlsson, J; Labelle, M A; Drizo, A; Comeau, Y

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater fish farm effluents have low nutrient concentrations but high flow rates, resulting in pollutant load, especially phosphorus (P), causing eutrophication. The feasibility was tested of a treatment combining, within a single constructed wetland, the contribution of macrophytes for reducing organic matter and nitrogen (N), with the high efficiency of steel slag and limestone for P removal. Twenty subsurface flow (SSF) basins of 280 L with different combinations of plants (Phragmites communis or Typha latifolia) and substrates (steel slag, limestone, gravel, peat) were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent in a greenhouse experiment. Pollutant removal was generally very good under all treatments. N and organic matter removal were correlated with plant biomass while P removal was better in substrates with steel slag and limestone. However, the high pH of the P-adsorbing substrate was detrimental to plant growth so that no combination of plants and substrates could maximise in one step the simultaneous removal of all evaluated pollutants. Therefore, the use of two sequential units is recommended, a first one consisting of a macrophyte planted basin using a neutral substrate to remove organic matter and N, followed by a second unplanted basin containing only a P-adsorbing substrate. PMID:14621167

  7. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tushar K; Papolu, Pradeep K; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  8. Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

    2005-02-01

    A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance. PMID:15620752

  9. The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Beard; M. Harrison

    1990-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 μl\\/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was

  10. Effects of herbivore identity on plant fecundity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay K. Amsberry; John L. Maron

    2006-01-01

    Herbivores are pervasive, yet their effects on plant fecundity are often variable. One potential source of variation in herbivore impacts results from differing feeding modes of herbivores. We examined the relative importance of inflorescence-feeding insects versus large ungulates in affecting the fecundity of Balsamorhiza sagittata (Asteraceae), a dominant native perennial forb in western Montana, USA. We quantified these effects across

  11. Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 ?g kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 ?g kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended. PMID:24969425

  12. The CAD systems for Chooz-B nuclear power plant construction

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, P.; Beltranda, G.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-aided design (CAD) integrated system has been set up by the engineering and design departments of Electricite de France and Framatome for the construction of the Chooz nuclear power plant. Such a structure was required due to the development of new microprocessor-based technologies. Indeed, this is the only way to provide consistent mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation and control (I C) data, and thus achieve high quality. These systems aim at the three following objectives: (1) obtaining consistent information in the various I C documents; (2) generating high-quality alphanumeric and graphic data; and (3) supplying the event base with expert systems developed to check functional coherency.

  13. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 ?g L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. PMID:25461066

  14. Impact of plant density and microbial composition on water quality from a free water surface constructed wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Ibekwe; S. R. Lyon; M. Leddy; M. Jacobson-Meyers

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To correlate microbial community composition and water quality chan- ges within wetland cells containing varying plant densities and composition in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Methods and Results: Water chemistry was monitored weekly for nitrate, orthophosphate, and suspended solids, at various sites throughout the wetland for 6 months. Treatment ponds with 50% plant cover had about a

  15. Microgravity effects on plant growth and lignification.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J R; Lemay, R; Jahns, G

    1988-01-01

    Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew under the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment. PMID:11539286

  16. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz; Selvaraju Vaithinathan; Rajamanickam Jubendradass; Premendu Prakash Mathur

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions

  17. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Unexpected earthworm effects on forest understory plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Introduced earthworms are widespread in forests of North America creating significant negative impacts on forest understory communities. However, much of the reported evidence for negative earthworm effects comes from field investigations either comparing invaded and non-invaded forests or across invasion fronts. While important, such work is rarely able to capture the true effect of earthworms on individual plant species because most forests in North America simultaneously face multiple stressors which may confound earthworm impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to isolate effects of the anecic introduced earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L. on seedlings of 14 native plant species representing different life form groups (perennial herb, graminoid, and tree). Results Earthworm presence did not affect survival, fertility or biomass of any of the seedling plant species tested over a 17-week period. However, L. terrestris presence significantly decreased growth of two sedges (Carex retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. and Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small) by decreasing the number of culms. Conclusions Our mesocosm results with seedlings contrast with field reports indicating extensive and significant negative effects of introduced earthworms on many mature native forbs, and positive effects on sedges. We suggest that earthworm impacts are context- and age-specific and that generalizations about their impacts are potentially misleading without considering and manipulating other associated factors. PMID:24314263

  19. Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

    1996-02-01

    Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

  20. Effective theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect: Hierarchy construction

    SciTech Connect

    Blok, B.; Wen, X.G. (School of Natural Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The effective theories for the hierarchical fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) are proposed. We obtain the quantum numbers of the quasiparticles and the structure of the edge excitations for the general hierarchical FQHE state. It is shown that at the filling fractions {nu}={ital k}/(2{ital km}{plus minus}1) the Jain states and the hierarchical FQHE states give rise to the same quasiparticles and edge excitations and have the same effective theories (in the dual form). This suggests that these FQHE states are equivalent despite having been obtained from two different schemes.

  1. Plant growth regulation effects of triterpenoid saponins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Ohara; Tatsuro Ohira

    2003-01-01

    To investigate structure–activity relations between the sugar chain structures of triterpenoid saponins and their plant growth\\u000a regulation effects, several monodesmosidic saponins with betulin as an aglycon were synthesized by chemical and enzymic reactions.\\u000a Three triterpenoids (betulin, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid) and synthesized betulin glycosides were submitted to germination\\u000a and growth regulation tests on alfalfa seeds. We concluded the following. Betulin

  2. Effect of loading rate on performance of constructed wetlands treating an anaerobic supernatant.

    PubMed

    Chazarenc, F; Maltais-Landry, G; Troesch, S; Comeau, Y; Brisson, J

    2007-01-01

    The effect of organic loading, season and plant species on the treatment of fish farm effluent was tested using three-year old mesocosm wetland systems. During one year, nine 1 m2 mesocosms (horizontal subsurface flow), located in a controlled greenhouse environment, were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent containing a high fraction of soluble components (1,600 microS/cm and in mg/L: 230 +/- 80 COD, 179 +/- 60 sCOD, 100 +/- 40 TSS, 37 +/- 7 TKN, 14 +/- 2 TP). Combinations of three hydraulic loading rates (30, 60 and 90 L.m(-2) d(-1)) and two plant species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) and an unplanted control were tested for treatment performance and hydraulic behaviour. Loadings higher than 15 g COD m(-2) d(-1) resulted in a net decrease of hydraulic performances (generation of short circuiting) coupled with low TKN removal. Maximal TKN removal rates (summer: 1.2, winter: 0.6 g.m(-2) d(-1)) were reached in planted units. In all mesocosms, phosphorus was removed during summer (maximal removal rate: 0.3 g TP m(-2) d(-1)) and was released in winter (release rate = approximately half of summer removal rate). This study confirmed that constructed wetlands are susceptible to clogging when treating anaerobic storage tank supernatant rich in highly biodegradable compounds. Contributions of plants to hydraulic efficiency were mainly observed in summer, associated with high evapotranspiration rates. Both plant species gave a similar removal efficiency for all pollutants. PMID:17802834

  3. Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C W; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the framework of the Jena Experiment we determined plant community productivity (in 2004 and 2007) and performance of two phytometer plant species [Centaurea jacea (herb) and Lolium perenne (grass); in 2007 and 2008] in a plant species (from one to 16) and functional group richness gradient (from one to four). We sampled earthworm subplots and subplots with decreased earthworm density and reduced aboveground competition of phytometer plants by removing the shoot biomass of the resident plant community. Earthworms increased total plant community productivity (+11%), legume shoot biomass (+35%) and shoot biomass of the phytometer C. jacea (+21%). Further, phytometer performance decreased, i.e. belowground competition increased, with increasing plant species and functional group richness. Although single plant functional groups benefited from higher earthworm numbers, the effects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed affect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. However, belowground competition was modified by earthworms as reflected by increased productivity of the phytometer C. jacea. Moreover, particularly legumes benefited from earthworm presence. Considering also previous studies, we suggest that earthworms and legumes form a loose mutualistic relationship affecting essential ecosystem functions in temperate grasslands, in particular decomposition and plant productivity. Further, earthworms likely alter competitive interactions among plants and the structure of plant communities by beneficially affecting certain plant functional groups. PMID:19526252

  4. DOE small-scale hydroelectric demonstration project: Riegel Textile Corporation, Fries, Virginia plant hydroproject. Final technical and construction cost report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The Riegel Textile Corporation completed a 2163 kW generator project at its plant in Fries, Virginia. A new powerhouse was constructed to enclose a used 2900 hp vertical Kaplan turbine and Westinghouse generator. Construction was accomplished without modification to or rehabilitation of an existing dam and required only minor modification to or rehabilitation of an existing dam and required only minor modification to the existing appurtenances. The existing hydro-generation equipment supplies approximately 54% of the 5500 kW required by the Fries plant. With the addition of the new facility, the plant will generate approximately 74% of its total electrical requirements. This demonstrates the viability of utilizing hydro-generation in the operation of an industrial facility. The project annually generates a National Energy Savings of 19,387 barrels of oil equivalent. The project was separated into four phases which lasted a total of 36 months and included construction, erection and demonstration.

  5. An effective way to reduce residential construction waste: a case study in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Castelo Branco, Cristiano Ribeiro

    2008-10-10

    This research consists of an investigation on the incidence of residential construction waste in Texas. Construction waste has proved to have a negative effect on the economic health of construction companies and on the ...

  6. An effective way to reduce residential construction waste: a case study in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Castelo Branco, Cristiano Ribeiro

    2009-05-15

    This research consists of an investigation on the incidence of residential construction waste in Texas. Construction waste has proved to have a negative effect on the economic health of construction companies and on the ...

  7. Polishing of synthetic electroplating wastewater in microcosm upflow constructed wetlands: Effect of operating conditions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Polishing of synthetic electroplating wastewater in microcosm upflow constructed wetlands: Effect of polishing electroplating wastewater in subsurface vertical flow constructed wetland. Electroplating wastewater treatment or polishing in constructed wetlands (CWs) was studied to a very limited degree. Four

  8. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  9. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    SciTech Connect

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

  10. Obtaining marker-free transgenic soybean plants with optimal frequency by constructing a three T-DNA binary vector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingguo Ye; Hua Qin

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining marker-free plants with high efficiency will benefit the environmental release of transgenic crops. To achieve this\\u000a point, a binary vector with three TDNAs was constructed using several mediate plasmids, in which one copy of BAR gene expression cassette and two copies of VIP1 gene expression cassette were included. EHA101 Agrobacterium strain harboring the final construct was applied to transform

  11. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  12. Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suwasa Kantawanichkul; Supreeya Kladprasert; Hans Brix

    2009-01-01

    The ability of vertical flow (VF) constructed wetland systems to treat high-strength (ca. 300mgL?1 of COD and ca. 300mgL?1 total-nitrogen) wastewater under tropical climatic conditions was studied during a 5-month period. Nine 0.8-m diameter experimental VF units (depth 0.6m) were used: three units were planted with Typha angustifolia L., another three units were planted with Cyperus involucratus Rottb and three

  13. A global meta-analytic contrast of cushion-plant effects on plants and on arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Liczner, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    Nurse plant facilitation is a commonly reported plant–plant interaction and is an important factor influencing community structure in stressful environments. Cushion plants are an example of alpine nurse plants that modify microclimatic conditions within their canopies to create favourable environments for other plants. In this meta-analysis, the facilitative effects of cushion plants was expanded from previous syntheses of the topic and the relative strength of facilitation for other plants and for arthropods were compared globally.The abundance, diversity, and species presence/absence effect size estimates were tested as plant responses to nurse plants and a composite measure was tested for arthropods. The strength of facilitation was on average three times greater for arthropods relative to all plant responses to cushions. Plant species presence, i.e., frequency of occurrence, was not enhanced by nurse-plants. Cushion plants nonetheless acted as nurse plants for both plants and arthropods in most alpine contexts globally, and although responses by other plant species currently dominate the facilitation literature, preliminary synthesis of the evidence suggests that the potential impacts of nurses may be even greater for other trophic levels. PMID:24688848

  14. Use and effectiveness of hearing protection in construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data on noise exposure and hearing protection device (HPD) use among construction workers drawn from several large datasets covering nine construction trades. A unique combination of one-minute dosimetry noise exposure level and simultaneous self-reported HPD use data were evaluated, as were occupational and non-occupational HPD use data collected by questionnaire as part of a longitudinal noise and hearing loss study among apprentices. Direct HPD attenuation measurements were also made on workers at their worksite. Workers reported using HPDs less than one-quarter of the time they were exposed above 85 dBA, the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit. Workers who reported always using HPDs in high noise were found to wear them only one-third of the time their exposures exceeded 85 dBA. Direct attenuation measurements indicated that workers achieved more than 50% of the rated attenuation of their HPD on average, but that the variability in achieved attenuation was large. Lastly, when the measured HPD attenuation level and use time data were combined, the effective protection afforded by HPDs was less than 3 dB on average, though there was substantial variation among the different trades. These results demonstrate the need for better hearing conservation programs in construction.

  15. Predicting effectiveness of construction project management: Decision-support tool for competitive bidding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasa Apanaviciene; Arvydas Juodis

    2006-01-01

    This article presents construction project management effectiveness modelling from the construction management organization\\u000a perspective. The paper reports on construction project performance data collected from construction management companies in\\u000a Lithuania and the United States of America. Construction project management effectiveness model (CPMEM) was established by\\u000a applying artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology. The discussions of project management effectiveness (success) factors\\u000a identified in

  16. Construction of infectious clones of double-stranded DNA viruses of plants using citrus yellow mosaic virus as an example.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi; Hartung, John S

    2008-01-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses of plants are believed to be plant pararetroviruses. Their genome is replicated by reverse transcription of a larger than unit-length terminally redundant RNA transcript of the viral genomic DNA using the virus-encoded replicase. In order to produce a cloned, infectious viral genome, the clone must be constructed in a binary vector and be longer than the full, unit-length viral genome. The clone can then be transferred by Agrobacterium-assisted inoculation into a suitable host plant to induce virus infection. PMID:18370278

  17. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  18. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  19. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  20. [Antitumor effects of a plant extract mixture].

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Wataru; Suruga, Kohei; Kadokura, Kazunari; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Ono, Nobufumi

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the most common cause of death in Japan. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer were conducted from the viewpoint of Western medicine so far. However, a sustained complete remission has not been achieved yet. In order to alleviate the side effects of anticancer drugs, some traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines) have been prescribed to cancer patients. We have been studying on antitumor substances in medicinal herbs and found an antitumor medicinal herb named Rhus verniciflua (lacquer, Urushi in Japanese). To investigate the antitumor effect in vitro, a plant extract mixture was prepared from six medicinal herbs containing lacquer. The plant extract mixture containing lacquer (Rv-PEM) inhibited the proliferation of several mouse and human tumor cell lines. Rv-PEM had more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human leukemia cell lines (MOLT-3, KG-1) than on other tumor cell lines. The IC50 values of Rv-PEM on MOLT-3 and KG-1 cells were 0.208 and 0.293 mg/mL, respectively. After treating Rv-PEM to the tumor cells, DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 and -9 activity increased in the treated cells. The mechanisms of the inhibitory proliferation activity of Rv-PEM would involve apoptosis of human leukemia cells (MOLT-3, KG-1, K-562) by the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23649388

  1. INDIAN PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS WITH ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT*

    PubMed Central

    Satyavati, G. V.

    1984-01-01

    In this article the author reviews research studies on Indian plants with antifertility activity conducted by different Institutes and independent investigators. The available clinical data is also present here. PMID:22557405

  2. TRICHLOROETHYLENE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER IN FLOW-THROUGH COLUMNS SIMULATING A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a passive reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative re...

  3. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

  4. Herbivore Effects on Plant and Nitrogen Dynamics in Oak Savanna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Ritchie; David Tilman; Johannes M. H. Knops

    1998-01-01

    Herbivores can often control plant dynamics by mediating positive feedbacks in plant species' influence on nutrient cycling. In a 7-yr field experiment in a nitrogen- limited Minnesota oak savanna, we tested whether herbivores accelerated or decelerated nitrogen (N) cycling through their effects on plants. We measured effects of excluding insect (primarily Orthoptera and Homoptera) and mammalian herbivores (primarily white- tailed

  5. Phenotypic plasticity of plant response to herbivore eggs: effects on resistance to caterpillars and plant development.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2013-03-01

    Herbivory induces direct resistance responses in plants that negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores. Moreover, eggs of herbivorous insects can also activate plant resistance, which in some cases prevents hatching larvae from feeding. Until now, plant-mediated effects of eggs on subsequent herbivory, and the specificity of such responses, have remained poorly understood. We studied the specificity and effects of plant resistance induced by herbivore egg deposition against lepidopteran larvae of species with different dietary breadths, feeding on a wild annual plant, the crucifer Brassica nigra. We examined whether this plant-mediated response affects the growth of caterpillars of a specialist (Pieris brassicae) that feeds on B. nigra leaves and flowers, and a generalist (Mamestra brassicae) that rarely attacks this wild crucifer. We measured growth rates of neonate larvae to the end of their second instar after the larvae had hatched on plants exposed to eggs vs. plants without eggs, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Moreover, we studied the effects of egg deposition by the two herbivore species on plant height and flowering rate before and after larval hatching. Larvae of both herbivore species that developed on plants previously infested with eggs of the specialist butterfly P. brassicae gained less mass compared with larvae that developed on egg-free plants. Plants exposed to butterfly eggs showed accelerated plant growth and flowering compared to egg-free plants. Egg deposition by the generalist moth M. brassicae, in contrast, had no effect on subsequent performance by either herbivore species, or on plant development. Our results demonstrate that B. nigra plants respond differently to eggs of two herbivore species in terms of plant development and induced resistance to caterpillar attack. For this annual crucifer, the retardation of caterpillar growth in response to deposition of eggs by P. brassicae in combination with enhanced growth and flowering likely result in reproductive assurance, after being exposed to eggs from an herbivore whose larvae rapidly reduce the plant's reproductive potential through florivory. PMID:23687896

  6. Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

    1998-09-30

    A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

  7. Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission-line construction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were significantly reduced on the disturbed area. Diversity increased on the disturbed plot after construction, but density decreased. A slight increase in similarity (H', Clambda) of the arthropod communities of the two plots appears to be related to the modest increase in cover on the disturbed area. Globe-mallow, goosefoot and a four-o'clock were pioneer species and occurred only on the disturbed area. There was a significant reduction in cover of all plant species on the disturbed plot after construction, but there was a steady increase of annual forbs at the end of the study. The results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Construction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements. 35 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  8. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  9. Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

  10. People-plant interaction: the physiological, psychological and sociological effects of plants on people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjolein Elings

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a literature study into the effects of plants on human well- being. Different studies from various countries show that there are many different settings in which humans interact with plants. Some of these settings have a therapeutic aim, others do not. This paper demonstrates that various target groups can benefit from working with plants.

  11. 75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...revised specifications will include new construction units for Fiber-to-the-Home, remove redundant or outdated requirements...specifications have become outdated due to the advancements in Fiber-to-the-Home construction as well as installation...

  12. Design and Construction of Equipment to Make Adsorption at Pilot Plant Scale of Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan C.; Rangel, David; Amaya, Bibiana; Vargas, Edgar M.; Giraldo, Liliana

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this paper was to illustrate the procedure to obtain activated carbon from lignocellulosic residues through chemical and physical paths. A general surface characterization was made and aqueous solution isotherms were obtained in order to evaluate the behaviour of each carbon atom in solutions contaminated with selective ions. The other purpose was to show a simple way to perform a scale-up process of an absorber from the laboratory level to an industrial level, using the breaking curves in fixed beds developed through the continuous pursuit of the Pb(II) and Cr(VI) ions concentration in the effluent of the bed. Activated carbon was used to study the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI). Isotherms of aqueous adsorption were determined. This model was developed in order to examine its efficiency and to compare it with an experimental model made in the laboratory, which rendered very similar results. The main characteristic of the feasibility of the application of this design is the fact that neither tedious calculations nor mass transfer coefficients are required in order to construct the above-mentioned curves. The model was developed by applying concepts such as mass transfer zone (MTZ) and length of unused bed (LUB), which are the dynamical basis understanding for the adsorption process in fixed beds. As a complementary item of the experiment, within a pilot plant scale, a filter was developed in order to achieve flexibility when manipulating the most important adsorption parameters and to enable the control of the variables involved in the process that change the operating conditions.

  13. Domestic wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland system planted with rice.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Duangjaisak, Wanida

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in four concrete laboratory scale free water surface constructed wetland units 1 m wide, 1.5 m long and 0.8 m deep. Paddy field soil was added to a depth of 0.4 m and rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were transplanted into the units at a density of 25 plants/m(2). Domestic wastewater collected from Chiang Mai University was applied into each unit via two different modes to evaluate suitable conditions for wastewater treatment and rice yield. In the first experiment, the wastewater was fed intermittently (7 h/day) with a hydraulic loading rate of 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm/day. The maximum removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were only 49.1, 58.7, 64.0 and 59.4%, respectively, due to the short hydraulic retention time for the biodegradation of organic substances. In the second experiment, the wastewater in each unit was inundated to a depth of 15 cm for 10, 15, 20 and 25 days in each unit and then drained and re-flooded. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were greater than in the first experiment especially at the 25 day retention time and except for suspended solids met the Thai national effluent standard. The study revealed that apart from wastewater treatment, wastewater can replace natural water to grow rice in the dry season or throughout the year. Moreover, nutrients in wastewater can be a substitute for chemical fertilizers. Rice grain production was 4,700 kg/ha and only 6% less than the production from the conventional paddy field. PMID:22170830

  14. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON PLANT DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most plant diseases consist of delicate interactions between higher plants and microorganisms. Acidic precipitation represents an environmental stress that has been shown to affect expected development of some diseases and similar phenomena under experimental conditions. From the...

  15. Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

    1996-01-01

    Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

  16. The effect of salinity on plant available water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Sheldon; Neal W. Menzies; H. Bing So; Ram Dalal

    Salinity acts to inhibit plant access to soil water by increasing the osmotic strength of the soil solution. As the soil dries, the soil solution becomes increasingly concentrated, further limiting plant access to soil water. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of salt on plant available water in a heavy clay soil, using a relatively salt tolerant species,

  17. Development of quality matrix to measure the effectiveness of quality management systems in Turkish construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmet Özta?; Serra S. Güzelsoy; Mehmet Tekinku?

    2007-01-01

    Quality Management Systems (QMS) are being operated in some sectors in Turkey but it is rare to meet these systems in construction industry. There are many hinderances that make it difficult to apply these systems effectively due to the nature of construction and therefore, no objective way of measuring the effectiveness of these systems exists in construction industry.This study aims

  18. 57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  19. 56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  20. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  1. Constructs of highly effective heat transport paths by bionic optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinguang Cheng; Zhixin Li; Zengyuan Guo

    2003-01-01

    The optimization approach based on the biological evolution principle is used to construct the heat transport paths for volume-to-point\\u000a problem. The transport paths are constructed by inserting high conductivity materials in the heat conduction domain where\\u000a uniform or nonuniform heat sources exist. In the bionic optimization process, the optimal constructs of the high conductivity\\u000a material are obtained by numerically simulating

  2. Effects of freezing on plant mesophyll cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, G H; Grafflage, S; Rumich-Bayer, S; Somersalo, S

    1988-01-01

    Freezing and thawing of leaves of herbaceous plants leads to damage when the freezing temperature falls below a certain tolerance limit, which depends on the plant species and state of acclimation. Such damage is expressed as an irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis observed after thawing. In frost-damaged leaves the capacity of photosynthetic reactions of the thylakoid membranes is impaired. Particularly, the water-oxidation system, photosystems II and I are inhibited. However, it appears that CO2 assimilation is more readily affected by freezing stress than the activity of the thylakoids. The inhibition of CO2 fixation seen in initial stages of damage seems to be independent of thylakoid inactivation. This can be shown by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis made simultaneously with measurement of CO2 assimilation. Fluorescence emission by leaves is strongly influenced by carbon assimilation activity, namely via the redox state of the photosystem II electron acceptor QA (QA-dependent quenching) and via energization of the thylakoid membranes depending on the transthylakoid proton gradient (energy-dependent quenching). Resolution of these components of fluorescence changes provides insight into alterations of the CO2 fixing capacity of the chloroplasts and properties of the thylakoids. The effects of freezing and thawing were studied in detail with isolated mesophyll protoplasts prepared from both non-hardened and cold-acclimated plants of Valerianella locusta L. Freezing damage was characterized by various parameters such as plasma membrane integrity, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and activities of thylakoids isolated from the protoplasts. All tests indicated a substantially increased frost tolerance of protoplasts obtained from cold-acclimated as compared to non-hardened leaves. CO2 assimilation and related fluorescence changes were the most freezing-sensitive parameters in both types of protoplasts. Inactivation of CO2 assimilation was correlated neither to the disintegration of the plasma membrane nor to inactivation of the thylakoids. Experimental data indicate that freeze-thaw treatment affected the light-regulated enzymes of the carbon reduction cycle, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Inhibition of light-activation of these enzymes may be based on altered properties of the chloroplast envelope. PMID:3077862

  3. [Construction of high-effective symbiotic bacteria: evolutionary models and genetic approaches].

