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1

Ammonia effects on the biomass production of five constructed wetland plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of four levels of ammonia concentration on the biomass production of Sagittaria latifolia (arrowhead), Phragmites australis (common reed), Scirpus acutus (bullrush), Typha latifolia (cattail), and Juncus roemerianus (common rush) was studied using field scale constructed wetland ponds of 3.05 × 0.6 m. These species of plants are common in constructed wetlands treating animal waste lagoon effluent. Twenty ponds

D. T. Hill; V. W. E. Payne; J. W. Rogers; S. R. Kown

1997-01-01

2

Effects of plant root on hydraulic performance of clogging process in subsurface flow constructed wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) have proven to be an efficient ecological technology for the treatment of various kinds of wastewaters. The clogging issue is the main operational problem, which limits its wide application. Clogging is a complicated process with physical (such as physical filtration), biogeochemical and plant-related processes. It was generally stated that suspended solids accumulation and biofilm play dominant roles response for clogging. However, the role of plants in SFCWs clogging remains unclear and debatable. In this paper, the performance of plants in the whole clogging process was addressed based on the lab-experiments between planted and unplanted system by measuring effective porosity, coefficient of permeability of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, flow pattern and transport properties of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by hydraulic performance (e.g. mean residence time, short-circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, hydraulic efficiency factor, etc.) with salt tracer experiments. Plants played different roles in different clogging stage. In the earlier clogging stage, there were no obvious different effects on clogging process between planted and unplanted system. The effective porosity and coefficient of permeability slightly decreased within the planted system, which indicated that plant root restricted the flow of water when the pore spaces were lager. In the middle and later clogging stage, especially, in the later stage, the effective porosity and the coefficient of permeability increased considerably in the plant root zone. Furthermore, the longer retention times and higher hydraulic efficiency factors were gained in the planted system compared to that of unplanted, which implied that growing roots might open the new pore spaces in the substrate. The results are expected to be useful in the design of constructed wetland. Key words: clogging; plant root; salt tracers; hydraulic performance; subsurface flow constructed wetlands

Hua, Guofen; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zeng, Yitao

2013-04-01

3

Plant Light Box Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These instructions describe how to construct a plant light box from two stackable plastic file crates that are cut, lined with aluminum foil and lit with a 40/42-watt CFL bulb. This 3-page document includes a complete materials list and 12-step assembly instructions with photographs that illustrate each step. This light box works well for growing Fast Plants.

Program, The W.

4

Effects of single and multiple applications of glyphosate or aminopyralid on simple constructed plant communities.  

PubMed

To determine effects of multiple applications of herbicides on small constructed plant communities, Prunella vulgaris L.var. lanceolata Fern, Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) Alexeev, Clarkia amoena (Lehm.) Nels., and Cynosurus echinatus L. were grown together in small field plots. Plants were treated with glyphosate at target concentrations of 0?×?, 0.01?×?, 0.1?×?, and 0.2× a field application rate (FAR) of 1122?g?ha(-1) active ingredient (a.i.) for 3 yr in 1 location, and for 2 yr in a second location. Plants also were treated with aminopyralid at 0?×?, 0.037?×?, 0.136?×?, and 0.5× FAR of 123?g?ha(-1) a.i. for 2 yr in 2 locations. Plants received 1, 2, or 3 applications of each herbicide each year. Species and community responses depended on herbicide concentration and number of applications. With glyphosate, plant volume (modified formula for a cone) tended to decrease for all species (especially?C. echinatus), and the decreases generally became larger with more applications. Plant communities exposed to the 2 greatest concentrations initially differed from controls but then appeared to recover. With aminopyralid, C. amoena was essentially eliminated from the communities, especially at the 2 greatest FARs, whereas the other 3 species tended to have significant increases in volume, especially at the 2 smallest FARs. With aminopyralid, increasing numbers of applications produced variable results, and the plant community volume never tended to recover. PMID:25043825

Pfleeger, Thomas; Blakeley-Smith, Matthew; Lee, E Henry; King, George; Plocher, Milton; Olszyk, David

2014-10-01

5

Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands are a natural alternative to technical methods of wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of the complex processes caused by the plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater, and how they all interact with each other, is still rather incomplete.In this article, a closer look will be taken at the mechanisms of both plants in constructed wetlands

U. Stottmeister; A. Wießner; P. Kuschk; U. Kappelmeyer; M. Kästner; O. Bederski; R. A. Müller; H. Moormann

2003-01-01

6

Toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater and effects on constructed wetland plants.  

PubMed

The toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater produced after an activated sludge secondary treatment on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium pratense, a species used as indicator in toxicity tests, was evaluated. Growth was inhibited by wastewater concentrations >25% and undiluted effluent caused a complete germination inhibition. Constructed wetlands (CWs) with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia fruticosa were envisaged to further polish this wastewater. Selection of plant species to use in CWs for industrial wastewater treatment is an important issue, since for a successful establishment they have to tolerate the often harsh wastewater composition. For that, the effects of this wastewater on the growth of Arundo and Sarcocornia were assessed in pot assays. Plants were subject to different wastewater contents (0/50/100%), and both were resilient to the imposed conditions. Arundo had higher growth rates and biomass than Sarcocornia and may therefore be the preferred species for use in CWs treating tannery wastewater. CWs planted with the above mentioned plants significantly decreased the toxicity of the wastewater, as effluent from the CWs outlet stimulated the growth of Trifolium at concentrations <50%, and seed germination and growth even occurred in undiluted effluent. PMID:22908635

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Silva, Gabriela; Quitério, Paula V B; Crispim, Luís F C; Brix, Hans; Moura, Sandra C; Castro, Paula M L

2012-08-01

7

CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS  

E-print Network

CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS A Workshop on "NUCLEAR ENERGY RENAISSANCE" Addressing OF ST. LUCIE-2 at FLORIDA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY · Robert E. Uhrig 1974-1986 ­ Vice President, Nuclear IN CONSTRUCTION OF ST. LUCIE-2 #12;LESSONS LEARNED FROM St. Lucie-2 NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS CAN BE BUILT

8

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

1993-01-01

9

Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Methane (CH(4)) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH(4) fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1). Results indicated that the highest CH(4) flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH(4) emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH(4) fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. PMID:23291006

Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Ye, Chun; Chen, Xia; Xie, Biao; Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Jixiang; Xu, Meina

2013-03-01

10

Development of a constructed Willamette Valley plant community to determine non-target effects of herbicide drift on native plants  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection must consider potential environmental effects, including impacts to nontarget plants. Normally the risk assessment to determine these impacts requires simple, individual species, greenhouse, dose-response e...

11

Effect of plants and filter materials on bacteria removal in pilot-scale constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Due to the lack of testing units or appropriate experimental approaches, only little is known about the removal of bacteria in constructed wetlands. However, improved performance in terms of water sanitation requires a detailed understanding of the ongoing processes. Therefore, we analyzed the microbial diversity and the survival of Enterobacteriaceae in six pilot-scale constructed wetland systems treating domestic wastewater: two vertical sand filters, two vertical expanded clay filters and two horizontal sand filters (each planted and unplanted). Samples were taken from the in- and outflow, from the rhizosphere, and from the bulk soil at various depths. Colony-forming units of heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms were analyzed and the removal of bacteria between the in- and outflow was determined to within 1.5-2.5 orders of magnitude. To access the taxon-specific biodiversity of potential pathogens in the filters and to reduce the complexity of the analysis, specific primers for Enterobacteriaceae were developed. While performing PCR-SSCP analyses, a pronounced decrease in diversity from the inflow to the outflow of treated wastewater was observed. No differences were observed between the bulk soil of planted and unplanted vertical filters. Some bands appeared in the rhizosphere that were not present in the bulk soil, indicating the development of specific communities stimulated by the plants. The fingerprinting of the rhizosphere of plants grown on sand or expanded clay exhibited many differences, which show that different microbial communities exist depending on the soil type of the filters. The use of the taxon-specific primers enabled us to evaluate the fate of the Enterobacteriaceae entering the wetlands and to localize harboring in the rhizosphere. The most abundant bands of the profiles were sequenced: Pantoea agglomerans was found in nearly all samples from the soil but not in the effluent, whereas Citrobacter sp. could not be removed by the horizontal unplanted sand and vertical planted expanded clay filters. These results show that the community in wetland system is strongly influenced by the filtration process, the filter material and the plants. PMID:15862336

Vacca, Gabriela; Wand, Helmut; Nikolausz, Marcell; Kuschk, Peter; Kästner, Matthias

2005-04-01

12

Effects of plant roots on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process in mesocosm vertical flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant roots (Typha angustifolia roots) on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process from the perspective of time and space distributions in mesocosm vertical flow-constructed wetlands with coarse sand matrix. For this purpose, a pair of lab-scale experiments was conducted to compare planted and unplanted systems by measuring the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, the flow pattern of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by their hydraulic performance (e.g., mean residence time, short circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, and hydraulic efficiency factor) in salt tracer experiments. The results showed that the flow conditions would change in different clogging stages, which indicated that plants played different roles related to time and space. In the early clogging stages, plant roots restricted the flow of water, while in the middle and later clogging stages, especially the later stage, growing roots opened new pore spaces in the substrate. The roots played an important role in affecting the hydraulic performance in the upper layer (0-30 cm) where the sand matrix had a larger root volume fraction. Finally, the causes of the controversy over plant roots' effects on clogging were discussed. The results helped further understand the effects of plant roots on hydraulic performance during the clogging process. PMID:24994107

Hua, G F; Zhao, Z W; Kong, J; Guo, R; Zeng, Y T; Zhao, L F; Zhu, Q D

2014-11-01

13

Nitrous oxide emission from polyculture constructed wetlands: effect of plant species.  

PubMed

Loss of nitrogen from the soil-plant system has raised environmental concern. This study assessed the fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CWs). To better understand the mechanism of N2O emission, spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in four kinds of wetlands soil were compared. N2O emission data showed large temporal and spatial variation ranging from -5.5 to 32.7 mg N2O m(-2) d(-1). The highest N2O emission occurred in the cell planted with Phragmites australis and Zizania latifolia. Whereas, the lower emission rate were obtained in the cell planted with P. australis and Typha latifolia. These revealed that Z. latifolia stimulated the N2O emission. Transportation of more organic matter and oxygen for AOB growth may be the reason. The study of AOB also supported this result, indicating that the root structure of Z. latifolia was favored by AOB for N2O formation. PMID:17655987

Wang, Yanhua; Inamori, Ryuhei; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei; Kondo, Takashi; Zhang, Jixiang

2008-03-01

14

Effect of heavy metal stress on emerging plants community constructions in wetland.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the effects of heavy metals (HMs) (cadmium and mercury) on seed germination and seedling growth of Phragmites australis and Triarrhena sacchariflora, which are the two main typical emerging plants in Hongze Lake wetland. The results showed that there was a reduction in germination percentage, germination index and seedling length as HM concentration in the growing media increased for both treatments. The effect of HMs toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of T. sacchariflora was more obvious than of P. australis. At the stage of seed germination, P. australis and T. sacchariflora were sensitive to Hg(2 + ) and Cd(2 + ), respectively, and Hg(2 + ) was more toxic than Cd(2 + ) at the stage of seedling growth. The effect of HMs toxicity is not invariable during plant growth. Compared to the stage of seedling growth, P. australis and T. sacchariflora are more susceptible to HMs at the stage of seed germination. In addition, we calculated the ecological thresholds of P. australis to Cd and Hg are 19.32 and 1.08 mg kg(-1), and that of T. sacchariflora to Cd is 4.62 mg kg(-1) based on the lab simulation. The results also indicated that the species of P. australis is more tolerant than T. sacchariflora to the HMs and is a better candidate for restoration in Hongze Lake wetland ecosystem. PMID:21076234

Peng, Han; Geng, Wu; Yong-quan, Wu; Mao-teng, Li; Jun, Xiang; Long-jiang, Yu

2010-01-01

15

Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The effect of Typha latifolia and its litter on density and abundance of three denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) were investigated in six laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms. Results showed that the copy numbers of nirS, nirK and nosZ in wetland microcosms were ranged between 10(8)-10(9), 10(6)-10(7) and 10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1), respectively. The presence of T. latifolia encouraged the growth of nirK containing bacteria. Addition of cattail litter could greatly stimulate the growth of bacteria containing nirS and nosZ gene. Path analysis illustrated that the presence of plants and litters had no significant direct impact on denitrifying genes, while it affected the denitrifying genes via alteration of dissolved oxygen and carbon sources. PMID:24565872

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

2014-04-01

16

Effect of different plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms distribution in horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Three macrophyte species, Phragmites australis, Arundo donax L., and Typha latifolia L. have been separately grown in a horizontal-flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) fed with domestic wastewater to investigate effects of plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms. All the three mesocosms have been in operation for eight months under the loading rates of 1.14 g Nm(-2) d(-1) and 0.014gP m(-2) d(-1). Appropriately 34-43% phosphorus (P) was removed in HF CWs, and no distinct difference was found among the plants. In the growing season, A. donax L. removed 31.19 gm(-2) of nitrogen (N), followed by P. australis (29.96 g m(-2)), both of which were significantly higher than T. latifolia L. (7.21 g m(-2). Depending on the species, plants absorbed 1.73-7.15% of the overall N, and 0.06-0.56% of the P input. At least 10 common dominant microorganisms were found in the rhizosphere of all the three plants, and 6 of the 10 kinds of bacteria had close relationship with denitrifying bacteria, implying that denitrifiers were dominant microorganism distributed in rhizosphere of wetland plants. PMID:24645463

Meng, Panpan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Hou, Qingjie; Ji, Yan

2014-01-01

17

Proceedings: 1991 Fossil power plant construction conference  

SciTech Connect

EPRI's Second International Conference on Fossil Plant Construction was held in Washington, DC on September 18-20 1991. The conference was attended by approximately 150 people representing 30 utilities, and many independent power producers, architect engineering companies, and equipment suppliers. The conference covered recent developments in fossil plant construction. This proceedings includes papers from the following sessions: Challenges for New Capacity and Construction; Recent Construction Experience on Fossil Projects; Recent Experience on Special Projects; IPP and Cogeneration Project Experience; Planning and Development; Modularization and Construction Technology; Management Challenges; Applications of Computer Technologies; Planning and Development; Retrofit and Special Projects; and Construction Experience and Lessons Learned. Papers and discussions in the sessions led to the following conclusions from the conference: (1) Increasing competitive demands on major users of electric energy, growing environmental restrictions, and changing competitive conditions in the electric industry require continued development of new management approaches and technologies to improve quality, cost, and schedule on future projects. (2) Many new techniques and technologies are available to assist in meeting performance and environmental challenges for new facilities and in improving design and construction; their successful use on completed projects demonstrated the benefits. (3) transfer and effective use of new technologies on future projects remains a major opportunity for electric generation projects.

Tatum, C.B. (ed.)(Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-12-01

18

Effects of single and multiple applications of glyphosate and aminopyralid on simple constructed plant communities  

EPA Science Inventory

Plant tests required for the registration of pesticides are generally performed under controlled laboratory/greenhouse conditions using single exposures, and the results may or may not be relevant to protecting plant communities or ecosystems. We report results from a field test ...

19

A review of plant-pharmaceutical interactions: from uptake and effects in crop plants to phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are commonly found both in the aquatic and the agricultural environments as a consequence of the human activities and associated discharge of wastewater effluents to the environment. The utilization of treated effluent for crop irrigation, along with land application of manure and biosolids, accelerates the introduction of these compounds into arable lands and crops. Despite the low concentrations of pharmaceuticals usually found, the continuous introduction into the environment from different pathways makes them 'pseudo-persistent'. Several reviews have been published regarding the potential impact of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals on arable land. However, plant uptake as well as phytotoxicity data are scarcely studied. Simultaneously, phytoremediation as a tool for pharmaceutical removal from soils, sediments and water is starting to be researched, with promising results. This review gives an in-depth overview of the phytotoxicity of pharmaceuticals, their uptake and their removal by plants. The aim of the current work was to map the present knowledge concerning pharmaceutical interactions with plants in terms of uptake and the use of plant-based systems for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:24481515

Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Brix, Hans

2014-10-01

20

75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant...Bulletin 1753F- 150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...Effective date of Specifications and Drawings final rule]. for Construction of...

2010-06-08

21

MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

22

Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

Not Available

1986-01-01

23

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

24

Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

1991-07-01

25

33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

26

Public Attitudes Toward Construction of New Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased demand for U.S. electricity generation will require the construction of hundreds of new power plants in the coming decades. We examine attitudinal data from the 2008 MIT Energy Survey to measure public support for and opposition to the local siting of power plants. Substantial majorities of Americans oppose the location of coal, natural gas, and nuclear power plants in

Stephen Ansolabehere; David M. Konisky

2009-01-01

27

TECHNICAL ARTICLES PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL ARTICLES #12;2 PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Hans Brix Department of Plant Ecology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, Nordlandsvej 68, 8240 Risskov, Denmark ABSTRACT Vegetation plays an important role in wastewater treatment wetlands. Plants

Brix, Hans

28

Modular design and construction techniques for nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modularization has been proposed as a nuclear power plant design-fabrication approach for increasing the quality and reducing the costs of future plants. The work reported describes a methodology for making the modular design and construction process more systematic and efficient. This methodology is applied to both the design and fabrication processes for power plant modules. The design process is enhanced

Christopher W. Lapp; Michael W. Golay

1997-01-01

29

Risk Framework for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

E-print Network

sector projects, and recently elevated to Best Practice status. However, its current format is inadequate to address the unique challenges of constructing the next generation of nuclear power plants (NPP). To understand and determine the risks...

Yeon, Jaeheum 1981-

2012-12-11

30

Constructing and Planting Fast Plants in a Deli-containter Growing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrated instructions for constructing and planting in the Fast Plants deli-container growing system. This is a stable growing system that is easy to construct for all age learners, and works well for growing Wisconsin Fast Plants. Made from recycled deli-containers, these growing systems can be cleaned and reused for multiple years.

Program, The W.

31

Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion  

PubMed Central

The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

32

Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion.  

PubMed

The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

Caplan, Joshua S; Wheaton, Christine N; Mozdzer, Thomas J

2014-01-01

33

Modular design and construction for nuclear power plant modification projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in modular design and construction techniques make it possible to modularize entire process plants. The modules can be as small as a skid mounted packaged unit or as large as an entire 6 story office building. These techniques are especially useful for construction in remote areas or hostile environments. Because of security, environmental and safety restraints, operating nuclear

G. M. Morton; L. B. Palmer; R. I. Patel; D. L. Shamblin

1989-01-01

34

Construction costs for some aquatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation reflects a plant's response to its environment and affects its overall growth and performance in a particular habitat. We measured ash, C, N, and caloric content for various parts of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, Potamogeton nodosus Poir., P. gramineus L., and P. pectinatus L. Mean ash content of vegetative propagules ranged from 2.96 to 5.46%, lower than values

David F. Spencer; Frederick J. Ryan; Greg G. Ksander

1997-01-01

35

11. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EXPANSION TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS, SHOWING ORIGINAL FUEL TANK (FAR LEFT) AND DIESEL COOLING TOWER (CENTER). March 15, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

36

13. WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EXPANSION TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS, SHOWING STRUCTURAL STEEL AND STEAM BOILERS NOS. 1, 2, AND 3 BEING INSTALLED. March 15, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

37

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—I. Removal of oxygen demand, suspended solids and faecal coliforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of BOD, SS and faecal coliforms (FC) from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

38

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—II. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20 month period. Hydraulic

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

39

Construction plant and equipment management research: thematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A literature review is presented in the subject of construction plant and equipment management (CPeM) to: delineate the subject; consider its development over recent years; and identify principal themes within it. The paper aims to close the gap in knowledge, by using these objectives as a mechanism to observe how research themes relate to primary CPeM functions, and

David J. Edwards; Gary D. Holt

2009-01-01

40

Universal vectors for constructing artificial microRNAs in plants.  

PubMed

Universal amiRNA vectors (pUAs) for constructing plant amiRNAs in Arabidopsis and rice have been developed. By using type IIg restriction enzyme, BaeI, a single amiRNA construct can be produced using only one PCR and one ligation reaction. Thus, only one pair of primers is required for each amiRNA vector and these can be designed to be compatible with existing or newly developed methods. Because the BaeI recognition sequence is completely digested, there is no modification to the miRNA backbone, therefore avoids the risk of sequence changes that may affect downstream analysis. Based on these vectors, specific amiRNA constructs were created and verified. With optimized parameters, 38-45% colonies for each amiRNA construct contain insertions with the expected orientation, and approximately 80% of these colonies have the correct sequences. PMID:23568377

Zhou, Jie; Yu, Feibo; Chen, Bin; Wang, Xuming; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Ye; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2013-07-01

41

Enriching plant microbiota for a metagenomic library construction.  

PubMed

Plant microbiota (the microorganisms that live in any associations with plant tissues) represents a rather unexplored area of metagenomic research compared with soils and oceans. Constructing a metagenomic library for plant microbiota is technically challenging. Using all the biomass without pre-enrichment could lead to vast proportions of the host plant DNA in the metagenomic library, doubtless obliterating the microbial contribution. Therefore, the first and essential step is to enrich for the constituent microorganisms from plant tissues. Here, a strong enrichment for plant microbiota was achieved by coupling SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) with NaCl, creating a predominantly microbial metagenomic library that contains 88% bacterial inserts. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the metagenomic DNA of enrichments originates from very diverse microorganisms. At least 74 distinct ribotypes (at a 97% threshold) from seven different bacterial phyla were identified and mainly distributed among Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Additionally, a simplified version of Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) was developed for a quick and efficient assessment of the enriching procedures. This work opens further insight into the great biotechnical potential of plant microbiota, holding more potential for drug discovery through a metagenomic strategy, and paving the way for recovery and biochemical characterization of functional gene repertoire from plant microbiota. PMID:18631363

Wang, Hao-Xin; Geng, Zhao-Liang; Zeng, Ying; Shen, Yue-Mao

2008-10-01

42

[Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].  

PubMed

Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers. PMID:23745437

He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

2013-03-01

43

The effect of public or private structures in wastewater treatment on the conditions for the design, construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Organised in public or private structures, wastewater services have to cope with different framework conditions as regards planning, construction, financing and operation. This leads quite often to different modes of management. In recent years there has been a push for privatisation on the water sector in general, the reasons for which are manifold, ranging from access to external know-how and capital to synergistic effects through integration of wastewater treatment into other tasks of similar or equal nature. Discussed are various models of public/private partnership (PPP) in wastewater treatment, encompassing for example the delegation of partial tasks or even the proportional or entire transfer of ownership of treatment facilities to private third parties. Decisive for high performance and efficiency is not the legal or organisational form, but rather the clear and unmistakable definition of tasks which are to be assigned to the different parties, customers and all other partners involved, as well as of clear-cut interfaces. On account of the (of course legitimate) profit-oriented perspective of the private sector, some decision-making processes in relation to project implementation (design and construction) and to operational aspects will differ from those typically found on the public sector. This does apply to decisions on investments, financing and on technical solutions too. On the other hand, core competencies in wastewater treatment should not be outsourced, but remain the public bodies' responsibility, even with 'far-reaching' privatisation models. Such core competencies are all efforts geared to sustainable wastewater treatment as life-supporting provision for the future or as contribution to the protection of health and the environment and to the development of infrastructure. Major areas of wastewater treatment and other related tasks are reviewed. The paper concludes with a list of questions on the issue of outsourcing. PMID:15553486

Grünebaum, T; Bode, H

2004-01-01

44

Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

2004-10-06

45

Diverting water at dams during construction of hydro plants  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimates that hydropower could contribute another 24,000 MW of electricity to the US power supply by building new plants at existing dams. (Conventional hydro currently contributes about 71,800 MW of electricity.) When installing a plant at an existing dam, it is often feasible to connect the plant to the existing outlet works of the dam. To do this, however, typically requires a temporary shutdown of the outlet works during construction. Since most dam owners are required to discharge a minimum flow of water through the outlet works to meet water quality standards, some type of temporary diversion scheme is essential. The Incorporated County of Los Alamos, New Mexico, was recently faced with this situation when constructing a hydroelectric project at an existing US Army Corps of Engineers' dam. The county hired Tudor Engineering Company in Oakland, California, to perform the design for the hydro project, including a water diversion system that temporarily conveyed reservoir discharges over the dam to the river downstream. The diversion was necessary so modifications could be made to the outlet works of the dam where the county was building its 13-MW plant. This system, comprised of pumps mounted on a floating barge in the reservoir, allowed the Corps of Engineers to maintain required instream flows while the outlet works were being modified.

Kneitz, P.R. (Tudor Engineering Company, Oakland, CA (United States))

1991-04-01

46

Introduction of sense constructs of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (CYP73A24) in transgenic tomato plants shows opposite effects on flux into stem lignin and fruit flavonoids.  