    PubMed

    Provorov, N A; Onishchuk, O P; Iurgel', S N; Kurchak, O N; Chizhevskaia, E P; Vorob'ev, N I; Zatovskaia, T V; Simarov, B V

    2014-11-01

    Using the example of N2-fixing legume-rhizobial symbiosis, we demonstrated that the origin and evolution of bacteria symbiotic for plants involve the following: 1) the formation of novel sym gene systems based on reorganizations of the bacterial genomes and on the gene transfer from the distant organisms; 2) the loss of genes encoding for functions that are required for autonomous performance but interfere with symbiotic functions (negative regulators of symbiosis). Therefore, the construction of effective rhizobia strains should involve improvement of sym genes activities (for instance, nif, fix, and dct genes, encoding for nitrogenase synthesis or for the energy supply of N2 fixation), as well as the inactivation of negative regulators of symbiosis identified in our lab (eff genes encoding for the transport of sugars, and the production of polysaccharides, and storage compounds, as well as for oxidative-reductive processes). PMID:25739280

  4. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

  5. Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission line construction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were signficantly reduced on the disturbed area. Our results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Cosntruction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements.

  6. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Gy?ri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic-tree procedure. Earlier studies have shown that the potentially liquefiable layer at Paks Nuclear Power Plant is situated in relatively large depth. Therefore the applicability and adequacy of the methods at high overburden pressure is important. In case of existing facilities, the geotechnical data gained before construction aren't sufficient for the comprehensive liquefaction analysis. Performance of new geotechnical survey is limited. Consequently, the availability of the data has to be accounted while selection the analysis methods. Considerations have to be made for dealing with aleatory uncertainty related to the knowledge of the soil conditions. It is shown in the paper, a careful comparison and analysis of the results obtained by different methodologies provides the basis of the selection of practicable methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant for beyond design basis liquefaction hazard.

  7. Constructed Tropical Wetlands with Integrated Submergent-Emergent Plants for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NORIO TANAKA; K. B. S. N. JINADASA; D. R. I. B. WERELLAGAMA; M. I. M. MOWJOOD; W. J. NG

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of primary effluent quality by using an integrated system of emergent plants (Scirpus grossus in the leading subsurface flow arrangement) and submergent plants (Hydrilla verticillata in a subsequent channel) was investigated. The primary effluent was drawn from a septic tank treating domestic sewage from a student dormitory at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Influent and effluent samples were

  8. Construction of a Plant Transient Expression Vector which Coexpresses the Marker b-glucuronidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES E. LINCOLN; SASKIA FOLMER; RICHARD M. BOSTOCK; DAVID G. GILCHRIST

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a plant transient expression vector that simultaneously ex- presses b-glucuronidase from a Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, and a test gene from a Figwort mosaic virus promoter. This vector, which is manipulated in E. coli, allows the testing of cell death inducing genes in plant cells. We have demonstrated the capability of this vector by expressing diphtheria toxin.

  9. Construction of a Plant Transient Expression Vector which Coexpresses the Marker ?-glucuronidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Lincoln; Saskia Folmer; Richard M. Bostock; David G. Gilchrist

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a plant transient expression vector that simultaneously expresses ß-glucuronidase from a Cauliflower mosaic virus promoter, and a test gene from a Figwort mosaic virus promoter. This vector, which is manipulated in E. coli, allows the testing of cell death inducing genes in plant cells. We have demonstrated the capability of this vector by expressing diphtheria toxin.

  10. Simple construction of chimeric hairpin RNA for virus resistance in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pu Yan; Shuchang Wang; Wentao Shen; Xinzheng Gao; Jinyan Wu; Peng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    RNA silencing has been adopted to develop virus-resistant plants through expression of virus-derived hairpin RNAs. Due to the high sequence specificity of RNA silencing, this technology has been limited to the targeting of single viruses. Simultaneous targeting of multiple viruses or plant genes can be achieved by using a chimeric cassette. In this study, a simple method was developed to

  11. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON SUBMARINE PLANT SYNECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synecology of marine plant communities has been studied in areas differing in water quality. Major sources of deterioration of water quality include the Nooksack River, an oil refinery and an alumina reduction plant. A method of analysis involving comparisons of standing crops of...

  12. Costs and water quality effects of wastewater treatment plant centralization

    SciTech Connect

    Macal, C.M.; Broomfield, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    The costs and water quality impacts of two regional configurations of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Northeastern Illinois are compared. In one configuration, several small treatment plants are consolidated into a smaller number of regional facilities. In the other, the smaller plants continue to operate. Costs for modifying the plants to obtain various levels of pollutant removal are estimated using a simulation model that considers the type of equipment existing at the plants and the costs of modifying that equipment to obtain a range of effluent levels for various pollutants. A dynamic water-quality/hydrology simulation model is used to determine the water quality effects of the various treatment technologies and pollutant levels. Cost and water quality data are combined and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment configurations is compared. The regionalized treatment-plant configuration is found to be the more cost-effective.

  13. Prevailing Wage Rates: The Effects on School Construction Costs, Levels of Taxation, and State Reimbursements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Edward C.; Hartman, William T.

    2001-01-01

    Results of study of impact of Pennsylvania Prevailing Wage Act on 25 school-construction project costs from 1992-97 and effect thereof on local school districts' taxes. All districts had higher construction costs and property taxes. Projects increased construction costs for the Commonwealth and recommends revisions in prevailing wage-rate law.…

  14. Supply strategy and network effects — purchasing behaviour in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Dubois; Lars-Erik Gadde

    2000-01-01

    Partnering with suppliers and networking are increasingly used as means to improve company performance. This paper explores the occurrence of network effects in the construction industry. Benefits from network effects arise when firms adapt to one another in terms of technical solutions, logistics or administrative routines. The study finds such effects to be unusual in the construction industry. The main

  15. [Analysis of microorganism species diversity in plant intercropping models in a wetland system constructed for treatment of municipal sewage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhang, Zhen-Ni; Li, Ke-Lin; Wang, Zhong-Cheng; Lei, Dian

    2011-08-01

    The selective culture method and PCR-DGGE technology were applied to analyze the number and the biodiversity of microorganism species in cells with plant intercropping models and without plants in different seasons in a wetland system constructed for treatment of municipal sewage. The results showed that the numbers of microorganisms were considerably larger in the cells with plant intercropping models than those without plants, while the number of microorganisms was apparently larger in summer than that in winter in all treatments. Along the three-sequenced treatment cells with plant intercropping models a "low-high-low" changing trend in the numbers of microorganisms in summer. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the treatments in the same season were clustered in the same branch except for a few samples in winter and the biodiversity index was consistently higher in summer than that in winter. Five different sequences (DF1-DF5) were obtained through BLAST analysis and retrieval. The closest known origin groups were located as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Burkholderia sp. respectively. The BLASTX comparison test showed that DF1 closely related to the activities of the Mycobacterium bacillus and the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, DF2 functioned as a conservative potential ATP binding protein, DF3 related to the activities of the Bacillus cereus spore, DF4 was involved in catabolism metabolism of microorganism and DF5 played an important role in decomposition of organic matters. PMID:22619969

  16. The Effects of Risk Attitude on Competitive Sucess in the Construction Industry 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hyung Jin

    2010-10-12

    This dissertation investigates the latent but critical effects of risk attitude on competitive success in construction applying an evolutionary approach. The approach considers contractors as individual entities competing ...

  17. The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosie, Thomas W.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)

  18. Plant species as a significant factor in wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands 

    E-print Network

    Varvel, Tracey W

    2013-02-22

    Constructed wetlands are one of the newest wastewater treatment technologies. They should reduce the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and utilize a large amount of the influent. The BOD determines how much oxygen is used bymicro organisms while...

  19. Nurse plant effect of the cushion plant Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq. in an alpine environment in the subarctic Scandes, Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Antonsson; Robert G. Björk; Ulf Molau

    2009-01-01

    Background: Facilitation plays important roles in the structuring of plant communities and several studies have found that it tends to increase with environmental severity in alpine plant communities. In addition, cushion plants have been shown to act as nurse plants, moderating extreme environmental conditions, and providing resources for other species, with substantial effects on local plant diversity.Aims: This study addresses

  20. GENE FLOW STUDIES BETWEEN BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. RAPA IN CONSTRUCTED PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The commercial production of genetically modified crops has led to a growing awareness of the difficulties of transgene confinement and of the potential environmental risks associated with the escape of transgenes into naturalized or native plant populations. A potential conseque...

  1. Responses of a constructed plant community to combinations of herbicides, a model for field tests?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection Agency considers environmental risks, including impacts to nontarget plants exposed to pesticide drift. Normally these risk assessments consider impacts to individual species, using greenhouse, exposure-res...

  2. Efficient construction of plant genomic libraries requires the use of mcr host strains and packaging mixes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Graham; Judith P. Doherty; David M. Woodcock

    1990-01-01

    It has recently become apparent that many strains ofE. coli contain nucleases encoded by themcrA andmcrB loci that, recognize the modified base 5-methylcytosine in DNA. Plant DNAs have particularly high levels of this modification\\u000a and the activity of these 5-methylcytosine-specific nucleases is particularly relevant to cloning plant genomic DNAs. We show\\u000a here that for preparing libraries in a ? replacement

  3. Construction and Maintenance of the Optimal Photosynthetic Systems of the Leaf, Herbaceous Plant and Tree: an Eco-developmental Treatise

    PubMed Central

    TERASHIMA, ICHIRO; ARAYA, TAKAO; MIYAZAWA, SHIN-ICHI; SONE, KOSEI; YANO, SATOSHI

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The paper by Monsi and Saeki in 1953 (Japanese Journal of Botany 14: 22–52) was pioneering not only in mathematical modelling of canopy photosynthesis but also in eco-developmental studies of seasonal changes in leaf canopies. • Scope Construction and maintenance mechanisms of efficient photosynthetic systems at three different scaling levels—single leaves, herbaceous plants and trees—are reviewed mainly based on the nitrogen optimization theory. First, the nitrogen optimization theory with respect to the canopy and the single leaf is briefly introduced. Secondly, significance of leaf thickness in CO2 diffusion in the leaf and in leaf photosynthesis is discussed. Thirdly, mechanisms of adjustment of photosynthetic properties of the leaf within the herbaceous plant individual throughout its life are discussed. In particular, roles of sugar sensing, redox control and of cytokinin are highlighted. Finally, the development of a tree is considered. • Conclusions Various mechanisms contribute to construction and maintenance of efficient photosynthetic systems. Molecular backgrounds of these ecologically important mechanisms should be clarified. The construction mechanisms of the tree cannot be explained solely by the nitrogen optimization theory. It is proposed that the pipe model theory in its differential form could be a potential tool in future studies in this research area. PMID:15598701

  4. Parental environmental effects and cyclical dynamics in plant populations.

    PubMed

    Crone, E E

    1997-12-01

    Parental environmental effects have been widely reported in plants, but these effects are often weak relative to direct effects of current environmental conditions. Few studies have asked when consideration of such effects is necessary to understand long-term plant population dynamics. In this article, I show that inclusion of effects of parental density on offspring mass fundamentally changes population dynamics models by making recruitment a function of population size in two previous generations (Nt+1 = f(Nt, Nt-1)), rather than one (Nt+1 = f(Nt,)). Models without parental density effects predict either stable population dynamics or sharp crashes from high to low population size (flip bifurcations). When parental effects are at least one-third the size of direct density effects, gradual cycles from high to low population size (Hopf bifurcations) are possible. In this study, I measured effects of parental and offspring density on offspring quality in an annual plant, Cardamine pensylvanica, by manipulating plant density independently in parent and offspring generations and by comparing the effects of parent and offspring density on offspring performance. Parental density effects were detectable but were noticeably weaker than offspring density effects. Nonetheless, the parental effect was large enough to change population dynamics predictions. Thus, parental effects may be an important component of the numerical dynamics of plant populations. PMID:18811332

  5. Construction of a cDNA library from the ephemeral plant Olimarabidopsis pumila and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Xia; Wei, Yan-Ling; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Cheng-Bin; Xu, Fang; Li, Chao; Huang, Xian-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Olimarabidopsis pumila is a close relative of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but, unlike A. thaliana, it is a salt-tolerant ephemeral plant that is widely distributed in semi-arid and semi-salinized regions of the Xinjiang region of China, thus providing an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. A good-quality cDNA library was constructed using cap antibody to enrich full-length cDNA with the gateway technology allowing library construction without traditional methods of cloning by use of restriction enzymes. A preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was carried out. The titers of the primary and the normalized cDNA library were 1.6 x 10(6) cfu/mL and 6.7 x 10(6) cfu/mL, respectively. A total of 1093 clones were randomly selected from the normalized library for EST sequencing. By sequence analysis, 894 high-quality ESTs were generated and assembled into 736 unique sequences consisting of 72 contigs and 664 singletons. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the gene ontology (GO) hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress-related ESTs are discussed. The 736 unigenes were similar to A. thaliana, A. lyrata, or Thellungiella salsuginea. This research provides an overview of the mRNA expression profile and first-hand information of gene sequence expressed in young leaves of O. pumila. PMID:24601088

  6. Positive Effects of Shade and Shelter Construction by Ants on Leafhopper-Ant Mutualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Moya-Raygoza; Kirk J. Larsen

    2008-01-01

    The myrmecophilous Þve-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus De- Long and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the inßuence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quin- quenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artiÞcially constructed shade. The greatest numbers

  7. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  8. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.; MacElroy, R. D.

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodide was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  9. The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant, Indiana Vol. 146 July, 2001 No. 1 Am. Midi. Nat. 146:1-26 Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus 78712 ABSTRACT.-Largeeffects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) upon individual plants, plant

  10. Construction and comparison of gene co-expression networks shows complex plant immune responses

    PubMed Central

    López, Camilo; López-Kleine, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Gene co-expression networks (GCNs) are graphic representations that depict the coordinated transcription of genes in response to certain stimuli. GCNs provide functional annotations of genes whose function is unknown and are further used in studies of translational functional genomics among species. In this work, a methodology for the reconstruction and comparison of GCNs is presented. This approach was applied using gene expression data that were obtained from immunity experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, tomato and cassava. After the evaluation of diverse similarity metrics for the GCN reconstruction, we recommended the mutual information coefficient measurement and a clustering coefficient-based method for similarity threshold selection. To compare GCNs, we proposed a multivariate approach based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Branches of plant immunity that were exemplified by each experiment were analyzed in conjunction with the PCA results, suggesting both the robustness and the dynamic nature of the cellular responses. The dynamic of molecular plant responses produced networks with different characteristics that are differentiable using our methodology. The comparison of GCNs from plant pathosystems, showed that in response to similar pathogens plants could activate conserved signaling pathways. The results confirmed that the closeness of GCNs projected on the principal component space is an indicative of similarity among GCNs. This also can be used to understand global patterns of events triggered during plant immune responses. PMID:25320678

  11. Ant–Plant Interactions: Their Seasonal Variation and Effects on Plant Fitness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Rico-Gray; P. Oliveira; V. Parra-Tabla; M. Cuautle; C. Díaz-Castelazo

    This chapter discusses the importance of nectar to ants, the effect of ants on plant fitness (either mediated by nectaries\\u000a or Homoptera), plus seasonal variation and diversity of interactions in the tropical coastal regions of the Yucatan Peninsula\\u000a and Veracruz, Mexico.Tropical coastal dunes are rich environments for ant-plant interactions, yet diversity of interactions,\\u000a seasonality and the effect of ants on

  12. Salinity and Plant Residue Effects on Soil Available Phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Farshid Nourbakhsh

    2009-01-01

    The effect of salinity and plant residue on soil phosphorus (P) availability was investigated. The organic carbon content of non-saline and salinized soil samples was enhanced by 1% with applying separately different amounts of residues. Fourteen residues including roots and shoots of wheat, barley, corn, alfalfa, and clover as well as leaves of apple, oak, plant-tree, and oleaster were used.

  13. Browsing Effects on Wyoming Big Sagebrush Plants and Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista Hoffman

    The effect of likely yearlong browsing by several wild ungulate species on individual Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) plants and communities was studied. The investigation was conducted near Gardiner, MT, in the ungu- late-rich boundary line area of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Plant level responses were measured in this study and related to reported community responses. Individual

  14. Ultrastructural effects of salinity stress in higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI MIYAKE; SHIRO MITSUYA; M. D. SHAHIDUR RAHMAN

    Salinity stress induces various types of ultrastructural changes in higher plant cells. These structural changes provide useful information as to the underlying mechanism of salinity stress. In this report the ultrastructural effects of salinity (NaCl) stress in crop plants especially in rice are described based on the research work conducted in our laboratory. Relevant research results are also described and

  15. Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mägi; T. Järvis; I. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Mägi, E., T. Järvis, I. Miller: Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 283-287. The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.),

  16. [Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].

    PubMed

    Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

    1986-04-01

    In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from waste water treatment plants could not be found. In conclusion, it can be said that different individual plant unit designs have a large influence on the concentration of micro-organisms in the ambient air of places of work of waste water treatment plant personnel. Emission rates can be limited to such a degree that, even in the immediate vicinity of the plant units, a decrease of micro-organism concentrations can be attained as comparable to the area outside the treatment plant. PMID:3087104

  17. Effects of Evaluative vs. Co-Constructive Interactions on Learning in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toczek, Marie-Christine; Morge, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study to assess the effects of two physics-learning situations that differed in the type of teacher-student interactions that took place: evaluative or co-constructive. As found in various studies on physics teaching and social psychology, the results showed that co-constructive interactions generated a more effective

  18. PASSIVE RADON CONTROL FEATURE EFFECTIVENESS IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses passive radon control feature effectiveness in new house construction in South Central Florida. he State of Florida has a draft radon standard for new construction. his study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in...

  19. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  20. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  1. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

    2002-11-30

    OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  2. Mathematical models for the construction of a renewable energy hybrid plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Marchetti; M. Piccolo

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop renewable energy sources technology in power supply plants, it is necessary to provide designers with tools capable of recognizing at short notice any areas of convenience in its utilization, either as a stand-alone or as a hybrid (with generator back-up) project. Typical renewable sources considered are solar and wind energy, but the results are applicable to

  3. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

  4. Effects of vegetation on surface stability and hydrology of a prototype barrier constructed over nuclear wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Link; A. L. Ward; W. H. Walters

    1995-01-01

    Earthen barriers are being developed to prevent water from entering nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. We constructed a prototype barrier (2700 m²) and are conducting a test to determine if it can prevent water from draining at 3 times normal precipitation. Plants will function to minimize erosion and maximize the loss of water from the surface

  5. Effects of Water Pollution on Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

  6. EFFECTS OF RAINFALL ACIDIFICATION ON PLANT PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The chemical nature of the aqueous microenvironment at the infection court is a potentially significant factor in the successful dissemination, establishment,...

  7. USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

  8. Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements 

    E-print Network

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas and electricity are expensive to the extent that annual fuel and power costs can approach the initial cost of an industrial boiler plant. Within this context, this paper examines several cost-effective efficiency advancements that were...

  9. Effect of collagen hydrolysate on chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs.

    PubMed

    Elder, Steven H; Borazjani, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of engineered cartilage are strongly dependent on collagen content, but the collagen to glycosaminoglycan ratio in engineered cartilage is often much lower than that of the native tissue. Therefore culture medium supplements which increase collagen production by chondrocytes are of interest. It had previously been reported that collagen hydrolysate stimulated type II collagen biosynthesis in short-term, high density monolayer chondrocyte cultures. It was hypothesized that collagen hydrolysate added to the culture medium of three dimensional chondrocyte-agarose constructs would enhance their mechanical properties. Porcine articular chondrocytes were embedded in 2% agarose and cultured for up to 6 weeks with and without 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate. The instantaneous compressive modulus and equilibrium compressive modulus were significantly lower in the collagen hydrolysate-treated constructs, consistent with the finding of lower collagen and GAG content. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results indicate that 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate may actually inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis and be detrimental to the mechanical properties of long term chondrocyte-agarose constructs. PMID:20231793

  10. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of ?T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20?m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing ?-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20?m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

  11. Ecological effects of roads on the plant diversity of coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunzhao; Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of ? T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0-20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing ?-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

  12. Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaesha Neil; Jianguo Wu

    2006-01-01

    Studies of flowering and leafing phenology have dramatically increased during the last few decades because changes in plant\\u000a phenology can be indicative of possible effects of climate change at multiple scales. This article reviews the available literature\\u000a focusing on the effects of urbanization on flowering phenology. The literature of flowering phenology in urban environments\\u000a suggests that spring-blooming plants in a

  13. Evaluation of clogging in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: solids accumulation and hydraulic conductivity reduction.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, André Cordeiro; von Sperling, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units regarding solids build up and clogging of the filter medium. In order to analyse the causes of this process, which is considered the major operational problem of constructed wetlands, studies were carried out to characterize accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity at specific points of the beds of two wetlands (planted with Typha latifolia and unplanted units) receiving effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating sanitary sewage (population equivalent of 50 inhabitants each unit). The experiments were performed after the units were operating for 2 years and 4 months. This study presents comparative results related to the quantification and characterization of accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity along the length and width of the filter beds. Approximately 80% of the solids found were inorganic (fixed). Near the inlet end, the rate interstitial solids/attached solids was 5.0, while in the outlet end it was reduced to 1.5. Hydraulic conductivity was lower near the inlet of the units (as expected) and, by comparing the planted wetland with the unplanted, the hydraulic conductivity was lower in the former, resulting in larger undesired surface flow. PMID:23508161

  14. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  15. Effect of plants on sunspace passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Best, E.D.; McFarland, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of plants on sunspace thermal performance is investigated, based on experiments done in Los Alamos using two test rooms with attached sunspaces, which were essentially identical except for the presence of plants in one. Performance is related to plant transpiration, evaporation from the soil, condensation on the glazing and the absorbtance of solar energy by the lightweight leaves. Performance effects have been quantified by measurements of auxiliary heat consumption in the test rooms and analyzed by means of energy balance calculations. A method for estimating the transpiration rate is presented.

  16. EFFECTS OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ON SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested soil, the effect of appl...