PubMed

Understanding regulation of phenolic metabolism underpins attempts to engineer plants for diverse properties such as increased levels of antioxidant flavonoids for dietary improvements or reduction of lignin for improvements to fibre resources for industrial use. Previous attempts to alter phenolic metabolism at the level of the second enzyme of the pathway, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase have employed antisense expression of heterologous sequences in tobacco. The present study describes the consequences of homologous sense expression of tomato CYP73A24 on the lignin content of stems and the flavonoid content of fruits. An extensive number of lines were produced and displayed four developmental variants besides a normal phenotype. These aberrant phenotypes were classified as dwarf plants, plants with distorted (curly) leaves, plants with long internodes and plants with thickened waxy leaves. Nevertheless, some of the lines showed the desired increase in the level of rutin and naringenin in fruit in a normal phenotype background. However this could not be correlated directly to increased levels of PAL and C4H expression as other lines showed less accumulation, although all lines tested showed increases in leaf chlorogenic acid which is typical of Solanaceous plants when engineered in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Almost all transgenic lines analysed showed a considerable reduction in stem lignin and in the lines that were specifically examined, this was correlated with partial sense suppression of C4H. Although not the primary purpose of the study, these reductions in lignin were amongst the greatest seen in plants modified for lignin by manipulation of structural genes. The lignin showed higher syringyl to coniferyl monomeric content contrary to that previously seen in tobacco engineered for downregulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. These outcomes are consistent with placing CYP73A24 more in the lignin pathway and having a role in flux control, while more complex regulatory processes are likely to be involved in flavonoid and chlorogenic acid accumulation. PMID:17509629

Millar, David J; Long, Marianne; Donovan, Georgina; Fraser, Paul D; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Danoun, Saida; Bramley, Peter M; Bolwell, G Paul

2007-06-01

47

Temperature, plants, and oxygen: how does season affect constructed wetland performance?  

PubMed

The influence of temperature and plant-mediated oxygen transfer continues to draw attention from researchers, practitioners and regulators interested in the use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Because the vast majority of research on constructed wetland performance has been conducted during periods of active plant growth, the true influence of temperature, season, and plant species selection on constructed wetlands performance has not yet been evaluated adequately. In this article, we briefly summarize changes in the understanding of these influences on wetland performance, and suggest that effects of temperature and oxygen transfer are not readily separable because both factors respond to seasonal cycles and because effects of one can offset the other. We further speculate that the net effect of seasonal variation in these factors is such that plant-mediated oxygen transfer affects water treatment most in winter. Results of controlled-environment experiments conducted at Montana State University support these perspectives. Different plant species' capacities to oxidize the root zone responded differently to seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy, and species' effects on wastewater treatment were most pronounced in winter. PMID:15921285

Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

2005-01-01

48

75 FR 38042 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities...comments on revising RUS Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a)....

2010-07-01

49

46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN MILL ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

50

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE AMMONIUM NITRATE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST 24, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

51

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

52

44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

53

45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

54

The analysis of cracks in high-pressure piping and their effects on strength and lifetime of construction components at the Ignalina nuclear plant  

SciTech Connect

A number of cracks and damages of other sorts have been identified in the high-pressure parts at the Ignalina Nuclear Plant. They are caused by inadequate production- and repair technologies, as well as by thermal, chemical and mechanical processes of their performance. Several techniques are available as predictions of cracks and other defects of pressurized vessels. The choice of an experimental technique should be based on the level of its agreement with the actual processes.

Aleev, A.; Petkevicius, K.; Senkus, V. [and others

1997-04-01

55

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2010-04-01

56

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2013-04-01

57

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2014-04-01

58

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2012-04-01

59

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2011-04-01

60

Reactivation of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Projects: Plant Status, Policy Issues, and Regulatory Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issue...

M. B. Spangler

1986-01-01

61

Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was

Spangler

1986-01-01

62

Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

NONE

1995-05-05

63

75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant...Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried...

2010-09-29

64

High-Throughput Construction of Intron-Containing Hairpin RNA Vectors for RNAi in Plants  

PubMed Central

With the wide use of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) for the analysis of gene function in plants, a high-throughput system for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs is in great demand. Here, we describe a novel restriction-ligation approach that provides a simple but efficient construction of intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) vectors. The system takes advantage of the type IIs restriction enzyme BsaI and our new plant RNAi vector pRNAi-GG based on the Golden Gate (GG) cloning. This method requires only a single PCR product of the gene of interest flanked with BsaI recognition sequence, which can then be cloned into pRNAi-GG at both sense and antisense orientations simultaneously to form ihpRNA construct. The process, completed in one tube with one restriction-ligation step, produced a recombinant ihpRNA with high efficiency and zero background. We demonstrate the utility of the ihpRNA constructs generated with pRNAi-GG vector for the effective silencing of various individual endogenous and exogenous marker genes as well as two genes simultaneously. This method provides a novel and high-throughput platform for large-scale analysis of plant functional genomics. PMID:22675447

Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Gao, XinZheng; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng; Duan, Jun

2012-01-01

65

Plant and Invertebrate Community Changes Caused by Flood-Pulsing in a Constructed Riparian Wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002, Kent State University constructed a research facility that includes ten independently flooded wetland basins (10 m X 20 m) along a second order creek. We tested the effects of flood-pulsing on the wetland biota by allowing 5 basins (flood-pulse wetlands) to fluctuate with creek water levels to simulate floodplain marshes, and maintaining 5 basins (static wetlands) at constant water levels. We sampled emergent plants and aquatic invertebrates in 2003 and 2004. Abiotic conditions were different between treatments. We collected 83 plant species, and flood pulsing had strong effects on plant communities. Mean species richness and plant cover were higher in static wetlands, and Sorensen's similarity indices between habitat types decreased over time. Plant biomass increased in all wetlands from 2003 to 2004, but mean biomass was not different between treatments. Many dominant plant species were affected by the flood pulsing treatment. Wetland invertebrate communities were diverse (47 taxa), but we detected few responses. Total abundance, species richness, and numbers of most dominant species were not different between treatments. These results indicate that flood-pulsing acted as a stressor on emergent plant communities, but did not strongly impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

Caiazza, M. K.; Nieset, J. E.; Romito, A.; de Szalay, F. A.

2005-05-01

66

Electron beam treatment of textile dyeing wastewater: operation of pilot plant and industrial plant construction.  

PubMed

A pilot plant for treating 1000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with an electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborating the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability for instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in the flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day each, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. PMID:16459806

Han, B; Kim, J; Kim, Y; Choi, J S; Makarov, I E; Ponomarev, A V

2005-01-01

67

43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

68

42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

69

Feral biofuel crop effects in constructed wet prairie and oak savannah communities  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the potential effects of feral biofuel crop escapes on constructed plant communities growing in outdoor mesocosms. Mesocosms containing wet prairie or oak savannah communities were exposed to two temperature levels (ambient and elevated) and two moisture levels (cont...

70

Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) processing in constructed wetlands (CWs) is often variable, and the contribution to N loss and retention by various pathways (nitrification/denitrification, plant uptake and sediment storage) remains unclear. We studied the seasonal variation of the effects of artificial aeration and three different macrophyte species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia and Phalaris arundinacea) on N processing (removal rates, transformations and export) using experimental CW mesocosms. Removal of total nitrogen (TN) was higher in summer and in planted and aerated units, with the highest mean removal in units planted with T. angustifolia. Export of ammonium (NH(4)(+)), a proxy for nitrification limitation, was higher in winter, and in unplanted and non-aerated units. Planted and aerated units had the highest export of oxidized nitrogen (NO(y)), a proxy for reduced denitrification. Redox potential, evapotranspiration (ETP) rates and hydraulic retention times (HRT) were all predictors of TN, NH(4)(+) and NO(y) export, and significantly affected by plants. Denitrification was the main N sink in most treatments accounting for 47-62% of TN removal, while sediment storage was dominant in unplanted non-aerated units and units planted with P. arundinacea. Plant uptake accounted for less than 20% of the removal. Uncertainties about the long-term fate of the N stored in sediments suggest that the fraction attributed to denitrification losses could be underestimated in this study. PMID:19036399

Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

2009-02-01

71

Andrew Ford 1 Flight Simulator An Interative Model of Power Plant Construction  

E-print Network

Andrew Ford 1 Flight Simulator . An Interative Model of Power Plant Construction Informal Summary for power plant construction. Their goal was to build the cash reserves of GenCo1, a 5 GW generating company a feeling for what some of the teams learned, I have selected a few "screen shots" from one team

Ford, Andrew

72

CONSTRUCTION COSTS AND PAYBACK TIME OF BIOMASS: A WHOLE PLANT PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature data were compiled on the construction costs of plant biomass, that is, the amount of glucose required to construct one gram of biomass. No evidence was found for more than a slight variation in construction costs, with leaves of herbaceous species somewhat more expensive to produce than stems or roots. There is little or no variation due to environmental

Hendrik Poorter

73

Application of RFID to High-Reliability Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear power plant construction, countless variety of parts, products, and jigs more than one million are treated under construction. Furthermore, strict traceability to the history of material, manufacturing, and installation is required for all products from the start to finish of the construction, which enforce much workforce and many costs at every project. In an addition, the operational efficiency

Kenji Akagi; Masayuki Ishiwata; Kenji Araki; Jun-ichi Kawahata

2006-01-01

74

Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology  

SciTech Connect

The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

1981-12-01

75

Yannawa wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand): design, construction and operation.  

PubMed

Yannawa Wastewater Treatment plant (Phase 1) serves a population equivalent of 500,000 and is located on a restricted site within the city of Bangkok, Thailand. Secondary treatment is based on the CASS sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and the plant is one of the largest multi-storey SBRs in the world. The limitation of available site area, the ground conditions and the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated set a series of challenges for the designers, contractors and commissioning and operational staff. This paper briefly describes the collection system, the process selection and the treatment streams of the wastewater treatment plant. The SBR secondary treatment plant is described in more detail. The problems that arose during commissioning and operation and the solutions made possible by the use of an SBR type of process are discussed. Details of plant performance during performance testing and during the first three years of plant operation are provided. PMID:15656316

Kirkwood, S

2004-01-01

76

Effects of Wind on Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review surveys the large variety of mechanical interactions between wind and plants, from plant organs to plant systems. These interactions range from leaf flutter to uprooting and seed dispersal, as well as indirect effects on photosynthesis or insect communication. I first estimate the relevant nondimensional parameters and then discuss turbulence, plant dynamics, and the mechanisms of interaction in this context. Some common features are identified and analyzed in relation to the wind engineering of manmade structures. Strong coupling between plants and wind exists, in which the plant motion modifies the wind dynamics. I also present some related biological issues in which the relation between plant life and wind environment is emphasized. [V]oici la lourde nappe/Et la profonde houle et l’océan des blés [Like a sheet/The deep swell on a sea of wheat] Charles Péguy (1873 1914)

de Langre, Emmanuel

2008-01-01

77

Audit of construction of an environmental, safety, and health analytical laboratory at the Pantex Plant  

SciTech Connect

This document is a report from the Office of the Inspector General, US DOE. The report evaluates the need for the construction of an Environmental, Safety, and Health Laboratory at the Pantex Plant and if this project is the most cost effective manner in which to meet mission needs. It was found that: (1) mission needs were being met with existing facilities, (2) required evaluations of alternatives were not performed, (3) decisions were made based on out-dated justifications, and (4) the expenditure of $8.4M was unnecessary. As a result, it was recommended that funded be suspended until the need is clearly established.

NONE

1995-10-01

78

Fossil fuel power plant constructibility research: needs and priorities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Investment costs for new power plants have increased dramatically in recent years. One means of lowering plant investment costs would be to reduce construction costs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is exploring the feasibility of conducting a 5-year program to research methods for improving fossil-fueled power plant constructibility. To help identify areas in the life cycle of a power plant construction project having potential for improvement through research and development, the scoping study outlined in this report was undertaken. The objective was to identify and prioritize areas of constructibility having potential for improvement through research and development. The results seem to indicate that improving power plant constructibility begins in the design office and manufacturing facilities. Areas such as power plant configuration, modularization, signal transmission, and instrumentation, which were consistently rated as having high impact on constructibility are greatly influenced by the design and manufacturing segments of the industry. Based on the enthusiastic support shown by participants during the course of this study, the need for constructibility improvement, and the potential benefits available, it is concluded that the proposed constructibility research program currently under consideration by EPRI be developed and implemented.

Yesensky, M.; Freeman, J.E.

1984-10-01

79

Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH(4) was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH(4) fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH(4) fluxes but favoured CO(2) production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP<15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. PMID:19110349

Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

2009-03-01

80

Canadian nuclear power plant construction cost forecast and analysis  

SciTech Connect

Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequence of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of the situation to take place in the future. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A data base is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of forty years are generated and applications of alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts to uncertainty assessment are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the very first ever done for Canadian NGS constructions.

Keng, C.W.K.

1985-01-01

81

Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.  

PubMed

Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-11-01

82

A floating LNG plant reduces construction costs and aids in difficult recoveries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A floating LNG plant reduces construction costs and aids in difficult recoveries, i.e., from natural gas reserves once considered noncommercial due to their small size and remote location. The barges, much cheaper to build and operate than conventional land units, could halve the cost of an onshore facility. In addition to the economics of construction time and operation, the benefits

Cozens

1976-01-01

83

The effect of heavy metals on nitrogen and oxygen demand removal in constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to investigate the respective effects of Zn, Pb and Cd as well as the combined effect of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu on the removal of nitrogen and oxygen demand in constructed wetlands. Four laboratory-scale gravel-filled subsurface-flow constructed wetland units planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) were operated outdoors and fed with primary-treated domestic wastewater

P. E Lim; M. G Tay; K. Y Mak; N Mohamed

2003-01-01

84

Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

1981-04-01

85

Establishing native plants on newly-constructed and older-reclaimed sites along West Virginia highways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manystate highway departments in the USA must use native plants forrevegetating roadsides. We conducted twofieldstudies in West Virginia to assess native plant establishment under two different conditions. On newly-constructed sites, native species were seeded alone or combined with non-native species. On older roadsides, native species were seeded in disturbed existing vegetation. In the first study, we used four seed mixtures

J. G. Skousen; C. L. VENABLEz

2008-01-01

86

Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements.

M. C. Bolch; C. R. Jones

1990-01-01

87

Modelling Plant Compensatory Effects in Plant-Insects dynamics  

E-print Network

Modelling Plant Compensatory Effects in Plant-Insects dynamics Audrey Lebon, Yves Dumont Umr AMAP or even to obtain a better biomass yield. Index Terms--Mathematical modelling, crop protection, plant-insect]. The relationships between insect populations and plants are complex and their dynamics difficult to pre- dict

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland. PMID:17353090

Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

2007-08-25

89

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

90

Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2014-01-01

91

Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2014-01-01

92

Effects of Transgenic Plants on Soil and Plant Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, several microcosm and field studies were performed using different transgenic plants to evaluate the persistence of their products and their effects on soil and plant microorganisms. These studies used cotton, potato, tobacco, and alfalfa p...

K. K. Donegan, R. J. Seidler

1999-01-01

93

Measuring effectiveness of safety programmes in the Thai construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some safety programmes are more effective than others in improving safety performance at the project level. The effectiveness of safety programmes was evaluated by studying 70 construction projects in the Thai construction sector, examining the relationship between their actual status and associated site safety performance. The actual status was assessed by using an evaluation tool developed in compliance with Thai

Thanet Aksorn; Bonaventura H. W. Hadikusumo

2008-01-01

94

Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of delays in the construction industry is a global phenomenon and the construction industry in Malaysia is no exception. The main purpose of this study is to identify the delay factors and their impact (effect) on project completion. Earlier studies either considered the causes or the effects of project delays, separately. This study takes an integrated approach and

Murali Sambasivan; Yau Wen Soon

2007-01-01

95

Seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) located in Nonsan City, South Korea, and constructed as the final stage of a piggery wastewater treatment plant that aims to treat high nutrient content effluent during dry days and stormwater runoff during wet days was monitored from October 2008 to November 2011. This research investigated the seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in the CW and nutrient concentration changes in each treatment region under monsoon and temperate climate conditions. Results showed that the mean total nitrogen removal during summer (June to August) was higher by 13% than in spring (March to May), while total phosphorus removal was higher by 22% in fall (September to November) than in winter (December to February). All plants in the CW reached their maximum biomass coverage and weight in summer and minimum growth in winter. The highest N and P content in plants occurred in September with 583.2 g/m(2) and August with 62.0 g/m(2), respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that the harvesting of plants should be conducted during the time of the peak nutrient uptake and before the plants release the nutrient content back to the CW. The dependence of nutrient removal efficiency on plants is not so significant. In order to increase the nutrient removal rate by plant uptake, it is suggested that the treatment regions in the CW be covered by plants. PMID:23508157

Lee, S Y; Maniquiz, M C; Choi, J Y; Jeong, S M; Kim, L H

2013-01-01

96

Phytoremediation of explosives contaminated ground waters by plant enzyme systems in constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

A plant enzyme system has successfully degraded the explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX to environmentally acceptable products during laboratory studies. The process has been further studied in the field in batch systems. The field results have been consistent with the laboratory findings. An artificial wetlands will be constructed to remediate explosives contaminated ground water at an Army ammunition plant. An overview of the phytoremediation program will be presented.

Jackson, R.P. Jr. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

97

Effects of Nitrogen Additions on the Vertical Structure of a Constructed Cordgrass Marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because tall vegetation can enhance habitat quality in intertidal wetlands, we examined the effects of N fertilization on the height growth of a constructed cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) marsh in San Diego Bay, where plants are short and soil N low. We varied the duration (therefore also the quantity; 30 g N\\/m 2 every month for 1, 2, 4, or 6

Katharyn E. Boyer; Joy B. Zedler

1998-01-01

98

Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC50 4 ?M) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg/d for 24 d) to healthy rats fed normal diet (protein content 23.9%) increased food intake, body weight gain, lean body mass, and gastrocnemius muscle mass as compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effect of HB administration increased slightly in animals fed a high-protein diet (protein content 39.4%). Both oral (up to 60 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (up to 4 mg/kg) administration of HB showed low androgenic activity when tested in the Hershberger assay. Moreover, HB showed no direct binding to the androgen receptor in vitro. HB treatment was also associated with an improved physical fitness of untrained healthy rats, as evident from a 6.7% increase in lower extremity strength, measured by grip test. In the gastrocnemius muscle of castrated animals, HB treatment significantly increased the number of type IIa and IIb fibers and the cross-sectional area of type I and type IIa fibers. These findings suggest that oral application of HB triggers selective anabolic response with minimal or no androgenic side-effects and begin to elucidate the putative cellular targets for plant brassinosteroids in mammals.—Esposito, D., Komarnytsky, S., Shapses, S., Raskin, I. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid. PMID:21746867

Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

2011-01-01

99

Triclosan in a north Texas wastewater treatment plant and the influent and effluent of an experimental constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial triclosan was analyzed in unfiltered samples from influent, effluent, and receiving stream and before and after a pilot-scale constructed wetland at a North Texas municipal wastewater treatment plant. Triclosan concentrations were reduced by 97 to 99% by the activated sludge treatment plant. Effluent concentrations were further reduced by passage through the constructed wetland, but receiving stream concentrations were not statistically significantly different from effluent concentrations. Effluent concentrations of triclosan were seasonal with highest concentrations occurring during the summer months. The effluent-dominated receiving stream maximum concentrations during summer months were below reported algal no-observed-effect concentrations based on biomass and growth rate but exceeded concentrations reported to cause shifts in algal community structure. PMID:16519296

Waltman, Elise Lyn; Venables, Barney J; Waller, William T

2006-02-01

100

Modeling the Constructs Contributing to the Effectiveness of Marketing Lecturers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student evaluation of teaching has been examined in higher education research for over 70 years but there are gaps in our knowledge about the contribution, and relationships between, the relevant constructs. Recent literature encourages researchers to test multivariate models of Teaching Effectiveness. Seven main constructs known to influence…

Sweeney, Arthur D. P.; Morrison, Mark D.; Jarratt, Denise; Heffernan, Troy

2009-01-01

101

The Effect of Structured Divergent Prompts on Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion forums are a widely used activity in online courses. However, knowledge construction within online discussion rarely reaches higher levels. Therefore, it is important to understand which aspects of online discussion encourage learning and increase knowledge construction. This paper investigates the effect three Structured Divergent…

Howell, Ginger S.; Akpanudo, Usenime; Chen, Mengyi; Sutherlin, Autumn L.; James, Laura E.

2014-01-01

102

Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands

Beverly S. Collins; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Daniel P. Coughlin

2005-01-01

103

Design and construction of an in-plant activation cassette for transgene expression and recombinant protein production in plants.  

PubMed

Virus-based transgene expression systems have become particularly valuable for recombinant protein production in plants. The dual-module in-plant activation (INPACT) expression platform consists of a uniquely designed split-gene cassette incorporating the cis replication elements of Tobacco yellow dwarf geminivirus (TYDV) and an ethanol-inducible activation cassette encoding the TYDV Rep and RepA replication-associated proteins. The INPACT system is essentially tailored for recombinant protein production in stably transformed plants and provides both inducible and high-level transient transgene expression with the potential to be adapted to diverse crop species. The construction of a novel split-gene cassette, the inducible nature of the system and the ability to amplify transgene expression via rolling-circle replication differentiates this system from other DNA- and RNA-based virus vector systems used for stable or transient recombinant protein production in plants. Here we provide a detailed protocol describing the design and construction of a split-gene INPACT cassette, and we highlight factors that may influence optimal activation and amplification of gene expression in transgenic plants. By using Nicotiana tabacum, the protocol takes 6-9 months to complete, and recombinant proteins expressed using INPACT can accumulate to up to 10% of the leaf total soluble protein. PMID:24705598

Dugdale, Benjamin; Mortimer, Cara L; Kato, Maiko; James, Tess A; Harding, Robert M; Dale, James L

2014-05-01

104

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2011-01-01

105

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2010-01-01

106

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

...2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

2014-01-01

107

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

2010-01-01

108

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2012-01-01

109

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

2012-01-01

110

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2013-01-01

111

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

...2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N...

2014-01-01

112

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

2011-01-01

113

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at...Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

2013-01-01

114

Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile. PMID:15627565

Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

2005-05-01

115

Plant litter: Its dynamics and effects on plant community structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the dynamics of plant litter, the effects of litter on the chemical and physical environment, the direct and indirect\\u000a effects of plant litter on plant populations and communities, and different adaptative traits that may be related to litter\\u000a accumulation. The production of litter depends primarily on the site productivity, but other properties of the environment,\\u000a as well as

José M. Facelli; Steward T. A. Pickett

1991-01-01

116

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

PubMed Central

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

2010-01-01

117

Studies on the Effects of Gaseous Ions on Plant Growth  

PubMed Central

Air pollutants seriously interfere with the maintenance of unipolar ionized atmospheres required in experimenting with the biological effects of gaseous ions. The construction and operation of an air purification unit designed to reduce air pollution to tolerable levels are described; it has functioned satisfactorily in conducting experiments with plants and animals. PMID:14459882

Krueger, Albert P.; Beckett, J. C.; Andriese, Paul C.; Kotaka, Sadao

1962-01-01

118

H-coal pilot plant. Phase II. Construction. Phase III. Operation. Annual report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

At the request of DOE Oak Ridge, ASFI agreed to assume responsibility for completion of Plant construction in December, 1979, at which time Badger Plants' on-site work was ended. This construction effort consisted of electric heat tracing and insulation of piping and instrumentation. At the close of the reporting period the work was completed, or was projected to be completed, within the ASFI budgeted amounts and by dates that will not impact Plant operations. Engineering design solutions were completed for problems encountered with such equipment as the High Pressure Letdown Valves; Slurry Block Valves; Slurry Pumps; the Bowl Mill System; the Dowtherm System; and the Ebullating Pump. A Corrosion Monitoring Program was established. With the exception of Area 500, the Antisolvent Deashing Unit, all operating units were commissioned and operated during the reporting period. Coal was first introduced into the Plant on May 29, 1980, with coal operations continuing periodically through September 30, 1980. The longest continuous coal run was 119 hours. A total of 677 tons of Kentucky No. 11 Coal were processed during the reporting period. The problems encountered were mechanical, not process, in nature. Various Environmental and Health programs were implemented to assure worker safety and protection and to obtain data from Plant operations for scientific analysis. These comprehensive programs will contribute greatly in determining the acceptability of long term H-Coal Plant operations.

Not Available

1981-02-04

119

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

120

Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

2013-01-01

121

Vegetation effects on anammox spatial distribution and nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands treated with domestic sewage.  

PubMed

In this study, two horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) (planted and unplanted) were constructed and compared to investigate the effects of vegetation on nitrogen removal and anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) spatial distribution and enrichment. Calamus (Acorus calamus L.), which has a large root system, was selected as the vegetation. Removal of total nitrogen from the planted wetland was much higher than that from the unplanted one. Radial oxygen loss from calamus provided the planted wetland with better oxygen restoration ability, benefitting ammonium removal in the CW, especially when anammox was inhibited under winter temperatures. Enrichment of anammox bacteria in planted wetlands was much greater than that in unplanted ones. The greatest enrichment of anammox bacteria occurred in the middle layer, which had a better anaerobic environment and moderate root system. The reduced rate of metabolism in plants during winter led to a sharp decrease in anammox bacteria copy numbers in the planted wetland. Under cold temperature, the degree of enrichment with anammox bacteria in the planted wetland was similar to or slightly superior to that in the unplanted wetland. PMID:25353942

Wang, Ling; Li, Tian

2014-10-01

122

Effect of building construction on Aspergillus concentrations in a hospital.  