  17. Effects of salinity on plant diseases development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Besri

    \\u000a In arid and semi arid areas, irrigation water must be brought to the land to increase crop production. In these areas, poor\\u000a quality irrigation water and inadequate soil drainage often result in the accumulation of salts. Many physiological processes\\u000a are altered in plants grown in saline soils which ultimately reduce their growth and yield.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a While salinity stress can cause severe

  18. Contrasting effects of resource availability and plant mortality on plant community invasion by Bromus tectorum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Carol Adair; Ingrid C. Burke; William K. Lauenroth

    2008-01-01

    The positive effect of disturbance on plant community invasibility is one of the more consistent results in invasion ecology.\\u000a It is generally attributed to a coincident increase in available resources (due to the disturbance) that allows non-resident\\u000a plant species to establish (Davis MA, Grime JP Thompson K, J Ecol 88:528–534, 2000). However, most research addressing this\\u000a issue has been in

  19. Effectiveness of mitigation measures with constructed forested wetlands in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive research on six constructed forested wetlands in Central Maryland was conducted in 1993-1996 to determine success of these habitats as functional forested wetlands for wildlife. Areas studied ranged in size from 2 to 35 acres and were constructed by private companies under contract with three mitigation agencies. Adjacent natural forested wetlands were used as reference sites where similar data were collected. Based on data from the first four years of this study it appears that it will take 35-50 years before these areas have forested wetland vegetation and wildlife similar to that found on mature forested wetlands. This long-time period is based on the high mortality and slow growth of nursery-stock trees and shrubs transplanted on the areas. Mortality and slow growth resulted mostly from excessive surface water on the sites. The level of ground water did not appear to be a factor in regard to transplant mortality. Green ash was the woody transplant species that had the least mortality. Sampling of vegetative ground cover with one-meter square quadrats showed the predominance of grasses and herbs. [abridged abstract

  20. Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Mwangi, Peter N; Temperton, Vicky M; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2006-03-01

    The rate at which a plant species is attacked by invertebrate herbivores has been hypothesized to depend on plant species richness, yet empirical evidence is scarce. Current theory predicts higher herbivore damage in monocultures than in species-rich mixtures. We quantified herbivore damage by insects and molluscs to plants in experimental plots established in 2002 from a species pool of 60 species of Central European Arrhenatherum grasslands. Plots differed in plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60 species), number of functional groups (1, 2, 3, 4), functional group and species composition. We estimated herbivore damage by insects and molluscs at the level of transplanted plant individuals ("phytometer" species Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, Rumex acetosa) and of the entire plant community during 2003 and 2004. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows specific predictions about the relative contributions of functional diversity, plant functional identity, and species richness in relation to herbivory. Additionally, the phytometer approach is new to biodiversity-herbivory studies, allowing estimates of species-specific herbivory rates within the larger biodiversity-ecosystem functioning context. Herbivory in phytometers and experimental communities tended to increase with plant species richness and the number of plant functional groups, but the effects were rarely significant. Herbivory in phytometers was in some cases positively correlated with community biomass or leaf area index. The most important factor influencing invertebrate herbivory was the presence of particular plant functional groups. Legume (grass) presence strongly increased (decreased) herbivory at the community level. The opposite pattern was found for herbivory in T. pratense phytometers. We conclude that (1) plant species richness is much less important than previously thought and (2) plant functional identity is a much better predictor of invertebrate herbivory in temperate grassland ecosystems. PMID:16231192

  1. Arsenic Toxicity: The Effects on Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Patrick M.; Chen, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    The two forms of inorganic arsenic, arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), are easily taken up by the cells of the plant root. Once in the cell, AsV can be readily converted to AsIII, the more toxic of the two forms. AsV and AsIII both disrupt plant metabolism, but through distinct mechanisms. AsV is a chemical analog of phosphate that can disrupt at least some phosphate-dependent aspects of metabolism. AsV can be translocated across cellular membranes by phosphate transport proteins, leading to imbalances in phosphate supply. It can compete with phosphate during phosphorylation reactions, leading to the formation of AsV adducts that are often unstable and short-lived. As an example, the formation and rapid autohydrolysis of AsV-ADP sets in place a futile cycle that uncouples photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, decreasing the ability of cells to produce ATP and carry out normal metabolism. AsIII is a dithiol reactive compound that binds to and potentially inactivates enzymes containing closely spaced cysteine residues or dithiol co-factors. Arsenic exposure generally induces the production of reactive oxygen species that can lead to the production of antioxidant metabolites and numerous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. Oxidative carbon metabolism, amino acid and protein relationships, and nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways are also impacted by As exposure. Readjustment of several metabolic pathways, such as glutathione production, has been shown to lead to increased arsenic tolerance in plants. Species- and cultivar-dependent variation in arsenic sensitivity and the remodeling of metabolite pools that occurs in response to As exposure gives hope that additional metabolic pathways associated with As tolerance will be identified. PMID:22685440

  2. Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

    1990-06-01

    Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

  3. Trace gases generated in closed plant cultivation systems and their effects on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Kiyota, M; Aiga, I

    1995-12-01

    Interactions between plants and trace gases, especially ethylene, were investigated from two different viewpoints; ethylene is toxic for plant growth, whereas the ethylene release rate of plants can be utilized as a plant growth indicator. When lettuce plants and shiitake mushroom mycelium were cultivated in closed chambers, ethylene concentration increased with time. Ethylene was released both from lettuce plant and from shiitake mushroom mycelium. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were detected, and these concentrations reached 3.7 ngL-1 for DOP and 2.4 ngL-1 for DBP 4 days after closing. Organic solvents such as xylene and toluene and organic siloxane were detected with GCMS. Visible injury was observed in lettuce plants cultivated in the chambers and it seemed to result from trace contaminants such as DOP, DBP, organic solvents, dimethylsiloxane polymer, and ethylene. In order to obtain basic data of ethylene evolution from plants, ethylene concentration in a closed chamber in which the plants were cultivated under a controlled environment (25 degrees C air temperature, 60-70% relative humidity, 250-300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)) was measured. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Okayama) released ethylene more than Brassica rapa var. pervidis, Brassica campestris var. communis, and Brassica campestris var. narinosa. Ethylene release rate of intact lettuce plant was highly correlated with plant growth parameters such as dry weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate. Ethylene release rates of intact lettuce plant were affected by cultivation conditions such as ambient CO2 concentration, light intensity and light/dark period. Increase in ambient ethylene level influenced lettuce growth even at the concentration of 0.1 microliter L-1. The level of ethylene inhibited leaf expansion and slightly accelerated chlorophyll degradation. It did not affect photosynthesis and transpiration, and also little affected dry matter accumulation. Thus, ethylene release characteristics were clarified and an effect of ethylene on lettuce growth was revealed. These findings are useful for determination of a threshold level of ethylene and a capacity of ethylene removal system in CELSS. On the other hand, a possibility of plant growth diagnosis by measuring ethylene concentrations was evaluated. As a result, it became clear that the measurement of ethylene concentration in CELSS is one of the useful non-destructive measurement methods for plant growth diagnosis. Further research is needed to investigate the applicability of the method to environmental stresses other than Ni and Co in nutrient solution. PMID:11541892

  4. Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n?=?2x?=?30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

  5. The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric G. Lima; Pen-hsiu Grace Chao; Gerard A. Ateshian; B. Sonny Bal; James L. Cook; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic; Clark T. Hung

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been

  6. Demonstration of the healthy worker survivor effect in a cohort of workers in the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Siebert; D Rothenbacher; U Daniel; H Brenner

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo assess the potential of a healthy worker survivor effect due to differential occupational mobility in a cohort of construction workers.METHODSA cohort of 10 809 male employees in the German construction industry aged 15–64 years was followed up for occupational mobility, early retirement due to permanent disability, and total mortality from 1986 to 1994. Using the Cox's proportional hazards model

  7. Indirect positive effects ameliorate strong negative effects of Euphorbia esula on a native plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Z. AtwaterCarolyn; Carolyn M. Bauer; Ragan M. Callaway

    Invasive plant species can have strong direct negative effects on native plants. Depending on the nature of interactions among\\u000a competitors and consumers within a community, strong indirect interactions may either augment or offset direct effects. We\\u000a used path analysis to estimate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of Euphorbia esula, an unpalatable invasive plant, on Balsamorhiza sagittata, a

  8. Effect of aging on phosphorus speciation in surface deposit of a vertical flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boram; Gautier, Mathieu; Rivard, Camille; Sanglar, Corinne; Michel, Philippe; Gourdon, Rémy

    2015-04-21

    This study was conducted to determine phosphorus (P) species captured in a vertical-flow constructed wetland (VFCW) system combining a trickling filter followed by FeCl3 injection for phosphate coagulation. Suspended solids (SS) thus formed accumulated over time at the VFCW surface and transformed into a sludge deposit layer, which was shown to concentrate most of the P captured in the system. In order to investigate the effect of aging on P species, representative SS and sludge samples were taken from a wastewater treatment plant that had been in operation for 8 years and analyzed using P fractionation, solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy, and P and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy. A partial mineralization of organic matter was shown by comparing organic carbon contents of SS and sludge materials. Chemical fractionations combined with P and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy showed that P was predominantly bound to iron within both samples in the form of ferric phosphate, rather than adsorbed onto ferric oxyhydroxide. Calcium-bound P was more significantly observed in sludge than in SS, suggesting that aging induced the recombination of part of the organic and iron-bound P species into calcium-bound forms, as a possible consequence of the partial mineralization of organic matter. PMID:25710195

  9. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

  10. Effect and Aftereffect of Temperature on Respiration of Intact Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Kurets; S. N. Drozdov; E. G. Popov; E. D. Dembo; N. I. Khilkov; S. A. Trofimova

    2003-01-01

    Effects and aftereffects of typical temperatures of cultivar habitat (background temperature), heat-hardening, and cold-hardening temperatures on dark respiration of leaf segments and intact plants were investigated on plant species differing in cold tolerance—cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cicer milkvetch (Astragalus cicer L.), and narrow-leaved lupine (Lupinus angustifolium L.). At cold-hardening temperatures, the respiratory metabolism underwent rearrangements serving

  11. Greenhouse Effect Reduction in Biomass Power Plant: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Wei-Hua; Zhao Sheng-Nan; Wang Kan-Hong; Li Wei; Ma Jing-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Biomass power plants are among the renewable energy sources to which China is committed. These projects will reduce the greenhouse effect from biomass caused by natural decay and uncontrolled burning, and also will reduce greenhouse effect related to the burning of fossil fuel for power production. A case study of straw power generation project in Xiajin country, Shandong province of

  12. Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action. III. Effects of petroleum and rapeseed; Petroleum oil, rapeseed oil and its methyl ester derivative enhance efficacy of an Illoxan CE emulsion% increased by rapeseed oil, 310% by its methyl ester and 500% by petroleum oil. Diclofop-methyl penetration

  13. Biological effects of lithium: Experimental analysis in plant cytokinesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Becerra; C. L. Encina

    1987-01-01

    Summary The biological effects of lithium ions have been studied, using plant cytokinesis in onion root meristems as the experimental model. Lithium induces binucleate cells by inhibiting cell plate formation. Moreover, lithium and caffeine have additive effects on the induction of binucleate cells. Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++ antagonize lithium-induced inhibition of cytokinesis.

  14. Effects of water quality on silica fouling of desalination plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Sheikholeslami; S. Tan

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory tests with simulated waters in the range of those in a prospective desalination plant were carried out to determine the water quality effects on silica precipitation both in batch and dynamic tests using RO membranes. In this study the effect of cations on silica polymerization was investigated. Previous investigations established that the best operating pH range is below 6.5,

  15. Effects of livestock grazing and well construction on prairie vegetation structure surrounding shallow natural gas wells.

    PubMed

    Koper, N; Molloy, K; Leston, L; Yoo, J

    2014-11-01

    Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms. PMID:25078539

  16. The effects of highway construction on sediment discharge into Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hainly, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1972 through September 1977, the effects of highway construction in the 38 square mile Blockhouse Creek basin were studied. Water discharge, suspended-sediment discharge, and stream-temperature data were collected at four stations in the basin. The 5-year period included 1 year before construction, 2 years during construction, and 2 years after construction. The effects of stream relocation and sediment-control methods used in the highway construction were also investigated. During the period of data collection, about 35,500 tons of suspended sediment was transported by Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run. The data indicate that 9,100 tons was introduced to the stream from construction areas. The normal sediment yield for the two basins was determined to be 80 tons per square mile per year. Most of the sediment was transported by the streams during high flows and probably passed through Blockhouse Creek, as little deposition was observed below the construction area. Stream temperature seemed to be relatively unaffected by the stream relocations and diversions. Stream relocation and diversion methods were successful in limiting the amount of sediment discharged by the new channels. Physical sediment-control methods limited sediment discharge during baseflow periods and small storms. Coarse sediments especially were controlled by these methods. The most effective method of sediment control was limiting the amount of time that the construction-area soils were exposed. (USGS)

  17. Leadership behaviors of effective project managers in construction project organizations in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Haney, Harvey Joe

    1989-01-01

    A study involving twenty-six construction firms, which practice project management in Texas, examined whether thirteen leadership behaviors could be associated with effective project managers. The data indicated that supervisors and subordinates...

  18. Induced Resistance in Agricultural Crops: Effects of Jasmonic Acid on Herbivory and Yield in Tomato Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENNIFER S. THALER

    Plants can be treated with natural plant elicitors to induce resistance to herbivores. To use elicitors in agriculture we must know the net effects of induction on plant yield. For 4 yr, I induced plant resistance to insect herbivores in tomato plants using the natural plant hormone jasmonic acid. Foliar jasmonic acid application increased levels of polyphenol oxidase, an oxidative

  19. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...glass-like materials. (g) Provide effective protection against contamination of components and dietary supplements in bulk fermentation vessels, by, for example: (1) Use of protective coverings; (2) Placement in areas where you can eliminate...

  20. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...glass-like materials. (g) Provide effective protection against contamination of components and dietary supplements in bulk fermentation vessels, by, for example: (1) Use of protective coverings; (2) Placement in areas where you can eliminate...

  1. Effects of High Nighttime Temperature and Role of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Development and Physiology of Rice Plants

    E-print Network

    Mohammed, Abdul R.

    2010-07-14

    betaine (GB), and salicylic acid (SA), which play different roles in inducing thermo-tolerance in plants. High nighttime temperature had no effect on plant height, number of tillers and panicles, or rice net leaf photosynthetic rates. However, HNT...

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in rice plants. Effects on mineral nutrition and possible interaction of plant hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigo, M.; Martinez-Cortina, C.; Sanz, A. (Univ. of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)); Escrig, I.; Lopez-Benet, F.J. (Univ. of Jaume I, Castello (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    As a consequence of anthropogenic activities there is a constant increase in water and soil pollution by heavy metals, which may have negative effect on plants. We have studied the effects of Cd and Ni treatments on mineral nutrition of rice plants. six days after germination. Cd (0.1 mM) or Ni (0.5 mM) was added to the nutrient solution where the plants were grown. After 10 days mineral element contents were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after sample digestion with nitric acid (70[degrees]C 24 h) in erlenmeyer flasks. Cd-treated plants accumulated high quantities of this metal (2.28 mg/g DW, 30 fold the value found in controls), and most of it remained in the root (66% of total). A great increase in Ni contents was also observed in Ni-treated plants (3.06 mg/g DW, 28 fold higher than in controls). However, contrary to Cd, Ni accumulated preferentially in shoots (81% of total). Addition of ABA or GA[sub 3] (5 mg/l) to the nutrient solution together with the heavy metal, did not affect Cd uptake by the plants but caused a significant reduction in Ni accumulation in the shoots (60%). In both, Cd- and Ni-treated plants, the uptake of divalent cations (Ca[sup 2][sup +], Mg[sup 2][sup +]) decreased more than 50% with respect to controls. This effect was not modified by hormonal applications, though a trend to reverse the decrease in Ca[sup 2][sup +] caused by Ni was observed.

  3. A Direct Construction of the Nuclear Effective Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElvain, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally the nuclear physics effective interactions problem is attacked in two steps, the encoding of phase-shift information in a rather singular ``realistic'' NN interaction VNN, followed by a reduction of H = T +VNN to the included or P-space Heff by integrating out numerically the effects of H in Q = 1 - P . Here we show that Heff can be determined directly in P, eliminating the need for any knowledge of VNN in Q. The method exploits the Haxton-Luu form of the Bloch-Horowitz equation, in which long and short-range contributions to Heff are separated. This decomposition allows one to build into an effective theory the correct infrared behavior, which for continuum states is governed by the energy-dependent phase shifts ? (E) . The effects of VNN in Q can then be absorbed into a small number of nearly energy-independent low-energy constants (LECs), the coefficients of short-range operators. I show that the experimental knowledge of ? (E) that traditionally is encoded in VNN can instead be used directly in P to determine the LECs. The method reduces the task of finding a precise Heff to that of solving a self-consistent eigenvalue problem in P. Traditionally the nuclear physics effective interactions problem is attacked in two steps, the encoding of phase-shift information in a rather singular ``realistic'' NN interaction VNN, followed by a reduction of H = T +VNN to the included or P-space Heff by integrating out numerically the effects of H in Q = 1 - P . Here we show that Heff can be determined directly in P, eliminating the need for any knowledge of VNN in Q. The method exploits the Haxton-Luu form of the Bloch-Horowitz equation, in which long and short-range contributions to Heff are separated. This decomposition allows one to build into an effective theory the correct infrared behavior, which for continuum states is governed by the energy-dependent phase shifts ? (E) . The effects of VNN in Q can then be absorbed into a small number of nearly energy-independent low-energy constants (LECs), the coefficients of short-range operators. I show that the experimental knowledge of ? (E) that traditionally is encoded in VNN can instead be used directly in P to determine the LECs. The method reduces the task of finding a precise Heff to that of solving a self-consistent eigenvalue problem in P. Supported by the DOE under Contracts KB03-01-05-2, DE-SC00046548, and DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  4. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Johal; D. M. Huber

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, is the most extensively used herbicide in the history of agriculture. Weed management programs in glyphosate resistant (GR) field crops have provided highly effective weed control, simplified management decisions, and given cleaner harvested products. However, this relatively simple, broad-spectrum, systemic herbicide can have extensive unintended effects on nutrient efficiency and disease severity, thereby threatening its agricultural sustainability. A

  5. Constructing Cube Blocks Effectively for Stream Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizheng Jiang; Dongqing Yang; Shiwei Tang; Xiuli Ma; Dehui Zhang

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid growth of WWW, many applications based on web are generating tremendous amount of data. Analyzing and mining such data will be important for administrators and other users. Because these data are increasing continuously and rapidly, retrieving these data efficiently and effectively are challenging tasks. In this paper, we propose a new Cube Block model to organize multi-dimensional

  6. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Berneski

    2011-12-10

    Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

  7. Effect of plant populations and row spacings on plant and ear characters and grain yield of corn hybrids

    E-print Network

    Silapapun, Anek

    1976-01-01

    EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATIONS AND ROW SPACINGS ON PLANT AND EAR CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF CORN HYBRIDS A Thesis by ANEK SILAPAPUN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1976 Major Subject: Agronomy EFFECT OF PLANT POPULATIONS AND ROM SPACINGS ON PLANT AND EAR CHARACTERS AND GRAIN YIELD OF CORN HYBRIDS A Thesis by ANEK SILAPAPUN Approved as to style and content by: ( rman...

  8. Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

  9. Effect of water level fluctuation on nitrogen removal from constructed wetland mesocosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris C. Tanner; Joachim D'Eugenio; Graham B. McBride; James P. S. Sukias; Keith Thompson

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen removal processes were investigated at three frequencies of water level fluctuation, static, low and high (0, 2 and 6 d?1), in duplicate gravel-bed constructed wetland mesocosms (0.145 m3) with and without plants (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). Fluctuation was achieved by temporarily pumping wastewater into a separate tank (total drain time ?35 min). Intensive sampling of the mesocosms, batch-fed weekly with ammonium-rich

  10. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Golan; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2014-07-01

    Mathematical models of sand dune dynamics have considered different types of sand dune cover. However, despite the important role of psammophilous plants (plants that flourish in moving-sand environments) in dune dynamics, the incorporation of their effects into mathematical models of sand dunes remains a challenging task. Here we propose a nonlinear physical model for the role of psammophilous plants in the stabilization and destabilization of sand dunes. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift results in the burial and exposure of plants, a process that is known to result in an enhanced growth rate, and (ii) strong winds remove shoots and rhizomes and seed them in nearby locations, enhancing their growth rate. Our model describes the temporal evolution of the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust, and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under either (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. The model exhibits complex bifurcation diagrams and dynamics, which explain observed phenomena, and it predicts new dune stabilization scenarios. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or, predicted here for the first time, three stable dune states. Our model shows that the development of the different cover types depends on the precipitation rate and the wind power and that the psammophilous plants are not always the first to grow and stabilize the dunes.

  11. Effects of selenium hyperaccumulation on plant-plant interactions: evidence for elemental allelopathy?

    PubMed

    El Mehdawi, Ali F; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2011-07-01

    • Few studies have investigated plant-plant interactions involving hyperaccumulator plants. Here, we investigated the effect of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation on neighboring plants. • Soil and litter Se concentrations were determined around the hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata and around the nonhyperaccumulators Medicago sativa and Helianthus pumilus. We also compared surrounding vegetative cover, species composition and Se concentration in two plant species (Artemisia ludoviciana and Symphyotrichum ericoides) growing either close to or far from Se hyperaccumulators. Then, Arabidopsis thaliana germination and growth were compared on soils collected next to the hyperaccumulators and the nonhyperaccumulators. • Soil collected around hyperaccumulators contained more Se (up to 266 mg Se kg(-1) ) than soil collected around nonhyperaccumulators. Vegetative ground cover was 10% lower around Se hyperaccumulators compared with nonhyperaccumulators. The Se concentration was higher in neighboring species A. ludoviciana and S. ericoides when growing close to, compared with far from, Se hyperaccumulators. A. thaliana showed reduced germination and growth, and higher Se accumulation, when grown on soil collected around Se hyperaccumulators compared with soil collected around nonaccumulators. • In conclusion, Se hyperaccumulators may increase the surrounding soil Se concentration (phytoenrichment). The enhanced soil Se contents around hyperaccumulators can impair the growth of Se-sensitive plant species, pointing to a possible role of Se hyperaccumulation in elemental allelopathy. PMID:21371042

  12. Effect of nighttime temperature on tomato plant defensive chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bradfield, M; Stamp, N

    2004-09-01

    Given that the amplitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations has been decreasing, mainly via warmer night temperatures, we examined the effects of nighttime temperature on concentration of the catecholic phenolics chlorogenic acid and rutin in tomato plants. A two-factor design, with carbon dioxide (350 ppm and 700 ppm) and nighttime temperature (14, 15, 16, 17, and 18 degrees C, with a 26 degrees C daytime temperature) was used. Compared to the lower carbon dioxide level, for whole plants the concentration of phenolics was lower at the higher carbon dioxide level, but patterns for plant parts differed. Nighttime temperature did not affect concentration of phenolics for whole plants, but it did influence concentration of the phenolics for plant parts, although not in predictable ways. Furthermore, the pattern of concentration of chlorogenic acid was somewhat different from that of rutin. The amount of change in concentration of these allelochemicals is likely sufficient to have substantial effects on insect herbivores. We conclude that nighttime temperature affects concentration of allelochemicals in tomato plants in significant ways. PMID:15586670

  13. Control effect of lanthanum against plant disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajia LIU; Yan WANG; Fubin WANG; Yuming LIU; Jianyu CUI; Lin HU; Kangguo MU

    2008-01-01

    Effect of La on emergence, growth and development of Isatis indigotica Fort. and Festuca arundinacea seedlings was researched by pot experiments of inoculating Rhizoctonia solani and with the mixture of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in disinfected soil after the seeds were soaked in the solution with different concentrations of La3+. The results indicated that infection rate decreased and there

  14. The Effect of Political Unrest on Construction Time for Food Grain Warehouses in Bangladesh

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Choudhury, Ifte

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that effect actual construction time in the context of food sector projects in Bangladesh. One of the factors of particular interest is political unrest. The data for the study was obtained from a leading design and construction management company in Bangladesh. The sample size consisted of data for 104 food grain warehouse projects scattered all over the country. The effect of political unrest on construction time was analyzed in conjunction with other known variables of time overrun, such as increase in project cost and delay in procurement of construction materials. The results indicated that the effect local political unrest on construction time was statistically significant even in the presence project cost and procurement of materials variables. It was concluded that political unrest could be included in prediction models used for finding out actual construction time of food grain warehouse projects in Bangladesh. Based on these findings, a prediction model for construction time for such projects was developed.

  15. Effect of silymarin on plant tissue cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Petr?; Marie Ulrychová

    1983-01-01

    The effect of silymarin complex on various types of expiants differing in their nutrition requirements was investigated. The\\u000a growth of tumorous periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus [L.] G. Don) callus tissue was still identical with the control tissue at the silymarin concentration of 35 mg in 1000 ml\\u000a of the nutrient medium. However, this silymarin concentration totally inhibited the growth of habituated

  16. Ultrastructural Effects of Salinity in Higher Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Werner Koyro

    Salinity leads to structural and ultrastructural effects, particularly in salt-sensitive species. Some of them are indicative\\u000a of the onset of injury, for example the aggregation of chloroplasts accompanied by a swelling in the granal and fret compartments\\u000a or the complete distortion of chloroplastic grana and thylakoid structures. Others are associated with metabolic acclimation\\u000a to salinity stress. For instance increased density

  17. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

    1969-05-01

    The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

  18. Effect of treatment in a constructed wetland on toxicity of textile wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baughman, G.L.; Perkins, W.S.; Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands for treating wastewater have proliferated in recent years and their characteristics have been studied extensively. In most cases, constructed wetlands have been used primarily for removal of nutrients and heavy metals. Extensive literature is available concerning construction and use of wetlands for treatment of wastewater. Even so, quantitative descriptions of wetland function and processes are highly empirical and difficult to extrapolate. The processes involved in removal of pollutants by wetlands are poorly understood, especially for waste streams as complex as textile effluents. The few studies conducted on treatment of textile wastewater in constructed wetlands were cited in earlier publications. Results of a two-year study of a full-scale wetland treating textile effluent are presented here. The paper describes the effects of the wetland on aquatic toxicity of the wastewater and draws conclusions about the utility and limitations of constructed wetlands for treatment of textile effluents.

  19. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  20. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics.

    PubMed

    Román Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Lara-Lemus, A; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of 12 "antidiabetic" plants used in Mexico. The studies were performed using 27 healthy rabbits with the gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or decoction of the "antidiabetic" plant before the induction of temporary hyperglycemia by subcutaneous injection of 50% dextrose solution (4 ml/kg of weight) at the beginning of the experiment and after 60 min. Blood glucose was determined every 60 min for a period of 5 h. Tolbutamide and eight of the studied plants decreased significantly the hyperglycemia as compared with control test (water) (p < 0.05). The strongest effect was yielded by Guaiacum coulteri, followed by Marrubium vulgare, Crataegus pubescens, Cynodon dactylon, Calea zacatechichi, Buddleia americana, Bauhinia divaricata and Coix lachryma. The decrease of hyperglycemia caused by Physalis phyladelphyca, Pavonia schiedeana and Eucaliptus globulus was not significant (p > 0.05). Urtica dioica increased glycemia slightly. PMID:1308793

  1. Purdue University, Agronomy Dept., W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1150 Planting Speed Effects on Stand

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Scott A.

    AGRY-94-02 Purdue University, Agronomy Dept., W. Lafayette, IN 47907-1150 Planting Speed Effects;Planting Speed Effects on Stand Establishment and Grain Yield of Corn Brief Summary ···· 1 Brief Summary An on-farm strip trial was conducted in 1993 to evaluate the effect of planting speed on plant

  2. Effectiveness of sediment-control techniques used during highway construction in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Lloyd A.

    1978-01-01

    A different method for controlling erosion and sediment transport during highway construction was used in each of four adjacent drainage basins in central Pennsylvania. The basins ranged in size from 240 to 490 acres (97 to 198 hectares), and the area disturbed by highway construction in each basin ranged from 20 to 48 acres (8 to 19 hectares). Sediment discharge was measured from each basin for 3 years before construction began and for 2 years during construction. In one of the basins affected by the construction, three offstream ponds were constructed to intercept runoff from the construction area before it reached the stream. In another basin, a large onstream pond was constructed to trap runoff from the construction area after it reached the stream. In a third area, seeding, mulching, and rock dams were used to limit erosion. In the fourth area, no sediment controls were used. The effectiveness of the various sediment-control measures were determined by comparing the sediment loads transported from the basins with sediment controls to those without controls. For most storms the offstream ponds trapped about 60 percent of the sediment that reached them. The large onstream pond had a trap efficiency of about 80 percent, however, it remained turbid and kept the stream flow turbid for long periods following storm periods. Samples of runoff water from the construction area were collected above and below rock dams to determine the reduction in sediment as the flow passed through the device. Rock dams in streams had a trap efficiency of about 5 percent. Seeding and mulching may reduce sediment discharge by 20 percent during construction, and straw bales placed to trap runoff water may reduce sediment loads downstream by 5 percent.

  3. Possible effect of biotechnology on plant gene pools in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid developments in biotechnology have made great contributions to the study of plant gene pools. The application of in vitro methods in freeze storage and DNA protection techniques in fast production studies has made major advances. From that aspect, biotechnology is an indispensable means for the protection of plant gene pools, which includes the insurance of sustainable agriculture and development of species. Besides all the positive developments, one of the primary risks posed by the uncontrolled spreading of genetically modified organisms is the possibility for other non-target organisms to be negatively affected. Genes of plant origin should be given priority in this type of studies by taking into consideration such negative effects that may result in disruption of ecological balance and damage to plant genetic pools. Turkey, due to its ecological conditions and history, has a very important position in terms of plant gene pools. This richness ought to be protected without corrupting its natural quality and natural evolution process in order to provide the sources of species that will be required for future sustainable agricultural applications. Thus, attention should be paid to the use of biotechnological methods, which play an important role especially in the protection and use of local and original plant gene pools. PMID:26019612

  4. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of essentially the same...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of essentially the same...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of essentially the same...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of essentially the same...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of essentially the same...

  14. Plant effluvia. Changing notions of the effects of plant exhalations on human health in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Todd Longstaffe Gowan

    1987-01-01

    Explaining the nature of plants through physiological study was not fully accepted in England until the mid eighteenth century. Until its appearance, living plants could not be understood beyond simple mechanistic or taxonomic theories, which did nothing to combat popular and unfounded reports of the strange effects of plant effluvia on the human constitution.

  15. Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

  16. Testing of winter vegetation construction and water purification effect of a cascaded wetland model of Jialu river

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuchun Ye; Xiao Guo

    2011-01-01

    In order to test the winter vegetation construction and water purification of wetland in vast northern China, a cascaded surface-flow wetland model with a total area of 7400m 2 was constructed along the Jialu river floodplain in Zhengzhou city of Henan province. After winter vegetation such as Potamogeton crispus, Elodea Canadensis and Iris. Sibirica were planted, vegetation development and purification

  17. Monitoring the Effects of UV Radiation in Cells and Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don J. DURZAN; Petro SMERTENKO

    Selected properties of plant cells populations are useful but have limitations for the design of UV-monitoring instruments and their utility. Diagnostics based on nitric oxide bursts, dose-dependent DNA damage and cell death continue to evolve. Case histories are needed for the realistic modeling of local and global effects of UV radiation, environmental health and decision-making.

  18. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Substrate consisted of a sterilized mixture of soil, sand and peat. No major differ- ences were observedagronomie: plant genetics and breeding Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on micropropagated Tetraclinis articulata growth and survival MA Morte G Diaz M Honrubia Departamento de Biología

  19. Contrasting Effects of Different Mammalian Herbivores on Sagebrush Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Veblen, Kari E.; Nehring, Kyle C.; McGlone, Christopher M.; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg’s blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). PMID:25671428

  20. Contrasting effects of different mammalian herbivores on sagebrush plant communities.

    PubMed

    Veblen, Kari E; Nehring, Kyle C; McGlone, Christopher M; Ritchie, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg's blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). PMID:25671428

  1. Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants.

    PubMed

    Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal. PMID:23579843

  2. The Effect of Cyclic Loading on Rotated Bone-Tendon-Bone Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft Constructs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Berkson; Gregory H. Lee; Ashwin Kumar; Nikhil Verma; Bernard R. Bach; Nadim Hallab

    2006-01-01

    Background: Single-incision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a bone–patellar tendon–bone construct is commonly performed with 180° rotation of the graft. It has been hypothesized that further rotation of the graft to 540° can effectively shorten the graft to address graft length–tunnel mismatch. Initial biomechanical failure characteristics of rotated constructs have been reported, but cyclic loading of tendons has not been

  3. Effects of parasitic castration on plant resource allocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula X. Kover

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that host castration is a parasite strategy to reallocate host resources from reproductive to vegetative\\u000a functions to increase parasite fitness. Since resource partitioning between reproduction and vegetative growth can affect\\u000a host life-history traits, parasite effects on resource allocation can affect both plant fitness and host-parasite coevolution.\\u000a Field and greenhouse experiments were used to investigate the effects

  4. Ecological effects of feral biofuel crops in constructed oak savannah communities - June 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated temperatures and drought on constructed oak savannahs were studied to determine the interactive effects of potentially invasive feral biofuel species and climate change on native grassland communities. A total of 12 sunlit mesocosm were used. Each mesoco...

  5. Comparison of Approaches to Constructing Confidence Intervals for Mediating Effects Using Structural Equation Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike W. L. Cheung

    2007-01-01

    Mediators are variables that explain the association between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used to test models with mediating effects. This article illustrates how to construct confidence intervals (CIs) of the mediating effects for a variety of models in SEM. Specifically, mediating models with 1 mediator, 2 intermediate mediators, 2 specific mediators,

  6. Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

  7. Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

  8. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant. FY 1983-84 annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. K. Pechmann; R. D. Semlitsch; R. M. Lew; D. T. Mayack

    1984-01-01

    This report details the ecological studies, conducted during Fiscal Years FY- 1983 and 1984 by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL), that relate to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. SREL has been contracted to carry out these studies for the Department of Energy (DOE) in order

  9. An affinity-effect relationship for microbial communities in plant-soil feedback loops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-soil feedback involving soil microorganisms can regulate plant populations. To participate in plant-soil feedback, microorganisms must display an affinity for plant species, and they must produce consistent effects on plant growth. We tested the validity and strength of microbial affinity-effe...

  10. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anne Barron

    2011-04-14

    What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

  11. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  12. Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2009-07-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) (from an inlet of 420 to 1000 mg L(-1)) and 92% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from an inlet of 808 to 2449 mg L(-1)), and of other contaminants, such as nitrogen, operating at hydraulic retention times of 2, 5 and 7 days. No significant (P<0.05) differences in performance were found between both the series. Overall mass removals of up to 1294 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and 529 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) were achieved for a loading ranging from 242 to 1925 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and from 126 to 900 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1). Plants were resilient to the conditions imposed, however P. australis exceeded T. latifolia in terms of propagation. PMID:19289277

  13. Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

  14. Effects of DDT on the growth of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Mitra, J; Raghu, K

    1989-01-01

    The effects of DDT on the germination and growth of plants were studied using many crop species. Of the species tested, oil-rich seeds of plants, such as peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and mustard (Brassica juncea), were more prone to DDT induced inhibition of germination and subsequent plant growth than cereals, pulses and fibre crops, like rice (Oryza sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), mung bean Vigna radiata), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Studies with (14)C labelled DDT showed that insecticide uptake by seeds was directly proportional to seed size. However, there was no direct relationship between DDT uptake by the seeds and its subsequent translocation to the growing regions or the degree of growth inhibition. Data suggest that oil content of the seeds per se has a bearing on the susceptibility or tolerance of a plant to DDT. It is suggested that lipids of the plant cell solubilize and disperse DDT in the cytoplasm, which, in turn, affects normal metabolism within the cell. PMID:15092369

  15. Effect of explosion pressure on pipe collapse in chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kurashiki, Tetsusei; Zako, Masaru [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Welding and Production Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Once a big earthquake attacks the chemical plant and tanks are broken, the disaster will extend due to the dangerous materials in tanks. In addition, the destructive explosion pressure leads to the collapse of pipes, structures and missiles from these broken pieces. Therefore, simulating the disasters in chemical plants is very important for the safety and the reliability evaluation. In this study, a computer program to analyze the behavior of pipe and chemical equipment under explosion pressure on a personal computer has been developed. The outline of the algorithm is as follows: (1) Three-dimensional pressure applied on pipes at the explosion is calculated. (2) The effect of interception of explosion pressure by oil dike is quantified. (3) Mechanical behavior of pipe is analyzed by FEM using beam element, and pipe collapse is evaluated from the result of FEM. (4) Cumulative damage caused by sequential explosion of tanks is calculated. As an example, the developed system was applied to practical plant model, and the damaged zone in the plant and the dangerous location of pipes after the explosion of a tank have been analyzed. As a result, it is revealed that the proposed computer program is very useful not only for safety and reliability evaluation but for the installation of pipes in chemical plants as well.

  16. Effect of Plant Density on Yield, Yield Components and Effective Medicine Ingredients of Blond Psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk.) Accessions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SABAGH NEKONAM; K. H. RAZMJOO

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of plant density on yield, yield components and effective medicine ingredients of eight blond psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk.) accessions. Eight accessions were grown in the field at three plant densities (80, 120 & 160 plants m-2). As plant density increased, biological yield increased from 797 to 1430 kg ha-1 and

  17. The interactive effects of plant microbial symbionts: a review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna L. Larimer; James D. Bever; Keith Clay

    2010-01-01

    In nature, plants often associate with multiple symbionts concurrently, yet the effects of tripartite symbioses are not well understood. We expected syner- gistic growth responses from plants associating with functionally distinct symbionts. In contrast, symbionts providing similar benefits to a host may reduce host plant growth. We reviewed studies investigating the effect of multiple interactions on host plant performance. Additionally,

  18. [Effects of plant growth regulators ambiol and phonk: biolphysical aspects].

    PubMed

    Voronina, S S; Zhizhina, G P; Lozovskaia, E L

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative activity of two plant growth promoters, ambiol and phonk, in a model system of photo-induced glycyltriptophane oxidation was measured. It was shown that ambiol has a significant antioxidative activity, whereas phonk is a weak antioxidant. The effects of these compounds on DNA conformation were studied in vitro and in vivo (on wheat seed shoots). In vitro ambiol had a stronger effect as compared with phonk, whereas in vivo the latter produced a more essential effect than ambiol. The assumption was done that both compounds affect indirectly the genome expression activity. Possible mechanisms of biological activity of each compound are discussed. PMID:11236558

  19. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Maintaining Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a “supporting” ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  20. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  1. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  2. Effects of Aflatoxin on Seeding Growth and Ultrastructure in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Eli V.

    1973-01-01

    Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 ?g of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 ?g of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B1 exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. Images PMID:4767301

  3. Preliminary study of the effect of pumped-storage plant operation on zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Tseyeb, Y.Y.; Zhdanova, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hydromechanical effect of hydroelectric stations on zooplankton is customarily regarded as a constantly acting and comparatively harmless factor, since its destruction is inevitable when water masses are passed through hydroelectric stations, but its capacity for restoration is high (i.e., destruction of the zooplankton of the forebay is compensated by its production in the after bay). It is not known how correct such an opinion is, or what is the true balance of losses and reproduction of zooplankton in the forebays and after bays of hydroelectric stations. However, hydroelectric plants of a new type, pumped-storage plants, have been constructed in recent years and others are planned for the Dnieper reservoirs. The operational principle and purpose of these plants is that they employ special vertical turbine-electric pumps that pump water at night from the reservoirs into pumped-storage facilities at high levels, and then release this water during daytime peaks through pipes to the turbines that generate additional electric power. Such pumped-storage plants are planned, in particular, as part of the Danube-Dnieper water economy complex and for some reservoirs in the North European regions of the USSR.

  4. Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids (PtDA) requires evidence that PtDAs improve the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice made, or decision quality. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical evidence for PtDA effectiveness and discuss emerging practical and research issues in the measurement of effectiveness. Methods This updated overview incorporates: a) an examination of the instruments used to measure five key decision-making process constructs (i.e., recognize decision, feel informed about options and outcomes, feel clear about goals and preferences, discuss goals and preferences with health care provider, and be involved in decisions) and decision quality constructs (i.e., knowledge, realistic expectations, values-choice agreement) within the 86 trials in the Cochrane review; and b) a summary of the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of PtDAs for these key constructs. Data on the constructs and instruments used were extracted independently by two authors from the 86 trials and any disagreements were resolved by discussion, with adjudication by a third party where required. Results The 86 studies provide considerable evidence that PtDAs improve the decision-making process and decision quality. A majority of the studies (76/86; 88%) measured at least one of the key decision-making process or decision quality constructs. Seventeen different measurement instruments were used to measure decision-making process constructs, but no single instrument covered all five constructs. The Decisional Conflict Scale was most commonly used (n = 47), followed by the Control Preference Scale (n = 9). Many studies reported one or more constructs of decision quality, including knowledge (n = 59), realistic expectation of risks and benefits (n = 21), and values-choice agreement (n = 13). There was considerable variability in how values-choice agreement was defined and determined. No study reported on all key decision-making process and decision quality constructs. Conclusions Evidence of PtDA effectiveness in improving the quality of the decision-making process and decision quality is strong and growing. There is not, however, consensus or standardization of measurement for either the decision-making process or decision quality. Additional work is needed to develop and evaluate measurement instruments and further explore theoretical issues to advance future research on PtDA effectiveness. PMID:24625035

  5. Climate change effects on plant biomass alter dominance patterns and community evenness in an experimental old-field ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Campany, Courtney E [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Souza, Lara [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic change can alter plant biomass production and plant community composition. However, we know little about how climate change-induced alterations in biomass production affect plant community composition. To better understand how climate change will alter both individual plant species and community biomass we manipulated atmospheric [CO2], air temperature and precipitation in a constructed old-field ecosystem. Specifically, we compared the responses of dominant and subdominant species to our treatments, and explored how changes in plant dominance patterns alter community evenness over two years. Our study resulted in four major findings: 1) All treatments, elevated [CO2], warming and increased precipitation, increased plant biomass and the effects were additive rather than interactive, 2) Plant species differed in their response to the treatments, resulting in shifts in the proportional biomass of individual species, which altered the plant community composition; however, the plant community response was largely driven by the responses of the dominant species, 3) Precipitation explained most of the variation in plant community composition among treatments, and 4) Changes in precipitation caused a shift in the dominant species proportional biomass that resulted in higher community evenness in the dry relative to wet treatments. Interestingly, compositional and evenness responses of the subdominant community to the treatments did not always follow the responses of the whole plant community. Our data suggest that changes in plant dominance patterns and community evenness are an important part of community responses to climate change, and generally, that compositional shifts can have important consequences for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of niche construction for its agent.

    PubMed

    Kylafis, Grigoris; Loreau, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Niche construction can generate ecological and evolutionary feedbacks that have been underinvestigated so far. We present an eco-evolutionary model that incorporates the process of niche construction to reveal its effects on the ecology and evolution of the niche-constructing agent. We consider a simple plant-soil nutrient ecosystem in which plants have the ability to increase the input of inorganic nutrient as an example of positive niche construction. On an ecological time scale, the model shows that niche construction allows the persistence of plants under infertile soil conditions that would otherwise lead to their extinction. This expansion of plants' niche, however, requires a high enough rate of niche construction and a high enough initial plant biomass to fuel the positive ecological feedback between plants and their soil environment. On an evolutionary time scale, we consider that the rates of niche construction and nutrient uptake coevolve in plants while a trade-off constrains their values. Different evolutionary outcomes are possible depending on the shape of the trade-off. We show that niche construction results in an evolutionary feedback between plants and their soil environment such that plants partially regulate soil nutrient content. The direct benefit accruing to plants, however, plays a crucial role in the evolutionary advantage of niche construction. PMID:18727670

  7. Effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yazawa, Satoru; Nakagawa, Yasutaka; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2015-04-15

    Alkyl parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products. However, the mode of action of these chemicals has not been assessed thoroughly. In this study, we determined the effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi. All the fungi tested, were susceptible to parabens. The effect of linear alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi was related to the length of the alkyl chain. In addition, the antifungal activity was correlated with the paraben-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. The antifungal activity of linear alkyl parabens likely originates, at least in part, from their ability to inhibit the membrane respiratory chain, especially mitochondrial complex II. Additionally, we determined that some alkyl parabens inhibit Alternaria brassicicola infection of cabbage. PMID:25791450

  8. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in line with predictions based on island biogeography and resource concentration theory. We discuss how a thorough knowledge of the immigration behaviour of this fly might help to understand the patterns found.

  9. Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant China project

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, the organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)

  10. Effect of Ultrasound on Sludge from Water Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young U.; Ha, Junsoo; Yoon, Ki Yong; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ultrasound on the reduction in the amount of heavy metals and the dewaterability of sludge from a water treatment plant. The investigation involved laboratory experiments, which were conducted under different conditions, including the energy levels of ultrasonic waves and treatment time. Results of the study show that ultrasound reduces the amount of heavy metals and enhances the dewaterability of sludge significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with ultrasonic energy and treatment time.

  11. Effects of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica De Micco; Carmen Arena; Diana Pignalosa; Marco Durante

    2011-01-01

    One of the main purposes leading botanists to investigate the effects of ionizing radiations is to understand plant behaviour\\u000a in space, where vegetal systems play an important role for nourishment, psychological support and functioning of life support\\u000a systems. Ground-based experiments have been performed with particles of different charge and energy. Samples exposed to X-\\u000a or ?-rays are often used as

  12. The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Atta; K. Abo EL-Sooud

    2004-01-01

    The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400mgkg?1 methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5–61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis

  13. Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

    2006-08-01

    Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

  14. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency...ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.486 Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under...

  15. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency...ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.486 Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under...

  16. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency...ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without the Related Land) § 644.486 Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under...

  17. Radioprotective effects of antioxidative plant flavonoids in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimoi, K; Masuda, S; Shen, B; Furugori, M; Kinae, N

    1996-02-19

    Radioprotective effects of tea infusions and plant flavonoids were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity and the thiobarbituric acid assay for antioxidative activity. A single gastric intubation of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) infusion at 1 ml per mouse 2 h prior to gama-ray irradiation (1.5 Gy) reduced the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs). After the fractionation of rooibos tea infusion, the flavonoid fraction was found to be most anticlastogenic and antioxidative. From this fraction, luteolin was isolated as an effective component. Then, anticlastogenic effects of 12 flavonoids containing luteolin and their antioxidative activities against lipid peroxidation by Fenton's reagent were examined. A good correlation (r=0.717) was observed between both activities. Luteolin showed the most effective potency. A gastric intubation of luteolin (10 micromoles/kg) 2 h prior to gamma-ray irradiation (6 Gy) suppressed lipid peroxidation in mouse bone marrow and spleen and a trend of protective effect of luteolin against the decrease of endogenous ascorbic acid in mouse bone marrow after gamma-ray irradiation (3 Gy) was observed. These results suggest that plant flavonoids, which show antioxidative potency in vitro, work as antioxidants in vivo and their radioprotective effects may be attributed to their scavenging potency towards free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, the flavonoids contained in tea, vegetables and fruits seem to be important as antioxidants in the human diet. PMID:8657176

  18. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obd?ej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be responsible for changes in plant communities during the succession.

  19. American Arachnological Society Behavioral Flexibility in Orb Web Construction: Effects of Supplies in Different Silk Glands

    E-print Network

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    in Different Silk Glands and Spider Size and Weight Author(s): William G. Eberhard Source: Journal of supplies in different silk glands and spider size and weight. J. Arachnol., 16:295-302. BEHAVIORAL FLEXIBILITY IN ORB WEB CONSTRUCTION: EFFECTS OF SUPPLIES IN DIFFERENT SILK GLANDS AND SPIDER SIZE AND WEIGHT

  20. Personal Factors Impacting College Student Success: Constructing College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Benton, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, a new assessment tool identifying personal variables important to college student success, was constructed using empirical approaches grounded in a conceptual model. The exploratory and confirmatory studies revealed the six-underlying factors: Academic Self-Efficacy, Organization and Attention to…

  1. Government Limitations on Training Innovations. A Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness Project Report. Report D-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, New York, NY.

    A study team researched impediments to the use of modern skill training methods in construction that have been caused by the U.S. Department of Labor. The problem that the study sought to define was whether the Labor Department impedes use of training innovations through the combined effect of the regulations promulgated by its Bureau of…

  2. Collaborative Encoding and Memory Accuracy: Examining the Effects of Interactive Components of Co-Construction Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mary Ann; Fried, Adina Rachel; Cowan, Emily; Bays, Rebecca Brooke

    2014-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the effect of collaborative encoding on memory was examined by testing 2 interactive components of co-construction processes. One component focused on the nature of the interactive exchange between collaborators: As the partners worked together to create descriptions about ways to interact with familiar objects, constraints were…

  3. Effects of Constructing versus Playing an Educational Game on Student Motivation and Deep Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and drop" game,…

  4. Investigating the Effectiveness of Equating Designs for Constructed-Response Tests in Large-Scale Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.; McHale, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Using data from a large-scale exam, in this study we compared various designs for equating constructed-response (CR) tests to determine which design was most effective in producing equivalent scores across the two tests to be equated. In the context of classical equating methods, four linking designs were examined: (a) an anchor set containing…

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON CONTROL FEATURES IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION - SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new homes built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over high radon potential soil...

  6. Construction Safety Training via e-Learning: Learning Effectiveness and User Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chun-Ling; Dzeng, Ren-Jye

    2010-01-01

    In Taiwan, promoting knowledge of "Labor Safety" which relates to life and work right is very important. Safety training and learning effectiveness become essential issues of adult learning. To reduce the costs of educational training, enterprises have also started to aggressively introduce e-learning education training. Unlike the construction

  7. The effect of scale on the response to reform by Chinese state-owned construction units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliott Parker

    1997-01-01

    Using firm-level data on large and medium state-owned construction units, a production function approach evaluates the effect of scale on the response of Chinese state enterprises to reform. Large state units have greater economies of scale, but are less productive and less input price efficient as investment increases in nonproductive fixed assets. Large unit profits are declining fastest, and a

  8. Is PPP sensitive to time-varying trade weights in constructing real effective exchange rates?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee; Scott W. Hegerty; Ali M. Kutan

    2009-01-01

    While the use of real effective exchange rates in stationarity tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) avoids the problems created using bilateral rates, these rates are often constructed using trade shares that are fixed at a single base year. This method fails to take into account the fact that trade shares can change drastically in parts of the world that

  9. Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research objective was to investigate the effect of pulsed wastewater flow on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh (m-p-m) constructed wetlands. From June to October of 2004, each of four, m-p-m wetlands in Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, received a different application of swine wast...