PubMed

Air samples taken in a hospital undergoing construction and analyzed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the Aspergillus genus did not show elevated concentrations of Aspergillus or particulate matter with a diameter of 5 microm or less in patient areas. Air samples from the construction zone indicated the containment system, which used polyethylene film barrier and negative pressure, was effective. PMID:18419373

Goebes, Marian D; Baron, Ellen Jo; Mathews, Kathleen L; Hildemann, Lynn M

2008-05-01

123

Satellite observations of the recent power plant construction in Inner Mongolia, China.  

SciTech Connect

About 50% of the increase in China's NO{sub x} emissions since 2000 can be attributed to the construction of new power plants. We show that the newly added NO{sub x} emissions from new power plants in Inner Mongolia, China, were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. Increase rates of NO{sub 2} columns from OMI and NO{sub x} emissions from inventories are even in quantitative agreement in cases where new facilities are added to already-developed regions. This study confirms that the OMI products are quite capable of identifying the construction of large new emitting facilities through detection of their NO{sub x} emissions.

Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; He, K. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Tsinghua Univ.)

2009-08-05

124

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion in wet lime\\/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The\\u000a frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious\\u000a threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their\\u000a life expectancy. The present

N. Rajendran; S. Rajeswari

1996-01-01

125

Design solutions for water treatment plants constructed on the basis of membrane technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two process circuits for demineralizing makeup water for power units at thermal power stations are considered. One of them is constructed on the basis of a combined plant comprising reverse-osmosis and ion-exchange apparatuses and the other comprises reverse-osmosis and electric deionization apparatuses. The considered circuits are analyzed by way of comparing them with the traditional chemical water demineralization system. Advantages and drawbacks of the new technologies for treating natural water are pointed out.

Panteleev, A. A.; Ryabchikov, B. E.; Zhadan, A. V.; Khoruzhii, O. V.

2012-07-01

126

Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl?1 was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%.

Jianguo Liu; Yuan Dong; Hai Xu; Deke Wang; Jiakuan Xu

2007-01-01

127

Leader values for constructive controversy and team effectiveness in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leading teams effectively is a challenge for organizations in many countries. This study proposes that leaders who value people, productivity, and participation help teams work effectively and productively by encouraging team members to discuss their diverse views open-mindedly. Working in diverse organizations in India, team leaders indicated their participation, people, and productivity values and team members rated their constructive controversy

Deepti Bhatnagar; Dean Tjosvold

2012-01-01

128

Leader values for constructive controversy and team effectiveness in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leading teams effectively is a challenge for organizations in many countries. This study proposes that leaders who value people, productivity, and participation help teams work effectively and productively by encouraging team members to discuss their diverse views open-mindedly. Working in diverse organizations in India, team leaders indicated their participation, people, and productivity values and team members rated their constructive controversy

Deepti Bhatnagar; Dean Tjosvold

2011-01-01

129

Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.  

PubMed

Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:18937893

AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

2008-12-01

130

Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.  

PubMed

The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

2014-01-01

131

Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.  

PubMed

Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

2009-01-01

132

77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units...intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit...under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

2012-05-18

133

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

2012-01-01

134

Demography and management of the invasive plant species Hypericum perforatum. II. Construction and use of an individual-based model to predict population dynamics and the effects of management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Hypericum perforatum , St John's wort, is an invasive weed of natural and agro- ecosystems in south-eastern Australia. In previous work we used a long-term data set to determine which plant traits and environmental factors influence population growth and persistence in this species. These results were then used to parameterize an individual- based model of the population dynamics

Yvonne M. Buckley; David T. Briese; Mark Rees

2003-01-01

135

Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings.

Joe R. Cowles; Richard Lemay; Gary Jahns

1988-01-01

136

Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

1998-01-01

137

Nutrient Removal in Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands Treating Eutrophic River Water: Assessment of Plants, Intermittent Artificial Aeration and Polyhedron Hollow Polypropylene Balls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven experimental pilot-scale subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands were designed to assess the effect of plants\\u000a [Typha latifolia L. (cattail)], intermittent artificial aeration and the use of polyhedron hollow polypropylene balls (PHPB) as part of the\\u000a wetland substrate on nutrient removal from eutrophic Jinhe River water in Tianjin, China. During the entire running period,\\u000a observations indicated that plants played a negligible

Xianqiang Tang; Suiliang Huang; Miklas Scholz; Jinzhong Li

2009-01-01

138

Radiation safety during construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused high levels of source contamination by radionuclides (up to 1.E8 dis./min. per square cm for beta radiation, and 1.E5 dis./min per square cm for alpha radiation) and gamma radiation exposure dose levels in excess of 400 R/h. Moreover, the radiation fields were uneven and inhomogeneous, amongst other things with regard to their spectral characteristics. In a situation of this kind, radiation situation monitoring data are highly important and serve as the basis for design decision, planning of construction and assembly work, and protection of personnel to minimize dose commitments while maintaining the maximum speed of work during construction of the encapsulation. Both traditional and specially developed methods were used to monitor the radiation situation, enabling measurement of radiation risk factors, determination of space-angular distribution of gamma-radiation, and detection of local contamination sources. Radiation situation monitoring results showed that 15 - 80% of the gamma-radiation was coming from nuclear fuel in the plant compound. After the encapsulation had been erected, gamma-radiation levels in the vicinity of unit 4 decreased by a factor of approximately 100. Owing to the high levels of gamma-radiation, the danger of external irradiation of personnel was significantly greater than the danger from internal irradiation. Therefore, the staff were monitored individually for gamma radiation. A review is given of the main radiation safety problems which were solved during design and construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of Chernobyl Nuclear power plant which was destroyed in the accident of 26 April 1986. The paper discusses the technical, organisational and health measures which were used to ensure that radiation safety regulations and standards were observed during construction.

Belovodskiy, L.F. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre-All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

139

Changes in the bacterial community structure in two-stage constructed wetlands with different plants for industrial wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This study focused on the diversity of bacterial communities from two series of two-stage constructed wetlands (CWs) treating tannery wastewater, under different hydraulic conditions. Series were separately planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis in expanded clay aggregates and operated for 31 months. The effect of plant species, hydraulic loading and unit stage on bacterial communities was addressed through bacterial enumeration and denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Diverse and distinct bacterial communities were found in each system unit, which was related in part to the type of plant and stage position (first or second unit in the series). Numerical analysis of DGGE profiles showed high diversity in each unit with an even distribution of species. No clear relation was established between the sample collection time, hydraulic loading applied and the bacterial diversity. Isolates retrieved from plant roots and substrates of CWs were affiliated with gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, alpha-Proteobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Both series were effective in removing organic matter from the inlet wastewater, however, based on batch degradation experiments it seems that biodegradation was limited by the recalcitrant properties of the wastewater. PMID:19303772

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Duque, Anouk F; Moura, Alexandra; Henriques, Isabel S; Correia, António; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2009-07-01

140

The Effect of Gender on the Construction of Backward Inferences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective in the present study is to examine the effect of gender on primary school students' construction of elaborative backward inferences during text processing. A total of 333 children, aged 10-11 years (n = 158 girls and 175 boys) participated in the study. Each participant completed a backward inference test. The results indicate…

Cakir, Ozler

2008-01-01

141

RADON MITIGATION EFFECTS OF PASSIVE STACKS IN RESIDENTIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effects of passive stacks in mitigating radon levels in residential new construction. Although passive stacks have been installed as a radon resistant measure in new houses, little quantitative data on their performance has been collected. This study invol...

142

Semantics of the Transitive Construction: Prototype Effects and Developmental Comparisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates whether an abstract linguistic construction shows the kind of prototype effects characteristic of non-linguistic categories, in both adults and young children. Adapting the prototype-plus-distortion methodology of Franks and Bransford (1971), we found that whereas adults were lured toward false-positive recognition of…

Ibbotson, Paul; Theakston, Anna L.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

143

The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

2008-01-01

144

Processing XML Keyword Search by Constructing Effective Structured Queries  

E-print Network

Processing XML Keyword Search by Constructing Effective Structured Queries Jianxin Li, Chengfei Liu in XML database. It is hard to directly improve the relevancy of XML keyword search because lots design an adaptive XML keyword search approach, called XBridge, that can derive the semantics

Liu, Chengfei

145

Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.  

PubMed

A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance. PMID:15620752

Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

2005-02-01

146

Enhanced arsenic removals through plant interactions in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) removal in pilot-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) was investigated by comparing between CW units with vetiver grasses (CWplanted) and CW units without vetiver grasses (CWunplanted) in order to determine the roles of vetiver grasses affecting As removal. Based on the data obtained from 147 days of experiment, it is apparent that CWplanted units could remove As significantly higher than those of CWunplanted units with approximately 7-14%. Although analysis of As mass balance in CW units revealed that only 0.5-1.0% of total As was found in vetiver grasses, the As retained within bed of the CWplanted units (23.6-29.7 g) was higher than those in the CWunplanted units (21.3-26.8 g) at the end of the experiment, illustrating the effect of vetiver grasses on As accumulation in the CW units. Determination of As in different fractions in the CW bed suggested that the main mechanism of As retention was due mainly to As entrapment into the porous of bed materials (50-57% of total fraction), this mechanism is likely not affected by the presence of vetiver grasses. However, fraction of As-bound in organic matters that could be released from plant roots decomposition indicated the increase adsorption capacity of CW bed. In addition, organic sulfides produced from their root decomposition could help remove As through the precipitation/co-precipitation process. Under reducing condition in those CWplanted units, As could be leached out in the form of iron and manganese-bound complexes. PMID:19123096

Singhakant, Chatchawal; Koottatep, Thammarat; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

2009-02-01

147

Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 ?g kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 ?g kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended. PMID:24969425

Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

2014-11-01

148

THE USE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TO PHYTOREMEDIATE EXPLOSIVES-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE MILAN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT, MILAN, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

The groundwaters beneath many Army ammunition plants in the United States are contaminated with explosives. To help address this problem, the USAEC and TVA initiated a field demonstration program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using constructed wetlands for remediating ...

149

Purification of fuel and nitrate contaminated ground water using a free water surface constructed wetland plant  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated ground water from a former coke plant site was purified in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland plant during a 3-mo short-term experiment. The pilot plant (total surface area 27 m{sup 2}) was filled with a 1 m thick lava-gravel substrate planted with cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus lacustrls). Major contaminants were low to moderate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, nitrate, and nitrite. The wetland was dosed at hydraulic loading rates of q{sub A} = 4.8 and 9.6 cm d{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 13.7 and 6.8 d. The surface removal rates of PAH were between 98.8 and 1914 mg m{sup {minus}2} d{sup {minus}1}. Efficiency was always {gt}99%. Extraction of lava gravel showed that approx. 0.4% of the applied PAH were retained on the substratum. The ratio of {Sigma}2,3-ring PAH and {Sigma}4,5,6-ring PAH showed a shift from 1:0.11 in water to 1:2.5 in lava. The removal of BTEX was {gt}99%, but might be in part due to volatilization. The efficiency in the removal of nitrate was 91% and of nitrite was 97%. Purification performance was not influenced by hydraulic loading rates or after die-back of the macrophytes.

Machate, T.; Heuermann, E.; Schramm, K.W.; Kettrup, A.

1999-10-01

150

A comparative study of five horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different plant species for domestic wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

This project studied domestic wastewater treatment by horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands (CW) and compared the effect of four different plant species on the operating conditions, dissolved oxygen (DO), and redox potential (ORP), and their efficiency on pollutants removal. Five HSSF CWs were fed for 10 months with low loaded synthetic domestic wastewater, using theoretical hydraulic residence time of 7.6 days. The plant species under study were the following: Phragmites australis (CW1), Lythrum salicaria (CW3), Cladium mariscus (CW4) and Iris pseudacorus (CW5). CW2 was not planted and this was used as control. Qualitative measurements determined a greater growth of Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus than the others. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were very low in the entire bulk liquid of all the CWs. Also ORP values were very similar in all wetlands, dealing with facultative anaerobic environments. All planted wetlands improved pollutants removal compared with the unplanted control wetland. The performances in terms of COD, TN, TP and SO4(2-) removal obtained by the different CWs were in the ranges 80-90%, 35-55%, 15-40% and 45-60% respectively. Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus, which exhibited greater growth, were always the most efficient species that improved not only nutrients plant uptake but also other microbial removal processes probably due to a higher aeration potential, such as nitrification or aerobic respiration. Sulphate reduction was the most important mechanism for COD removal. Cladium mariscus, an autochthonous plant that grows in the south-central Iberian Peninsula, was less efficient than Lythrum salicaria and Iris pseudacorus, but improved the unplanted wetland wastewater efficiency. PMID:18341144

Villaseñor Camacho, J; De Lucas Martínez, A; Gómez Gómez, R; Mena Sanz, J

2007-12-01

151

Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.  

PubMed

Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate polluted water. PMID:23673920

He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

2013-10-01

152

Effect of Environment on Plant Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this plant biotechnology activity is to demonstrate the effect of changes in the environment on the growth and fertility of landscape grasses and crop grasses such as wheat and rice. Plants are placed in environments such as high salinity, cold, heat, or drought and learners observe the different reactions of the plants to these conditions. Learners compare the growth of treated plants to that of the control plants, which are grown under optimal conditions. Learners then discuss the desirability of breeding new types of plants that are better able to withstand these changes if they occur in the general environment. In the original description of the activity, the planting is prepared by the instructor as a demonstration, but learners could be involved in this process. This resource contains background information and questions for learners.

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

153

A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and

Ho-Wen Chen; Ni-Bin Chang

2002-01-01

154

Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security

Kristi M. Branch; Kathryn A. Baker

2009-01-01

155

Construction of rock-earth at perepadnaya-I hydroelectric plant and experience with its operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The construction of soil facings and cores of rock-earth dams by placing the fills in water is a rational and progressive\\u000a method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The construction of one-layer transition zones made from river alluvial material (with or without screening) is also an effective\\u000a measure; these zones can serve as reliable filters, which protect the loams in the facing; however,

R. A. Airapetyan

1973-01-01

156

The effective use of the computer for construction management  

E-print Network

December 1983 Major Subject: Civil Engineering THE EFFECTIVE USE OF THE COMPUTER FOR CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT A Thesis by ROBERT JOHN KOSTELNY Approved as to style and content by: or e Stukhart (C irman of Conanitee) Willi . e e (Member) W. ougl... of Cost Engineers, most notably Mr, Ken Sherman and Mr. Morrie Fleishman. Their expertise in the area of project management, and valuable assistance with the research effort, were most helpful in the early stages of the study development. A group...

Kostelny, Robert John

2012-06-07

157

The direct carbon dioxide effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its direct effects on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the direct

Jonathan Adams

158

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

1991-07-01

159

Impact of plant density and microbial composition on water quality from a free water surface constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To correlate microbial community composition and water quality chan- ges within wetland cells containing varying plant densities and composition in a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Methods and Results: Water chemistry was monitored weekly for nitrate, orthophosphate, and suspended solids, at various sites throughout the wetland for 6 months. Treatment ponds with 50% plant cover had about a

A. M. Ibekwe; S. R. Lyon; M. Leddy; M. Jacobson-Meyers

2006-01-01

160

The development of three-dimensional spatial modeling techniques for the construction planning of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of the first phase of a research project on the application of spatial modeling techniques to the process of planning and executing the construction of a nuclear power plant. A computer modeling technique, based on sets of polyhedra and spatial operations, was developed and applied to modeling the components of a nuclear power plant. The objectives

Harold J. Borkin; Jonn F. McIntosh; James A. Turner

1978-01-01

161

Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. The leachate from the irrigation of the pots is also monitored and assessed to ensure that if selected for field trials, the mix will not pose a threat to water bodies. The presentation at the conference will aim to report the latest results from the on-going experiment.

Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

2014-05-01

162

TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

2010-01-14

163

Temperature effects on wastewater nitrate removal in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Constructed wetlands may be used for removal of high nutrient loads in greenhouse wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Temperature affects both the physical and biological activities in wetland systems. Since nitrification and denitrification are temperature-dependent processes, effluent nitrate concentrations will fluctuate due to changes in air and wetland temperature. In a cold climate, constructed wetlands can function in a temperature-controlled, greenhouse environment year-round. This work evaluates four temperature treatments on nitrate removal rates in five planted and five unplanted laboratory-scale wetlands. Wetlands were supplied with a nutrient solution similar to the fertigation runoff solution (100 PPM nitrate-N) used in greenhouse crop production. A first-order kinetic model was used to describe experimental nitrate depletion data and to predict nitrate removal rate constants (k) in the wetlands planted with Iris pseudocoras. The negligible removal in unplanted wetlands was thought to be due to lack of carbon source in the fertigation solution. Between 19 and 23 C is planted systems, k increased from 0.062 to 0.077 h{sup {minus}1}, appeared to peak around 30 C (k = 0.184 h{sup {minus}1}), but decreased at 38 C (k = 0.099h{sup {minus}1}). Based on the Arrhenius equation, k was a first-order exponential function of temperature between 18 and 30 C in planted systems. Quantification of temperature effects on planted and unplanted laboratory-scale constructed wetlands can be sued to enhance the design and management of wastewater treatment wetlands.

Wood, S.L.; Wheeler, E.F.; Berghage, R.D.; Graves, R.E.

1999-02-01

164

Immunity: plants as effective mediators.  

PubMed

In the domain of nutrition, exploring the diet-health linkages is major area of research. The outcomes of such interventions led to widespread acceptance of functional and nutraceutical foods; however, augmenting immunity is a major concern of dietary regimens. Indeed, the immune system is incredible arrangement of specific organs and cells that enabled humans to carry out defense against undesired responses. Its proper functionality is essential to maintain the body homeostasis. Array of plants and their components hold immunomodulating properties. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhanced immunity against diseases. The review intended to highlight the importance of garlic (Allium sativum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), purple coneflower (Echinacea), black cumin (Nigella sativa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Astragalus and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as natural immune boosters. These plants are bestowed with functional ingredients that may provide protection against various menaces. Modes of their actions include boosting and functioning of immune system, activation and suppression of immune specialized cells, interfering in several pathways that eventually led to improvement in immune responses and defense system. In addition, some of these plants carry free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities that are helpful against cancer insurgence. Nevertheless, interaction between drugs and herbs/botanicals should be well investigated before recommended for their safe use, and such information must be disseminated to the allied stakeholders. PMID:24564587

Sultan, M Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

2014-01-01

165

Plant Diversity has "Luxury" Effect, Say Scientists  

NSF Publications Database

... hgholz@nsf.gov Plant Diversity has "Luxury" Effect, Say Scientists Biodiversity in urban/suburban ... becomes greater as the elevation of the site increases, but in the city resource abundance (wealth ...

166

Regional employment and income effects of a 50MW wood-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and operation of a 50-MW wood-fired power plant could have a profound influence on the rural region in which it is located. Using Department of Commerce regional data, input-output computer analysis techniques are employed to estimate the effects on local income and employment of constructing and operating such a plant in a three-county region in northern Vermont. In general,

VanderWerf

1978-01-01

167

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

1996-02-01

168

A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

169

Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.  

PubMed

Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. Efectos de las Plantas Invasoras sobre los Artrópodos. PMID:25065640

Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

2014-12-01

170

Nitrogen transformation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands II: Effect of biofilm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the significance of the biofilm biomass present in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland in removal of nitrogen was demonstrated. The model was developed and optimised using data obtained in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites mauritianus and filled with 6-25 mm diameter gravel pack. The effects of biofilm biomass activities were studied by removing the effects of plant and gravel bed biofilm in an already calibrated model and re-run the same. Research results indicate that total nitrogen removal was largely influenced by growth of biofilm on plants than on aggregates. When plant biofilm and suspended biomasses were considered total nitrogen removal of 38.1% was observed compared with 25.1% when aggregate-biofilm and suspended biomasses were considered because plants have more surface areas, which are active sites for the effective biofilm activities than aggregates. However, in a natural wetland where the soil grain size is smaller, the effect of biofilm on plants may be smaller than biofilm on soil particles. There was no significant difference in organic-nitrogen effluent concentrations when biofilm biomass was considered or rejected. The averages in organic-nitrogen effluent concentrations were 0.39, 0.41 and 0.53 gN/m 2 for suspended alone, aggregate-biofilm and suspended; and suspended and plant-biofilm, respectively. This indicates that the removal of organic-nitrogen in wastewater is not significantly influenced by biofilm activities. Sedimentation and mineralization processes are the major factors influencing the concentration of organic-nitrogen in the effluent. On the other hand, biofilm activities had significant influence on ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen transformation. The developed model output indicates that the effluent ammonia concentration was 2 gN/m 2, but in absence of biofilm the effluent ammonia concentration increases to 3.5 gN/m 2. Statistical analysis indicates that the mean average nitrogen-nitrogen in the effluent was 0.71 gN/m 2 when aggregate-biofilm was considered, but increased to 0.83 gN/m 2 when it was not considered.

Bigambo, T.; Mayo, A. W.

171

Evaluating Degree of Success in Power Plant Construction Projects Based on Variable Weight Grey Cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper uses variable weight grey cluster to evaluate the degree of success in power plant which is this paperpsilas innovative points. First we give an index system for the project degree of success evaluation, which contains four second-indexes (implementation process, operation situation, financial benefit and the effect of environment) and each second-index contains third-index, then use variable weight grey

Yuansheng Huang; Qingchao Liu; Li Tian

2008-01-01

172

Seasonal effect on N2O formation in nitrification in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands are considered to be important sources of nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In order to investigate the contribution of nitrification in N(2)O formation, some environmental factors, plant species and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in active layers have been compared. Vegetation cells indicated remarkable effect of seasons and different plant species on N(2)O emission and AOB amount. Nitrous oxide data showed large temporal and spatial fluctuations ranging 0-52.8 mg N(2)O m(-2)d(-1). Higher AOB amount and N(2)O flux rate were observed in the Zizania latifolia cell, reflecting high potential of global warming. Roles of plants as ecosystem engineers are summarized with rhizosphere oxygen release and organic matter transportation to affect nitrogen transformation. The Phragmites australis cell contributed to keeping high T-N removal performance and lower N(2)O emission. The distribution of AOB also supported this result. Statistical analysis showed several environmental parameters affecting the strength of observed greenhouse gases emission, such as water temperature, water level, TOC, plant species and plant cover. PMID:18782640

Inamori, Ryuhei; Wang, Yanhua; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Zhang, Jixiang; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei

2008-10-01

173

Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements  

SciTech Connect

A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

2009-09-01

174

Changes in herbaceous plants in an urban habitat garden in Kyoto city, Japan, 9 years after construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the characteristics and problems of artificial urban ecological environments, we investigated the changes in\\u000a herbaceous plants in an urban habitat garden for 9 years after construction and compared the results with 15 remnant semi-natural\\u000a green spaces in Kyoto city, Japan. The area of the habitat garden is 0.6 ha and it was constructed approximately 3 km from\\u000a the nearest mountains in

Ayumi Imanishi; Chieko Kitagawa; Susumu Nakamura; Hiroshi Hashimoto; Keizo Tabata; Junichi Imanishi; Kentaro Murakami; Yukihiro Morimoto; Mifumi Miyamoto

2007-01-01

175

Effects of herbivore identity on plant fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores are pervasive, yet their effects on plant fecundity are often variable. One potential source of variation in herbivore impacts results from differing feeding modes of herbivores. We examined the relative importance of inflorescence-feeding insects versus large ungulates in affecting the fecundity of Balsamorhiza sagittata (Asteraceae), a dominant native perennial forb in western Montana, USA. We quantified these effects across

Lindsay K. Amsberry; John L. Maron

2006-01-01

176

Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (? ? < 0). High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of statoliths is the only significant effect of the magnetic field on plant cells and organs in the tested magnetic systems.

Kuznetsov, O.

177

WELL CONSTRUCTION AND PURGING EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple well installations of selected casing materials (i.e., polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 304 stainless steel (SS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were constructed and sampled to determine if well purging and construction procedures would significantly bias chemical constitu...

178

Effects of plant neighborhoods on plant-herbivore interactions: resource dilution and associational effects.  