  10. Transition to Work: Effects of Preparedness and Goal Construction on Employment and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Petri; Vuori, Jukka; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the mediating role of employment preparedness in improving employment, mental health, and construction of work-life goals among young vocational school graduates who participated in the School-to-Work effectiveness trial. The trial included a 1-week intervention program that focused on enhancing employment preparedness. In this…

  11. Evaluation of PPCPs removal in a combined anaerobic digester-constructed wetland pilot plant treating urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Contreras, C; Matamoros, V; Ruiz, I; Soto, M; Bayona, J M

    2011-08-01

    The removal efficiency of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater (dissolved and particulate phases) was evaluated for the first time in a hybrid pilot plant consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by two sequentially connected horizontal flow constructed wetlands: a surface flow wetland (SF CW) and a subsurface flow wetland (SSF CW). Whereas the PPCP removal associated with the dissolved phase exhibited a seasonal pattern, the fraction associated with the suspended solids showed less seasonality. In the dissolved phase, the overall removal efficiency in summer ranged from 70% to 85% for salicylic acid (SAL), methyl dihydrojasmonate, caffeine (CAF), ketoprofen and triclosan, whereas in winter it declined for most of the PPCPs to between 30% and 50%, except for CAF and SAL (>80%) and carbamazepine and butylated hydroxyl toluene (11-18%). In the suspended solids, the removal exceeded 80% for most of the target PPCPs. The efficiency of the different treatment steps was also compound-dependent, but the SF CW generally exhibited the highest removal efficiency for most of the contaminants analyzed. The characterization of the organic matter retained in the wetland gravel beds revealed the occurrence of hydrophobic contaminants such as phthalate esters and fragrances at moderate concentrations (i.e., up to 3.5 ?g kg(-1)), which declined strongly over the course of the different treatment steps. In the SF CW, the net mass accumulation rates of tonalide and galaxolide were 4 and 23 gy(-1) respectively, whereas in the SSF CW they were 0.3 and 1.8 gy(-1) respectively. PMID:21719067

  12. EFFECTS OF PLANT-SPECIFIC N TREATMENT AND PLANT SPACING ON CORN YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uneven corn plant spacing is common, due to unemerged, double or misplaced plants. We hypothesized that variable N application on a plant-by-plant basis according to plant position could compensate for yield loss due to uneven spacing. The objective of the study was to evaluate the agronomic respons...

  13. Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S

    2011-01-01

    Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

  14. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. PMID:24703526

  15. Municipal solid-waste composting: Technologies, health effects, effects on plant growth and yield, regulations, and descriptions of U. S. sites

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.C.; Brenniman, G.R.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1991-06-01

    As stated in the Illinois Solid Waste Management Act, composting is considered to be an acceptable alternative to landfilling. There are nine operational municipal solid waste (MSW) composting facilities and one pilot program reviewed in the report. Other facilities in operation or under construction in the U.S. are summarized in the Appendix. The report also discusses the following topics: composting technology, potential effects of MSW compost on human health and plant growth and yield, and regulations.

  16. Effect of salinity stress on photosynthesis and vegetative sink in tobacco plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichi Suwa; Nguyen Tran Nguyen; Hirofumi Saneoka; Reda Moghaieb; Kounosuke Fujita

    2006-01-01

    The effects of salinity stress on vegetative growth in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were examined in terms of the source–sink relationship. The effect of salinity stress on plant growth was continuously measured using a micromorphometric technique under greenhouse conditions. This technique is less cumbersome and more precise than conventional techniques used to measure plant growth under salinity conditions. The effect

  17. Effects of delayed constructed-response identity matching on spelling of dictated words.

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Elenice S; de Souza, Deisy G; de Rose, Julio C; Fonseca, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    We studied the effects of delayed constructed-response identity matching on spelling with 6 first graders with histories of school failure. After training, the children learned to spell words to dictation and their cursive writing improved. These results replicate studies showing that delayed constructed-response matching establishes spelling. For 2 children, spelling of generalization words--words formed by recombining the syllables of training words--also improved. These results extend studies that have shown recombinative generalization in reading and spelling. PMID:15293642

  18. The effect of raft removal and dam construction on the lower Colorado River, Texas

    E-print Network

    Hartopo

    1991-01-01

    by changes in the sediment supply which has in turn been effected by raft removal, sediment load within the channel, river discharge and delta erosion. A second objective is to determine how river discharge is related to and affected by dam construction... supply to the mouth of the Colorado River. Reservoirs trap as much as 90 percent of the sediment load. The decreasing sediment load is not only caused by dam construction. The mean annual discharge has decreased since the period of regulated flow...

  19. Essential roles and hazardous effects of nickel in plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    With the world's ever increasing human population, the issues related to environmental degradation of toxicant chemicals are becoming more serious. Humans have accelerated the emission to the environment of many organic and inorganic pollutants such as pesticides, salts, petroleum products, acids, heavy metals, etc. Among different environmental heavy-metal pollutants, Ni has gained considerable attention in recent years, because of its rapidly increasing concentrations in soil, air, and water in different parts of the world. The main mechanisms by which Ni is taken up by plants are passive diffusion and active transport. Soluble Ni compounds are preferably absorbed by plants passively, through a cation transport system; chelated Ni compounds are taken up through secondary, active-transport-mediated means, using transport proteins such as permeases. Insoluble Ni compounds primarily enter plant root cells through endocytosis. Once absorbed by roots, Ni is easily transported to shoots via the xylem through the transpiration stream and can accumulate in neonatal parts such as buds, fruits, and seeds. The Ni transport and retranslocation processes are strongly regulated by metal-ligand complexes (such as nicotianamine, histidine, and organic acids) and by some proteins that specifically bind and transport Ni. Nickel, in low concentrations, fulfills a variety of essential roles in plants, bacteria, and fungi. Therefore, Ni deficiency produces an array of effects on growth and metabolism of plants, including reduced growth, and induction of senescence, leaf and meristem chlorosis, alterations in N metabolism, and reduced Fe uptake. In addition, Ni is a constituent of several metallo-enzymes such as urease, superoxide dismutase, NiFe hydrogenases, methyl coenzyme M reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase, hydrogenases, and RNase-A. Therefore, Ni deficiencies in plants reduce urease activity, disturb N assimilation, and reduce scavenging of superoxide free radical. In bacteria, Ni participates in several important metabolic reactions such as hydrogen metabolism, methane biogenesis, and acetogenesis. Although Ni is metabolically important in plants, it is toxic to most plant species when present at excessive amounts in soil and in nutrient solution. High Ni concentrations in growth media severely retards seed germinability of many crops. This effect of Ni is a direct one on the activities of amylases, proteases, and ribonucleases, thereby affecting the digestion and mobilization of food reserves in germinating seeds. At vegetative stages, high Ni concentrations retard shoot and root growth, affect branching development, deform various plant parts, produce abnormal flower shape, decrease biomass production, induce leaf spotting, disturb mitotic root tips, and produce Fe deficiency that leads to chlorosis and foliar necrosis. Additionally, excess Ni also affects nutrient absorption by roots, impairs plant metabolism, inhibits photosynthesis and transpiration, and causes ultrastructural modifications. Ultimately, all of these altered processes produce reduced yields of agricultural crops when such crops encounter excessive Ni exposures. PMID:21913127

  20. Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.

    PubMed

    Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

    2011-01-01

    During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

  1. Study of the refirming effect of a plant complex.

    PubMed

    Benaiges, A; Marcet, P; Armengol, R; Betes, C; Gironés, E

    1998-08-01

    Loss of skin elasticity is one of the main problems of ageing. This is a mechanical property influenced by elastin, a protein in the dermis which, together with collagen and glycosaminoglycans, makes up the connective tissue. This tissue is affected by a large number of events (such as cutaneous ageing, pregnancy, slimming processes and cellulitis) which eventually cause it to change. At the same time, the metabolism of the proteins of the connective tissue decreases and there is an ever greater presence of enzymes, principally elastases and collagenases, which are responsible for breaking down the elastin and the collagen. One way to prevent such a loss of elasticity is to use active ingredients that are able to inhibit elastase enzymes. A plant complex was prepared using the following plants: lady's thistle (Silybum marianum GAERTN), alchemilla or yarrow (Alchemilla vulgaris L.), horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.) as well as germinated seeds (Glycine soja Siebold and Zucc., Triticum vulgare Vilars, Medicago sativa L., Raphanus sativus L.). The complex was standardized to give the corresponding active principles, silybin, tannins, silicon and peptides, respectively, and in vitro enzymatic tests were carried out to establish its ability to inhibit elastase. The study of enzymatic inhibition was carried out using two enzymes: (1) porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), and (2) human leukocyte elastase (HLE). The results showed that the plant complex presents non-competitive inhibition in the order of 41.0% against PPE and 50.0% against HLE. An in vivo test was made alongside the in vitro test using an SEM 474 Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka) to study the elasticity of the skin, and positive effects were obtained when applying a cosmetic formulation containing 5% of the plant complex. Image analysis of duplicates of the cutaneous surface, before and after treatment began with a product containing 5% of plant complex and showed that wrinkles were decreased by 36.7%. PMID:18505506

  2. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. SantosLars; Lars W. Anderson; Susan L. Ustin

    2011-01-01

    Submersed aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects on the hydrological\\u000a regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitat of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, for example\\u000a through the introduction of invasive species, can alter these functions. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California,\\u000a a major invasive submersed plant, Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa,

  3. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  4. [Effects of enhanced dephosphorization in the constructed wetland using water-granulated slag as matrix].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-bo; Yang, Rui-song; Li, Xiao-dong; Sun, Tie-heng

    2009-08-15

    The phosphorus adsorption and desorption effects of water-granulated slag (WGS) were studied. A simulated vertical flow constructed wetland system was constituted using WGS as the main matrix. The influences of hydraulic residence time (HRT) and pollution load on phosphorus removal were investigated. The contributions of phosphorus removal of different horizon layers in up-flow and down-flow matrixes were studied. The results showed that WGS was a kind of adaptive desorption material for wetland due to its high saturated phosphorus adsorptive capacity (3333 mg x kg(-1)). The content of soluble calcium of WGS is 0.084%, which provides a suitable pH (7.54) for microbes and plants growth in wetland. The HRT is in positive correlation with phosphorus removal rate. The phosphorus removal rates decrease 5.9%-4.7% and 2.4%-4.7% when HRT decreases from 1 d to 0.5 d and form 2 d to 1 d, respectively. The phosphorus removal rates exceed 85% at 1 d HRT in WGS wetland. That means the optimized HRT is 1 d, and extending HRT infinitely is not helpful to phosphorus removal. The pollution load is in negative correlation with phosphorus removal rate under the conditions of steady influx concentration. The phosphorus removal rates maintain 85% when the pollution load is from 12.2 g x (m2 x d)(-1) to 36.8 g x (m2 x d)(-1). When the pollution load increases to 48.9 g x (m2 x d)(-1), the phosphorus removal rate decreases to 65% . The phosphorus removal rate exceeds 82% when the pollution load is less than 36.8 g x (m2 x d)(-1). That means higher pollution load will cause the calcium and aluminum active points of phosphorus adsorption shielded, which exist both on matrix surface and in inner pores. The range of optimized pollution load is from 24.5 g x (m2 x d)(-1) to 36.8 g x (m2 x d)(-1). The graduation mode of WGS in top layer and conventional materials in lower layer is helpful to phosphorus removal in vertical flow wetland. The phosphorus adsorptive capacities in up-flow and down-flow unit are 0.17 mg x kg(-1) and 0.05 mg x kg(-1) respectively. The WGS can be changed freely when the saturated adsorption occurs, which will extend the wetland service life. PMID:19799292

  5. Effects of firm size on risks and reporting of elevation fall injury in construction trades.

    PubMed

    Kines, Pete; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby

    2003-10-01

    Although many occupational safety programs are targeted toward large firms, the construction industry is dominated by smaller firms. This study examines the differential effect of firm size on the risk and the reporting of over 3000 serious and minor nonfatal elevation fall injuries in Danish construction industry trades (1993 to 1999). Small firms (<20 employees) accounted for 93% of all firms and 55% of worker-years. There was an inverse relationship between firm size and serious injury rates and a direct relationship between firm size and minor injury rates. An inverse relationship between firm size and injury severity odds ratios (serious versus minor) was found for carpentry, electrical work, general contracting, and the remaining other trades. Health and safety issues, legislation, and enforcement in the construction industry should, to a greater degree, be focused on smaller firms. PMID:14534449

  6. Effects of resource availability on plant reflectance and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stylinski, Cathlyn Davis

    Remote sensing is an important means of examining net CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere and the effects of elevated [CO2] on plant productivity at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular, indices derived from narrow-waveband reflectance that are sensitive to dynamic physiological attributes may reveal periods of photosynthetic downregulation and may improve plant productivity models. Here we examined the relationship between photosynthesis, photoprotective xanthophyll cycle pigments, and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) for mature woody Mediterranean plants under two conditions: natural drought and exposure to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. We also examined plants under severe water stress to test and compare the effects of physiology and structure on PRI, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Water Band Index (WBI). PRI varied primarily with leaf physiology, and NDVI primarily with stand structure. WBI was affected by both attributes and, unlike PRI, did not scale well from leaves to whole stands. PRI was well linked to photoprotective xanthophyll cycle pigments and electron transport. Both PRI and these pigments varied with seasonal changes in midday photosynthesis, demonstrating that the xanthophyll cycle is an important form of photoprotection for evergreen Mediterranean species undergoing photosynthetic downregulation. By contrast, NDVI was not sensitive to physiological changes but was well correlated with green canopy cover. These results suggest that the "big-leaf hypothesis" (which states that canopies can be characterized by a single reference leaf) cannot be applied to all physiological indices. Furthermore, in agreement with the "functional convergence hypothesis" (which states that plant physiology and structure change to match CO2 fixation capacity), our results indicate a coordinated regulation of photosystem two activity and carbon uptake. However, they also demonstrate that this relationship may be disrupted during early leaf development and with elevated [CO2]. Overall, these studies support the use of hyperspectral indices to monitor plant physiology at the leaf, canopy and stand scales. However, confounding of structural and physiological signals is significant and will make it difficult to separate the mixed influences on these indices. To better understand these influences large-scale manipulative experiments and canopy radiative-transfer models that incorporate physiological parameters are needed.

  7. Effects of virus on plant fecundity and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Prendeville, Holly R; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Pilson, Diana

    2014-06-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous and thought to regulate host populations. Although microorganisms can be pathogenic and affect components of fitness, few studies have examined their effects on wild plant populations. As individual traits might not contribute equally to changes in population growth rate, it is essential to examine the entire life cycle to determine how microorganisms affect host population dynamics. In this study, we used data from common garden experiments with plants from three Cucurbita pepo populations exposed to three virus treatments. These data were used to parameterize a deterministic matrix model, which allowed us to estimate the effect of virus on components of fitness and population growth rate. Virus did not reduce fruit number, but population growth rates varied among virus treatments and wild C. pepo populations. The effect of virus on population growth rate depended on virus species and wild C. pepo population. Contributions of life-history transitions and life-history traits to population growth rates varied among populations and virus treatments. However, this population-virus interaction was not evident when examining individual components of fitness. Thus, caution must be used when interpreting the effects of changes in individual traits, as single traits do not always predict population-level change accurately. PMID:24571200

  8. Effect of rice plants on CH4 production, transport, oxidation and emission in rice paddy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongjun Jia; Zucong Cai; Hua Xu; Xiaoping Li

    2001-01-01

    To understand the integrated effects of rice plants (variety Wuyugeng 2) on CH4 emission during the typical rice growth stage, the production, oxidation and emission of methane related to rice plants were investigated simultaneously through laboratory and greenhouse experiments. CH4 emission was significantly higher from the rice planted treatment than from the unplanted treatment. In the rice planted treatment, CH4

  9. PLANT MICROBE INTERACTIONS An AffinityEffect Relationship for Microbial Communities

    E-print Network

    Sims, Gerald K.

    to determine key microbial players in plant­ soil feedback against a low "signal-to-noise" backgroundPLANT MICROBE INTERACTIONS An Affinity­Effect Relationship for Microbial Communities in Plant soil microorganisms can regulate plant populations. Here, we hypothesize that micro- organisms are most

  10. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ortiz-Vázquez; D. Kaemmer; H. B. Zhang; J. Muth; M. Rodríguez-Mendiola; C. Arias-Castro; Andrew James

    2005-01-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector\\/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter

  11. Effect of two solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Patricia C; Sánchez, Norma E

    2006-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important tomato pest that also feeds on other host-plants from the Solanceae family. We studied the effect of two cultivated plants, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) and potato Solanum tuberosum L. on the development and populational parameters of T. absoluta related with host-plant suitability. Larval developmental time, pupal weight, mean fecundity and an index of host-plant quality (IPQ = pupal weight / frass weight) were estimated. Age-specific survivorship and fecundity life tables were constructed in the laboratory to evaluate the following populational parameters: net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and generation time (T). Larval developmental time was shorter and pupal weight was higher (P < 0.0001) for larvae reared on tomato (P < 0.0001). Mean fecundity was not significantly different on both plants (P = 0.07) and food quality of host-plant was higher for tomato (P = 0.02). Mean population parameters on tomato were: Ro = 48.92; T = 27.98, r = 0.14; and on potato: Ro = 14.43; T = 32.35, r = 0.08. Although results showed that tomato was a more suitable host-plant and had a better nutritional quality than potato, when T. absoluta fed on potato the potential population increase requires attention. Under appropriate climatic conditions, spatial and temporal coincidence between crop and pest, T. absoluta could become a pest for the potato crop. PMID:17144141

  12. Fluorine, its effect on plant growth and its relation to the availability to plants of phosphorus in phosphate rocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. BARTHOLOMEW

    1935-01-01

    To learn the effect of soluble fluorine compounds on seed germination, plant growth, and phosphate availability, solution cultures, pot tests, etc., were made at the Arkansas Experiment Station with Sudan grass, cowpeas, soybeans, red clover, and white Dutch clover as test plants. Concentrations of fluorine as large as 50 ppm did not seem to decrease significantly the germination of any

  13. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  14. PREDICTING THE EFFECTS OF NECTAR ROBBING ON PLANT REPRODUCTION: IMPLICATIONS OF POLLEN LIMITATION AND PLANT MATING SYSTEM1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA A. BURKLE; REBECCA E. IRWIN; DANIEL A. NEWMAN

    2007-01-01

    The outcome of species interactions is often difficult to predict, depending on the organisms involved and the ecological context. Nectar robbers remove nectar from flowers, often without providing pollination service, and their effects on plant reproduction vary in strength and direction. In two case studies and a meta-analysis, we tested the importance of pollen limitation and plant mating system in

  15. HOST CHOICE BY APHIDIUS COLEMANI: EFFECTS OF PLANTS, PLANT-APHID COMBINATIONS AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRAGUILD PREDATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study first measured the effect of plant (radish, pepper and wheat), aphid-plant combination (the green peach aphid MYZUS PERSICAE on pepper and radish, and the bird cherry-oat aphid RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI on wheat) and the host on which A. COLEMANI was reared (the cotton aphid APHIS GOSSYPII on cu...

  16. Arsenic uptake, distribution, and accumulation in bean plants: Effect of Arsenite and salinity on plant growth and yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    The response of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to different levels of arsenic (As) and salinity was investigated, including the processes of uptake, distribution, and accumulation of As and the effect of arsenite and salinity on plant growth and fruit production. The experiment was performed in soilless culture at two levels of As: 2 and 5 mg As L [added

  17. The effects of plant diversity and insect herbivory on performance of individual plant species in experimental grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPH SCHERBER; ALEXANDRU MILCU; STEPHAN PARTSCH; STEFAN SCHEU; WOLFGANG W. WEISSER

    2006-01-01

    1 There is increasing evidence that components of biodiversity affect processes at the ecosystem level; yet, the effects of biodiversity on the performance of individual organisms or particular trophic interactions are largely unexplored. 2 We transplanted 10 individuals of Rumex acetosa into 82 experimental grassland plots differing in plant species and functional group richness. Half of the plants received an

  18. Construction of an intron-containing marker gene: Splicing of the intron in transgenic plants and its use in monitoring early events in Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Vancanneyt; R. Schmidt; A. O'Connor-Sanchez; L. Willmitzer; M. Rocha-Sosa

    1990-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a commonly used tool for transforming dicotyledonous plants. The underlying mechanism of transformation however is not very well understood. One problem complicating the analysis of this mechanism is the fact that most indicator genes are already active in Agrobacterium, thereby preventing the precise determination of timing and localisation of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. In order to

  19. On the effectiveness in implementing a waste-management-plan method in construction.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian W Y

    2008-01-01

    The increasing awareness of waste management concerns from construction and demolition waste has led to the development of waste management as an important function of construction project management. The Hong Kong government started employing the implementation of a waste-management-plan (WMP) method for all construction projects in 2003. During the trial period, the government received different version of feedback from the industry. It also came out that detailed descriptions of waste management procedures in the WMP method largely affect the productivity of companies. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. The result showed that "Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials" and "Propose methods for reducing waste" are the main benefits gained from the implementation of the WMP method. However, "Low financial incentive" and "Increase in overhead cost" are considered as the major difficulties in the implementation. From that, "Use of prefabricated building components" is considered as the major effective measure to encourage the implementation of the WMP method. PMID:17574406

  20. Effect of nickel treatment on the growth of egg-plant

    SciTech Connect

    Salim, R.; Haddad, M.; El-Khatib, I.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel may be a potential cause of damage to plant and a health hazard to man by being transferred to him through plant. In this study the effect of nickel treatment on the growth of egg-plant has been studied. Both root-applied treatment and foliar-applied treatment have been used. The effect of nickel treatment on the nickel concentration in the various parts of plant has been studied. The effect of nickel treatment on the total nickel content of the various parts of plant and the percentage of this nickel content from the total nickel content of the whole plant has been also looked into.

  1. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  2. Cotton Planting Date and Plant Population Effects on Yield and Quality in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers in the Mississippi Delta plant in early spring, but wet, cold weather often develops then and may reduce plant population directly or indirectly. Producers must occasionally decide if replanting is necessary. The objective of these studies was to determine planting date and plant ...

  3. Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) in Improving Runoff Water Quality From Construction Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soupir, Michelle L.; Mostaghimi, Saied; Masters, Amanda; Flahive, Katherine A.; Vaughan, David H.; Mendez, Aida; McClellan, Phillip W.

    2004-02-01

    Erosion from construction sites significantly affects water quality in receiving streams. A rainfall simulator was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for controlling erosion from construction sites. Erosion control methods investigated included dry and liquid applications of polyacrylamide (PAM), hydroseed, and straw mulch. Fertilizer was also applied to each plot to examine the effectiveness of the methods in reducing nutrient losses in runoff. Runoff samples were analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonium, total phosphorus (TP), and orthophosphate. Among all treatments investigated, straw mulch was the most effective treatment for controlling TSS and nutrient losses during short term and long term simulations. The low liquid PAM (half the recommended PAM) treatment resulted in the highest reduction in runoff, TSS bound nitrogen, and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and loadings. The study results indicate that a high application rate (twice the recommended rate) of PAM could actually increase runoff and TSS losses. At a low application rate, both liquid and dry PAM were effective in reducing TSS and nutrient losses in runoff. However, application of the liquid form of PAM to construction sites is more practical and perhaps more economical than applying the PAM in the dry form.

  4. A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants

    PubMed Central

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielbörger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. PMID:23045708

  5. Effect of a copper gradient on plant community structure.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Beate; Axelsen, Jørgen A; Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Jensen, John; Attrill, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    Vegetation data including plant cover, biomass, species richness, and vegetation height was sampled on a copper-contaminated field with total copper contents varying from 50 to almost 3,000 mg/kg soil. The field was covered by early succession grassland dominated by Agrostis stolonifera. Plant cover, biomass, species richness, and vegetation height generally decreased with increasing copper content, although the highest biomass was reached at intermediate copper concentrations. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that plant community composition was significantly correlated with soil copper concentration and that community composition at soil copper concentrations above 200 mg/kg differed significantly from community composition at lower copper levels. Comparison of single-species (Black Bindweed, Fallopia convolvulus) performance at the field site and in laboratory tests involving field soil and spiked soil indicates that the laboratory tests conventionally applied for risk assessment purposes do not overestimate copper effects. Interaction between copper and other stressors operating only in the field probably balance the higher bioavailability in spiked soil. PMID:16566159

  6. Drought effect on plant nitrogen and phosphorus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    He, Mingzhu; Dijkstra, Feike A

    2014-12-01

    Climate change scenarios forecast increased aridity in large areas worldwide with potentially important effects on nutrient availability and plant growth. Plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations (plant [N] and [P]) have been used to assess nutrient limitation, but a comprehensive understanding of drought stress on plant [N] and [P] remains elusive. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine responses of plant [N] and [P] to drought manipulation treatments and duration of drought stress. Drought stress showed negative effects on plant [N] (-3.73%) and plant [P] (-9.18%), and a positive effect on plant N:P (+ 6.98%). Drought stress had stronger negative effects on plant [N] and [P] in the short term (< 90 d) than in the long term (> 90 d). Drought treatments that included drying-rewetting cycles showed no effect on plant [N] and [P], while constant, prolonged, or intermittent drought stress had a negative effect on plant [P]. Our results suggest that negative effects on plant [N] and [P] are alleviated with extended duration of drought treatments and with drying-rewetting cycles. Availability of water, rather than of N and P, may be the main driver for reduced plant growth with increased long-term drought stress. PMID:25130263

  7. Effect of minor water depth treatments on competitive effect and response of eight wetland plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauchlan H. Fraser; Tara E. Miletti

    2008-01-01

    Two facets of plant competition, competitive effect (CE) and competitive response (CR), can be used to explain plant community\\u000a composition but our understanding of abiotic factors that may differentially affect species’ competitive ability is incomplete.\\u000a We tested whether water-depth affected CE (ability to suppress neighbour) and CR (avoid suppression from neighbour), and if\\u000a so whether there was consistence in the

  8. Ecological effects of transgene persistence on plant communities in the presence and absence of drift levels of glyphosate herbicide

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2005, plant communities were constructed in outdoor sunlit chambers that contained 3 round tubs having a surface area of 1.2 m2 and a depth of 0.6 m. Six plant types were planted in triplicate using the same spatial arrangement in each tub. Three of the six plant types were se...

  9. Integrating Wetlands into Watershed Management: Effectiveness of Constructed Wetlands to Reduce Impacts from Urban Stormwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brydon; M. C. Roa; S. J. Brown; H. Schreier

    \\u000a Water detention and water storage during storm events, and water release during dry periods, are some of the main functions\\u000a wetlands can provide in order to help reduce peak flow and increase low flow runoff into streams. However, wetlands can also\\u000a be effective in retaining and remediating contaminants. Results of the case study on a constructed wetland that mitigates\\u000a urban

  10. Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh–pond–marsh constructed wetlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Poach; P. G. Hunt; G. B. Reddy; K. C. Stone; M. H. Johnson; A. Grubbs

    2007-01-01

    The research objective was to investigate the effect of intermittent wetland drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh–pond–marsh (m–p–m) constructed wetlands. For 16 weeks beginning in June 2002, each of four m–p–m wetlands in Greensboro, NC, USA, received a different application of swine wastewater. The four application schemes were as follows: (1) continuous application; (2) 1 week of no application

  11. CONSTRUCTION OF INFECTIOUS CLONES FOR DOUBLE STRANDED DNA VIRUSES OF PLANTS USING CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC CIRUS AS AN EXAMPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses of plants are believed to be plant pararetroviruses. Their genome is replicated by reverse transcription of a larger than unit length terminally redundant RNA transcript of the viral genomic DNA using the virus-encoded replicase. In order to produce a cloned, infe...

  12. Live Specimens More Effective than World Wide Web for Learning Plant Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taraban, Roman; McKenney, Cynthia; Peffley, Ellen; Applegarth, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web and other computer-based media are new teaching resources for plant identification. The purpose of the experiments reported here was to test whether learning plant identification for woody and herbaceous plant material over the web was as effective, more effective, or preferred by undergraduate students when compared with…

  13. Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded. and Kirkland, K. J. 2004. Seeding date and polymer seed coating effects on plant establishment and yield of fall-seeded canola in the Northern Great Plains. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 955­963. The time interval

  14. [Research progress on plant resources distribution of vitexin and its pharmacological effects].

    PubMed

    Gu, Cheng-bo; Cai, Man; Yuan, Xiao-han; Zu, Yuan-gang

    2015-02-01

    Vitexin, a naturally occurring flavone glycoside in plants, has many pharmacological effects, which is widely distributed in nature. This paper reviewed the research progress of the distribution of vitexin in the plant resources and its pharmacological effects, and summarized its application prospects, aiming to provide a useful reference for the development of vitexin-enriched plant resources. PMID:26084156

  15. Effects of mycorrhizae and fertilizer amendments on zinc tolerance of plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Shetty; B. A. D. Hetrick; A. P. Schwab

    1995-01-01

    In soils containing elevated levels of zinc, plant growth may be impaired because of Zn interference with P uptake by plants and because of detrimental effects of Zn toxicity itself. Because mycorrhizal fungi are known to improve uptake of plant P, the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on Zn tolerance of Andropogon gerardii Vitm. were assessed in soil amended with

  16. Investigation of the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of heterologous ras genes in plant cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zong R. Liu; John C. Sanford

    1993-01-01

    The ras genes from yeast and mammalian cells were fused to plant expression promoters, and introduced into plant cells via Agrobacterium, to study their effect on cell growth and development. All introduced ras genes had a strong inhibitory effect on callus and shoot regeneration from plant tissues. This is consistent with earlier findings that heterologous ras genes were highly lethal

  17. Floral herbivore effect on the sex expression of an andromonoecious plant, Isomeris arborea (Capparaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Krupnick; Arthur E. Weis

    1998-01-01

    Flower-feeding insects may influence the reproductive behavior of their host plant. In plants with labile sex expression, the ratio of maternal to paternal investment may change in response to damage, an effect that goes beyond the direct reduction of plant gametes. We examined the effects of floral herbivory by the beetle Meligethes rufimanus (Nitidulidae) on the ratio of hermaphroditic flowers

  18. A complex three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to study the effects of tunnel construction on

    E-print Network

    Augarde, Charles

    the effects of tunnel construction on adjacent structures. The model uses an in-house finite element code. A particular area of interest of the group, since 1992, has been the modelling of soft ground tunnelling and the interaction between the effects of tunnel construction and surface structures. A complex model, including

  19. Effects of vegetation on surface stability and hydrology of a prototype barrier constructed over nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Ward, A.L.; Walters, W.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Earthen barriers are being developed to prevent water from entering nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. We constructed a prototype barrier (2700 m{sup 2}) and are conducting a test to determine if it can prevent water from draining at 3 times normal precipitation. Plants will function to minimize erosion and maximize the loss of water from the surface soils. The experiment was initiated in the October 1994. The surface was revegetated with seedlings of Artemisia tridentata and Chrysothamnus nauseosus (2 shrubs m{sup -2}) and seeded with native perennial grasses. Initial soil water observations indicate more water near the surface and considerable spatial variability. The revegetation effort reduced wind erosion.

  20. Predicting the effects of nectar robbing on plant reproduction: implications of pollen limitation and plant mating system.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Laura A; Irwin, Rebecca E; Newman, Daniel A

    2007-12-01

    The outcome of species interactions is often difficult to predict, depending on the organisms involved and the ecological context. Nectar robbers remove nectar from flowers, often without providing pollination service, and their effects on plant reproduction vary in strength and direction. In two case studies and a meta-analysis, we tested the importance of pollen limitation and plant mating system in predicting the impacts of nectar robbing on female plant reproduction. We predicted that nectar robbing would have the strongest effects on species requiring pollinators to set seed and pollen limited for seed production. Our predictions were partially supported. In the first study, natural nectar robbing was associated with lower seed production in Delphinium nuttallianum, a self-compatible but non-autogamously selfing, pollen-limited perennial, and experimental nectar robbing reduced seed set relative to unrobbed plants. The second study involved Linaria vulgaris, a self-incompatible perennial that is generally not pollen limited. Natural levels of nectar robbing generally had little effect on estimates of female reproduction in L. vulgaris, while experimental nectar robbing reduced seed set per fruit but not percentage of fruit set. A meta-analysis revealed that nectar robbing had strong negative effects on pollen-limited and self-incompatible plants, as predicted. Our results suggest that pollination biology and plant mating system must be considered to understand and predict the ecological outcome of both mutualistic and antagonistic plant-animal interactions. PMID:21636388

  1. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of niche construction for its agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grigoris Kylafis; Michel Loreau

    2008-01-01

    Niche construction can generate ecological and evolutionary feedbacks that have been underinvestigated so far. We present an eco-evolutionary model that incorporates the process of niche construction to reveal its effects on the ecology and evolution of the niche-constructing agent. We consider a simple plant-soil nutrient ecosystem in which plants have the ability to increase the input of inorganic nutrient as

  2. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  3. Effect of amphotericin B nanodisks on plant fungal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Cifuentes, Zuny; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Sillero, Josefina C; Ávila, Carmen; Rubio, Josefa; Ryan, Robert O

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of water-soluble nanodevices extends the potential use of compounds developed for other purposes (e.g. antifungal drugs or antibiotics) for applications in agriculture. For example, the broad-spectrum, water-insoluble, macrolide polyene antibiotic amphotericin B(AMB) could be used to inhibit phytopathogenic fungi. A new formulation embedding AMB in nanodisks (NDs) enhances antibiotic solubility and confers protection against environmental damage. In the present study, AMB-NDs were tested for efficacy against several phytopathogenic fungi in vitro and on infected living plants (chickpea and wheat). RESULTS Compared with AMB in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), AMB-NDs increased the sensitivity of several fungal species to this antimycotic in vitro. Sensitivity varied with fungal species as well as with the forma specialis. Phytophthora cinnamomi, previously reported as insensitive to other polyene antimycotics, remained unaffected at the doses examined. Some effect against disease symptoms were obtained with AMB-NDs against fusarium wilt in chickpea, whereas the results were highly variable in wheat, depending on both the species and treatment regimen. CONCLUSION The results confirm that formulation of AMB into ND increases its effectiveness against phytopathogenic fungi in vitro, opening the possibility for its use on infected plants in the field. PMID:21710554

  4. Effects of a magnetic field on the germination of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Noriyuki; Nakagawa, Jun; Kitazawa, Koichi

    1999-04-01

    The effects of a nonuniform magnetic field on the germination of plants were studied. When a 10 T magnetic field was applied at the center of a superconducting magnet, a cucumber shoot germinating in a horizontal bore leaned towards the field center. In contrast, the root grew in the direction opposite the shoot. The observed result seemed to have occurred as a result of the magnetic force influencing the geotaxis of the cucumber. This idea was supported qualitatively by analysis results of the experimental data. Knowledge obtained in this study will be helpful for the evaluation of the effect of the magnetic field on living bodies and suggests the possibility of applying magnetic fields in other areas of research.

  5. Effects of Hypoxia on Animal Burrow Construction and Consequent Effects on Sediment Redox Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies investigating the effects of hypoxia on benthic infauna and consequent effects on sediment chemistry provide only correlative results from the field. In order to establish causation and isolate effects of hypoxia on individual species, we conducted a laboratory ...

  6. Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants interactively increase plant performance.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Mooney, Kailen A; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis

    2012-11-01

    While plant diversity is well known to increase primary productivity, whether these bottom-up effects are enhanced by reciprocal top-down effects from the third trophic level is unknown. We studied whether pine tree species diversity, aphid-tending ants and their interaction determined plant performance and arthropod community structure. Plant diversity had a positive effect on aphids, but only in the presence of mutualistic ants, leading to a threefold greater number of both groups in the tri-specific cultures than in monocultures. Plant diversity increased ant abundance not only by increasing aphid number, but also by increasing ant recruitment per aphid. The positive effect of diversity on ants in turn cascaded down to increase plant performance; diversity increased plant growth (but not biomass), and this effect was stronger in the presence of ants. Consequently, bottom-up effects of diversity within the same genus and guild of plants, and top-down effects from the third trophic level (predatory ants), interactively increased plant performance. PMID:22951745

  7. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. PMID:20006894

  8. Large-Scale SNP Discovery and Genotyping for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Tea Plant Using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Li, Chun-Fang; Wang, Rong-Kai; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic maps are important tools in plant genomics and breeding. The present study reports the large-scale discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic map construction in tea plant. We developed a total of 6,042 valid SNP markers using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and subsequently mapped them into the previous framework map. The final map contained 6,448 molecular markers, distributing on fifteen linkage groups corresponding to the number of tea plant chromosomes. The total map length was 3,965 cM, with an average inter-locus distance of 1.0 cM. This map is the first SNP-based reference map of tea plant, as well as the most saturated one developed to date. The SNP markers and map resources generated in this study provide a wealth of genetic information that can serve as a foundation for downstream genetic analyses, such as the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), map-based cloning, marker-assisted selection, and anchoring of scaffolds to facilitate the process of whole genome sequencing projects for tea plant. PMID:26035838

  9. Large-Scale SNP Discovery and Genotyping for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Tea Plant Using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Qiang; Huang, Long; Ma, Chun-Lei; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Li, Chun-Fang; Wang, Rong-Kai; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic maps are important tools in plant genomics and breeding. The present study reports the large-scale discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic map construction in tea plant. We developed a total of 6,042 valid SNP markers using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and subsequently mapped them into the previous framework map. The final map contained 6,448 molecular markers, distributing on fifteen linkage groups corresponding to the number of tea plant chromosomes. The total map length was 3,965 cM, with an average inter-locus distance of 1.0 cM. This map is the first SNP-based reference map of tea plant, as well as the most saturated one developed to date. The SNP markers and map resources generated in this study provide a wealth of genetic information that can serve as a foundation for downstream genetic analyses, such as the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), map-based cloning, marker-assisted selection, and anchoring of scaffolds to facilitate the process of whole genome sequencing projects for tea plant. PMID:26035838

  10. Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Stein, Claudia; Rissmann, Cornelia; Hempel, Stefan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

    2009-02-01

    Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental grassland communities in a fully factorial design. In addition, single plants of each species in the grassland community were grown with the same treatments to distinguish direct AMF effects from indirect effects via plant competition. We found that AMF changed plant community structure by influencing the plant species differently. At the community level, AMF decreased the productivity by 15-24%, depending on the particular AMF treatment, mainly because two dominant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata, showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency. Concomitantly, plant diversity increased due to AMF inoculation and was highest in the treatment with a combination of two commercial AM strains. AMF had a positive effect on growth of the hemiparasite, and thereby induced a negative impact of the hemiparasite on host plant biomass which was not found in non-inoculated communities. However, the hemiparasite did not increase plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of interactions with soil microbes for plant community structure and that these indirect effects can vary among AMF treatments. We conclude that mutualistic interactions with AMF, but not antagonistic interactions with a root hemiparasite, promote plant diversity in this grassland community. PMID:18975009

  11. Effect of a novel chemical mixture on senescence processes and plant--fungus interaction in Solanaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Flors, V; Miralles, C; Cerezo, M; González-Bosch, C; García-Agustín, P

    2001-05-01

    The effects of exogenous application of a chemical mixture consisting of adipic acid monoethyl ester, furfurylamine, and 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (FGA) on various metabolic pathways and the plant-fungus interaction have been studied in Solanaceae plants. Tomato and pepper plants were sprayed with the FGA mixture, and different biochemical parameters such as gas exchange, chlorophyll concentration, protein, cell wall sugar and phenolics contents, and peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities were measured. FGA-treated plants showed, in general, an increase in cell wall sugar content and decreases in the chlorophyll degrading rate and the peroxidase activity. These results suggest that FGA (a possible synthetic regulator) could act as a retardant--antisenescence agent in Solanaceae plants. The FGA mixture increased the PAL activity and promoted an overall rise in the concentration of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Therefore, FGA induced the synthesis of compounds that could give protection to plants against pathogens or insects. To further verify this putative protection, several fungi were inoculated in intact plants. Exogenous FGA applications on intact plants delayed fungus-provoked lesion development. In addition, data also showed that applications of 1,2,3,4-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranose inhibited fungal growth in vitro. These results confirm that FGA can activate protective mechanisms in plants upon contact with invaders such as fungi. PMID:11368637

  12. Aerosol light scattering effect on terrestrial plant productivity and energy fluxes over the eastern United States

    E-print Network

    Niyogi, Dev

    Aerosol light scattering effect on terrestrial plant productivity and energy fluxes over light scattering effect. Results show that the aerosol light scattering effect results in enhanced.5%) in 2001. These responses of plant productivity and photosynthesis to the aerosol light scattering effect

  13. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01...2011-07-01 false Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed...486 Section 644.486 National Defense Department of... Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other...

  14. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency...CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and Other Improvements (without...

  15. Design and construction of a new temperature-controlled chamber for light and confocal microscopy under monitored conditions: biological application for plant samples.

    PubMed

    Buchner, O; Lütz, C; Holzinger, A

    2007-02-01

    A new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber (LM-TCC) has been constructed. The special feature of the light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber is the Peltier-element temperature control of a specimen holder for biological samples, with a volume capacity of 1 mL. This system has marked advantages when compared to other approaches for temperature-controlled microscopy. It works in a temperature range of -10 degrees C to +95 degrees C with an accuracy of +/-0.1 degrees C in the stationary phase. The light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber allows rapid temperature shift rates. A maximum heating rate of 12.9 degrees C min(-1) and a maximum cooling rate of 6.0 degrees C min(-1) are achieved with minimized overshoots (plant Ranunculus glacialis show the tendency to form stroma-filled protrusions in relation to the exposure temperature. The relative number of chloroplasts with protrusions is reduced at 5 degrees C when compared to 25 degrees C. This effect is reversible. The new light microscope-temperature-controlled chamber will be useful in a wide range of biological applications where a rapid change of temperature during microscopic observations is necessary or has to be avoided allowing a simulation of ecologically relevant temperature scenarios. PMID:17359253

  16. [Investigation of exciting light and plant leaves age effects on chlorophyll fluorescense of radish plants].

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, T V; Tikhomirov, A A; Shikhov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exciting light intensity and leaves age on characteristics of slow stage of chlorophyll fluorescence induction (CFI) of radish leaves has been investigated. Light dependence of the relationship of maximum fluorescence intensity in the peak P and the stationary fluorescence level (F(P)/F(S)) and also light dependence of temporal characteristics of CFI (T0.5 - half decrease of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity during slow stage of fluorescence induction and tmin - summarized CFI characteristics derived by calculating via integral proportional to variable part of illuminated in the result of chlorophyll fluorescence energy during slow stage of CFI) have been studied. Plants were grown in controlled conditions of light culture at 100 Wt/m2 of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). It has been shown that variability of the characteristics under study, associated with the effect of leaves age, significantly decreases at exciting light intensity equal to 40 Wt/m2 of PAR and more. The lowest effect of leaves age on the value of fluorescence characteristics for T0.5 and tmin and also for F(P)/F(S) ratio was observed at the intensity of exciting fluorescence light of 60 Wt/m2 of PAR. In the researched range of light intensities the temporal characteristics of T0.5 and tmin for uneven-aged radish leaves appeared to be by an order less responsive to the intensity changes of exciting fluorescence light as compared with F(P)/F(S) ratio. PMID:23035526

  17. Effects of ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge obtained in disintegrators of different constructions.

    PubMed

    Zielewicz, Ewa; Tyt?a, Malwina

    2015-09-01

    The ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge is placed after the mechanical thickening but before the digestion tanks in order to intensify the process of sludge stabilization. The effects obtained directly after ultrasonic disintegration depend on many factors and can be grouped in two main categories: factors affecting the quality of sludge and those associated with the construction of disintegrators and its parameters. The ultrasonic disintegration research was carried out using three types of structural solutions of disintegrators. Two of them, that is, WK-2000 ultrasonic generator (P?=?400?W) working with a thin sonotrode and WK-2010 ultrasonic generator (P?=?100-1000?W) working with a new type construction emitter lens sonotrode, were compared with the influence of a washer with a flat emitter. The investigations have shown that in the same sludge, using the same value of volumetric energy, the resulting effect depends on the construction of the ultrasonic disintegrator, that is, design of the head and the ratio between the field of the emitter and the field of the chamber in sonicated medium. PMID:25732595

  18. Lavandula species as accompanying plants in Cupressus replanting strategies: Effect on plant growth, mycorrhizal

    E-print Network

    Thioulouse, Jean

    , mycorrhizal soil infectivity and soil microbial catabolic diversity Lahcen Ouahmane a,b , Mohamed Hafidi of ``resource islands'' and ``nurse plants'' of Lavender plants in the regeneration processes of tree species rights reserved. Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; Cupressus; Lavandula; Nurse plant; Microbial

  19. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on living plants exposed for extended periods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The effects of intense 60-Hz electric fields were studied by exposing plants of five kinds (crops) for extended periods in a special greenhouse where cultural and environmental factors could be controlled. Plant populations and densities simulated field conditions. While exposed, plants of all crops germinated satisfactorily, and plants of sweet corn and wheat completed their life cycles and produced viable seed. Plants of alfalfa and tall fescue were at the early bloom stage when harvested. Exposure of plants of five kinds to electric fields had no statistically significant effects on seed germination, seedling growth, plant growth, phenology, flowering, seed set, biomass production, plant height, leaf area, plant survival, and nodulation. Exposure to 60-Hz electric fields resulted in very limited damage to terminal leaf tips, awns, and corn tassels, particularly at fields of 30 kV/m or greater. 47 refs., 36 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. PMID:25776277

  1. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-06-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. PMID:25776277

  2. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. Preliminary results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis will be conducted. The samples will be tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. Accordingly, success and failure to sustain plant growth will be justified and the most adequate mix for planting will be selected for conducting a field experiment to test the viability of the developed mix.

  3. Can dispersal mode predict corridor effects on plant parasites?

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Lauren L; Johnson, Brenda L; Brudvig, Lars A; Haddad, Nick M

    2011-08-01

    Habitat corridors, a common management strategy for increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes, have experimentally validated positive influences on species movement and diversity. However, long-standing concerns that corridors could negatively impact native species by spreading antagonists, such as disease, remain largely untested. Using a large-scale, replicated experiment, we evaluated whether corridors increase the incidence of plant parasites. We found that corridor impacts varied with parasite dispersal mode. Connectivity provided by corridors increased incidence of biotically dispersed parasites (galls on Solidago odora) but not of abiotically dispersed parasites (foliar fungi on S. odora and three Lespedeza spp.). Both biotically and abiotically dispersed parasites responded to edge effects, but the direction of responses varied across species. Although our results require additional tests for generality to other species and landscapes, they suggest that, when establishing conservation corridors, managers should focus on mitigating two potential negative effects: the indirect effects of narrow corridors in creating edges and direct effects of corridors in enhancing connectivity of biotically dispersed parasites. PMID:21905422

  4. Can dispersal mode predict corridor effects on plant parasites?

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Lauren, L.; Johnson, Brenda, L.; Brudvig, Lars, A.; Haddad, Nick, M.

    2011-08-01

    Habitat corridors, a common management strategy for increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes, have experimentally validated positive influences on species movement and diversity. However, long-standing concerns that corridors could negatively impact native species by spreading antagonists, such as disease, remain largely untested. Using a large-scale, replicated experiment, we evaluated whether corridors increase the incidence of plant parasites. We found that corridor impacts varied with parasite dispersal mode. Connectivity provided by corridors increased incidence of biotically dispersed parasites (galls on Solidago odora) but not of abiotically dispersed parasites (foliar fungi on S. odora and three Lespedeza spp.). Both biotically and abiotically dispersed parasites responded to edge effects, but the direction of responses varied across species. Although our results require additional tests for generality to other species and landscapes, they suggest that, when establishing conservation corridors, managers should focus on mitigating two potential negative effects: the indirect effects of narrow corridors in creating edges and direct effects of corridors in enhancing connectivity of biotically dispersed parasites.

  5. Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime because of the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation, and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Construction at Locations B or C would not result in direct impacts to wetlands. However, the hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. The impacts at Location A may potentially be avoided by an alternative routing of the entrance road, or mitigation may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the State of Ohio. Unavoidable impacts to isolated wetlands may require an Isolated Wetlands Permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor for the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found in this part of Ohio, which in many cases involve previously disturbed habitats.

  6. Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Cadotte, Marc W.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Oakley, Todd H.