PubMed

Effects of neighboring plants on herbivore damage to a focal plant (associational effects) have been documented in many systems and can lead to either increased or decreased herbivore attack. Mechanistic models that explain the observed variety of herbivore responses to local plant community composition have, however, been lacking. We present a model of herbivore responses to patches that consist of two plant types, where herbivore densities on a focal plant are determined by a combination of patch-finding, within-patch redistribution, and patch-leaving. Our analyses show that the effect of plant neighborhood on herbivores depends both on how plant and herbivore traits combine to affect herbivore movement and on how experimental designs reveal the effects of plant density and plant relative frequency. Associational susceptibility should be the dominant pattern when herbivores have biased landing rates within patches. Other behavioral decision rules lead to mixed responses, but a common pattern is that in mixed patches, one plant type experiences associational resistance while the other plant experiences associational susceptibility. In some cases, the associational effect may shift sign along a gradient of plant frequency, suggesting that future empirical studies should include more than two plant frequencies to detect nonlinearities. Finally, we find that associational susceptibility should be commonly observed in experiments using replacement designs, whereas associational resistance will be the dominant pattern when using additive designs. Consequently, outcomes from one experimental design cannot be directly compared to studies with other designs. Our model can also be translated to other systems with foragers searching for multiple resource types. PMID:25000768

Hambäck, Peter A; Inouye, Brian D; Andersson, Petter; Underwood, Nora

2014-05-01

179

Effect of cadmium on symbiotic soybean plants  

SciTech Connect

The potential for environmental contamination by cadmium (Cd) has increased significantly in recent years. Since Cd may be hazardous to living systems, a study was conducted to investigate: (1) the existence of Rhizobium japonicum strains tolerant to Cd, (2) the Cd effect on the symbiosis between host soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and R. japonicum strains with different Cd tolerances, and (3) interactions and distribution of Cd and other elements in the host when biomass is decreased by Cd. The existence of R. japonicum strains tolerant to Cd was assessed by comparing growth curves of 10 different strains growing in a basal medium with gluconate, yeast extract, L-arabinose, and Cd (0, 3.5, 7, 14, and 28 ..mu..g/ml). Strain 3Ilb110 (110) exhibited a tolerance to Cd after an initial lag in growth, while strain 3Ilb123 (123) was susceptible. Strains 110 and 123 were used to inoculate plants growing in nutrient solution with Perlite as a support medium to evaluate the plant-rhizobial interactions in the presence of 0, 2.2, 6.7, 10.1, and 20.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, respectively. Plants were harvested and tops, roots, and nodules were analyzed 23 days after starting Cd application. Cadmium decreased dry matter production of tops, roots, and nodules. Plants inoculated with strain 123 accumulated significantly more dry matter in nodules than those with strain 110. However, in the presence of 0 and 2.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, plants innoculated with strain 110 accumulated significantly more N than plants innoculated with strain 123. Nutrient imbalances were observed in the presence of Cd. It is suggested that the interactions of Cd with some nutrients may contribute to Cd toxicity in soybean plants. In this study the most pronounced Cd effect was on Fe and Mn nutrition, rather than Zn as had been previously reported.

Borges, A.C.; Wollum, A.G. II

1981-04-01

180

Assessing the effectiveness of a constructed Arctic stream using multiple biological attributes.  

PubMed

Objective assessment of habitat compensation is a central yet challenging issue for restoration ecologists. In 1997, a 3.4-km stream channel, designed to divert water around an open pit diamond mine, was excavated in the Barrenlands region of the Canadian Arctic to create productive stream habitat. We evaluated the initial success of this compensation program by comparing multiple biological attributes of the constructed stream during its first three years to those of natural reference streams in the area. The riparian zone of the constructed stream was largely devoid of vegetation throughout the period, in contrast to the densely vegetated zones of reference streams. The constructed stream also contained lower amounts of woody debris, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), and epilithon; had lower coverage by macrophytes and bryophytes; and processed leaf litter at a lower rate than reference streams. Species richness and densities of macroinvertebrates were consistently lower in the constructed stream compared to natural streams. This contributed to differences in macroinvertebrate assemblage structure throughout the period, although assemblages showed some convergence by year 3. The effectiveness of the constructed stream to emulate natural streams varied somewhat depending on the biological attribute being evaluated. Assessments based on individual attributes showed that minimal to moderate levels of similarity between the constructed stream and natural streams were achieved. A collective assessment of all biological and ecosystem attributes suggested that the constructed stream was not a good surrogate for natural streams during these first years. Additional time would be required before many characteristics of the constructed stream would resemble those of reference streams. Because initial efforts to improve fish habitat in the constructed stream focused on physical structures (e.g., weirs, vanes, rock, groins), ecological factors limiting fish growth were not considered and likely constrained success. We suggest that a greater focus on organic characteristics and vegetation within the stream and its riparian zone could have accelerated compensation. The addition of woody debris and CPOM, combined with planting of shrubs and herbs along the stream, should provide a source of allochthonous matter for the biotic community while large cobble and boulders should improve the physical stability of stream system, protecting its organic components. PMID:18839240

Jones, Nicholas E; Scrimgeour, Garry J; Tonn, William M

2008-12-01

181

Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.  

PubMed

A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

2014-09-01

182

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

183

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions

Shereen Cynthia D'Cruz; Selvaraju Vaithinathan; Rajamanickam Jubendradass; Premendu Prakash Mathur

2010-01-01

184

Loss of Plant Biodiversity Over a Seven-Year Period in Two Constructed Wetlands in Central New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since wetland construction projects are becoming more commonplace, meaningful follow-up studies are needed to evaluate how these systems change over time. To that end, the objective of our study was to examine the temporal changes in plant community composition and water chemistry in two constructed wetlands. We investigated two wetland sites that were constructed in 2003 in northern Otsego County, NY, a county that is largely dominated by agriculture. Site 1 was previously an active cow pasture and site 2 was previously a wet meadow surrounded by agricultural fields. No active plant introduction was made during the construction; however, both sites were located in areas with many remnant wetlands and were connected to through-flowing streams. In 2004 (Year 1) and 2010 (Year 7), the plant community composition and nitrogen retention were assessed. We found that both sites experienced site-wide declines in plant species richness, including the loss of upland and facultative upland species and the unanticipated loss of facultative wetland and some obligate species. We propose that high water levels, which, at their maximum depth were >1.5 m deeper than in Year 1, maintained by landowners in the years after the initial survey, may have been responsible for the unexpected loss of wetland species. We also found that site 1 exhibited considerable nitrogen retention in both Year 1 and Year 7; however, N concentrations were low at site 2 in both years.

Kearney, Miranda A.; Fickbohm, Scott; Zhu, Weixing

2013-05-01

185

Formulation of production blasting criteria for the construction of a lime plant at a major crushed stone operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blast-monitoring program conducted at Chemical Lime Company's new lime calcining facility near St Genevieve, Missouri, USA is discussed. The purpose was to develop blasting criteria for the construction and operation of the lime plant within the quarry operated by Tower Rock Stone. Further, it was imperative to accommodate production requirements into the blasting criteria. The major concern was the

Paul Worsey; Scott G. Giltner; Terry Drechsler; Ron Ecklecamp; Ronnie Inman

1998-01-01

186

Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew during the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment.

Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, Richard; Jahns, Gary

1988-12-01

187

Effectiveness of 4D construction modeling in detecting time-space conflicts of construction sites  

E-print Network

softwares do not take into account the workspace required during the construction of a component unless space is modeled as a separate component into the CAD application. Therefore, without modeling space as a component in the 3D model it is necessary...

Nigudkar, Narendra Shriniwas

2005-11-01

188

UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impacts of an increase in solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion have been investigated by several research groups during the last 15 years. uch of this research has centered on the effects of plant growth and physiolo...

189

Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

1998-09-30

190

New practical and theoretical approaches to the induction of morphogenesis from plant tumors in vitro using new types of plant growth regulators: towards constructive paradigms in agriculture and medicine.  

PubMed

Using classical or traditional plant growth regulators, calli or plant tumors have been produced in vitro and subsequently have been induced to produce buds and plantlets, a process referred to as regeneration. For many years, this has been a successful procedure for in vitro, plant propagation. However, for a number of plant species investigators could not induce calli in vitro to produce buds. Organogenesis was still recalcitrant for various plants in 1980. New types or nonconventional growth regulators, such as methylglyoxal and ascorbic acid, were then found to overcome recalcitrant organogenesis in vitro. Their successful or effective use gave support to a theory that stressful, non-uniform cohesive force-fields, electromagnetic in nature, occurring through the application of certain chemicals, are necessary for in vitro morphogenesis from plant neoplasm or callus. Morphogenesis is seen as an adaptive accommodation to the inner stresses from such non-uniform, cohesive forces. Diverse chemicals, not considered traditional plant growth regulators would, it has been conjectured, enable the generation of such cohesive forces, in non-uniform arrays, and it has been predicted that more chemicals of this type will be discovered. A new constructive approach to agriculture and medicine, using a new plant tissue-culture model, based on new theory, has also been predicted. PMID:24640421

Lieber, Michael M

2013-01-01

191

Constructs of highly effective heat transport paths by bionic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization approach based on the biological evolution principle is used to construct the heat transport paths for volume-to-point\\u000a problem. The transport paths are constructed by inserting high conductivity materials in the heat conduction domain where\\u000a uniform or nonuniform heat sources exist. In the bionic optimization process, the optimal constructs of the high conductivity\\u000a material are obtained by numerically simulating

Xinguang Cheng; Zhixin Li; Zengyuan Guo

2003-01-01

192

Effects of the substrate depth on purification performance of a hybrid constructed wetland treating domestic sewage.  

PubMed

The depth of substrate in constructed wetlands (CWs) has a significant effect on the construction investment and the purification performance of CWs. In this study, a pilot scale CW system was operated in a domestic sewage treatment plant in Xi'an, China. The experimental systems included three-series CWs systems with substrate depths of 0.1m, 0.3 m and 0.6 m, respectively. Each series was composed of a hydroponic ditch, a horizontal subsurface flow CW and a vertical flow CW. The effluent from the primary clarifier in the sewage treatment plant was intermittently conducted to the wetlands at a flow rate of 0.3 m(3)/d. The hydraulic loading rate of each CWs system was regulated at 0.1 m(3)/m(2).d and the hydraulic retention time was 3 days. Canna indica L. was planted both in the hydroponic ditches and the CWs systems. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of NH(+)(4)-N and TP was obtained in the hybrid CW with 0.1 m substrate depth. The average removal efficiency for NH(+)(4)-N and TP were 90.6 % and 80.0 %, respectively. The highest average removal efficiency of COD was obtained in hybrid CWs system with 0.6 m substrate depth. Therefore, a simultaneous removal of COD and nutrients can be achieved through the combination of different wetlands using different substrate depths. In addition, the substrate depth presents significant effects on the concentration of DO and root growth characteristics of canna in the system. As a result, the highest concentration of DO (>2 mg/L) and the highest amount of roots production were achieved in the 0.1 m substrate depth horizontal and vertical flow CWs. PMID:21644156

Ren, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Chao; Yang, Yong-Zhe; Qin, Zhen; Ma, Yun

2011-01-01

193

Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.  

PubMed

The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB-induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P-induced neoplasia alone, while the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves, solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:1473788

Aruna, K; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1992-11-01

194

Unexpected earthworm effects on forest understory plants  

PubMed Central

Background Introduced earthworms are widespread in forests of North America creating significant negative impacts on forest understory communities. However, much of the reported evidence for negative earthworm effects comes from field investigations either comparing invaded and non-invaded forests or across invasion fronts. While important, such work is rarely able to capture the true effect of earthworms on individual plant species because most forests in North America simultaneously face multiple stressors which may confound earthworm impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to isolate effects of the anecic introduced earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L. on seedlings of 14 native plant species representing different life form groups (perennial herb, graminoid, and tree). Results Earthworm presence did not affect survival, fertility or biomass of any of the seedling plant species tested over a 17-week period. However, L. terrestris presence significantly decreased growth of two sedges (Carex retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. and Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small) by decreasing the number of culms. Conclusions Our mesocosm results with seedlings contrast with field reports indicating extensive and significant negative effects of introduced earthworms on many mature native forbs, and positive effects on sedges. We suggest that earthworm impacts are context- and age-specific and that generalizations about their impacts are potentially misleading without considering and manipulating other associated factors. PMID:24314263

2013-01-01

195

Domestic wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland system planted with rice.  

PubMed

The experiments were conducted in four concrete laboratory scale free water surface constructed wetland units 1 m wide, 1.5 m long and 0.8 m deep. Paddy field soil was added to a depth of 0.4 m and rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were transplanted into the units at a density of 25 plants/m(2). Domestic wastewater collected from Chiang Mai University was applied into each unit via two different modes to evaluate suitable conditions for wastewater treatment and rice yield. In the first experiment, the wastewater was fed intermittently (7 h/day) with a hydraulic loading rate of 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm/day. The maximum removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were only 49.1, 58.7, 64.0 and 59.4%, respectively, due to the short hydraulic retention time for the biodegradation of organic substances. In the second experiment, the wastewater in each unit was inundated to a depth of 15 cm for 10, 15, 20 and 25 days in each unit and then drained and re-flooded. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were greater than in the first experiment especially at the 25 day retention time and except for suspended solids met the Thai national effluent standard. The study revealed that apart from wastewater treatment, wastewater can replace natural water to grow rice in the dry season or throughout the year. Moreover, nutrients in wastewater can be a substitute for chemical fertilizers. Rice grain production was 4,700 kg/ha and only 6% less than the production from the conventional paddy field. PMID:22170830

Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Duangjaisak, Wanida

2011-01-01

196

One-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning intron-containing hairpin RNA constructs for RNAi in plants.  

PubMed

*The hairpin-based RNA interference (RNAi) technique plays an important role in exploring gene function in plants. Although there are several methods for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs, these methods usually need multiple relatively laborious, time-consuming or high-cost cloning steps. Here we describe a one-step, zero-background ligation-independent cloning (OZ-LIC) method for making intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) constructs by our vector pRNAi-LIC. *To generate the ihpRNA constructs with zero-background, this method only requires treating two PCR products of target gene flanked with different LIC sequences and SmaI-linearized pRNAi-LIC vector by T4 DNA polymerase respectively, and then transforming these treated DNA mixture into Escherichia coli. *The ihpRNA constructs generated with our OZ-LIC RNAi vector can efficiently induce not only transient silencing of the exogenous marker genes and the endogenous resistance-related Nicotiana benthamiana SGT1 gene, but also stable transgenic suppression of Arabidopsis SGT1b gene. *Our new OZ-LIC method and RNAi vector will represent a powerful tool for gene knockdown in plants and may facilitate high-throughput determination of plant gene function. PMID:20406406

Xu, Guoyong; Sui, Ning; Tang, Yang; Xie, Ke; Lai, Yizhen; Liu, Yule

2010-07-01

197

The Effects of Elevated Highway Construction on Water Quality in Louisiana Wetlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is to determine by physical, chemical, and biological means, the effects of bridged highway construction techniques on water quality in wetlands. Water quality was monitored before, during, and after construction. The data show the increase in ...

G. H. Cramer, W. C. Hopkins

1979-01-01

198

The Effects of Elevated Highway Construction on Water Quality in Louisiana Wetlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is to determine by physical, chemical, and biological means, the effects of bridged highway construction techniques on water quality in wetlands. Water quality was monitored before, during, and after construction. The data show the increase in ...

G. H. Cramer, W. C. Hopkins

1981-01-01

199

Experimental and full–scale pilot plant constructed wetlands for municipal wastewaters treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hierarchical Mosaic of Aquatic Ecosystems (HMAE®) was originally developed in Belgium by applying the ecological adaptations of hydrophyte plants to flooded and polluted conditions. The system consisted of a stabilization pond (stage I) followed by a semi-aquatic ecosystem planted with helophytes (stage II) and by a terrestrial ecosystem (stage III) where ligneous species are planted. An HMAE® experimental system

Gemma Ansola; Juan Manuel González; Rubén Cortijo; Estanislao de Luis

2003-01-01

200

Enhanced Denitrification by a Hybrid HF-FWS Constructed Wetland in a Large-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The municipal centralized treatment plant (a classic activated sludge technology) receiving the wastewater produced by the\\u000a municipality of Jesi (Ancona province, Central Italy), was upgraded in 2002. A new “nitrification–denitrification” compartment\\u000a and a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) were added to the system to enhance denitrification and provide final treatment polishing.\\u000a The whole system treats about 19,000 m3 day–1 (more than

Fabio Masi

201

Bioconcentration of triclosan, methyl-triclosan, and triclocarban in the plants and sediments of a constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands are a potential method for the removal of two pharmaceutical and personal care products from wastewater effluent. Triclosan (TCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol) and triclocarban (TCC; 3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanillide) are antimicrobial agents added to a variety of consumer products whose accumulation patterns in constructed wetlands are poorly understood. Here, we report the accumulation of TCS, its metabolite methyl-triclosan (MTCS; 5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]), and TCC in wetland plant tissues and sediments. Three wetland macrophytes: Typha latifolia, Pontederia cordata, and Sagittaria graminea were sampled from a constructed wetland in Denton, Texas, USA. MTCS concentrations were below the method detection limit (MDL) for all species. TCS root tissue concentrations in T. latifolia were significantly greater than root concentrations in P. cordata (mean±SE in ng g(-1): 40.3±11.3 vs. 15.0±1.9, respectively), while for TCC, shoot tissue concentrations in S. graminea were significantly greater than in T. latifolia (22.8±9.3 vs. 9.0 (MDL), respectively). For both TCS and TCC, T. latifolia root tissue concentrations were significantly greater than shoot concentrations (TCS: 40.3±11.3 vs. 17.2±0.2, TCC: 26.0±3.6 vs. 9.0, (MDL)). TCC concentrations in P. cordata roots were significantly greater than in shoots (34.4±5.3 vs. 15.4±2.8, respectively). TCS concentrations in T. latifolia roots and sediments and TCC concentrations in sediments generally decreased from wetland inflow to outflow. To our knowledge, this is the first study documenting species and tissue specific differences in the accumulation of TCS and TCC in plants from an operational constructed wetland. The species specific differences in bioaccumulation suggest TCS and TCC removal from constructed wetlands could be enhanced through targeted plantings. PMID:22483729

Zarate, Frederick M; Schulwitz, Sarah E; Stevens, Kevin J; Venables, Barney J

2012-07-01

202

[Construction of the cybrid transplastomic Brassica napus plants containing Lesquerella fendleri chloroplasts].  

PubMed

Transferring of Lesquerella fendleri genetically transformed plastids to Brassica napus plants has been performed with the somatic hybridization method. The plastome of the previously engineered transplastomic L. fendleri plants contained the aadA16gfp selective marker gene conferring spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance and green fluorescence under UV light. The protoplasts of B. napus chlorophyll-deficient plants were fused with gamma-irradiated protoplasts of L. fendleri transplastomic plants. A total of 59 green hybrid colonies have been isolated followed by spectinomycin/streptomycin selection. Shoot regeneration has been observed for two cell lines. Morphologically normal plants have been regenerated for one of them. PCR and isozyme analyses showed that the plants were transplastomic cybrids containing B. napus nuclei and L. fendleri transformed chloroplasts. PMID:17100275

Nitovs'ka, I O; Shakhovs'ky?, A M; Cherep, M N; Horodens'ka, M M; Kuchuk, M V

2006-01-01

203

Design report small-scale fuel alcohol plant. Volume 2: Detailed construction information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives are to provide potential alcohol producers with a reference design and provide a complete, demonstrated design of a small scale fuel alcohol plant. The plant has the capability for feedstock preparation, cooking, saccharification, fermentation, distillation, by-product dewatering, and process steam generation. An interesting feature is an instrumentation and control system designed to allow the plant to run 24 hours per day with only four hours of operator attention.

1980-12-01

204

Prevailing Wage Rates: The Effects on School Construction Costs, Levels of Taxation, and State Reimbursements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of study of impact of Pennsylvania Prevailing Wage Act on 25 school-construction project costs from 1992-97 and effect thereof on local school districts' taxes. All districts had higher construction costs and property taxes. Projects increased construction costs for the Commonwealth and recommends revisions in prevailing wage-rate law.…

Keller, Edward C.; Hartman, William T.

2001-01-01

205

A commercial project for private investments. Update of the 280 MW api Energia IGCC plant construction in central Italy.  

SciTech Connect

This paper has the aim to give a general overview of the api Energia IGCC project starting from the project background in 1992 and ending with the progress of construction. api Energia S.p.A., a joint VENTURE between api anonima petroli italiana S.p.A., Roma, Italy (51%), ABB Sae Sadelmi S.p.A., Milano, Italy (25%) and Texaco Development Corporation (24%), is building a 280 MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant in the api refinery at Falconara Marittima, on Italy' s Adriatic coast, using heavy oil residues. The plant is based on the modern concept of employing a highly efficient combined cycle power plant fed with a low heating value fuel gas produced by gasifying heavy refinery residues. This scheme provides consistent advantages in terms of efficiency and environmental impact over alternative applications of the refinery residues. The electric power produced will feed the national grid. The project has been financed using the ``project financing'' scheme: over 1,000 billion Lira, representing 75% of the overall capital requirement, have been provided by a pool of international banks. In November 1996 the project reached financial closure and immediately after the detailed design and procurement activities started. Engineering, Procurement and Construction activities, carried out by a Consortium of companies of the ABB group, are totally in line with the schedule. Commercial operation of the plant, is scheduled for November 1999.

Del Bravo, R.; Pinacci, P.; Trifilo, R.

1998-07-01

206

[Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].  

PubMed

In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

2014-02-01

207

Comparative analysis of United States and French nuclear power plant siting and construction regulatory policies and their economic consequences  

E-print Network

Despite the substantial commitments of time and money which are devoted to the nuclear power plant siting process, the effectiveness of the system in providing a balanced evaluation of the technical, environmental and ...

Golay, Michael Warren.

1977-01-01

208

Constructed Tropical Wetlands with Integrated Submergent-Emergent Plants for Sustainable Water Quality Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of primary effluent quality by using an integrated system of emergent plants (Scirpus grossus in the leading subsurface flow arrangement) and submergent plants (Hydrilla verticillata in a subsequent channel) was investigated. The primary effluent was drawn from a septic tank treating domestic sewage from a student dormitory at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Influent and effluent samples were

NORIO TANAKA; K. B. S. N. JINADASA; D. R. I. B. WERELLAGAMA; M. I. M. MOWJOOD; W. J. NG

2006-01-01

209

Supply strategy and network effects — purchasing behaviour in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partnering with suppliers and networking are increasingly used as means to improve company performance. This paper explores the occurrence of network effects in the construction industry. Benefits from network effects arise when firms adapt to one another in terms of technical solutions, logistics or administrative routines. The study finds such effects to be unusual in the construction industry. The main

Anna Dubois; Lars-Erik Gadde

2000-01-01

210

Reed beds: constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge dewatering.  

PubMed

Reed beds are an alternative technology wastewater treatment system that mimic the biogeochemical processes inherent in natural wetlands. The purpose of this project was to determine the effectiveness of a reed bed sludge treatment system (RBSTS) in southern New England after a six-year period of operation by examining the concentrations of selected metals in the reed bed sludge biomass and by determining the fate of solids and selected nutrients. Parameters assessed in both the reed bed influent and effluent: total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate-nitrogen and total phosphorus. In addition, the following metals were studied in the reed bed influent, effluent and Phragmites plant tissue and the sludge core biomass: boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc. The removal efficiencies for sludge dewatering, total suspended solids and biochemical oxygen demand were all over 90%. Nitrate and total phosphorus removal rates were 90% and 80% respectively. Overall metals removal efficient was 87%. Copper was the only metal in the sludge biomass that exceeded the standards set by the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection for land disposal of sludge. The highest metal concentrations, for the most part, tended to be in the lower tier of the sludge profile. The exception was boron, which was more concentrated in the middle tier of the sludge profile. The data and results presented in this paper support the notion that reed bed sludge treatment systems and the use of reed beds provide an efficient and cost effective alternative for municipal sludge treatment. PMID:11804125

Begg, J S; Lavigne, R L; Veneman, P L

2001-01-01

211

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

212

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

213

Original article Effects of tropospheric ozone on white clover plants  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of tropospheric ozone on white clover plants exposed in open-top chambers concentration in a large part of Europe is high enough to cause visible injury to sensitive plants and several site are evaluated using white clover plants. Plants were exposed to the air and sprayed with water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Constructed tropical wetlands with integrated submergent-emergent plants for sustainable water quality management.  

PubMed

Improvement of primary effluent quality by using an integrated system of emergent plants (Scirpus grossus in the leading subsurface flow arrangement) and submergent plants (Hydrilla verticillata in a subsequent channel) was investigated. The primary effluent was drawn from a septic tank treating domestic sewage from a student dormitory at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Influent and effluent samples were collected once every 2 weeks from May 2004 through July 2005 and analyzed to determine water quality parameters. Both the emergent and submergent plants were harvested at predetermined intervals. The results suggested that harvesting prolonged the usefulness of the system and the generation of a renewable biomass with potential economic value. The mean overall pollutant removal efficiencies of the integrated emergent and submergent plant system were biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 65.7%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40.8%; ammonium (NH4+-N), 74.8%; nitrate (NO3--N), 38.8%; phosphate (PO43-), 61.2%; total suspended solids (TSS), 65.8%; and fecal coliforms, 94.8%. The submergent plant subsystem improved removal of nutrients that survived the emergent subsystem operated at low hydraulic retention times. The significant improvement in effluent quality following treatment by the submergent plant system indicates the value of incorporating such plants in wetland systems. PMID:17018409

Tanaka, Norio; Jinadasa, K B S N; Werellagama, D R I B; Mowjood, M I M; Ng, W J

2006-01-01

215

Preparation of Effective Operating Manuals to Support Waste Management Plant Operator Training  

SciTech Connect

Effective plant operating manuals used in a formal training program can make the difference between a successful operation and a failure. Once the plant process design and control strategies have been fixed, equipment has been ordered, and the plant is constructed, the only major variable affecting success is the capability of plant operating personnel. It is essential that the myriad details concerning plant operation are documented in comprehensive operating manuals suitable for training the non-technical personnel that will operate the plant. These manuals must cover the fundamental principles of each unit operation including how each operates, what process variables are important, and the impact of each variable on the overall process. In addition, operators must know the process control strategies, process interlocks, how to respond to alarms, each of the detailed procedures required to start up and optimize the plant, and every control loop-including when it is appropriate to take manual control. More than anything else, operating mistakes during the start-up phase can lead to substantial delays in achieving design processing rates as well as to problems with government authorities if environmental permit limits are exceeded. The only way to assure return on plant investment is to ensure plant operators have the knowledge to properly run the plant from the outset. A comprehensive set of operating manuals specifically targeted toward plant operators and supervisors written by experienced operating personnel is the only effective way to provide the necessary information for formal start-up training.

Brown, S. R.

2003-02-25

216

Effectiveness of Constructed Wetlands for Oil-Refined Wastewater Purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-refined wastewater coming from the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro- Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants and therefore cannot be discharged directly unless a treatment of purification is conducted. Four herbaceous plants, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironi a art iculata wer e pla nted in si mulat ed construc ted wetlands made in

H. P. Xia; H. H. Ke; Z. P. Deng; P. Tang

217

Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities and plant fitness  

E-print Network

LETTER Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities species of naturally colonizing arthropods. Genetically diverse plant patches had 18% more arthropod species, and a greater abundance of omnivorous and predacious arthropods, but not herbivores, compared

Agrawal, Anurag

218

Pest-resistant plants comprising a construct encoding a vacuole targeting sequence and avidin or streptavidin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to nucleic acids encoding chimeric polypeptides comprising vacuole targeting sequences and sequences encoding avidin or streptavidin. The nucleic acids are useful for conferring pest resistance on plants and in the production of compositions useful as pesticides.

2005-12-06

219

An examination of the pursuit of nuclear power plant construction projects in the United States  

E-print Network

The recent serious reconsideration of nuclear power as a means for U.S. electric utilities to increase their generation capacity provokes many questions regarding the achievable success of future nuclear power plant ...

Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

2011-01-01

220

Plant species as a significant factor in wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands  

E-print Network

to be determined (Kadlec and Knight, 1996). According to Gregory Sauter and Kathleen Leonard (1995), plant life should be chosen fiom indigenous species of Typhaceae (cattails), Cyperacaea (sedge), Gramineae (grass), Scirpus (buhush), and Phragmites (reeds... to be determined (Kadlec and Knight, 1996). According to Gregory Sauter and Kathleen Leonard (1995), plant life should be chosen fiom indigenous species of Typhaceae (cattails), Cyperacaea (sedge), Gramineae (grass), Scirpus (buhush), and Phragmites (reeds...

Varvel, Tracey W

2013-02-22

221

Effect of collagen hydrolysate on chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of engineered cartilage are strongly dependent on collagen content, but the collagen to glycosaminoglycan ratio in engineered cartilage is often much lower than that of the native tissue. Therefore culture medium supplements which increase collagen production by chondrocytes are of interest. It had previously been reported that collagen hydrolysate stimulated type II collagen biosynthesis in short-term, high density monolayer chondrocyte cultures. It was hypothesized that collagen hydrolysate added to the culture medium of three dimensional chondrocyte-agarose constructs would enhance their mechanical properties. Porcine articular chondrocytes were embedded in 2% agarose and cultured for up to 6 weeks with and without 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate. The instantaneous compressive modulus and equilibrium compressive modulus were significantly lower in the collagen hydrolysate-treated constructs, consistent with the finding of lower collagen and GAG content. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results indicate that 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate may actually inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis and be detrimental to the mechanical properties of long term chondrocyte-agarose constructs. PMID:20231793

Elder, Steven H; Borazjani, Ali

2009-01-01

222

[Analysis of microorganism species diversity in plant intercropping models in a wetland system constructed for treatment of municipal sewage].  

PubMed

The selective culture method and PCR-DGGE technology were applied to analyze the number and the biodiversity of microorganism species in cells with plant intercropping models and without plants in different seasons in a wetland system constructed for treatment of municipal sewage. The results showed that the numbers of microorganisms were considerably larger in the cells with plant intercropping models than those without plants, while the number of microorganisms was apparently larger in summer than that in winter in all treatments. Along the three-sequenced treatment cells with plant intercropping models a "low-high-low" changing trend in the numbers of microorganisms in summer. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the treatments in the same season were clustered in the same branch except for a few samples in winter and the biodiversity index was consistently higher in summer than that in winter. Five different sequences (DF1-DF5) were obtained through BLAST analysis and retrieval. The closest known origin groups were located as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Burkholderia sp. respectively. The BLASTX comparison test showed that DF1 closely related to the activities of the Mycobacterium bacillus and the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, DF2 functioned as a conservative potential ATP binding protein, DF3 related to the activities of the Bacillus cereus spore, DF4 was involved in catabolism metabolism of microorganism and DF5 played an important role in decomposition of organic matters. PMID:22619969

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhang, Zhen-Ni; Li, Ke-Lin; Wang, Zhong-Cheng; Lei, Dian

2011-08-01

223

Rainfall effects on rare annual plants  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Variation in climate is predicted to increase over much of the planet this century. Forecasting species persistence with climate change thus requires understanding of how populations respond to climate variability, and the mechanisms underlying this response. Variable rainfall is well known to drive fluctuations in annual plant populations, yet the degree to which population response is driven by between-year variation in germination cueing, water limitation or competitive suppression is poorly understood. 2. We used demographic monitoring and population models to examine how three seed banking, rare annual plants of the California Channel Islands respond to natural variation in precipitation and their competitive environments. Island plants are particularly threatened by climate change because their current ranges are unlikely to overlap regions that are climatically favourable in the future. 3. Species showed 9 to 100-fold between-year variation in plant density over the 5-12 years of censusing, including a severe drought and a wet El Nin??o year. During the drought, population sizes were low for all species. However, even in non-drought years, population sizes and per capita growth rates showed considerable temporal variation, variation that was uncorrelated with total rainfall. These population fluctuations were instead correlated with the temperature after the first major storm event of the season, a germination cue for annual plants. 4. Temporal variation in the density of the focal species was uncorrelated with the total vegetative cover in the surrounding community, suggesting that variation in competitive environments does not strongly determine population fluctuations. At the same time, the uncorrelated responses of the focal species and their competitors to environmental variation may favour persistence via the storage effect. 5. Population growth rate analyses suggested differential endangerment of the focal annuals. Elasticity analyses and life table response experiments indicated that variation in germination has the same potential as the seeds produced per germinant to drive variation in population growth rates, but only the former was clearly related to rainfall. 6. Synthesis. Our work suggests that future changes in the timing and temperatures associated with the first major rains, acting through germination, may more strongly affect population persistence than changes in season-long rainfall. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Levine, J.M.; McEachern, A.K.; Cowan, C.

2008-01-01

224

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-01-01

225

Retention and mitigation of metals in sediment, soil, water, and plant of a newly constructed root-channel wetland (China) from slightly polluted source water.  

PubMed

Constructed root-channel wetland (CRCW) is a term for pre-pond/wetland/post-pond complexes, where the wetland includes plant-bed/ditch landscape and root-channel structure. Source water out of pre-ponds flows through alternate small ditches and plant beds with root-channels via a big ditch under hydraulic regulation. Then source water flows into post-ponds to finish final polishing. This article aims to explore the potential of components of a pilot CRCW in China on mitigating metals in micro-polluted source water during its initial operation stage. We investigated six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb) in surface sediment, plant-bed subsurface soil, water, and aquatic plants during 2012-2013. Monitoring results showed that pond/ditch sediments and plant-bed soil retained a significant amount of Cr, Ni, and Zn with 93.1%, 72.4%, and 57.5% samples showing contamination factor above limit 1 respectively. Remarkably the high values of metal enrichment factor (EF) occurred in root-channel zones. Water monitoring results indicated that Ni, Zn, and Pb were removed by 78.5% (66.7%), 57.6% (59.6%), and 26.0% (7.5%) in east (west) wetland respectively. Mass balance estimation revealed that heavy metal mass in the pond/ditch sediments accounted for 63.30% and that in plant-bed soil 36.67%, while plant uptake occupied only 0.03%. The heavy metal accretion flux in sediments was 0.41?-?211.08 ?g?·?cm(-2)?·?a(-1), less than that in plant-bed soil (0.73?-?543.94 ?g?·?cm(-2)?·?a(-1)). The 1.83 ha wetland has retained about 86.18 kg total heavy metals within 494 days after operation. This pilot case study proves that constructed root-channel wetland can reduce the potential ecological risk of purified raw water and provide a new and effective method for the removal of heavy metals from drinking water sources. PMID:25032090

Wang, Baoling; Wang, Yu; Wang, Weidong

2014-01-01

226

American Arachnological Society Behavioral Flexibility in Orb Web Construction: Effects of Supplies in Different Silk Glands  

E-print Network

and possibly website also influence L. mariana web designs. INTRODUCTION The orbs of araneid spidersAmerican Arachnological Society Behavioral Flexibility in Orb Web Construction: Effects of Supplies. http://www.jstor.org #12;Eberhard, W. G. 1988. Behavioral flexibility in orb web construction: Effects

Bermingham, Eldredge

227

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

228

Construction and comparison of gene co-expression networks shows complex plant immune responses  

PubMed Central

Gene co-expression networks (GCNs) are graphic representations that depict the coordinated transcription of genes in response to certain stimuli. GCNs provide functional annotations of genes whose function is unknown and are further used in studies of translational functional genomics among species. In this work, a methodology for the reconstruction and comparison of GCNs is presented. This approach was applied using gene expression data that were obtained from immunity experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, tomato and cassava. After the evaluation of diverse similarity metrics for the GCN reconstruction, we recommended the mutual information coefficient measurement and a clustering coefficient-based method for similarity threshold selection. To compare GCNs, we proposed a multivariate approach based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Branches of plant immunity that were exemplified by each experiment were analyzed in conjunction with the PCA results, suggesting both the robustness and the dynamic nature of the cellular responses. The dynamic of molecular plant responses produced networks with different characteristics that are differentiable using our methodology. The comparison of GCNs from plant pathosystems, showed that in response to similar pathogens plants could activate conserved signaling pathways. The results confirmed that the closeness of GCNs projected on the principal component space is an indicative of similarity among GCNs. This also can be used to understand global patterns of events triggered during plant immune responses. PMID:25320678

Lopez, Camilo; Lopez-Kleine, Liliana

2014-01-01

229

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

230

Performance of a Pilot-Scale Biofilters and Constructed Wetland with Ornamental Plants in Greywater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially treated black water from septic tanks and grey water from households in Kuching City were polluting the Sarawak River. A pilot scale ecological sanitation was implemented where blackwater was held in septic tanks and greywater was channeled to a grease trap, biofilters and a constructed wetland before discharge. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of

Teck-Yee Ling; Kasing Apun; Siti-Rubiah Zainuddin

231

Niche construction and the behavioral context of plant and animal domestication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animal species attempt to enhance their environments through niche con- struction or environmental engineering. Such efforts at environmental modification are proposed to play an important and underappreciated role in shaping biotic communities and evolutionary processes.1,2 Homo sapiens is acknowledged as the ultimate niche constructing species in terms of our rich repertoire of ecosys- tem engineering skills and the magnitude

Bruce D. Smith

2007-01-01

232

SINTER PLANT WINDBOX RECIRCULATION AND GRAVEL BED FILTER DEMONSTRATION. PHASE 2. CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of phase 2 of a program to demonstrate new technology for reducing exhaust gas volume and controlling emissions from the steel industry sintering process. Phase 2 entailed construction, operation, and evaluation of the system and, in addition, the constru...

233

Construction and Deployment of a Plant Ontology Riichiro Mizoguchi, Kouji Kozaki, Toshinobu Sano and Yoshinobu Kitamura  

E-print Network

engineering is well-understood, there has been few success stories about ontology construction and its evaluation has been done successfully. INTRODUCTION Ontological engineering[1] is a successor of knowledge itself. Knowledge engineering has thus developed into "ontological engineering" where "ontology

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

234

Improving central heating plant performance at the defense construction supply center (DCSC): Advanced operation and maintenance methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A 1987 air pollution emissions test done by the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency (USAEHA) identified several problems with the central heating plant (CHP) at the Defense Construction Supply Center (DCSC), Columbus, OH. Though DCSC repaired the specified problems, improved coal specifications, and tried to reduce air infiltration, CHP performance remained at unacceptable levels. Consequently, DCSC contracted the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) to apply advanced operation and maintenance procedures to improve its combustion system. This study employed a system-wide approach to evaluate the CHP 5 fuel storage, combustion, heat distribution, and the control of air emissions. Many short-term improvements to the CHP were identified and tested. Subsequent combustion and air emissions tests revealed that the recommended improvements successfully increased CHP efficiency. Long-term improvements were also recommended to help maintain the short-term improvements.

Savoie, M.J.; Standerfer, J.; Schmidt, C.M.; Gostich, J.; Mignacca, J.

1994-11-01

235

Design, construction, operation and costs of a modern small-scale fuel-alcohol plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design used for the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAP) is discussed. By incorporating a microprocessor into the plant design, most plant operations were automated and labor requirements were reduced. Continuous processing made energy conservation possible, thus reducing energy requirements. A low-temperature, continuous plug-flow cooker design made high yields possible. Ethanol was consistently produced at the SSFAP from corn at a yield of 2.6 gallons (anhydrous) per bushel and an energy requirement of 30,000 to 35,000 Btu/gallon (190-proof). In addition, barley, grain dust, and potato waste were converted at the SSFAP. The capacity of the SSFAP is 180,000 gallons per year (300 days operation). Competitively priced ethanol is produced at this capacity.

Leeper, S. A.; Dawley, L. J.; Wolfram, J. H.; Berglund, G. R.; Richardson, J. G.; McAtee, R. E.

1982-01-01

236

Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

1977-01-01

237

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation  

E-print Network

agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation. In both cases, mycorrhizal colonization was not very high (37%) but did produce stimulation of plant growth. The arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation was also associated with an improvement in the survival

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Effectiveness of mitigation measures with constructed forested wetlands in Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intensive research on six constructed forested wetlands in Central Maryland was conducted in 1993-1996 to determine success of these habitats as functional forested wetlands for wildlife. Areas studied ranged in size from 2 to 35 acres and were constructed by private companies under contract with three mitigation agencies. Adjacent natural forested wetlands were used as reference sites where similar data were collected. Based on data from the first four years of this study it appears that it will take 35-50 years before these areas have forested wetland vegetation and wildlife similar to that found on mature forested wetlands. This long-time period is based on the high mortality and slow growth of nursery-stock trees and shrubs transplanted on the areas. Mortality and slow growth resulted mostly from excessive surface water on the sites. The level of ground water did not appear to be a factor in regard to transplant mortality. Green ash was the woody transplant species that had the least mortality. Sampling of vegetative ground cover with one-meter square quadrats showed the predominance of grasses and herbs. [abridged abstract

Perry, M.C.

1997-01-01

239

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30

240

Evaluating Degree of Success in Power Plant Construction Project Based on Fuzzy Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using fuzzy neural network to evaluate the degree of success in power plant is this paper's innovative points. First we give an index system, and then use the relative membership degree processing the date, which as the input sample of neural network. Then use PSO algorithm optimizes the BP neural network algorithm. Use this improved BP neural network to evaluate.

Yuansheng Huang; Qingchao Liu; Zilong Qiu; Mingyan Wang

2008-01-01

241

Monolithizing the joints in pipelines during construction of the Zagorsk water storage power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The stockholder firm “Gidrospetsstroi” first developed, made feasible, and completely mastered a new procedure for work involving the monolithizing of large-diameter steel-reinforced-concrete pipelines in the domestic practice of special operations. 978 butt joints between individual elements have been successfully grouted.2.A procedure for monolithizing joints between reinforced-concrete elements in pipelines, which has been implemented in the construction of the Zagorsk

N. V. Dmitriev; V. N. Zhivoderov; Yu. D. Chertykov

1992-01-01

242

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON PLANT DISEASES  

EPA Science Inventory

Most plant diseases consist of delicate interactions between higher plants and microorganisms. Acidic precipitation represents an environmental stress that has been shown to affect expected development of some diseases and similar phenomena under experimental conditions. From the...

243

Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

1996-01-01

244

Effects of prey availability, facultative plant feeding, and plant defenses on a generalist insect predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of feeding interval, access to host plants (thus, a source of sap), and plant defenses on\\u000a the predatory insect, Podisus maculiventris Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 design with two feeding intervals (1 day or 5 days) and\\u000a predators living on either tomato plants or plastic plants. Females fed every day had greater body

Adam M. Lambert

2007-01-01

245

The effects of construction on water quality: a case study of the culverting of Abram Creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sediment is a leading cause of impaired water, studies have shown that construction activities incorporating best management\\u000a practices (BMPs) can be conducted without lasting detrimental effects on water quality. This paper examines the water quality\\u000a impacts of a construction project involving the culverting of a creek to allow for the construction of a runway at an airport\\u000a in Cleveland,

Darci L. Houser; Heidi Pruess

2009-01-01

246

Radiation safety during construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused high levels of source contamination by radionuclides (up to 1.E8 dis.\\/min. per square cm for beta radiation, and 1.E5 dis.\\/min per square cm for alpha radiation) and gamma radiation exposure dose levels in excess of 400 R\\/h. Moreover, the radiation fields were uneven and inhomogeneous, amongst other things with regard to

Belovodskiy

1994-01-01

247

Evaluation of clogging in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: solids accumulation and hydraulic conductivity reduction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units regarding solids build up and clogging of the filter medium. In order to analyse the causes of this process, which is considered the major operational problem of constructed wetlands, studies were carried out to characterize accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity at specific points of the beds of two wetlands (planted with Typha latifolia and unplanted units) receiving effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating sanitary sewage (population equivalent of 50 inhabitants each unit). The experiments were performed after the units were operating for 2 years and 4 months. This study presents comparative results related to the quantification and characterization of accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity along the length and width of the filter beds. Approximately 80% of the solids found were inorganic (fixed). Near the inlet end, the rate interstitial solids/attached solids was 5.0, while in the outlet end it was reduced to 1.5. Hydraulic conductivity was lower near the inlet of the units (as expected) and, by comparing the planted wetland with the unplanted, the hydraulic conductivity was lower in the former, resulting in larger undesired surface flow. PMID:23508161

De Paoli, André Cordeiro; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

248

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

249

Effects of freezing on plant mesophyll cells.  

PubMed

Freezing and thawing of leaves of herbaceous plants leads to damage when the freezing temperature falls below a certain tolerance limit, which depends on the plant species and state of acclimation. Such damage is expressed as an irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis observed after thawing. In frost-damaged leaves the capacity of photosynthetic reactions of the thylakoid membranes is impaired. Particularly, the water-oxidation system, photosystems II and I are inhibited. However, it appears that CO2 assimilation is more readily affected by freezing stress than the activity of the thylakoids. The inhibition of CO2 fixation seen in initial stages of damage seems to be independent of thylakoid inactivation. This can be shown by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis made simultaneously with measurement of CO2 assimilation. Fluorescence emission by leaves is strongly influenced by carbon assimilation activity, namely via the redox state of the photosystem II electron acceptor QA (QA-dependent quenching) and via energization of the thylakoid membranes depending on the transthylakoid proton gradient (energy-dependent quenching). Resolution of these components of fluorescence changes provides insight into alterations of the CO2 fixing capacity of the chloroplasts and properties of the thylakoids. The effects of freezing and thawing were studied in detail with isolated mesophyll protoplasts prepared from both non-hardened and cold-acclimated plants of Valerianella locusta L. Freezing damage was characterized by various parameters such as plasma membrane integrity, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence emission and activities of thylakoids isolated from the protoplasts. All tests indicated a substantially increased frost tolerance of protoplasts obtained from cold-acclimated as compared to non-hardened leaves. CO2 assimilation and related fluorescence changes were the most freezing-sensitive parameters in both types of protoplasts. Inactivation of CO2 assimilation was correlated neither to the disintegration of the plasma membrane nor to inactivation of the thylakoids. Experimental data indicate that freeze-thaw treatment affected the light-regulated enzymes of the carbon reduction cycle, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Inhibition of light-activation of these enzymes may be based on altered properties of the chloroplast envelope. PMID:3077862

Krause, G H; Grafflage, S; Rumich-Bayer, S; Somersalo, S

1988-01-01

250

[Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].  

PubMed

As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

2013-05-01

251

How Does Niche Construction Reverse the Baldwin Effect?  

E-print Network

] describes may sound somewhat counterintuitive. While the Baldwin effect describes how previously learnt (and the gene for it). Because the focal function is now subserved by the complexes of different traits

252

Antagonistic effects of seed dispersal and herbivory on plant migration  

E-print Network

LETTER Antagonistic effects of seed dispersal and herbivory on plant migration Mark Vellend,1@interchange.ubc.ca Abstract The two factors that determine plant migration rates ­ seed dispersal and population growth ­ are generally treated independently, despite the fact that many animals simultaneously enhance plant migration

253

Plant Growth Regulatory Effects of Chicken Litter Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chicken litter is often used in organic farming as a source of plant food, and to improve soil organic matter and microbial populations. Both positive and negative effects of such an amendment have been reported. Because of the complex interactions involving soil, plant, and microbial populations in the most common test systems, it is difficult to attribute the observed plant

Nasir S. A. Malik; Joe M. Bradford

2007-01-01

254

Herbivory: effects on plant abundance, distribution and population growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are attacked by many different consumers. A critical question is how often, and under what conditions, common reductions in growth, fecundity or even survival that occur due to herbivory translate to meaningful impacts on abundance, distribution or dynamics of plant populations. Here, we review population-level studies of the effects of consumers on plant dynamics and evaluate: (i) whether particular

John L. Maron; Elizabeth Crone

2006-01-01

255

The effect of salinity on plant available water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity acts to inhibit plant access to soil water by increasing the osmotic strength of the soil solution. As the soil dries, the soil solution becomes increasingly concentrated, further limiting plant access to soil water. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of salt on plant available water in a heavy clay soil, using a relatively salt tolerant species,

Anna Sheldon; Neal W. Menzies; H. Bing So; Ram Dalal

256

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

257

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

258

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

259

Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution.  

PubMed

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

Maffei, Massimo E

2014-01-01

260

Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution  

PubMed Central

The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed.

Maffei, Massimo E.

2014-01-01

261

Bacterial community dynamics in horizontal flow constructed wetlands with different plants for high salinity industrial wastewater polishing.  

PubMed

This study is focused on the diversity of bacterial communities from two series of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CW) polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. Each series was planted with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia sp. in a substrate composed by expanded clay and sand. Chemical and biochemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were similar in each series, varying between 58 and 67% (inlet COD 218 ± 28 mg L(-1)) and 60 and 77% (inlet BOD(5) 37 ± 6 mg L(-1)), respectively. High numbers of culturable bacteria were obtained from substrate and root samples - 5.75 × 10(6)-3.95 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) recovered on marine agar and 1.72 × 10(7)-8.46 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) on nutrient agar. Fifty bacterial isolates were retrieved from the CW, related phylogenetically to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. Changes in the bacterial communities, from roots and substrate of each series, related to the plant species, hydraulic loading rates and along CW operation were examined using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The clustering analysis suggested that a diverse and distinct bacterial community inhabits each series, which was related to the type of plant present in each CW. PMID:20692679

Calheiros, C S C; Teixeira, A; Pires, C; Franco, A R; Duque, A F; Crispim, L F C; Moura, S C; Castro, P M L

2010-09-01

262

Analysis of the decision to invest for constructing a nuclear power plant under regulation of electricity price  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of the regulation of electricity prices on the decision to invest in power plants is rationally explained using a real-options approach. Conditions under price regulation are described by a simple model in which the variable cost follows a stochastic process; free market conditions are described using Cortazar's model. The resulting comparison could explain the promotion

Shin'ichiro Takizawa; Atsuyuki Suzuki

2004-01-01

263

Current status of design and construction of ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The ENCOAL project is demonstrating for the first time the integrated operation of several process steps: a. Coal drying on a rotary grate using convective heatin; b. Coal devolatilization on a rotary grate using convective heating; c. Hot particulate removal with cyclones integral solids cooling; and deactivation-passivation; e. Combustors operating on low-Btu gas from internal streams; f. Solids stabilization for storage and shipment; g. Computer control and optimization of a mild coal gasification process. The product fuels are expected to be used economically in commercial boilers and furnaces and to significantly reduce sulfur emissions at industrial and utility facilities currently burning high sulfur bituminous fuels or fuel oils thereby reducing acid rain-causing pollutants. The design and construction of the ENCOAL demonstration plan was done on a fast track basis, that is, these activities were extensively overlapped.

Frederick, J.P.; Siddoway, M.A.; Coolidge, D.W.

1992-01-01

264

Current status of design and construction of ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The ENCOAL project is demonstrating for the first time the integrated operation of several process steps: a. Coal drying on a rotary grate using convective heatin; b. Coal devolatilization on a rotary grate using convective heating; c. Hot particulate removal with cyclones integral solids cooling; and deactivation-passivation; e. Combustors operating on low-Btu gas from internal streams; f. Solids stabilization for storage and shipment; g. Computer control and optimization of a mild coal gasification process. The product fuels are expected to be used economically in commercial boilers and furnaces and to significantly reduce sulfur emissions at industrial and utility facilities currently burning high sulfur bituminous fuels or fuel oils thereby reducing acid rain-causing pollutants. The design and construction of the ENCOAL demonstration plan was done on a fast track basis, that is, these activities were extensively overlapped.