    2008-01-01

    Loss of biological diversity because of extinction is one of the most pronounced changes to the global environment. For several decades, researchers have tried to understand how changes in biodiversity might impact biomass production by examining how biomass correlates with a number of biodiversity metrics (especially the number of species and functional groups). This body of research has focused on species with the implicit assumption that they are independent entities. However, functional and ecological similarities are shaped by patterns of common ancestry, such that distantly related species might contribute more to production than close relatives, perhaps by increasing niche breadth. Here, we analyze 2 decades of experiments performed in grassland ecosystems throughout the world and examine whether the evolutionary relationships among the species comprising a community predict how biodiversity impacts plant biomass production. We show that the amount of phylogenetic diversity within communities explained significantly more variation in plant community biomass than other measures of diversity, such as the number of species or functional groups. Our results reveal how evolutionary history can provide critical information for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the effects of biodiversity loss and should serve as an impetus for new biodiversity experiments. PMID:18971334

  7. Effects of freezing on thermoluminescence in various plant species.

    PubMed

    Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella; Papp, Nóra; Pál, Magda; Páldi, Emil

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of sudden frost on the photosynthetic electron transport chain in the leaves of various plant species using the thermoluminescence (TL) technique. A short period of freezing caused a decrease in the afterglow (AG) band in young maize leaves, with a slight upshift in the maximum temperature. The B band induced by far-red (FR) illumination started to decrease at a significantly lower temperature. The flash-induced B band also showed a substantial decrease in intensity after short preliminary freezing. In contrast to other species, for which there was always a well-detectable TL signal even after relatively drastic freezing, there was no TL signal at all in geranium below a threshold temperature. The behavior of the FR-induced TL curve in cucumber plants was a mixture of that found in wheat or pea, on the one hand, and maize, on the other: the AG band gradually decreased with decreasing temperature and finally totally disappeared, as in maize. The FR-induced B band showed an upshift after freezing. These results suggest that AG is a normal component of TL bands induced not only by FR, but also by single turnover flash. PMID:15323581

  8. RNAi construct of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tanya A; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominantly found in the glands. Differential screening identified a cytochrome P450 cDNA clone (CYP82D109) from a Gossypium hirsutum cultivar that hybridized to mRNA from glanded cotton but not glandless cotton. Both the D genome cotton Gossypium raimondii and A genome cotton Gossypium arboreum possessed three additional paralogs of the gene. G. hirsutum was transformed with a RNAi construct specific to this gene family and eight transgenic plants were generated stemming from at least five independent transformation events. HPLC analysis showed that RNAi plants, when compared to wild-type Coker 312 (WT) plants, had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels in the terminal leaves, respectively. Analysis of volatile terpenes by GC-MS established presence of an additional terpene (MW: 218) from the RNAi leaf extracts. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses showed this compound was ?-cadinen-2-one. Double bond rearrangement of this compound gives 7-hydroxycalamenene, a lacinilene C pathway intermediate. ?-Cadinen-2-one could be derived from ?-cadinene via a yet to be identified intermediate, ?-cadinen-2-ol. The RNAi construct of CYP82D109 blocks the synthesis of desoxyhemigossypol and increases the induction of lacinilene C pathway, showing that these pathways are interconnected. Lacinilene C precursors are not constitutively expressed in cotton leaves, and blocking the gossypol pathway by the RNAi construct resulted in a greater induction of the lacinilene C pathway compounds when challenged by pathogens. PMID:25794893

  9. Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions. PMID:19426314

  10. Effect of 1-MCP on Cotton Plants Under Abiotic Stress 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yuan

    2013-05-06

    , biochemistry and yield traits of cotton plants under abiotic stress conditions under field and controlled environment studies. The growth chamber studies were conducted in 2011 using a randomized complete design with six replications. Cotton plants were exposed...

  11. Comparison between polishing (maturation) ponds and subsurface flow constructed wetlands (planted and unplanted) for the post-treatment of the effluent from UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    von Sperling, M; Dornelas, F L; Assunção, F A L; de Paoli, A C; Mabub, M O A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of the performance of two treatment systems operating in parallel, with the same influent wastewater. The investigated systems are (i) UASB + three polishing ponds in series + coarse filter (200 population equivalents) and (ii) UASB + subsurface flow constructed wetlands (50 population equivalents). Two wetland units, operating in parallel, were analysed, being one planted (Typha latifolia) and the other unplanted. The systems were located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The wetland systems showed to be more efficient in the removal of organic matter and suspended solids, leading to good effluent BOD and COD concentrations and excellent SS concentrations. The planted wetland performed better than the unplanted unit, but the latter was also able to provide a good effluent quality. The polishing pond system was more efficient in the removal of nitrogen (ammonia) and coliforms (E. coli). Land requirements and cost considerations are presented. PMID:20220242

  12. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  13. Determination of diffusivities in the Rustler Formation from exploratory-shaft construction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Ken; Beyeler, Walt

    1985-01-01

    The construction of an exploratory shaft 12 feet in diameter into the Salado Formation (repository horizon for transuranic waste material) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico affected water-levels in water-bearing zones above the repository horizon. By reading the construction history of the exploratory shaft, an approximation of construction-generated hydraulic stresses at the shaft was made. The magnitude of the construction-generated stresses was calibrated using the hydrographs from one hydrologic test pad. Whereas flow rates from the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members in the Rustler Formation into the exploratory shaft were unknown, the ratio of transmissivity to storage (diffusivity) was determined by mathematically simulating the aquifers and the hydrologic stresses with flood-wave-response digital model. These results indicate that the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation can be modeled as homogeneous, isotropic, and confined water-bearing zones. One simple and consistent explanation, but by no means the only explanation, of the lack of a single diffusivity value in the Culebra aquifer is that the open-hole observation wells at the hydrologic test pads dampen the amplitude of water-level changes. (USGS)

  14. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris?+?sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality. PMID:25143001

  15. Operator-based robust nonlinear control system design for MIMO nonlinear plants with unknown coupling effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingcong Deng; Shuhui Bi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, operator-based robust nonlinear control system design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) plants with unknown coupling effects is considered. That is, by using operator-based robust nonlinear control design, coupling effects existing in the MIMO nonlinear plants can be decoupled based on a feedback design and robust right coprime factorisation approach, the coupling effects caused by controllers and plant outputs

  16. Competitive effect versus competitive response of invasive and native wetland plant species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather A. Hager

    2004-01-01

    Non-native plants can have adverse effects on ecosystem structure and processes by invading and out-competing native plants. I examined the hypothesis that mature plants of non-native and native species exert differential effects on the growth of conspecific and heterospecific seedlings by testing predictions that (1) invasive vegetation has a stronger suppressive effect on seedlings than does native vegetation, (2) seedlings

  17. Effects of plant age, experimental nutrient addition and ant occupancy on herbivory in a neotropical myrmecophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW D. TRAGER; EMILIO M. BRUNA

    2006-01-01

    Summary 1 Variation in antiherbivore defences among individuals within a plant species may be influenced by intrinsic characteristics of the plant, environmental conditions and the interactions between these factors. 2 We used a long-term field experiment and a laboratory palatability trial to elucidate the effects of plant age, nutrient availability and ant occupancy on herbivore damage sustained by Cordia alliodora,

  18. Effects of humic acids from vermicomposts on plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Q. Arancon; Clive. A. Edwards; Stephen Lee; Robert Byrne

    2006-01-01

    The interactions between earthworms and microorganisms can produce significant quantities of plant growth hormones and humic acids which act as plant regulators. Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of humic acids extracted from vermicompost and compare them with the action of commercial humic acid in combination with a commercial plant growth hormone, indole acetic acid (IAA) which is a

  19. ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Effects of Aggregation Size and Host Plant on the Survival of an

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Diane

    ECOLOGY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY Effects of Aggregation Size and Host Plant on the Survival of an Ant-Tended Membracid (Hemiptera: Membracidae): Potential Roles in Selecting for Generalized Host Plant Use JENNIFER S in host plant use from specialists to extreme generalists. Potential factors that may inßuence relative

  20. The effect of soil amendments on plant performance in an area affected by acid mine drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurora Neagoe; Gustav Ebenå; Erik Carlsson

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in order to assess the effect of urea, topsoil and municipal compost addition on plant performance and on the uptake of heavy metals by plants from contaminated soil. The experimental site was a disturbed soil in spite of remediation actions after several decades of uranium leaching (Eastern Thuringia, Germany) in 2004. Two plant species,

  1. Effects of different methods of plant residue management on soil properties and maize yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. A. Osiname; F. Meppe

    1999-01-01

    The effect of different methods of plant residue management on soil properties and maize yield were studied in a field experiment conducted on a Typic Kandihumult in Bambui, Northwest Province of Cameroon. Ankara (a local practice of slow burning partially buried dry plant residues) was compared with surface burning and burying plant residues under the ridges without burning. The comparison

  2. Effects of six selected antibiotics on plant growth and soil microbial and enzymatic activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Liu; Guang-Guo Ying; Ran Tao; Jian-Liang Zhao; Ji-Feng Yang; Lan-Feng Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The potential impact of six antibiotics (chlortetracycline, tetracycline and tylosin; sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim) on plant growth and soil quality was studied by using seed germination test on filter paper and plant growth test in soil, soil respiration and phosphatase activity tests. The phytotoxic effects varied between the antibiotics and between plant species (sweet oat, rice and cucumber). Rice was

  3. Effect of prescribed fire on a shrub-steppe plant community infested with Bromus tectorum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal W. Hill

    Prescribed fire has been used to manipulate plant communities and is used to remove plants and litter for efficient application of pre-emergent herbicides to the soil. An experiment was conducted to determine if prescribed fire in the fall would have a significant impact on plant community structure in the shrub-steppe. Fire effects were compared with those in unburned plots. Fire

  4. The effectiveness of botanic garden collections in supporting plant conservation: a European case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Maunder; Sarah Higgens; Alastair Culham

    2001-01-01

    Europe has the greatest concentration of botanic gardens in the world, they cultivate extensive collections of plants that include samples of European threatened plant species. This study looks at the effectiveness of these collections in supporting species conservation. A three part study is presented: (1) the results of a survey and assessment of threatened plants in botanic gardens, as defined

  5. PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Additive effects of herbivory, nectar robbing and seed predation

    E-print Network

    Irwin, Rebecca E.

    predation on male and female fitness estimates of the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata Rebecca E. Irwin in the host plant Ipomopsis aggregata. By examining the effects of antagonists on plant traits, we were able. Keywords Herbivory Á Ipomopsis aggregata Á Nectar robbing Á Nectar Á Phenology Á Pollination Á Pollen

  6. The effects of salinity on aquatic plant germination and zooplankton hatching from two wetland sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DARYL L. N IELSEN; K ATHARINE; C ROSSLE ´; K EN H ARRIS; MICHAEL H EALEY; I RENE J AROSINSKI

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. The effect of increasing salinity on the emergence of zooplankton eggs and the germination of aquatic plant seeds from the sediment of two wetlands was examined. Salinity was found to cause reductions in species richness and abundance of aquatic plants and zooplankton at salinities between 1000 and 5000 mg L)1. Aquatic plants also had an associated decrease in

  7. Who Is White? Assessing Students' Perceptions of Whiteness through Active-Learning Effectiveness and the Construction of Racial Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Stephen M.; Lucas, Amy; Case, Kim A.; Hoston, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Building on previous studies on action-oriented strategies for teaching race-related courses, we explore the general effectiveness of teaching about racial stereotypes and racial/ethnic identity construction in two undergraduate race and ethnicity courses. Given that race and the term "White" are culturally constructed and serve to…

  8. Energetic cost of web construction and its effect on web relocation in the web-building spider Agelena limbata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Tanaka

    1989-01-01

    Although spider webs may be effective in trapping prey, they require energy for construction. The design of webs varies in complexity from species to species. I assume that the energetic cost of web construction is significantly different among web types or species. This cost may constrain foraging tactics, particularly web relocation, because web relocation also requires energy to make a

  9. Effects of Grizzly Bear Digging on Alpine Plant Community Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel F. Doak; Michael G. Loso

    2003-01-01

    InAlaskan alpinetundra, grizzly bearsexcavate deepholes insearch ofground squirrels, but few studies have tested the importance of grizzlies, or other large mammals, in maintaining plant community structure. We examined 43 bear digs, asking how they affect plant species richness and diversity, recolonization patterns, and plants with different clonal growth strategies. Bears remove most vegetation from digs, and recovering digs had lower

  10. Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Scherber; Peter N. Mwangi; Vicky M. Temperton; Christiane Roscher; Jens Schumacher; Bernhard Schmid; Wolfgang W. Weisser

    2006-01-01

    The rate at which a plant species is attacked by invertebrate herbivores has been hypothesized to depend on plant species richness, yet empirical evidence is scarce. Current theory predicts higher herbivore damage in monocultures than in species-rich mixtures. We quantified herbivore damage by insects and molluscs to plants in experimental plots established in 2002 from a species pool of 60

  11. Effect of salinity on susceptibility of sunflower plants to smog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oertli

    1958-01-01

    Sunflower plants were grown in nutrient solutions of different osmotic concentrations and in sands of different moisture stress. It could be observed that high moisture stress, be it osmotic or nonosmotic, will produce plants which are more resistant to smog injury. A theory, by which the entry of smog into plants is impeded by the more closed stomata at high

  12. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    SRowley

    2006-04-28

    Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

  13. Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical

  14. "The Mall" and "the Plant": Choice and the Classed Construction of Possible Futures in Two Specialized Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén; VanderDussen, Elena; Cairns, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how conceptions of choice and visions of the future are constructed within the context of specialized arts programs in two Canadian public high schools. The authors consider how discourses of the arts are implicated in the way that possible futures are envisioned differently, delimiting the range of choices available to…

  15. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  16. Effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities: A literature review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Paul M.; Garza, Eric L.; Butcher, Jason T.

    2003-01-01

    Contaminated dredge spoil is a national concern due to its scope and effects on biota, water quality, and the physical environment. This literature review discusses the effects of contaminated dredge spoils on wetland plant communities. Plant communities naturally shift over time with changing environmental conditions. Addition of toxins and nutrients and changes in hydrology may influence plant community structure. The storage and disposal of nutrient and metal contaminated dredge spoils may cause shifts in nearby plant communities. Shifts in species composition and diversity may not be observed for decades after nutrient enrichment, causing any disturbance to remain undetected. Plant community shifts often have great amounts of inertia and are difficult to reverse.

  17. The effects of spacer sequences on silencing efficiency of plant RNAi vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayaka Hirai; Shin-ichiro Oka; Eri Adachi; Hiroaki Kodama

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used to suppress gene expression in various eukaryotic organisms. In plants, RNAi can be\\u000a induced by introduction of an RNAi vector that transcribes a self-complementary hairpin RNA. Most basic RNAi constructs have\\u000a an inverted repeat interrupted with a spacer sequence. To test silencing capability of RNAi constructs, we developed an in\\u000a vivo assay that is

  18. Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Stein; Cornelia Rißmann; Stefan Hempel; Carsten Renker; François Buscot; Daniel Prati; Harald Auge

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is\\u000a known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To\\u000a address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

    2001-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867

  20. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of the invasive. In fact, in one year fruit set of S. alba was significantly greater in the presence of L. salicaria. The number of invasive pollen grains on native stigmas was extremely low; on average less than one grain per stigma. These fruit set and pollen deposition findings indicate that native plant reproduction was not adversely affected in the short term by these invasive species and that therefore competition between the native and invasive species for pollinators did not occur. Native bee populations monitored in 2004-2005 at sites with and without B. thunbergii and/or F. alnus indicated a greater abundance of native bees at sites with these invasives present. Native bees collected from the native and invasive plants were compared with historical records to assess whether invasive plants favor different bee species than those that formerly predominated on Mount Desert Island. This does not appear to be the case. Several species of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as well as nine solitary bee species were found that were not documented by the Procter surveys of 1917-1940. Collecting of native bees was limited to the study plants, which may, in part, explain why some bee species documented in the Procter Surveys were not found in the present research. A field guide for identification of native bumble bees has been produced to help Park Natural Resource personnel monitor the status of native bee populations in Acadia. Other educational materials were also developed, aimed at educating Park visitors by exposing them to: 1) the role of native plants and their bee pollinators in terrestrial ecosystems; 2) the effects of invasive plants on native plant-pollinator mutualisms; 3) the need for conserving native bees and other pollinators; and 4) conservation strategies for protecting and enhancing native plant-pollinator mutualisms in the Park. Based on the present findings, Acadia Park Resource Management personnel should continue to closely

  1. Effect of plant interaction on wind-induced crop motion.

    PubMed

    Doaré, O; Moulia, B; de Langre, E

    2004-04-01

    Plant motion due to wind affects plant growth, a phenomenon called thigmomorphogenesis. Despite intensive studies of the turbulence over plant canopies, the study of plant motion induced by wind has often been limited to individual trees or cereal plants. Few models of global canopy motions are available. Moreover the numerical analysis of models that are based on individual stems becomes time consuming when dealing with crops. A model of motion within the canopies is proposed here using a wave propagation equation within a homogenized continuous medium, and a forcing function representing turbulent gusts advected over the canopy. This model is derived from a discrete model of a set of plant shoots represented as individual oscillators, including elastic contacts between shoots. Such contacts induce nonlinearities into the wave equation. A new experimental method to measure stem dynamical properties and elastic collision properties is presented with an illustration on alfalfa stems. Results obtained modeling plant motions in an alfalfa crop are presented. PMID:15179844

  2. When defense backfires: Detrimental effect of a plant’s protective trichomes on an insect beneficial to the plant

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Eisner, Maria; Hoebeke, E. Richard

    1998-01-01

    The plant Mentzelia pumila (family Loasaceae) has leaves and stems densely covered with tiny hooked trichomes. The structures entrap and kill insects and therefore are most probably protective. But they are also maladaptive in that they incapacitate a coccinellid beetle (Hippodamia convergens) that preys upon an aphid enemy (Macrosiphum mentzeliae) of the plant. The adaptive benefit provided by the trichomes is evidently offset by a cost. PMID:9539750

  3. Bottom-up effects of plant genotype on aphids, ants, and predators.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marc T J

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts that bottom-up ecological forces can affect community dynamics, but whether this extends to the effects of heritable plant variation on tritrophic communities is poorly understood. In a field experiment, I contrasted the effects of plant genotype (28 genotypes; 1064 plants), aphid density, and the presence/absence of mutualistic ants in affecting the per capita population growth of a specialist aphid herbivore, as well as the effects of plant genotype on the third trophic level. Plant genotype strongly affected aphid population growth rate, explaining 29% of the total variation in growth rate, whereas aphid density and ant-aphid interactions explained substantially less variation (< 2%) in aphid population growth rate. Plant genotype also had direct and indirect effects on the third trophic level, affecting the abundance of aphid-tending ants and the richness of predators. Multiple regression identified several heritable plant traits that explained 49% of the variation in aphid growth rate and 30% of the variation in ant abundance among plant genotypes. These bottom-up effects of plant genotype on tritrophic interactions were independent of the effects of either initial aphid density or the presence/absence of mutualistic ants. This study shows that plant genotype can be one of the most important ecological factors shaping tritrophic communities. PMID:18376556

  4. Strength in numbers? Effects of multiple natural enemy species on plant performance

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Andrea E. A.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Myers, Judith H.

    2013-01-01

    While plants are invariably attacked by numerous insects and pathogens, the consequences of multiple enemies for plant performance are poorly understood. In particular, a predictive framework is lacking for when to expect enemies to have independent versus non-independent effects on their host plant. This is problematic for weed biological control programmes where multiple enemies are frequently released with the possibility of antagonistic interactions that may reduce control. Here, we conduct an analysis of 74 unique plant–enemy–enemy combinations from 51 studies to determine the frequency of non-independent effects of natural enemies on host plant performance, and test a number of a priori predictions for determinants of independent and antagonistic effects of multiple enemies. For three-quarters of plant response measurements, enemies had independent effects on plant performance. In most of the remainder, multiple enemies led to less reduction in performance than that predicted from each enemy alone. Antagonistic effects occurred when enemies attacked the same plant part concurrently or attacked plant reproductive structures. These two predictors explained why antagonistic effects were particularly prevalent for weeds, plants in the family Asteraceae and enemies in the order Diptera. Our results suggest that a few simple rules about avoiding particular combinations of multiple enemies could improve biological control success. PMID:23595265

  5. Modeling of small hydro power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebru ÖZBAY; M. T. Gençog?lu

    2010-01-01

    Importance of small hydroelectric power plants has been increased more and more because of fast increasing electrical energy demand. Small hydro power plants have great importance caused by their low administrative, executive costs, using water drink and irrigation systems suitability for rural areas and low environmental effects. Hence, operation conditions and constructible possibilities of the plants must be determined. In

  6. Watershed Ecology and the Effects of Construction on Erosion and Water Quality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Norman Leonard (Pike High School)

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the lab is to allow middle and high school students to begin to understand their place in their watershed, explore erosion, water quality assessment and the impact of construction sites through both field work and inquiry-based experiments. Students should have prior knowledge of the water cycle. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to describe the impact that erosion has on water quality, including the effects of soil types and potential effects of the watershed. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

  7. Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

  8. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  9. Preparation of a design study for the construction of a 2 million tons/annum commercial scale hydrogenation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernert, J.; Ellinghaus, A. R.; Hoffmann, W.; Warnstaedt, C.; Dohren, H.; Holzapfel, G.; Krieger, U.; Lauer, L.

    1983-07-01

    A project study for a coal hydrogenation complex with premium gasoline as main product is presented. The plant is designed to operate at 300 bar pressure. Preheating of the coal paste was improved by utilizing process effluent heat. Applying heat integration to maximum extent a calorific yield 66 % is achieved. Hydrogen demand is covered by pressured gasification of the hydrogenation residue and by fractionation of coke-oven-gas. The coal oil product is upgraded by hydrotreating, hydrocracking and reforming processes. The plant is found to be technically feasible. Feed stocks : (in million t p.a.) coal 1.9; coke-oven gas 0.26; blend components 0.17. Products : premium gasoline 0.9; liquified petroleum gas 0.1; synthetic natural gas 0.3.

  10. Lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Norway spruce plants harboring an antisense construct for cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR).

    PubMed

    Wadenbäck, Johan; von Arnold, Sara; Egertsdotter, Ulrika; Walter, Michael H; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Goffner, Deborah; Gellerstedt, Göran; Gullion, Terry; Clapham, David

    2008-06-01

    An attractive objective in tree breeding is to reduce the content of lignin or alter its composition, in order to facilitate delignification in pulping. This has been achieved in transgenic angiosperm tree species. In this study we show for the first time that changes in lignin content and composition can be achieved in a conifer by taking a transgenic approach. Lignin content and composition have been altered in five-year-old transgenic plants of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) expressing the Norway spruce gene encoding cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) in antisense orientation. The asCCR plants had a normal phenotype but smaller stem widths compared to the transformed control plants. The transcript abundance of the sense CCR gene was reduced up to 35% relative to the transformed control. The corresponding reduction in lignin content was up to 8%, which is at the lower limit of the 90-99% confidence intervals reported for natural variation. The contribution of H-lignin to the non-condensed fraction of lignin, as judged by thioacidolysis, was reduced up to 34%. The H-lignin content was strongly correlated with the total lignin content. Furthermore, the kappa number of small-scale Kraft pulps from one of the most down-regulated lines was reduced 3.5%. The transcript abundances of the various lignin biosynthetic genes were down-regulated indicating co-regulation of the biosynthetic pathway. PMID:17610137

  11. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Results Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Conclusions Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved. PMID:25331082

  12. Effect of livestock grazing in the partitions of a semiarid plant-plant spatial signed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Hugo; Alados, Concepción L.

    2014-08-01

    In recent times, network theory has become a useful tool to study the structure of the interactions in ecological communities. However, typically, these approaches focus on a particular kind of interaction while neglecting other possible interactions present in the ecosystem. Here, we present an ecological network for plant communities that consider simultaneously positive and negative interactions, which were derived from the spatial association and segregation between plant species. We employed this network to study the structure and the association strategies in a semiarid plant community of Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park, SE Spain, and how they changed in 4 sites that differed in stocking rate. Association strategies were obtained from the partitions of the network, built based on a relaxed structural balance criterion. We found that grazing simplified the structure of the plant community. With increasing stocking rate species with no significant associations became dominant and the number of partitions decreased in the plant community. Independently of stocking rate, many species presented an associative strategy in the plant community because they benefit from the association to certain ‘nurse’ plants. These ‘nurses’ together with species that developed a segregating strategy, intervened in most of the interactions in the community. Ecological networks that combine links with different signs provide a new insight to analyze the structure of natural communities and identify the species which play a central role in them.

  13. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  14. Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (? = 0.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW-CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW-CP system. PMID:22976119

  15. Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

  16. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

  17. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  18. The anthelmintic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides venezuelensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camila O. Carvalho; Ana Carolina S. Chagas; Fernando Cotinguiba; Maysa Furlan; Luciana G. Brito; Francisco C. M. Chaves; Marília P. Stephan; Humberto R. Bizzo; Alessandro F. T. Amarante

    The indiscriminate use of anthelmintics has resulted in the establishment of parasite resistance. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiparasitic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus in sheep and the in vivo effect on Strongyloides venezuelensis in Rattus norvegicus. The plant extracts from Piper tuberculatum, Lippia sidoides, Mentha piperita, Hura crepitans and Carapa guianensis, produced at

  19. Seed dispersal effectiveness in a plantlizard interaction and its consequences for plant regeneration after

    E-print Network

    Traveset, Anna

    Seed dispersal effectiveness in a plant­lizard interaction and its consequences for plant Abstract Mutualistic disruptions, such as those promoted by the loss of seed dispersers, can have negative. We quantified fruit removal and the effect of fruit/seed-size selection, seed treatment in the dis

  20. Plant species effects and carbon and nitrogen cycling in a sagebrush–crested wheatgrass soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Chen; John M. Stark

    2000-01-01

    Shifts in plant community structure in shrub and grass-dominated ecosystems are occurring over large land areas in the western US. It is not clear what effect this vegetative change will have on rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling, and thus long-term ecosystem productivity. To study the effect of different plant species on the decomposability of soil organic substrates and rates

  1. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.160, ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods......