Frederick, J.P.; Siddoway, M.A.; Coolidge, D.W.

1992-11-01

265

28 CFR 32.4 - Terms; construction, severability; effect.  

...in connection with claims under the Act, at 42 U.S.C. 3796(k), shall apply only with respect to heart attacks or strokes referred to in the Act, at 42 U.S.C. 3796(k)(2)) occurring on or after the date it takes effect. [73 FR...

2014-07-01

266

Constructing a Model for the Effective Mentoring of Music Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, a model for the effective mentoring of music educators is presented. Mentoring and induction literature is referenced to examine recent trends and determine the contents of the model. The model begins with state government design and funding of a mentoring program. Layers are built on this foundation, including (a) support of professional organizations; (b) mentor selection, training,

Jay N. Jacobs

2008-01-01

267

Theoretical Population Biology 70 (2006) 387400 Spatial effects favour the evolution of niche construction  

E-print Network

Theoretical Population Biology 70 (2006) 387­400 Spatial effects favour the evolution of niche behaviours of many spiders depend on their inheriting the genes for web construction, whereas earthworms

268

The Effects of Risk Attitude on Competitive Sucess in the Construction Industry  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the latent but critical effects of risk attitude on competitive success in construction applying an evolutionary approach. The approach considers contractors as individual entities competing with each other for common...

Kim, Hyung Jin

2010-10-12

269

Effects of livestock grazing and well construction on prairie vegetation structure surrounding shallow natural gas wells.  

PubMed

Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms. PMID:25078539

Koper, N; Molloy, K; Leston, L; Yoo, J

2014-11-01

270

Effects of Livestock Grazing and Well Construction on Prairie Vegetation Structure Surrounding Shallow Natural Gas Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms.

Koper, N.; Molloy, K.; Leston, L.; Yoo, J.

2014-11-01

271

Effect of spray aeration on organics and nitrogen removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The objective of present study was to assess the simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen by four lab-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (V-SFCWs). The emergent plants employed were Canna indica. Five-month experiments showed that the planted and aerated system largely reduced the COD by 95%, NH4 by 88% and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) by 83%. It outperformed the unplanted or simple aerated system and was much better than non-aerated system. The study provided a strong evidence to support widespread research and application of spray aeration as a low-cost and energy-efficient aeration technology in V-SFCWs. PMID:25259785

Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Song, Xin-Shan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Hui

2014-12-01

272

Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n?=?2x?=?30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

2014-01-01

273

The effect of gravity on plant germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20°C under an average light condition of 110 ?mol\\/m2\\/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but

T. Takakura; E. Goto; M. Tanaka

1996-01-01

274

Herbivory enhances positive effects of plant genotypic diversity.  

PubMed

Both plant diversity and vertebrate herbivores can impact plant fitness and ecosystem functioning, however their interactions have not been explicitly tested. We manipulated plant genotypic diversity of the native plant Oenothera biennis and monitored its survivorship and lifetime fitness with and without one of its major vertebrate consumers, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Intense but unmanipulated herbivory by meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus killed over 70% of nearly 4000 experimental plants. However, plants grown in genotypically diverse patches suffered fewer vole attacks and had higher survival and reproductive output than plants in monoculture. Moreover, positive effects of genotypic diversity were enhanced by the presence of deer, indicating a non-additive interaction between diversity and trophic-level complexity. Genetic selection analyses showed that the selective value of ecologically important traits depended on plant diversity and exposure to deer, demonstrating that community complexity can promote fitness through multiple ecologically and evolutionarily important feedbacks. PMID:20298460

Parker, John D; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Agrawal, Anurag A

2010-05-01

275

Plant species effects on soil nematode communities in experimental grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of 12 different plant species on soil nematode abundance and community composition, and rotifer abundance, in an experimental grassland in Northern Sweden. Monocultures were grown for six or seven growing seasons before sampling. Four monocultures were grasses, four were legumes and four were non-leguminous forbs. Plant species identity had an effect on the nematode community, both

Maria Viketoft; Cecilia Palmborg; Björn Sohlenius; Kerstin Huss-Danell; Jan Bengtsson

2005-01-01

276

Differing Effects of Cattle Grazing on Native and Alien Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat managers use cattle grazing to reduce alien plant cover and promote native species in California grasslands and elsewhere in the western United States. We tested the effectiveness of grazing as a restoration method by examining the effects of herbivory on native and alien plants. At Carrizo Plain National Monument, California, we surveyed native and alien species cover in adjacent

SARAH KIMBALL; PAULA M. SCHIFFMAN

2003-01-01

277

Effects of Road De-icing Salts in Constructed Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2003, a 4-lane highway and 6 mitigation wetlands were opened across the Penn State campus, Erie, Pennsylvania. Road runoff overflows into 1 wetland (T3), and another (R3) receives salt spray and plowed snow. I have logged conductivity and temperature hourly at the sediment-water interface in R3 and T3 since January 2004, and I measure conductivity, temperature, and chironomid density biweekly in all 6 wetlands. Salinity in the wetlands that receive no salt is 0 psu. Biweekly checks of conductivity grossly underestimated winter salinities in T3 and R3. Between January and March 2004, salinity was >5 psu 5 times in R3, and >10 psu 6 times and >30 psu twice in T3. Flushing rates were similar in both wetlands, but time constants were significantly greater in T3 than R3. Salinities returned to 0 psu in both wetlands in May. Chironomid density was significantly lower in T3 than in all other wetlands in summer and autumn, long after salinities at the sediment-water interface returned to 0. Thus, chironomid densities indicated persistent biological effects of de-icers even when measurable salinities were 0 psu. Winter 2005 data show decreasing chironomid density in T3, whereas densities are increasing in the other wetlands.

Silver, P.

2005-05-01

278

The Effect of Political Unrest on Construction Time for Food Grain Warehouses in Bangladesh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that effect actual construction time in the context of food sector projects in Bangladesh. One of the factors of particular interest is political unrest. The data for the study was obtained from a leading design and construction management company in Bangladesh. The sample size consisted of data for 104 food grain warehouse projects scattered all over the country. The effect of political unrest on construction time was analyzed in conjunction with other known variables of time overrun, such as increase in project cost and delay in procurement of construction materials. The results indicated that the effect local political unrest on construction time was statistically significant even in the presence project cost and procurement of materials variables. It was concluded that political unrest could be included in prediction models used for finding out actual construction time of food grain warehouse projects in Bangladesh. Based on these findings, a prediction model for construction time for such projects was developed.

Choudhury, Ifte

2009-08-17

279

Effects of power-line construction on wetland vegetation in Massachusetts, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Utility rights-of-way corridors through wetland areas generate long-term impacts from construction activities to these valuable ecosystems. Changes to and recovery of the vegetation communities of a cattail marsh, wooded swamp, and shrub/bog wetland were documented through measurements made each growing season for two years prior, five years following, and again on the tenth year after construction of a 345-kV transmission line. While both the cattail marsh and wooded swamp recovered within a few years, measures of plant community composition in the shrub/bog wetland were still lower, compared to controls, after ten years. Long-term investigations such as the one reported here help decrease uncertainty and provide valuable information for future decision making regarding construction of power utility lines through valuable and dwindling wetland resources.

Nickerson, Norton H.; Dobberteen, Ross A.; Jarman, Nancy M.

1989-07-01

280

The role of plant uptake on the removal of organic matter and nutrients in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Plants in constructed wetlands have several functions related to the treatment processes. It is generally agreed that nutrient uptake is a minor factor in constructed wetlands treating wastewater compared to the loadings applied. For low loaded systems plant uptake can contribute a significant amount to nutrient removal. The contribution of plant uptake is simulated for different qualities of water to be treated using the multi-component reactive transport module CW2D. CW2D is able to describe the biochemical elimination and transformation processes for organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The model for plant uptake implemented describes nutrient uptake coupled to water uptake. Literature values are used to calculate potential water and nutrient uptake rates. For a constructed wetland treating municipal wastewater a potential nutrient uptake of about 1.9% of the influent nitrogen and phosphorus load can be expected. For lower loaded systems the potential uptake is significantly higher, e.g. 46% of the nitrogen load for treatment of greywater. The potential uptake rates could only be simulated for high loaded systems i.e. constructed wetlands treating wastewater. For low loaded systems the nutrient concentrations in the liquid phase were too low to simulate the potential uptake rates using the implemented model for plant uptake. PMID:16042261

Langergraber, G

2005-01-01

281

Effect of treatment in a constructed wetland on toxicity of textile wastewater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Constructed wetlands for treating wastewater have proliferated in recent years and their characteristics have been studied extensively. In most cases, constructed wetlands have been used primarily for removal of nutrients and heavy metals. Extensive literature is available concerning construction and use of wetlands for treatment of wastewater. Even so, quantitative descriptions of wetland function and processes are highly empirical and difficult to extrapolate. The processes involved in removal of pollutants by wetlands are poorly understood, especially for waste streams as complex as textile effluents. The few studies conducted on treatment of textile wastewater in constructed wetlands were cited in earlier publications. Results of a two-year study of a full-scale wetland treating textile effluent are presented here. The paper describes the effects of the wetland on aquatic toxicity of the wastewater and draws conclusions about the utility and limitations of constructed wetlands for treatment of textile effluents.

Baughman, G. L.; Perkins, W. S.; Lasier, P. J.; Winger, P. V.

2003-01-01

282

Reed beds: constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reed beds are an alternative technology wastewater treatment system that mimic the biogeochemical processes inherent in natural wetlands. The purpose of this project was to determine the effectiveness of a reed bed sludge treatment system (RBSTS) in southern New England after a six-year period of operation by examining the concentrations of selected metals in the reed bed sludge biomass and

J. S. Begg; R. L. Lavigne; P. L. M. Veneman

283

Invasive plant suppresses charismatic seabird – the construction of attitudes towards biodiversity management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards biodiversity issues and the value judgments underlying biodiversity management and conservation are still poorly understood. This has raised serious concerns regarding the effective use of public participation in biodiversity policy making. We conducted quantitative face-to-face interviews with members of the general public in southeast Scotland to assess attitudes towards biodiversity management and examine attitude formation. For this,

Anke Fischer; René van der Wal

2007-01-01

284

Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population.  

PubMed

Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed production neutralized the decreasing effect of pre-planting irrigation and two-row planting of maize on weed seed bank population. PMID:22696965

Hemmati, E; Vazan, S; Oveisi, M

2011-01-01

285

Floral transcriptome sequencing for SSR marker development and linkage map construction in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

Tan, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

2013-01-01

286

Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

2013-01-01

287

Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton, one of the world’s leading crops, is important to the world’s textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Results We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135 kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250 kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G. raimondii contains a D genome (D5). Conclusions The library represents the first BIBAC library in cotton and related species, thus providing tools useful for integrative physical mapping, large-scale genome sequencing and large-scale functional analysis of the Upland cotton genome. Comparative sequence analysis provides insights into the Upland cotton genome, and a possible mechanism underlying the divergence and evolution of polyploid Upland cotton from its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii. PMID:23537070

2013-01-01

288

Plant population, planting date, and germplasm effects on guayule latex, rubber, and resin yields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is a perennial shrub native to the Chihuahuan Desert. While guayule traditionally has been cultivated for rubber, more recently it is being cultivated for its hypoallergenic latex. Other uses including termite resistant wood products and an energy source have also been identified. However, the effects of various agronomic practices, such as planting and harvesting dates, plant

T. A. Coffelt; F. S. Nakayama; D. T. Rayb; K. Cornish; C. M. McMahan; C. F. Williams

2009-01-01

289

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

290

Field study of effects of construction procedures on concrete pavement surfaces  

E-print Network

PIELD STUDY OF EPPECTS OP CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES ON CONCRETE PAVEMENT SURFACES A Thesis by JEFFREY LELAND DAVIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP... SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FIELD STUDY OF EFFECTS OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES ON CONCRETE PAVEMENT SURFACES A Thesis by JEFFREY LELAND DAVIS Approved as to style and content by: ai of ommittee (Head of Department (Member...

Davis, Jeffrey Leland

2012-06-07

291

Parental environmental effects and cyclical dynamics in plant populations.  

PubMed

Parental environmental effects have been widely reported in plants, but these effects are often weak relative to direct effects of current environmental conditions. Few studies have asked when consideration of such effects is necessary to understand long-term plant population dynamics. In this article, I show that inclusion of effects of parental density on offspring mass fundamentally changes population dynamics models by making recruitment a function of population size in two previous generations (Nt+1 = f(Nt, Nt-1)), rather than one (Nt+1 = f(Nt,)). Models without parental density effects predict either stable population dynamics or sharp crashes from high to low population size (flip bifurcations). When parental effects are at least one-third the size of direct density effects, gradual cycles from high to low population size (Hopf bifurcations) are possible. In this study, I measured effects of parental and offspring density on offspring quality in an annual plant, Cardamine pensylvanica, by manipulating plant density independently in parent and offspring generations and by comparing the effects of parent and offspring density on offspring performance. Parental density effects were detectable but were noticeably weaker than offspring density effects. Nonetheless, the parental effect was large enough to change population dynamics predictions. Thus, parental effects may be an important component of the numerical dynamics of plant populations. PMID:18811332

Crone, E E

1997-12-01

292

Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodide was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.; MacElroy, R. D.

293

Nurse plant effect of the cushion plant Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq. in an alpine environment in the subarctic Scandes, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Facilitation plays important roles in the structuring of plant communities and several studies have found that it tends to increase with environmental severity in alpine plant communities. In addition, cushion plants have been shown to act as nurse plants, moderating extreme environmental conditions, and providing resources for other species, with substantial effects on local plant diversity.Aims: This study addresses

Henrik Antonsson; Robert G. Björk; Ulf Molau

2009-01-01

294

Effects of ultraviolet radiation on plant cells.  

PubMed

Recent measurements of ozone levels have led to concern that the stratospheric ozone layer is being depleted as a result of contamination with man-made chlorofluorocarbons. Concomitantly, the amounts of solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface is increasing. UV-B radiation has been shown to be harmful to living organisms, damaging DNA, proteins, lipids and membranes. Plants, which use sunlight for photosynthesis and are unable to avoid exposure to enhanced levels of UV-B radiation, are at risk. Thus, mechanisms by which plants may protect themselves from UV radiation are of particular interest. This review will summarizes the main aspects of ultraviolet radiation on plants at physiological and biochemical level, with particular emphasis on protective structures and mechanisms. PMID:11567887

Hollósy, F

2002-01-01

295

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on cotton plant residue decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing the impact of elevated atmospheric COâ concentration on the global environment is hampered due to a lack of understanding of global C cycling. Carbon fixed within plant biomass ultimately enters the soil via plant residues, but the effects of elevated-COâ-grown plant material on decomposition rates and long-term soil C storage are unknown. The objective of this study was to

H. A. Torbert; S. A. Prior; H. H. Rogers

1995-01-01

296

Comparison of Approaches to Constructing Confidence Intervals for Mediating Effects Using Structural Equation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mediators are variables that explain the association between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used to test models with mediating effects. This article illustrates how to construct confidence intervals (CIs) of the mediating effects for a variety of models in SEM. Specifically, mediating…

Cheung, Mike W. L.

2007-01-01

297

The Effects of Personal Construct Group Therapy on Breast Cancer Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of a brief personal construct group therapy on breast cancer survivors (N = 42) randomly assigned to either the treatment or wait-list control condition. The Gottschalk Gleser Content Analysis Scales were used to measure the effects for group across time (preand posttreatment, pretreatment, and…

Lane, Lisbeth G.; Viney, Linda L.

2005-01-01

298

Ecological effects of feral biofuel crops in constructed oak savannah communities - June 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of elevated temperatures and drought on constructed oak savannahs were studied to determine the interactive effects of potentially invasive feral biofuel species and climate change on native grassland communities. A total of 12 sunlit mesocosm were used. Each mesoco...

299

The Construction of Meaning from Text: Possible Effects of Different Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the effect of differences in reading strategies on the construction of meaning from novel length text. Discusses relevant psychological theory. Hypothesizes effects of differing strategies in reading the book "Animal Farm." Concludes that teacher-directed reading provides a depth of meaning not found when students read without…

Rowell, Jack A.; And Others

1990-01-01

300

Herbivory: effects on plant abundance, distribution and population growth  

PubMed Central

Plants are attacked by many different consumers. A critical question is how often, and under what conditions, common reductions in growth, fecundity or even survival that occur due to herbivory translate to meaningful impacts on abundance, distribution or dynamics of plant populations. Here, we review population-level studies of the effects of consumers on plant dynamics and evaluate: (i) whether particular consumers have predictably more or less influence on plant abundance, (ii) whether particular plant life-history types are predictably more vulnerable to herbivory at the population level, (iii) whether the strength of plant–consumer interactions shifts predictably across environmental gradients and (iv) the role of consumers in influencing plant distributional limits. Existing studies demonstrate numerous examples of consumers limiting local plant abundance and distribution. We found larger effects of consumers on grassland than woodland forbs, stronger effects of herbivory in areas with high versus low disturbance, but no systematic or unambiguous differences in the impact of consumers based on plant life-history or herbivore feeding mode. However, our ability to evaluate these and other patterns is limited by the small (but growing) number of studies in this area. As an impetus for further study, we review strengths and challenges of population-level studies, such as interpreting net impacts of consumers in the presence of density dependence and seed bank dynamics. PMID:17002942

Maron, John L; Crone, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

301

Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants.  

PubMed

The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal. PMID:23579843

Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W

2013-01-01

302

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

303

Do soil protozoa enhance plant growth by hormonal effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated changes in root morphology of watercress seedlings (Lepidium sativum L.) and effects on the composition of the rhizosphere bacterial community to test the hypothesis that rhizosphere protozoa affect plant growth by a grazing-induced stimulation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. The presence of Acanthamoebae (Protozoa: Amoebida) induced changes in root morphology of watercress seedlings as soon as the root protruded

M. Bonkowski; F. Brandt

2002-01-01

304

Effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results are presented of two studies done on the effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values. One study, which examined property values in the vicinity of four Northeastern power plants prior to the March, 1979 TMI accident, found no significant evidence positively or negatively. Using the same analytic approach, residences in the TMI area were surveyed after

Hays B. Gamble; Roger H. Downing

1982-01-01

305

Salinity and Plant Residue Effects on Soil Available Phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of salinity and plant residue on soil phosphorus (P) availability was investigated. The organic carbon content of non-saline and salinized soil samples was enhanced by 1% with applying separately different amounts of residues. Fourteen residues including roots and shoots of wheat, barley, corn, alfalfa, and clover as well as leaves of apple, oak, plant-tree, and oleaster were used.

Amir Hossein Khoshgoftarmanesh; Farshid Nourbakhsh

2009-01-01

306

Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mägi, E., T. Järvis, I. Miller: Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 283-287. The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.),

E. Mägi; T. Järvis; I. Miller

2006-01-01

307

Do Plant Invasions Change the Effects of Fire on Animals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire and invasions by nonnative plants can change the structure and function of ecosys- tems, and independent effects of each of these processes have been well studied. When fire is restored to areas where it has been excluded and the native plant communities have been invaded by nonnative species, changes in vegetation structure and composition are likely to alter the

Robert J. Steidl; Andrea R. Litt

2009-01-01

308

Browsing Effects on Wyoming Big Sagebrush Plants and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of likely yearlong browsing by several wild ungulate species on individual Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) plants and communities was studied. The investigation was conducted near Gardiner, MT, in the ungu- late-rich boundary line area of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Plant level responses were measured in this study and related to reported community responses. Individual

Carl L. Wambolt; Trista Hoffman

309

"Boom and bust" cycles in power plant construction: A simulation study of the temporal and geographical aspects of the Alberta competitive electrical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes a study undertaken to explore the potential for power plant construction to appear in the deregulated Alberta electrical system in waves of alternating under and over supply of electricity, or "boom and bust". The ultimate impact to the market in such a case would be major swings in wholesale electricity prices as the industry transitions through the phases of a construction cycle. The study begins by exploring a geographical perspective on electricity and energy in general. It then provides a brief historical context on electrical deregulation in Alberta and elsewhere, before discussing the relevant literature pertaining to simulating dynamic feedback within energy systems with a focus on electricity. The work makes extensive use of Forrester's (1961) System Dynamics methodology to construct a simulation model called "APPCON" (for Alberta Power Plant Construction model). APPCON was used to demonstrate the conditions under which "boom and bust" construction cycles might occur using an explicit theory of investor behavior. Construction cycles are a potentially serious problem but they are not inevitable. The research concludes with computer simulations demonstrating how construction cycles could be dampened or eliminated through two different policy mitigation strategies; (1) continuous capacity payment along side of the market clearing price for energy, and, (2) a conservation strategy based on price sensitive load curtailment.

Seel, Kevin C.

310

Anti-chlamydial effect of plant peptides.  

PubMed

Even in asymptomatic cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the aim of the antibiotic strategy is eradication of the pathogen so as to avoid the severe late sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal infertility. Although first-line antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated to be predominantly successful in the treatment of C. trachomatis infection, treatment failures have been observed in some cases. Rich source of antimicrobial peptides was recently discovered in Medicago species, which act in plants as differentiation factors of the endosymbiotic bacterium partner. Several of these symbiotic plant peptides have proved to be potent killers of various bacteria in vitro. We show here that 7 of 11 peptides tested exhibited antimicrobial activity against C. trachomatis D, and that the killing activity of these peptides is most likely due to their interaction with specific bacterial targets. PMID:24939689

Balogh, Emese Petra; Mosolygó, Tímea; Tiricz, Hilda; Szabó, Agnes Míra; Karai, Adrienn; Kerekes, Fanni; Virók, Dezs? P; Kondorosi, Eva; Burián, Katalin

2014-06-01

311

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

1983-01-01

312

The effect of raft removal and dam construction on the lower Colorado River, Texas  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF RAFT REMOVAL AND DAM CONSTRUCTION ON THE LOWER COLORADO RIVER, TEXAS A Thesis by HARTOPO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Geology TIIE EFFECT OI RAII' REMOVAL AND DAM CONSTRUCTION ON TI-IE LOWER COLORADO RIVER, TEXAS A Thesis by I IARTOPO Approved as to styic and content by: Christ her C. Mathewson (Chair of Committee) John R...

Hartopo

2012-06-07

313

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have

Robert S. Bandurski; Aga Schulze

1983-01-01

314

Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta  

PubMed Central

The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of ?T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20?m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing ?-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20?m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

2014-01-01

315

USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

316

The effects of plant diversity on nitrous oxide emissions in hydroponic microcosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that plant diversity can improve the wastewater purification efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs), but its effect on the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in CWs has been unknown. To investigate the effect of plant diversity on the N2O emission, we established four plant species richness levels (each level containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 species, respectively) by using 96 hydroponic microcosms. Results showed that plant species richness enhanced the N2O emission, ranging from 27.1 to 115.4 ?g N2O m-2 d-1, and improved nitrate removal (P < 0.001). The presence of Phalaris arundinacea within a given plant community increased the N2O emission (P < 0.001). The presence of Rumex japonicas had no influence on the N2O emissions (P > 0.05), but improved nitrogen removal (P < 0.001). Hence, our study highlights the importance of both plant species richness and species identity in mediating the N2O emission and nitrogen removal in CWs.

Sun, Hongying; Zhang, Chongbang; Song, Changchun; Chang, Scott X.; Gu, Baojing; Chen, Zhengxin; Peng, Changhui; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

2013-10-01

317

Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Solid Waste Treatment Facility (T Plant) Fuel Removal Project  

SciTech Connect

This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI.

JOHNSON, R.E.

2000-11-16

318

Effects of urbanization on plant flowering phenology: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of flowering and leafing phenology have dramatically increased during the last few decades because changes in plant\\u000a phenology can be indicative of possible effects of climate change at multiple scales. This article reviews the available literature\\u000a focusing on the effects of urbanization on flowering phenology. The literature of flowering phenology in urban environments\\u000a suggests that spring-blooming plants in a

Kaesha Neil; Jianguo Wu

2006-01-01

319

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action.  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action. II. Effects of a mixture of adjuvants'action herbicide. II. Effet d'un mélange d'adjuvants sur la rétention et la pénétration de l'isoproturon chez le d'adjuvants stimule fortement la pénétration de l'herbicide dans les 2 plantes, d'un facteur 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

The effect of primary treatment and flow regime on clogging development in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: An experimental evaluation.  