  2. The Plant Cell, Vol. 8, 899-913, May 1996 O 1996 American Society of Plant Physiologists High-Leve1 Transgene Expression in Plant Cells: Effects of a

    E-print Network

    Spiker, Steven L.

    Transgene Expression in Plant Cells: Effects of a Strong Scaffold Attachment Region from Tobacco George C in higher and less vari- able transgene expression in plant cells (Allen et al., 199The Plant Cell, Vol. 8, 899-913, May 1996 O 1996 American Society of Plant Physiologists High-Leve1

  3. Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III: pilot-plant construction. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Technical progress during the period June 1 through August 31, 1980 included the following activities: The PSD permit approval was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. The building permit was obtained from the Borough of Wood-Ridge. Installation designs incorporating modifications to the Total Energy System, Gas Turbine, Free Power Turbine and Waste Heat Boiler are in an advanced stage. Procurement has been initiated on all long lead material. The upper and lower PFB Vessel fabrication was started. Quotations for the Substructure Construction (Bid Package No. 1) are under review in preparation for issuing a purchase order in October 1980. Request for quotation on Structural Steelwork have been issued to potential bidders. Groundbreaking ceremonies took place on June 30, 1980 with the Assistant Secretary of the Department of Energy presiding and the Governor of New Jersey, a Congressional delegation and State Commissioner of Energy and Environment, Borough Officials among other dignitaries in attendance.

  4. Effects of cattail biomass on sulfate removal and carbon sources competition in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Junwei; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Sulfate is frequently found in the influent of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) used as tertiary treatments. To reveal the effects of plants and litters on sulfate removal, as well as the competition for organic carbon among microorganisms in SSF CWs, five laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms were set up and were operated as a batch system with HRT 5 d. The results showed that the presence of Typha latifolia had little effect on sulfate removal in CWs, with or without additional carbon sources. Cattail litter addition greatly improved sulfate removal in SSF CWs. This improvement was linked to the continuous input of labile organic carbon, which lowers the redox level and supplies a habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of SRB in cattail litter indicated the possibility of sulfate removal around the carbon supplier, but the quantity of microbes in cattail litter was much lower than that in gravel. Stoichiometry calculations showed that the contribution of SRB to COD removal (21-26%) was less than that of methane-producing bacteria (MPB) (47-61%) during the initial stage but dominated COD removal (42-65%) during the terminal stage. The contributions of aerobic bacteria (AB) and denitrification bacteria (DB) to COD removal were always lower than that of SRB. It was also observed that the variations in COD: S ratio had a great influence on the relative abundance of genes between SRB and MPB and both of them could be used as good predictors of carbon competition between SRB and MPB in CWs. PMID:24768761

  5. Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable candidates for development of alternative post exposure treatment drugs against rabies. PMID:25347556

  6. Protective effect of different anti-rabies virus VHH constructs against rabies disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable candidates for development of alternative post exposure treatment drugs against rabies. PMID:25347556

  7. The design, effectiveness and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. It is indicated that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. The feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure is demonstrated. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

  8. Effects of changes in plant species richness and community traits on carabid assemblages and feeding guilds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey A. Harvey; Wim H. van der Putten; Hans Turin; Roel Wagenaar; T. Martijn Bezemer

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted between 2001 and 2003 in constructed plant communities that were set up in 1996 on abandoned agricultural land. The primary aim of the experiment was to study how different secondary vegetation succession scenarios influence community development of invertebrates in different trophic levels. The succession scenarios were obtained by sowing high diversity or low diversity seed mixtures of

  9. (Effect of SO/sub 2/ on light modulation of plant metabolism). Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The membrane bound, sulfite sensitive, light effect mediator protein was identified and isolated from leaves of the pea. This protein appears to mediate the effect of SO/sub 2/ on plants. 2 refs. (DT)

  10. Enantioselective effects of (+)- and (-)-citronellal on animal and plant microtubules.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Osnat; Abu-Abied, Mohamad; Chaimovitsh, David; Shechter, Alona; Frucht, Hilla; Dudai, Nativ; Sadot, Einat

    2013-09-27

    Citronellal is a major component of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils. Herein it is shown that whereas (+)-citronellal (1) is an effective microtubule (MT)-disrupting compound, (-)-citronellal (2) is not. Quantitative image analysis of fibroblast cells treated with 1 showed total fluorescence associated with fibers resembling that in cells treated with the MT-disrupting agents colchicine and vinblastine; in the presence of 2, the fluorescence more closely resembled that in control cells. The distribution of tubulin in soluble and insoluble fractions in the presence of 1 also resembled that in the presence of colchicine, whereas similar tubulin distribution was obtained in the presence of 2 and in control cells. In vitro polymerization of MTs was inhibited by 1 but not 2. Measurements of MT dynamics in plant cells showed similar MT elongation and shortening rates in control and 2-treated cells, whereas in the presence of 1, much fewer and shorter MTs were observed and no elongation or shrinkage was detected. Taken together, the MT system is suggested to be able to discriminate between different enantiomers of the same compound. In addition, the activity of essential oils rich in citronellal is affected by the relative content of the two enantiomers of this monoterpenoid. PMID:23947826

  11. The effects of pipeline construction disturbance on soil properties and restoration cycle.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Disturbance to the physical-chemical properties of soil caused by pipeline installation was evaluated using two soil quality indices to identify the scale of disturbance and the restoration cycle. The integrated soil quality index (SQI) was used to evaluate soil property changes in different pipeline zones (0, 10, 20, and 50 m from the pipeline) at sites 1 and 2. The soil restoration index (SRI) was used to estimate soil recovery from three pipelines with different recovery periods (2, 6, and 8 years) at site 3. The results showed that the adverse effects of pipeline construction on soil properties mainly occurred in the right-of-way (ROW) areas and the impaired zones were in the order trench?>?piling and working areas?>?20 and 50 m. The soil restoration cycle may be complete within 6 years of construction. At site 3, the SRI in the ROW area of a pipeline after 6 years of restoration was close to 100 %, showing full soil recovery. However, the SRI in the disturbed areas of a pipeline after 2 years of restoration was much lower than that after 6 years of restoration, indicating that the soil was still recovering from the disturbance. The topography may change the intensity of disturbance in different areas due to the movement patterns of heavy machinery and traffic routes. There were local variations in the SQI within the pipeline zones, with flat areas suffering greater disturbance than hilly areas, indicating that topography should be considered in a pipeline's environmental impact assessment. PMID:24141486

  12. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María-José Bañuelos; Johannes Kollmann

    2011-01-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant–herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in

  13. Effectiveness of ants as pollinators of Lobularia maritima : effects on main sequential fitness components of the host plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Gómez

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of ants as pollinators of Lobularia maritima (Cruciferae) was experimentally analyzed by assessing (1) their quantitative importance at flowers; (2) their effect on host\\u000a plant seed production; (3) their effect on the performance of host plant progeny, estimated as seed germination, seedling\\u000a emergence, seedling survival to flowering, and (4) the overall effect of ants on a cumulative, more

  14. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), plant uptake and effects on metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela R Jones; C. Mel Lytle; Rebekka L Stone; Lee D Hansen; Bruce N Smith

    2000-01-01

    In the USA and Canada, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese (MMT) is currently added to gasoline to replace tetraethyl lead as an antiknock fuel additive. Manganese concentrations in roadside soil and plants are increasing and correlated with distance from the roadway, traffic volume, plant type, and microhabitat. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings were treated for either five or thirty-five days with different levels

  15. Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asish Kumar Parida; Anath Bandhu Das

    2005-01-01

    Plants exposed to salt stress undergo changes in their environment. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and\\/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Essential pathways include those that lead to synthesis of osmotically active metabolites, specific proteins, and certain free radical scavenging enzymes that control ion

  16. The Effect of Poisonous Range Plants on Abortions in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural toxins from plants and fungi, in addition to man-made toxicants, have been implicated with abortion, embryonic death, or neonatal loss in livestock. Plants causing reproductive problems for livestock can be found on most, if not all rangelands worldwide, thus exposing livestock at various t...

  17. Effects of UV radiation on orientation movements of higher plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tendel; D.-P. Häder

    1995-01-01

    Several movement reactions of different plant species (Triticum aestivum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Ph. coccineus and Bellis perennis) were studied with regard to their UVB sensitivity. The current investigations were based on the working hypothesis that low UVB levels, which do not induce direct damage, may affect these reactions in higher plants. UVB was found to impair phototropic and gravitropic reactions of

  18. [Effects of mineral nutrition on metabolism of flavonoids in medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dahui; Guo, Lanping; Huang, Luqi; Jin, Hang; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Duanwei

    2010-09-01

    Flavonoids are an important effective component of traditional Chinese medicine, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. The biosynthesis of flavonoid in plants is affected and regulated by various environmental factors. For a necessary environmental factor to plant growth and development, mineral nutrients are paid more and more attention on the regulation to the metabolism of flavonoids in medicinal plants. In this paper, an overview of flavonoids biosynthetic pathway, and the macroelements, microelements and rare earth elements on the metabolism of flavonoids in medicinal plants are presented. And the regulation mechanism of them are also analyzed and discussed. PMID:21141479

  19. Belowground effects of organic and conventional farming on aboveground plant–herbivore and plant–pathogen interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katja Poveda; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Stefan Scheu; Teja Tscharntke

    2006-01-01

    Soil organisms may significantly affect the aboveground system. However, the influence of farming practices in modifying the effects of soil organisms on aboveground systems is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate: (1) How important are soil organisms for plant growth and the development of herbivores and pathogens above the ground? (2) How do agricultural management practices

  20. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED PHOTOACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Andrew A. Suby

    2002-10-01

    Three test instruments are being evaluated to determine the feasibility of using photo-acoustic technology for measuring unburned carbon in fly ash. The first test instrument is a single microwave frequency system previously constructed to measure photo-acoustic signals in an off-line configuration. This system was assembled and used to test parameters thought important to photo-acoustic signal output. A standard modulation frequency was chosen based upon signal to noise data gained from experimentation. Sample heterogeneity was tested and found not to be influential. Further testing showed that sample compression and photo-acoustic volume do affect photo-acoustic signal. Testing in the fourth quarter focused on signal repeatability, linearity, the effects of ultrasonic shaking, and sample cup variations. Simultaneously, a second instrument is being constructed based in part on lessons learned with the first instrument, but also expands the capabilities of the first instrument. The power amplifiers for this second instrument were recently completed and tested. Improvements were made to the current leveling loop, which will stabilize the microwave power. Other efforts were spent generating a magnetic field or electric field source for the photo-acoustic effect. The intent of this effort is to be able to discriminate between magnetic contaminants such as iron and non-magnetic contaminants such as carbon. A short coaxial test fixture was fabricated and tested showing the promise of another microwave based test method for determining carbon content in fly ash. The third instrument will be designed based on the experiences of the first two instruments and will operate in an on-line carbon-in-ash monitoring system for coal-fired power plants.

  1. Interesting Asian Plants: Their Compounds and Effects on Electrophysiology and Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2011-01-01

    There have been numerous non-scientific reports on the behavioural effects of Asian plants in humans who consumed these plants wholly or part thereof. Knowledge passed from generation to generation informs us of plants that increase effort and stamina, such as during paddy planting after the ingestion of Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) as a tea supplement. Centella asiatica and Myristica fragrans are used as herbs to improve memory and to treat epilepsy, respectively. Zizyphus mauritiana is used to treat headache and burn pain, acts as an antitussive, and reduces rigor mortis immediately after death. These plants, which have been identified to exhibit analgaesic, muscle-relaxing, and nootropic effects, may contain important bio-compounds for medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical research in Malaysia. The electrophysiology properties of these plants and their effects on epilepsy, behaviour, and pain will lead Malaysia to future new drug discoveries. PMID:22589667

  2. Effective hybrid evolutionary computational algorithms for global optimization and applied to construct prion AGAAAAGA fibril models

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are parallel computing algorithms and simulated annealing algorithm is a sequential computing algorithm. This paper inserts simulated annealing into evolutionary computations and successful developed a hybrid Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy $\\mu+\\lambda$ method and a hybrid Self-Adaptive Classical Evolutionary Programming method. Numerical results on more than 40 benchmark test problems of global optimization show that the hybrid methods presented in this paper are very effective. Lennard-Jones potential energy minimization is another benchmark for testing new global optimization algorithms. It is studied through the amyloid fibril constructions by this paper. To date, there is little molecular structural data available on the AGAAAAGA palindrome in the hydrophobic region (113-120) of prion proteins.This region belongs to the N-terminal unstructured region (1-123) of prion proteins, the structure of which has proved hard to determine using NMR spectroscopy or X-ray crystallography ...

  3. Stereotyping and evaluation in implicit race bias: evidence for independent constructs and unique effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Devine, Patricia G

    2006-10-01

    Implicit stereotyping and prejudice often appear as a single process in behavior, yet functional neuroanatomy suggests that they arise from fundamentally distinct substrates associated with semantic versus affective memory systems. On the basis of this research, the authors propose that implicit stereotyping reflects cognitive processes and should predict instrumental behaviors such as judgments and impression formation, whereas implicit evaluation reflects affective processes and should predict consummatory behaviors, such as interpersonal preferences and social distance. Study 1 showed the independence of participants' levels of implicit stereotyping and evaluation. Studies 2 and 3 showed the unique effects of implicit stereotyping and evaluation on self-reported and behavioral responses to African Americans using double-dissociation designs. Implications for construct validity, theory development, and research design are discussed. PMID:17014291

  4. Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

  5. Participation in Construction Management Student Competitions: Perceived Positive and negative Effects

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Ben F.; Glick, Scott; Aragon, Antonette

    2013-10-24

    In the discipline of construction management (CM) student competitions are well thought of and typically have good construction industry support. However, little published research is available addressing these competitions. This study collected...

  6. Construction Program Management: An Effective Tool for the Delivery of Educational Facilities on the International Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    All international endeavors of major size and duration have been conducted under the concept of construction program management. Examples in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Brazil, and Guyana illustrate the constancy and coordination that international construction program management provides. (MLF)

  7. Pockels effect and effective phase modulation in Mach-Zehnder modulators constructed by gain quantum well nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Ruiqiang

    2015-06-01

    We report an effective phase modulation for transverse magnetic (TM) waves in Mach-Zehnder modulators constructed by gain quantum well nanostructures on the basis of resonantly enhanced Pockels effect. The numerical results show that the optical gain coefficient is very large in the vicinity of the optical communication wavelength, and it is accessible to obtain a very large refractive index change of 10-2 order of magnitude, and a very small voltage-length product for ? phase shift with V? ×L0 = 0.156 V mm at the working wavelength ? = 1.55 ?m by a suitable bias electric field, which is over ten times less than the previous best report. These properties have a great potential for device application in high-performance and high-miniaturization electro-optical switches and phase modulators at the optical communication window.

  8. Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

  9. Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may benefit some invasive plants, increasing the need for effective invasive plant management. Biological control can be an effective means of managing invasive plants, but the varied responses of plant-insect interactions to climate change make...

  10. Effects of Coal Mining, Forestry, and Road Construction on Southern Appalachian Stream Invertebrates and Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangloff, Michael M.; Perkins, Michael; Blum, Peter W.; Walker, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Coal has been extracted via surface and sub-surface mining for decades throughout the Appalachian Mountains. New interest in ridge-top mining has raised concerns about possible waterway impacts. We examined effects of forestry, mining, and road construction-based disturbance on physico-chemistry and macroinvertebrate communities in east-central Tennessee headwater streams. Although 11 of 30 sites failed Tennessee's biocriteria scoring system, invertebrate richness was moderately high and we did not find significant differences in any water chemistry or habitat parameters between sites with passing and failing scores. However, conductivity and dissolved solid concentrations appeared elevated in the majority of study streams. Principal components (PCs) analysis indicated that six PCs accounted for ~77 % of among-site habitat variability. One PC associated with dissolved oxygen and specific conductance explained the second highest proportion of among-site variability after catchment area. Specific conductance was not correlated with catchment area but was strongly correlated with mining activity. Composition and success of multivariate models using habitat PCs to predict macroinvertebrate metrics was highly variable. PC scores associated with water chemistry and substrate composition were most frequently included in significant models. These results suggest that impacts of historical and current coal mining remain a source of water quality and macroinvertebrate community impairment in this region, but effects are subtle. Our results suggest that surface mining may have chronic and system-wide effects on habitat conditions and invertebrate communities in Cumberland Plateau streams.

  11. Effects of engineered nanomaterials on plants growth: an overview.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Farzad; Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hashemi, Farahnaz Sadat Golestan; Baghdadi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology brought about a significant increment on the number of engineered nanomaterials (ENs) inevitably entering our living system. Plants comprise of a very important living component of the terrestrial ecosystem. Studies on the influence of engineered nanomaterials (carbon and metal/metal oxides based) on plant growth indicated that in the excess content, engineered nanomaterials influences seed germination. It assessed the shoot-to-root ratio and the growth of the seedlings. From the toxicological studies to date, certain types of engineered nanomaterials can be toxic once they are not bound to a substrate or if they are freely circulating in living systems. It is assumed that the different types of engineered nanomaterials affect the different routes, behavior, and the capability of the plants. Furthermore, different, or even opposing conclusions, have been drawn from most studies on the interactions between engineered nanomaterials with plants. Therefore, this paper comprehensively reviews the studies on the different types of engineered nanomaterials and their interactions with different plant species, including the phytotoxicity, uptakes, and translocation of engineered nanomaterials by the plant at the whole plant and cellular level. PMID:25202734

  12. 75 FR 57532 - In the Matter of: Stone & Webster Construction, Inc.; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...Matter of: Stone & Webster Construction, Inc.; Confirmatory...Immediately) I Stone & Webster Construction, Inc. (SWCI), a Shaw...integrated services to various industries including the nuclear power industry. Shaw provides services...hotline and Web site in which workers can report issues to the...expectations. For new nuclear construction sites: An......

  13. Indonesian medicinal plants. XXV. Cancer cell invasion inhibitory effects of chemical constituents in the parasitic plant Scurrula atropurpurea (Loranthaceae).

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Winarno, Hendig; Mukai, Mutsuko; Inoue, Masahiro; Prana, Made Sri; Simanjuntak, Partomuan; Shibuya, Hirotaka

    2003-03-01

    Six fatty acids (1-6), two xanthines (7, 8), two flavonol glycosides (9, 10), one monoterpene glucoside (11), one lignan glycoside (12), and four flavanes (13-16) were clarified by a bioassay-guided separation as chemical constituents of Scurrula atropurpurea (Loranthaceae), a parasitic plant of the tea plant Thea sinensis (Theaceae). Among these constituents, it was found that the alkynic fatty acid octadeca-8,10,12-triynoic acid (6) exhibits a more potent inhibitory effect on cancer cell invasion in vitro than flavanes [(+)-catechin (13), (-)-epicatechin (14), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (15) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (16)]. PMID:12612428

  14. Alum sludge land application and its effect on plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.B. (North Carolina Div. of Environmental Management, Raleigh, NC (United States)); Dillaha, T.A.; Reneau, R.B.; Novak, J.T.; Knocke, W.R. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

    1994-11-01

    These investigators conducted three greenhouse experiments to determine the impact of alum sludge from the Harwood's Mill water treatment plant, newport News, Va., on the growth and chemical composition of fescue grass. Fescue yields decreased with increased sludge addition, a trend that was attributed to reductions in plant-available phosphorus (P) at higher loadings. Supplemental P fertilization corrected this deficiency. Lime addition did not affect yield. The presence of manganese and copper in the sludge increased metal uptake by the plants but did not affect yield.

  15. Design, effectiveness, and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles. Technical final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, L. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. Such a shingle will reduce summer cooling and winter heating costs and conserve electricity and natural gas or heating oil. Design calculations indicate that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. If the cost of the shingle is about one dollar per square foot it will be cost effective in these applications. Additional calculations demonstrate the feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Additionally, extruded plastic reflector assemblies of various kinds could be added to existing shingled roofs. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.

  16. The value of suppressor effects in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures.

    PubMed

    Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman

    2013-09-01

    Suppressor effects are operating when the addition of a predictor increases the predictive power of another variable. We argue that suppressor effects can play a valuable role in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures by bringing into clearer focus opposing elements that are inherent--but largely hidden--in the measure's overall score. We illustrate this point using theoretically grounded, replicated suppressor effects that have emerged in analyses of the original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007) and its expanded 2nd version (IDAS-II; Watson et al., 2012). In Study 1, we demonstrate that the IDAS-II Appetite Gain and Appetite Loss scales contain both (a) a shared distress component that creates a positive correlation between them and (b) a specific symptom component that produces a natural negative association between them (i.e., people who recently have experienced decreased interest in food/loss of appetite are less likely to report a concomitant increase in appetite/weight). In Study 2, we establish that mania scales also contain 2 distinct elements-namely, high energy/positive emotionality and general distress/dysfunction-that oppose each another in many instances. In both studies, we obtained evidence of suppression effects that were highly robust across different types of respondents (e.g., clinical outpatients, community adults, college students) and using both self-report and interview-based measures. These replicable suppressor effects establish that many homogeneous, unidimensional symptom scales actually contain distinguishable components with distinct--at times, even antagonistic--properties. PMID:23795886

  17. Plant Operations Executive Director

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    R. Robben Plant Operations Executive Director 43400 J. Krantz Interim Assoc. Dir. Utilities & Plant Engineering 52764 Plant Operations Organizational Chart & Functional Responsibilities April 10. Lawter Assoc. Director Plant Building & Grounds Svcs 73852 P. Guttman Assoc. Director Construction Svcs

  18. Effects of mycorrhizae and fertilizer amendments on zinc tolerance of plants.

    PubMed

    Shetty, K G; Hetrick, B A; Schwab, A P

    1995-01-01

    In soils containing elevated levels of zinc, plant growth may be impaired because of Zn interference with P uptake by plants and because of detrimental effects of Zn toxicity itself. Because mycorrhizal fungi are known to improve uptake of plant P, the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on Zn tolerance of Andropogon gerardii Vitm. were assessed in soil amended with various levels of Zn and P. In the absence of P amendment, mycorrhizal fungi stimulated plant growth, but the degree of benefit depended on the inoculum source and the soil Zn level. Mycorrhizal fungi from a Zn contaminated site were more effective in increasing plant biomass at higher levels of Zn in the soil, whereas plant growth at lower levels of soil Zn was greater with mycorrhizal fungi from a non-contaminated site. Mycorrhizal fungus inoculation had no effect on shoot Zn concentration; however, inoculation significantly improved the plant P nutrition and therefore resulted in a high shoot P/Zn concentration ratio at all the soil Zn levels. To a certain extent, addition of P to the soil alleviated the Zn toxicity that had inhibited plant growth, but plant biomass tended to decrease with increasing soil Zn levels. Although P amendment improved P uptake, it also resulted in increased shoot Zn uptake. PMID:15091543

  19. Air pollution-caused changes in photosynthesis: Effects on plant growth and rhizosphere functions

    SciTech Connect

    Winner, W.E. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (USA). Dept. of General Science); Antibus, R.K.; Linkins, A.E. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA). Dept. of Biology)

    1990-02-01

    The relationships between plants, soil nutrient status, and rhizosphere symbionts were probed using ozone (O{sub 3}), a commonly occurring air pollutant, as an above-ground stress to alter carbon gain. Laboratory experiments were designed to examine O{sub 3} effects on: (1) tree species grown at varying nutrient levels, (2) plants in symbiosis with a dinitrogen-fixing symbiont, (3) plants in symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi, and (4) plants having both a dinitrogen-fixing symbiont and mycorrhizae. Photosynthesis measurements and growth analysis were applied to detect O{sub 3} effects on plant carbon gain and allocation, respectively. Stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed as a means of integrating effects of O{sub 3} on gas exchange of leaves over the life of the plant. Transmission electron microscopy detected alterations in plant root cells symbiotic with dinitrogen-fixing bacteria caused by ozone. To better understand the relationship between host plant and mycorrhizal fungi, studies were conducted on utilization of carbohydrate by ectomycorrhizal fungi and metabolism of ectomycorrhizal fungi and roots. Taken together, these studies provide new information on metabolic relationships of plants and symbionts and the effect of O{sub 3} on these relationships.

  20. Pinch Retrofits Provide Cost-Effective Plant Uprating Potential 

    E-print Network

    Rossiter, A. P.; Spriggs, H. D.; McMullan, A. S.

    1989-01-01

    In today's economic environment, the need for increased production rivals the desire for energy efficiency for plant operators in many sectors of the process industries. This, in turn, places additional demands on the retrofit studies that are being...