PubMed

The effect of both the type of primary treatment (hydrolitic up-flow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor and conventional settling) and the flow regime (batch and continuous) on clogging development in subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) was studied. Clogging indicators (such as accumulated solids, hydraulic conductivity and drainable porosity) were determined in an experimental plant with three treatment lines. Correlations were encountered between the solids accumulated and both saturated hydraulic conductivity and drainable porosity reduction over time (74.5% and 89.2% of correlation, respectively). SSF CW implemented with a HUSB reactor accumulated ca. 30% lower sludge (1.9 kg DM/m(2)) than a system with a settler (2.5-2.8 kg DM/m(2)). However, no significant differences were recorded among treatment lines concerning hydraulic parameters (such as hydraulic conductivity or porosity). Root system development contributed to clogging. Accordingly, planted wetlands showed between 30% and 40% and 10% lower hydraulic conductivity and porosity reduction, respectively, than non-planted wetlands. PMID:21601904

Pedescoll, Anna; Corzo, Angélica; Alvarez, Eduardo; García, Joan; Puigagut, Jaume

2011-06-01

321

Effect of plants on sunspace passive solar heating  

SciTech Connect

The effect of plants on sunspace thermal performance is investigated, based on experiments done in Los Alamos using two test rooms with attached sunspaces, which were essentially identical except for the presence of plants in one. Performance is related to plant transpiration, evaporation from the soil, condensation on the glazing and the absorbtance of solar energy by the lightweight leaves. Performance effects have been quantified by measurements of auxiliary heat consumption in the test rooms and analyzed by means of energy balance calculations. A method for estimating the transpiration rate is presented.

Best, E.D.; McFarland, R.D.

1985-01-01

322

Effective Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Surface Water Using Constructed Comprehensive Floating Remediation Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen and phosphorus are the chief pollutants of our aquatic systems which may be resulted from different contamination sources and could cause serious environmental and ecological problems. For example, nitrate contamination of the water systems from agricultural practices may be contributing to the eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA, degrading water quality and aquatic habitats. Effective approaches for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from our aquatic systems, particularly from surface water, is called for imminently. An in-situ remediation measure by constructed floating remediation islands has been developed and tested through the field experiments recently. Four pilot-scale settings with the different components and structures were constructed and operated in parallel in which a new type of the constructed floating remediation islands with multi-layers of substrate fillers, called the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island, was included. The contaminated water taken directly from a river containing richly nitrogen and phosphorus was used for those experiments. The experiment results obtained from the four different experiment settings were examined. It was noticed that the degradation rates of both nitrogen and phosphorus in water in the setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was greater than those in others. The mean removal rate of phosphorous in the experiment setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was considerably higher than the removal rates of phosphorous in the other three experiment settings.

Wang, M.; Bai, S.

2008-12-01

323

Arsenic toxicity: the effects on plant metabolism.  

PubMed

The two forms of inorganic arsenic, arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), are easily taken up by the cells of the plant root. Once in the cell, AsV can be readily converted to AsIII, the more toxic of the two forms. AsV and AsIII both disrupt plant metabolism, but through distinct mechanisms. AsV is a chemical analog of phosphate that can disrupt at least some phosphate-dependent aspects of metabolism. AsV can be translocated across cellular membranes by phosphate transport proteins, leading to imbalances in phosphate supply. It can compete with phosphate during phosphorylation reactions, leading to the formation of AsV adducts that are often unstable and short-lived. As an example, the formation and rapid autohydrolysis of AsV-ADP sets in place a futile cycle that uncouples photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, decreasing the ability of cells to produce ATP and carry out normal metabolism. AsIII is a dithiol reactive compound that binds to and potentially inactivates enzymes containing closely spaced cysteine residues or dithiol co-factors. Arsenic exposure generally induces the production of reactive oxygen species that can lead to the production of antioxidant metabolites and numerous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. Oxidative carbon metabolism, amino acid and protein relationships, and nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways are also impacted by As exposure. Readjustment of several metabolic pathways, such as glutathione production, has been shown to lead to increased arsenic tolerance in plants. Species- and cultivar-dependent variation in arsenic sensitivity and the remodeling of metabolite pools that occurs in response to As exposure gives hope that additional metabolic pathways associated with As tolerance will be identified. PMID:22685440

Finnegan, Patrick M; Chen, Weihua

2012-01-01

324

Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity  

E-print Network

diversity, insurance hypothesis, mycorrhizal fungi, quantitative PCR, selection effect, soil biodiversity of biodiversity effects has yet to be used to assess the functioning of soil microbial communities. Soil microbesLETTER Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity Cameron

Bruns, Tom

325

76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

2011-09-06

326

76 FR 65753 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' in the Federal Register...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

2011-10-24

327

77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses...Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides...

2012-05-21

328

Variation in herbivore-mediated indirect effects of an invasive plant on a native plant.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that damage by a shared herbivore to a secondary host plant species may either be higher or lower in the vicinity of a preferred host plant species. To evaluate the importance of ecological factors, such as host plant proximity and density, in determining the direction and strength of such herbivore-mediated indirect effects, we quantified oviposition by the exotic weevil Rhinocyllus conicus on the native wavyleaf thistle Cirsium undulatum in midgrass prairie on loam soils in the upper Great Plains, USA. Over three years (2001-2003), the number of eggs laid by R. conicus on C. undulatum always decreased significantly with distance (0-220 m) from a musk thistle (Carduus nutans L.) patch. Neither the level of R. conicus oviposition on C. undulatum nor the strength of the distance effect was predicted by local musk thistle patch density or by local C. undulatum density (<5 m). The results suggest that high R. conicus egg loads on C. undulatum near musk thistle resulted from the native thistle's co-occurrence with the coevolved preferred exotic host plant and not from the weevil's response to local host plant density. Mean egg loads on C. undulatum also were greater at sites with higher R. conicus densities. We conclude that both preferred-plant proximity and shared herbivore density strongly affected the herbivore-mediated indirect interaction, suggesting that such interactions are important pathways by which invasive exotic weeds can indirectly impact native plants. PMID:17479759

Russell, F Leland; Louda, Svata M; Rand, Tatyana A; Kachman, Stephen D

2007-02-01

329

Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of cessation of management on carbohydrate reserves of plants in meadows with different environmental characteristics and plant composition. We recorded storage carbohydrates and seasonal changes for 40 plant species. We asked whether there are differences in responses of carbohydrate reserves in forbs versus graminoids and in plants storing starch versus plants storing osmotically active carbohydrates. We analysed belowground organs before the meadows were mown and at the end of the vegetation season in mown versus recently abandoned plots. Whereas starch and fructans were widely distributed, raffinose family oligosaccharides were the main carbohydrate reserves of the Lamiaceae and Plantago lanceolata. Properties of carbohydrate reserves differed between forbs and graminoids but no difference was found between plants storing starch versus osmotically active carbohydrates. Graminoids had lower carbohydrate concentrations than forbs. We observed a positive effect of mowing on carbohydrate concentrations of graminoids in the dry, calcium-rich meadow and higher seasonal fluctuations of these values in the acid, wet meadow, suggesting that local factors and/or the species pool affect carbohydrate reserves. Despite local conditions, graminoids represent a distinct functional group in meadows from the point of view of their storage economy. We suggest that as well as growth, storage processes should also be considered for understanding the functioning of meadow plant communities. PMID:21309970

Jane?ek, S; Lanta, V; Klimešová, J; Doležal, J

2011-03-01

330

Cyclotron-based effects on plant gravitropism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary roots exhibit positive gravitropism and grow in the direction of the gravitational vector, while shoots respond negatively and grow opposite to the gravitational vector. We first demonstrated that the use of a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), which is comprised of a permanent magnetic field and an alternating magnetic field with the frequency resonance of the cyclotron frequency of calcium ions, can change root gravitropism from a positive direction to negative direction. Two-day-old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in a chamber that was placed into a ?-metal shield where this CMF was created. Using this "new model" of a root gravitropic response, we have studied some of its components including the movement of amyloplasts-statoliths in root cap statocytes and the distribution of Ca 2+ ions in the distal elongation zone during gravistimulation. Unlike results from the control, amyloplasts did not sediment in the distal part of a statocyte, and more Ca 2+ accumulation was observed in the upper side of a gravistimulated root for seedlings treated with the CMF. For plants treated with the CMF, it appears that a root gravitropic reaction occurs by a normal physiological process resulting in root bending although in the opposite direction. These results support the hypothesis that both the amyloplasts in the root cap statocytes and calcium are important signaling components in plant gravitropism.

Kordyum, E.; Sobol, M.; Kalinina, Ia.; Bogatina, N.; Kondrachuk, A.

331

Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland.  

PubMed

The rate at which a plant species is attacked by invertebrate herbivores has been hypothesized to depend on plant species richness, yet empirical evidence is scarce. Current theory predicts higher herbivore damage in monocultures than in species-rich mixtures. We quantified herbivore damage by insects and molluscs to plants in experimental plots established in 2002 from a species pool of 60 species of Central European Arrhenatherum grasslands. Plots differed in plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60 species), number of functional groups (1, 2, 3, 4), functional group and species composition. We estimated herbivore damage by insects and molluscs at the level of transplanted plant individuals ("phytometer" species Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, Rumex acetosa) and of the entire plant community during 2003 and 2004. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows specific predictions about the relative contributions of functional diversity, plant functional identity, and species richness in relation to herbivory. Additionally, the phytometer approach is new to biodiversity-herbivory studies, allowing estimates of species-specific herbivory rates within the larger biodiversity-ecosystem functioning context. Herbivory in phytometers and experimental communities tended to increase with plant species richness and the number of plant functional groups, but the effects were rarely significant. Herbivory in phytometers was in some cases positively correlated with community biomass or leaf area index. The most important factor influencing invertebrate herbivory was the presence of particular plant functional groups. Legume (grass) presence strongly increased (decreased) herbivory at the community level. The opposite pattern was found for herbivory in T. pratense phytometers. We conclude that (1) plant species richness is much less important than previously thought and (2) plant functional identity is a much better predictor of invertebrate herbivory in temperate grassland ecosystems. PMID:16231192

Scherber, Christoph; Mwangi, Peter N; Temperton, Vicky M; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2006-03-01

332

Transition to Work: Effects of Preparedness and Goal Construction on Employment and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the mediating role of employment preparedness in improving employment, mental health, and construction of work-life goals among young vocational school graduates who participated in the School-to-Work effectiveness trial. The trial included a 1-week intervention program that focused on enhancing employment preparedness. In this…

Koivisto, Petri; Vuori, Jukka; Vinokur, Amiram D.

2010-01-01

333

Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable alternative for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in areas with landscape limitations, poor soil conditions, and high water tables, which limit installation of full-scale adsorption fields. Existing information on the effects of macrophytes on treatment performance is contradictory and mostly derived from greenhouse mesocosm experiments. This study investigated the removal efficiency of fecal

A. D. Karathanasis; C. L. Potter; M. S. Coyne

2003-01-01

334

Effectiveness of OLAP-based cost data management in construction cost estimate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical cost data offer important information on the performance of past construction work, while current information technology makes it easier to develop databases. The database, however, needs to be utilized more, by providing a functional environment of probability analysis. The objective of this paper is to improve the effectiveness of utilizing historical cost data in an analytical OLAP (On-Line Analytical

S. W. Moon; J. S. Kim; K. N. Kwon

2007-01-01

335

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERNAL QUALITY AUDITS ON ISO 9000 QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effectiveness, within the construction sector, of the Internal Quality Audit (IQA) and its contribution to Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9000 Certification Scheme. Once a company has obtained ISO Certification the IQA is amongst the requirements specified in the ISO Standards that must be maintained. However, the way the IQA is conducted has

Choon Kwee Goh; Grace Siew; Tuan Chng; Abas Binte Nashila

336

The effect of comments about shoe construction on impact forces during walking  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCCAW, S. T., M. E. HEIL, and J. HAMILL. The effect of comments about shoe construction on impact forces during walking.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1258 -1264, 2000. Comparisons of ground reaction forces (GRF) during gait are not typically conducted with blinding of the varied shoe characteristic, raising concerns related to the existence of a placebo

STEVEN T. McCAW; MARK E. HEIL; JOSEPH HAMILL

2000-01-01

337

Fabrication of Flexible Organic Field Effect Transistor Constructed with a Polymer Gate Dielectric Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated organic field effect transistors constructed with pentacene active layers grown by vacuum deposition, polycarbonate (PC) gate dielectric layers fabricated by spin-coating and polyethylene naphthalate thin films used as substrates. The surface morphology of PC thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was confirmed that the surface morphology of PC thin films had smoothness at

Yonglong Jin; Shizuyasu Ochiai; Goro Sawa; Yoshiyuki Uchida; Kenzo Kojima; Asao Ohashi; Teruyoshi Mizutani

2006-01-01

338

EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON CONTROL FEATURES IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION - SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new homes built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over high radon potential soil...

339

Multivariate Effect Size Estimation: Confidence Interval Construction via Latent Variable Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent variable modeling method is outlined for constructing a confidence interval (CI) of a popular multivariate effect size measure. The procedure uses the conventional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) setup and is applicable with large samples. The approach provides a population range of plausible values for the proportion of…

Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

2010-01-01

340

Construction Safety Training via e-Learning: Learning Effectiveness and User Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Taiwan, promoting knowledge of "Labor Safety" which relates to life and work right is very important. Safety training and learning effectiveness become essential issues of adult learning. To reduce the costs of educational training, enterprises have also started to aggressively introduce e-learning education training. Unlike the construction…

Ho, Chun-Ling; Dzeng, Ren-Jye

2010-01-01

341

Personal Factors Impacting College Student Success: Constructing College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, a new assessment tool identifying personal variables important to college student success, was constructed using empirical approaches grounded in a conceptual model. The exploratory and confirmatory studies revealed the six-underlying factors: Academic Self-Efficacy, Organization and Attention to…

Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Benton, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

342

Postural stability effects of random vibration at the feet of construction workers in simulated elevation.  

PubMed

The risk of falls from height on a construction site increases under conditions which degrade workers' postural control. At elevation, workers depend heavily on sensory information from their feet to maintain balance. The study tested two hypotheses: "sensory enhancement"--sub-sensory (undetectable) random mechanical vibrations at the plantar surface of the feet can improve worker's balance at elevation; and "sensory suppression"--supra-sensory (detectable) random mechanical vibrations can have a degrading effect on balance in the same experimental settings. Six young (age 20-35) and six aging (age 45-60) construction workers were tested while standing in standard and semi-tandem postures on instrumented gel insoles. The insoles applied sub- or supra-sensory levels of random mechanical vibrations to the feet. The tests were conducted in a surround-screen virtual reality system, which simulated a narrow plank at elevation on a construction site. Upper body kinematics was assessed with a motion-measurement system. Postural stability effects were evaluated by conventional and statistical mechanics sway measures, as well as trunk angular displacement parameters. Analysis of variance did not confirm the "sensory enhancement" hypothesis, but provided evidence for the "sensory suppression" hypothesis. The supra-sensory vibration had a destabilizing effect, which was considerably stronger in the semi-tandem posture and affected most of the sway variables. Sensory suppression associated with elevated vibration levels on a construction site may increase the danger of losing balance. Construction workers at elevation, e.g., on a beam or narrow plank might be at increased risk of fall if they can detect vibrations under their feet. To reduce the possibility of losing balance, mechanical vibration to supporting structures used as walking/working surfaces should be minimized when performing construction tasks at elevation. PMID:21071015

Simeonov, P; Hsiao, H; Powers, J; Ammons, D; Kau, T; Amendola, A

2011-07-01

343

Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L  

SciTech Connect

Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

1990-06-01

344

Trace gases generated in closed plant cultivation systems and their effects on plant growth.  

PubMed

Interactions between plants and trace gases, especially ethylene, were investigated from two different viewpoints; ethylene is toxic for plant growth, whereas the ethylene release rate of plants can be utilized as a plant growth indicator. When lettuce plants and shiitake mushroom mycelium were cultivated in closed chambers, ethylene concentration increased with time. Ethylene was released both from lettuce plant and from shiitake mushroom mycelium. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were detected, and these concentrations reached 3.7 ngL-1 for DOP and 2.4 ngL-1 for DBP 4 days after closing. Organic solvents such as xylene and toluene and organic siloxane were detected with GCMS. Visible injury was observed in lettuce plants cultivated in the chambers and it seemed to result from trace contaminants such as DOP, DBP, organic solvents, dimethylsiloxane polymer, and ethylene. In order to obtain basic data of ethylene evolution from plants, ethylene concentration in a closed chamber in which the plants were cultivated under a controlled environment (25 degrees C air temperature, 60-70% relative humidity, 250-300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)) was measured. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Okayama) released ethylene more than Brassica rapa var. pervidis, Brassica campestris var. communis, and Brassica campestris var. narinosa. Ethylene release rate of intact lettuce plant was highly correlated with plant growth parameters such as dry weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate. Ethylene release rates of intact lettuce plant were affected by cultivation conditions such as ambient CO2 concentration, light intensity and light/dark period. Increase in ambient ethylene level influenced lettuce growth even at the concentration of 0.1 microliter L-1. The level of ethylene inhibited leaf expansion and slightly accelerated chlorophyll degradation. It did not affect photosynthesis and transpiration, and also little affected dry matter accumulation. Thus, ethylene release characteristics were clarified and an effect of ethylene on lettuce growth was revealed. These findings are useful for determination of a threshold level of ethylene and a capacity of ethylene removal system in CELSS. On the other hand, a possibility of plant growth diagnosis by measuring ethylene concentrations was evaluated. As a result, it became clear that the measurement of ethylene concentration in CELSS is one of the useful non-destructive measurement methods for plant growth diagnosis. Further research is needed to investigate the applicability of the method to environmental stresses other than Ni and Co in nutrient solution. PMID:11541892

Tani, A; Kiyota, M; Aiga, I

1995-12-01

345

Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant China project  

SciTech Connect

The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, the organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)

McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

2012-07-01

346

Cost effective analysis of recycled products for use in highway construction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over 4.5 billion of non-hazardous wastes are generated in the United States each year. Out of these wastes over 200 million tons of post consumer waste is generated. The disposal of post consumer waste is the responsibility of municipality and society. Four waste materials glass, plastic, rubber tires and paper and paperboard were selected for the detail study. A questionnaire survey was conducted for obtaining input from all state Department of Transportation (DOT) Recyclers and solid waste management facilities in the state of Ohio. Responses received from state DOT stated that they use various recycled materials in highway construction but do not conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of recycle waste materials. The cost of disposal of post consumer waste is increasing, which requires an alternate use for these waste materials. One possible use of these post consumer waste materials is in highway construction. An economic analysis is needed for their cost-effectiveness before using these materials in highway construction. Though these recycled waste materials are expensive compared to virgin material, consideration of the savings in terms of societal cost make these materials cost-effective and attractive to use in highway construction.

Gupta, J.D.

1998-04-01

347

The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs  

PubMed Central

In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been shown to yield engineered cartilaginous tissue with native Young's modulus (EY) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. By day 42 in culture the incorporation of a bony base significantly reduced these properties (EY = 87 ± 12 kPa, GAG = 1.9 ± 0.8%ww) compared to the gel-alone group (EY = 642 ± 97 kPa, GAG = 4.6 ± 1.4%ww). Similarly, the mechanical and biochemical properties of chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs were inhibited when co-cultured adjacent to bone (unattached), suggesting that soluble factors rather than direct cell–bone interactions mediate the chondro-inhibitory bone effects. Altering the method of bone preparation, including demineralization, or the timing of bone introduction in co-culture did not ameliorate the effects. In contrast, osteochondral constructs with native cartilage properties (EY = 730 ± 65 kPa, GAG = 5.2 ± 0.9%ww) were achieved when a porous tantalum metal base material was adopted instead of bone. This work suggests that devitalized bone may not be a suitable substrate for long-term cultivation of osteochondral grafts. PMID:18718655

Lima, Eric G.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Bal, B. Sonny; Cook, James L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T.

2008-01-01

348

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide effects on cotton plant residue decomposition  

SciTech Connect

Assessing the impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration on the global environment is hampered due to a lack of understanding of global C cycling. Carbon fixed within plant biomass ultimately enters the soil via plant residues, but the effects of elevated-CO{sub 2}-grown plant material on decomposition rates and long-term soil C storage are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the decomposition rate of plant residues grown under an elevated CO{sub 2} environment as affected by soil type. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. `Delta Pine 77`) samples were collected from a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (550 {mu}L L{sup -1}) experiment. The plant residues were incubated under ambient CO{sub 2} conditions to determine decomposition rates of leaves, stems, and roots and potential N and P mineralization-immobilization in three soil series. No significant difference was observed between plant residue grown under CO{sub 2} enrichment vs. ambient CO{sub 2} conditions for soil respiration or P mineralization-immobilization. Significantly greater net N immobilization was observed during the incubation in all soil types for plant residue grown at elevated CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that while decomposition of plant residue may not be reduced by CO{sub 2} enrichment, N dynamics may be markedly changed. 32 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Torbert, H.A. [USDA-ARS Blackland, Temple. TX (United States); Prior, S.A.; Rogers, H.H. [USDA-ARS National Soil Dynamics Lab., Auburn, AL (United States)

1995-09-01

349

Plant Rhizosphere Effects on Metal Mobilization and Transport  

SciTech Connect

A mechanistic understanding of mobilization or immobilization of nutrient and pollutant metal ions by plants is largely lacking. It begins with a lack of knowledge on the chemical nature of rhizosphere components that are reactive with metal ions. This fundamental knowledge is critical to the design and implementation of phytoremediation for metal-contaminated DOE sites. Therefore, the objectives of this project include (1) To obtain a comprehensive composition of major organic components in plant root exudates as a function of different metal ions and plant species; (2) To examine plant metabolic response(s) to these metal ion treatments, with emphasis on production of metal reactive compounds; (3) To investigate the effect(s) of soil microbial (e.g. mycorrhizae) association on (1) and (2).

Fan, Teresa W.-M; Crowley, David; Higashi, Richard M.

1999-06-01

350

Effects of silicone antitranspirant on woody plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Effects of Dow Corning silicone emulsion antitranspirant (XF-4-3561 Fluid) on transpiration of Fraxinus americana, Acer saccharum, and Pinus resinosa seedlings and on chlorophyll content and seedling mortality of these species and Pinus strobus were investigated. The effect of silicone on expansion of new (current year) needles of Pinus resinosa and P. strobus was also studied. Transpiration of Fraxinus seedlings treated

K. J. Lee; T. T. Kozlowski

1974-01-01

351

Trichoderma harzianum —interaction with plants and effect on growth response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Trichoderma harzianum which was applied to pathogen-free soil, induced an increase in emergence of seedlings, plant height, leaf area and dry weight. The fungus was applied to the soil by three different methods: conidial suspension, wheat-bran\\/peat preparation and seed coating. The most prominent effect was observed in the wheat-bran\\/peat preparation. Responses occurred in different plant growth substrates such

O. Kleifeld; I. Chet

1992-01-01

352

CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric COâ concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air COâ enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient â360 μmol mol⁻¹) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall.

L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

2004-01-01

353

Effects of sulfur dioxide on the aquatic plant Elodea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sulfur dioxide upon the green plant cell was investigated with emphasis on the effects of the gas on Elodea canadensis. Toxicity studies were performed in which the relations between concentration of sulfur dioxide, pH of the solution, and duration of exposure were investigated. Changes in the structures of the cell induced by lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of

Brooks

1943-01-01

354

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action.  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action. III. Effects of petroleum and rapeseed Résumé — Effet d'adjuvants sur l'action herbicide. III. Effets d'huiles minérale et végétale sur l or petroleum oil as an adjuvant in aqueous formulations can increase the efficacy of post- emergence herbicides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

Indirect positive effects ameliorate strong negative effects of Euphorbia esula on a native plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plant species can have strong direct negative effects on native plants. Depending on the nature of interactions among\\u000a competitors and consumers within a community, strong indirect interactions may either augment or offset direct effects. We\\u000a used path analysis to estimate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of Euphorbia esula, an unpalatable invasive plant, on Balsamorhiza sagittata, a

Daniel Z. AtwaterCarolyn; Carolyn M. Bauer; Ragan M. Callaway

356

Population density of North American elk: effects on plant diversity.  

PubMed

Large, herbivorous mammals have profound effects on ecosystem structure and function and often act as keystone species in ecosystems they inhabit. Density-dependent processes associated with population structure of large mammals may interact with ecosystem functioning to increase or decrease biodiversity, depending on the relationship of herbivore populations relative to the carrying capacity (K) of the ecosystem. We tested for indirect effects of population density of large herbivores on plant species richness and diversity in a montane ecosystem, where increased net aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) in response to low levels of herbivory has been reported. We documented a positive, linear relationship between plant-species diversity and richness with NAPP. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect relationships between population density of herbivores, NAPP, and species diversity. We observed an indirect effect of density-dependent processes in large, herbivorous mammals and species diversity of plants through changes in NAPP in this montane ecosystem. Changes in species diversity of plants in response to herbivory may be more indirect in ecosystems with long histories of herbivory. Those subtle or indirect effects of herbivory may have strong effects on ecosystem functioning, but may be overlooked in plant communities that are relatively resilient to herbivory. PMID:19484268

Stewart, Kelley M; Bowyer, R Terry; Kie, John G; Dick, Brian L; Ruess, Roger W

2009-08-01

357

Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling  

SciTech Connect

The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design. For the activities covered under this NOC, the unabated and abated TEDE to the hypothetical MEI is 1.67 E-03 and 8.34 E-01 millirem per year, respectively.

JANSKY, M.T.

2000-05-01

358

On the effectiveness in implementing a waste-management-plan method in construction  

SciTech Connect

The increasing awareness of waste management concerns from construction and demolition waste has led to the development of waste management as an important function of construction project management. The Hong Kong government started employing the implementation of a waste-management-plan (WMP) method for all construction projects in 2003. During the trial period, the government received different version of feedback from the industry. It also came out that detailed descriptions of waste management procedures in the WMP method largely affect the productivity of companies. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the existing implementation of the WMP method in the Hong Kong construction industry. A questionnaire survey and structured interviews were conducted. The result showed that 'Propose methods for on-site reuse of materials' and 'Propose methods for reducing waste' are the main benefits gained from the implementation of the WMP method. However, 'Low financial incentive' and 'Increase in overhead cost' are considered as the major difficulties in the implementation. From that, 'Use of prefabricated building components' is considered as the major effective measure to encourage the implementation of the WMP method.

Tam, Vivian W.Y. [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, QLD 9726 (Australia)], E-mail: v.tam@griffith.edu.au

2008-07-01

359

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

360

Pretreatment methods for aquatic plant biomass as carbon sources for potential use in treating eutrophic water in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Plant biomass is usually added to constructed wetlands (CW) to enhance denitrification. In this study, we investigated effects of different pretreatments on two common external plant carbon sources, cattail and reed litter. We determined the average ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN), designated as C/N, in water samples after addition of litter subjected to various pretreatments. The C/N in the water samples ranged from 4.8 to 6.4 after addition of NaOH-pretreated cattail litter, which was four to six times greater than that of water from the Yapu River and 3.84-39.15% higher than that of systems that received untreated cattail litter. The C/N of systems that received H(2)SO(4)-pretreated carbon sources varied from 1.7 to 3.6. These two methods resulted in TN and total phosphorus (TP) levels lower than those in river water. The C/N was 1.4-1.7 after addition of CH(3)COOH-pretreated reed litter, which was 34.87-53.83% higher than that of river water. The C/N was 2.5 in systems that received mild alkali/oxidation-pretreated reeds, which was 30.59% higher than that of systems that received non-pretreated reeds. The residue rates of cattail and reed litter subjected to various pretreatments were greater than 60%. Our results showed that NaOH, H(2)SO(4), and mild alkali/oxidation pretreatments were useful to rapidly improve the C/N of river water and enhance denitrification. PMID:23032761

Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Xin; Shang, Jia-Jia; Feng, Yi; Liu, Jia; Lu, Li-Jun

2012-01-01

361

Complex Effects of Fertilization on Plant and Herbivore Performance in the Presence of a Plant Competitor and Activated Carbon  

PubMed Central

Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant’s growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both perspectives in plant herbivore interactions and characterize the effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance and their respective feedbacks. PMID:25078980

Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

2014-01-01

362

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

made. At the genomic level, advances in technologies for the high-throughput analysis of gene@ksu.edu Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2006. 44:489­509 First published online as a Review in Advance on May 23, 2006 the effects of climate change on disease risk across systems (63). More stud- ies of the "fingerprint

Garrett, Karen A.

363

10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. The requirements...of an operating license for a nuclear power plant under this...

2010-01-01

364

10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.  

...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. The requirements...of an operating license for a nuclear power plant under this...

2014-01-01

365

10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. The requirements...of an operating license for a nuclear power plant under this...

2013-01-01

366

10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. The requirements...of an operating license for a nuclear power plant under this...

2011-01-01

367

10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50...effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. The requirements...of an operating license for a nuclear power plant under this...

2012-01-01

368

The effects of tannery wastewater on the development of different plant species and chromium accumulation in Phragmites australis.  

PubMed

Toxicity tests were performed to assess the effect of tannery wastewater with different treatment levels on two wetland plants, Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia, which are frequently used in constructed wetlands (CWs) for water treatment, and thus deepen the knowledge on their capacity to withstand the application of industrial wastewater. Trifolium pratense, a plant generally used as an indicator in toxicity tests, was included as a control. End points measured were germination percentage, shoot length, root elongation, and biomass growth of the plants. When tannery effluent, with a low treatment level, was supplied to the wetland plants germination occurred even at effluent concentrations of 100%, whereas germination of T. pratense was completely inhibited, almost invariably, at effluent concentration of 50%. Higher germination levels were achieved when the plants were exposed to effluent originating from the outlet of constructed wetland pilot units, allowing germination of all tested plants, indicating a significant decrease in its toxicity level. Experiments conducted with the same plants using different growing substrata as the germination matrix, namely expanded clay aggregates (Filtralite MR 3-8 and Filtralite NR 3-8) and two types of sand (fine gravel and standard sand) have shown that higher germination levels were achieved in standard sand and that P. australis was the plant species showing higher germination in all cases, reinforcing the robustness of this plant to environmental stress. The phytoextraction potential of P. australis, was evaluated by subjecting the plant to tannery wastewater supplemented with 50 and 150 mg Cr/L. After 6 weeks of exposure, levels up to 4825, 883, and 627 mg Cr/kg were found in the rhizome, shoot, and leaves, respectively, although phytotoxic signs in the plant were evident. This plant might not be considered a chromium hyperacumulator, but the potential to extract and accumulate this metal on its rhizomes is high. PMID:18214580

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

2008-10-01

369

Construction of Effective Electromagnetic Currents for Two-Body Quasipotential Equations  

SciTech Connect

A systematic algebraic approach for the construction of effective electro-magnetic currents consistent with relativistic two-body quasipotential equations is presented. This approach generalizes the Mandelstam formalism and applies it to a generic quasipotential reduction method. The use of Ward-Takahashi identities for the effective currents guarantees conservation of current matrix elements involving any combination of bound and scattering states. This approach is shown to reproduce previous results for current matrix elements for the particular cases of the Gross and Blankenbecler-Sugar equations. A generic method of truncation of the quasipotential effective current with respect to the number of boson exchanges is introduced.

Dmitri Krioukov

1998-09-01

370

Space radiation effects on plant and mammalian cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on organisms is related to different research aims. The current review emphasizes the studies on the effects of different doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on living organisms, with the final purpose of highlighting specific and common effects of space radiation in mammals and plants. This topic is extremely relevant in the context of radiation protection from space environment. The response of different organisms to ionizing radiation depends on the radiation quality/dose and/or the intrinsic characteristics of the living system. Macromolecules, in particular DNA, are the critical targets of radiation, even if there is a strong difference between damages encountered by plant and mammalian cells. The differences in structure and metabolism between the two cell types are responsible for the higher resistance of the plant cell compared with its animal counterpart. In this review, we report some recent findings from studies performed in Space or on Earth, simulating space-like levels of radiation with ground-based facilities, to understand the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian and plant cells. In particular, our attention is focused on genetic alterations and repair mechanisms in mammalian cells and on structures and mechanisms conferring radioresistance to plant cells.

Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Macaeva, E.; Quintens, R.

2014-11-01

371

[Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].  

PubMed

Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed. PMID:18637335

Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

2008-04-01

372

Effects of Ozone on Gas Exchange in Invasive Forest Plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluations of invasive plant biology have failed to investigate the relationship between leaf structure and effects of ozone among closely related native and non-native plants. When exposed to toxic pollutants plants with lower stomatal density and lower stomatal conductance might experience reduced exposure and consequently be more competitive. To test for systematic differences between invasive and native species, experiments assessed the stomatal density and stomatal conductance of nine non-native invasive species and thirteen native species. Field sites, used for forest surveys, centered on three urban areas including sites with differing ozone levels (low 0-60 ppb, medium 80-99 ppb, high 111-125+ ppb). Three sites were selected within each of the three urban areas, and surveys were taken at each of the nine sites determining the native and non-native plant composition. The low level sites had greater densities of native plants than the high ozone level sites. Leaf impressions revealed a significantly higher (t = 14.13, p < 0.0001) stomatal density for the natives, and a LI-COR 1600 showed significantly higher (Fndf,ddf = 12.88, p = 0.0004) stomatal conductance for native plants. Dissimilar gas-exchange capacities are likely to be linked to the observed differences in plant composition among study sites. The importance of addressing air and biotic pollution grows every year as human health, agriculture, and ecosystem function are negatively affected in new areas.

Elton, E. E.

2006-12-01

373

Ultrastructural Effects of Salinity in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity leads to structural and ultrastructural effects, particularly in salt-sensitive species. Some of them are indicative\\u000a of the onset of injury, for example the aggregation of chloroplasts accompanied by a swelling in the granal and fret compartments\\u000a or the complete distortion of chloroplastic grana and thylakoid structures. Others are associated with metabolic acclimation\\u000a to salinity stress. For instance increased density

Hans-Werner Koyro

374

Effects of selenium hyperaccumulation on plant-plant interactions: evidence for elemental allelopathy?  

PubMed

• Few studies have investigated plant-plant interactions involving hyperaccumulator plants. Here, we investigated the effect of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation on neighboring plants. • Soil and litter Se concentrations were determined around the hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata and around the nonhyperaccumulators Medicago sativa and Helianthus pumilus. We also compared surrounding vegetative cover, species composition and Se concentration in two plant species (Artemisia ludoviciana and Symphyotrichum ericoides) growing either close to or far from Se hyperaccumulators. Then, Arabidopsis thaliana germination and growth were compared on soils collected next to the hyperaccumulators and the nonhyperaccumulators. • Soil collected around hyperaccumulators contained more Se (up to 266 mg Se kg(-1) ) than soil collected around nonhyperaccumulators. Vegetative ground cover was 10% lower around Se hyperaccumulators compared with nonhyperaccumulators. The Se concentration was higher in neighboring species A. ludoviciana and S. ericoides when growing close to, compared with far from, Se hyperaccumulators. A. thaliana showed reduced germination and growth, and higher Se accumulation, when grown on soil collected around Se hyperaccumulators compared with soil collected around nonaccumulators. • In conclusion, Se hyperaccumulators may increase the surrounding soil Se concentration (phytoenrichment). The enhanced soil Se contents around hyperaccumulators can impair the growth of Se-sensitive plant species, pointing to a possible role of Se hyperaccumulation in elemental allelopathy. PMID:21371042

El Mehdawi, Ali F; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2011-07-01

375

Induced Resistance in Agricultural Crops: Effects of Jasmonic Acid on Herbivory and Yield in Tomato Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can be treated with natural plant elicitors to induce resistance to herbivores. To use elicitors in agriculture we must know the net effects of induction on plant yield. For 4 yr, I induced plant resistance to insect herbivores in tomato plants using the natural plant hormone jasmonic acid. Foliar jasmonic acid application increased levels of polyphenol oxidase, an oxidative

JENNIFER S. THALER

376

Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied.

M. Ajmal; M. A. Khan

1986-01-01

377

Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.  

PubMed

Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both perspectives in plant herbivore interactions and characterize the effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance and their respective feedbacks. PMID:25078980

Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2014-01-01

378

Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh–pond–marsh constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research objective was to investigate the effect of intermittent wetland drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh–pond–marsh (m–p–m) constructed wetlands. For 16 weeks beginning in June 2002, each of four m–p–m wetlands in Greensboro, NC, USA, received a different application of swine wastewater. The four application schemes were as follows: (1) continuous application; (2) 1 week of no application

M. E. Poach; P. G. Hunt; G. B. Reddy; K. C. Stone; M. H. Johnson; A. Grubbs

2007-01-01

379

Identifying the effects of different construction practices on the spectral characteristics of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different construction practices on the spectral characteristics of the concrete. Concrete blocks of identical shape and size (20×20×6 cm3) were prepared using different treatment processes to establish eight different concrete characteristics. The different concrete treatments were: TC (control), TNC (no cure), TCL (cool cure), TH (heat cure), THW (high water

B. B. Maruthi Sridhar; T. L. Chapin; R. K. Vincent; M. J. Axe; J. P. Frizado

2008-01-01

380

Options for Improving the Effectiveness and Potentials for a Sustainable Resource Recovery in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is divided into two parts, one presenting the options to improve the effectiveness of constructed wetlands (CWs)\\u000a by focusing into their associated problems and one investigating the potentials of sustainable resource recovery. To deal\\u000a with the problematic septic tank, one particular system initiated in France aims to treat raw household wastewater solely\\u000a by CWs. It has been proved

Nathasith Chiarawatchai; Ralf Otterpohl

381

Effects of gravity on temporary spiral construction by Leucauge mariana (Araneae: Araneidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary spirals (TSP) in non-horizontal webs ofLeucauge mariana (Key-serling) showed consistent up-down asymmetries in initiation sites and spacing between loops that were not present in\\u000a horizontal webs, even when possible effects of other web asymmetries were controlled for by changing the web's orientation\\u000a just as TSP construction began. Cues from the web itself also affect spacing, since patterns of TSP

William G. Eberhard; Smithsonian Tropical

1987-01-01

382

Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants  

E-print Network

to increase plant performance; diversity increased plant growth (but not biomass), and this effect; plant growth; top-down effects 1. INTRODUCTION The consequences of plant species diversity on ecosystem plant growth as well as the abundance and diversity of associated arthropods in grasses, legumes, forbs

Mooney, Kailen A.

383

Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general understanding of the level of sophistication of analysis models required to properly predict forces and deformations of curved and/or skewed bridges during construction is limited. The development of guidelines regarding the sufficiency of simplified methods of structural analysis is the overall motivation and objective of this dissertation. This research addresses the construction load effects due to skew and due to combined skew and curvature and develops design recommendations and analytical tools for the construction engineering of tub-girder bridges. The effects of skew and curvature are studied by examining the results for different levels of analysis for 18 representative bridges. These bridges reflect the range of bridge curvature and skew used in current practice. By comparing the output from simplified analysis methods to validated refined 3D FEA solutions, general conclusions are developed as to when the simplified methods provide sufficient results. An important original contribution of this research is that the data generated constitutes the first systematic study on a large set of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges using consistent refined 3D FEA models to model construction forces and deformations. As such, the results of this research can serve as a benchmark for current and future improvements in methods of analysis and design for the construction engineering of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges. In the current research, this data has been used in both straight and curved tub-girder bridges to: • Develop a simplified 1D analysis method to account for the effect of skew on girder twist rotations and internal torques, • Evaluate the effect of skew on component forces, and propose improved simplified procedures to capture these effects, • Identify interactions between components and develop improved simplified analysis methods to account for these effects, • Establish limits for when the improved 1D and 2D simplified methods of analysis are sufficient for construction engineering analysis, and • Identify sources of steel erection fit-up proble

Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel

384

Environments for Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

1970-01-01

385

Effects of vegetation on surface stability and hydrology of a prototype barrier constructed over nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

Earthen barriers are being developed to prevent water from entering nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. We constructed a prototype barrier (2700 m{sup 2}) and are conducting a test to determine if it can prevent water from draining at 3 times normal precipitation. Plants will function to minimize erosion and maximize the loss of water from the surface soils. The experiment was initiated in the October 1994. The surface was revegetated with seedlings of Artemisia tridentata and Chrysothamnus nauseosus (2 shrubs m{sup -2}) and seeded with native perennial grasses. Initial soil water observations indicate more water near the surface and considerable spatial variability. The revegetation effort reduced wind erosion.

Link, S.O.; Ward, A.L.; Walters, W.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

386

The Composite Effect of Transgenic Plant Volatiles for Acquired Immunity to Herbivory Caused by Inter-Plant Communications  

PubMed Central

A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos) including (E)-?-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2) that were constitutively overexpressing (E)-?-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai). In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants) placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications. PMID:22022359

Muroi, Atsushi; Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Nishihara, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

2011-01-01

387

Construction and application of a mass spectral and retention time index database generated from plant GC\\/EI-TOF-MS metabolite profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-supervised construction of a mass spectral and retention time index data base (MS\\/RI library) from a set of plant metabolic profiles covering major organs of potato (Solanum tuberosum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum), and Arabidopsis thaliana, was demonstrated. Typically 300–500 mass spectral components with a signal to noise ratio ?75 were obtained from GC\\/EI-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS metabolite profiles of methoxyaminated and trimethylsilylated

Cornelia Wagner; Michael Sefkow; Joachim Kopka

2003-01-01

388

Prevention of a Malaria Outbreak among Non-Immune Japanese Workers Engaged in the Construction of a Thermal Power Plant in Sonebhadra, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Prevention of a Malaria Outbreak among Non-Immune,Japanese ,Workers ,Engaged ,in the Construction of a Thermal Power Plant in Sonebhadra, India: Hironobu KATSUYAMA, et al. Department of Health, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries—Continuous consumption of anti-malarialdrugs,is not always recognized as the first choice for prevention of malaria among,workers,residing in malarious areas for long periods. In Japan, personal protective measures,have been,primarily recommended. However,

Hironobu KATSUYAMA; Shigeyuki KANO; Mamoru SUZUKI; Kiyofumi SAIJOH; Kimiaki SUMINO; Goro TSUCHIYA

1997-01-01

389

Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.  

PubMed

The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

1969-05-01

390

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

SciTech Connect

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

1987-03-01

391

Construction of an intron-containing marker gene: Splicing of the intron in transgenic plants and its use in monitoring early events in Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a commonly used tool for transforming dicotyledonous plants. The underlying mechanism of transformation however is not very well understood. One problem complicating the analysis of this mechanism is the fact that most indicator genes are already active in Agrobacterium, thereby preventing the precise determination of timing and localisation of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. In order to

G. Vancanneyt; R. Schmidt; A. O'Connor-Sanchez; L. Willmitzer; M. Rocha-Sosa

1990-01-01

392

The effect of the scale of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands on flow and transport parameters.  

PubMed

Horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands have proven their efficiency in treating wastewater and removing the pollutants of concern. Treatment efficiency depends on the wastewater residence time, which is a function of the hydraulic loading and the physical conditions of the constructed filter system, which can be described with effective parameters such as: hydraulic conductivity, porosity, dispersivity etc. Because spatial variability is often scale dependent, these effective parameters may be affected by the scale of the system being studied. In this paper the results of tracer experiments in constructed filters using saturated horizontal flow at three scales (small and medium lab scales and full-scale system) using the same filter media is reported. Light-weight aggregate (filter media termed Filtralite-P) was used at all scales. Increasing the scale was associated with increasing dispersivity, meanwhile hydraulic conductivity experienced dramatic reduction and variation by increasing the examined scale. Observed changes in the hydraulic parameters indicate that heterogeneity at different scales should be taken into account when the performance of LWA filters are evaluated from small-scale experiments. PMID:16042266

Suliman, F; French, H; Haugen, L E; Kløve, B; Jenssen, P

2005-01-01

393

Effect of dietary plant extracts mixture on pork meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a plant extracts mixture including carvacrol (oregano), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamom), and capsicum oleoresin (Mexican pepper) on the meat quality of pigs. The study was carried out on 60 pigs, divided into two groups (control and experimental), 30 pigs each. The control group was given a basal diet and the experimental

A. Ko?odziej-Skalska; A. Rybarczyk; B. Matysiak; E. Jacyno; A. Pietruszka; M. Kaw?cka

2011-01-01

394

Effects of nitrogen reduction on invasive plants in restored grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of invasive plant species is a problem facing ecosystem management officials, especially for disturbed ecosystems and ecosystems with elevated nutrient levels. Disturbed grasslands with elevated nitrogen levels tend to have low species diversity and high numbers of invasive species. I studied the effects of carbon amendments on disturbed grassland with elevated nitrogen levels to see if carbon amendments could

Kimberlly J. Reever

395

Grassland Plant Composition Alters Vehicular Disturbance Effects in Kansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ``natural'' areas are exposed to military or recreational off-road vehicles. The interactive effects of different types of vehicular disturbance on vegetation have rarely been examined, and it has been proposed that some vegetation types are less susceptible to vehicular disturbance than others. At Fort Riley, Kansas, we experimentally tested how different plant community types changed after disturbance from an

Timothy L. Dickson; Brian J. Wilsey; Ryan R. Busby; Dick L. Gebhart

2008-01-01

396

Effect of potassium on moringa plants growth in nutriente solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work was carried out to evaluate the effects of K + rates on the initial growth as well as on the partition and accumulation of this element in roots, stems and leaves of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) plants. A pot (0.5 dm 3) experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions using river sand as substrate irrigated with nutrient solution

Lucia Helena; Ricardo Almeida Viégas; Ana Carolina; Feitosa de Vasconcelos; Hugo Vieira

397

Effect of 1-MCP on Cotton Plants Under Abiotic Stress  

E-print Network

in reductions of lipid peroxidation, membrane leakage, and soluble sugar content as well as increased chlorophyll content, compared to the untreated plants under stress conditions. In the field study to evaluate the effect of 1-MCP under ethephon stress, 1-MCP...

Chen, Yuan

2013-05-06

398

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance  

E-print Network

that global warming may increase aridity in water- limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. WePlants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance Erika S. Zavaleta* , Brian D. Thomas show that interactions between warming and the dominant biota in a grassland ecosystem produced

Zavaleta, Erika

399

Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects.  

PubMed

In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant-soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species mixtures rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between species selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net biodiversity and complementarity effects were greater in mixtures of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in agriculture or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection of crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in the longer term. PMID:25317555

Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Schmid, Bernhard; Petermann, Jana S; Yadav, Varuna; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Flynn, Dan F B

2014-11-01

400

Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than

J. N. Cape

2003-01-01

401

Impact of Public Policy and Societal Risk Perception on U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

E-print Network

Impact of Public Policy and Societal Risk Perception on U.S. Civilian Nuclear Power Plant permit applications for 26 new nuclear power reactors. However, the previous generation of U.S. civilian of nuclear plants. Results point to the critical role societal perceptions of nuclear power risk play

Ford, David N.

402

High-School Students' Reasoning while Constructing Plant Growth Models in a Computer-Supported Educational Environment. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students' reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels ('macro-phenomenological' and 'micro-conceptual' level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their…

Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

2005-01-01

403

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

404

Planting date, row configuration and plant population effects on growth and yield of dryland sorghum in subtropical South Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain sorghum is well adapted to semi-arid environments, but production practices must be optimized. A four-year study was conducted to determine the effects of planting date, row configuration and plant population on dryland sorghum growth and yield in subtropical South Texas. The earliest possible planting in order to take advantage of favorable growing conditions without being exposed to adverse environmental

Bob Wiedenfeld; John Matocha

2010-01-01

405

Effects of soil disturbance on plant diversity of calcareous grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil disturbance experiment was performed during two seasons in degraded, calcareous sandy grassland in southern Sweden. pH, extractable phosphorus, plant species richness and vegetation composition were analyzed. Mechanical soil disturbance had no effect on pH, and caused only a minor increase in extractable phosphorus. Positive effects compared to control plots were seen on plot scale (360m2) in species richness

Tim Krone Schnoor; Pål Axel Olsson

2010-01-01

406

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action.  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action. I. Effects of a mixture of adjuvants'action herbicide. I. Effet d'un mélange d'adjuvants sur la rétention et la pénétration du diclofop-méthyl chez le — A mixture of adjuvants composed of a liquid nitrogenous fertilizer, oil, solvent and surfactant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Effects of parasitic castration on plant resource allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that host castration is a parasite strategy to reallocate host resources from reproductive to vegetative\\u000a functions to increase parasite fitness. Since resource partitioning between reproduction and vegetative growth can affect\\u000a host life-history traits, parasite effects on resource allocation can affect both plant fitness and host-parasite coevolution.\\u000a Field and greenhouse experiments were used to investigate the effects

Paula X. Kover

2000-01-01

408

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-14

409

Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants.  

PubMed

Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than a few days, so there is little information on potential long-term effects of exposure to small concentrations. This review considers the available evidence for long-term effects, based on laboratory and field data. Previous reviews of the literature from Germany and the USA are cited, prior to an assessment of the effects of individual VOCs. Although hydrocarbons from vehicle exhausts have been implicated in the observed effects on roadside vegetation, the evidence suggests that it is the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases that are mostly responsible. There is evidence that aromatic hydrocarbons can be metabolised in plants, although the fate of the metabolites is not known. There is a large literature on the effects of ethylene, because of its role as a plant hormone. Effects have been reported in the field, in response to industrial emissions, and dose-response experiments over several weeks in laboratory studies have clearly identified the potential for effects at ambient concentrations. The main responses are morphological (e.g. epinasty), which may be reversible, and on the development of flowers and fruit. Effects on seed production may be positive or negative, depending on the exposure concentration. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified as potentially harmful to vegetation, but only one long-term experiment has studied dose-response relationships. As for ethylene, the most sensitive indication of effect was on seed production, although long-term accumulation of trichloroacetic acid in tissue may also be a problem. There is little evidence of the direct effects of oxygenated hydrocarbons on plants. Plants are a significant emission source of short-chain alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has a well-documented history as damaging to vegetation. There have been few long-term experimental studies despite the field evidence for damaging effects. Early studies in California have been followed by more recent data from east Asia, but there is still a dearth of information on the potential for effects of PAN and related peroxyacyl nitrates on vegetation typical of regions around tropical and sub-tropical cities where PAN pollution is increasingly important. The lack of long-term measurements, coupled with the available evidence that effects are not linearly related to 'dose' measured as the product of exposure concentration and time, means that the possibility of adverse effects of VOCs on vegetation cannot be safely rejected, particularly in urban and industrial areas. Although reproductive processes (flowering, seed production) appear to be most sensitive, there have been no experimental studies on subsequent seed viability and the consequences at the ecosystem level of changes to plant phenology. The potential for VOC metabolites to accumulate in plant tissue has been demonstrated, but any subsequent effects on herbivores and phytophagous insects have yet to be investigated. PMID:12535603

Cape, J N

2003-01-01

410

Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

Belyavskaya, N.

411

Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime because of the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation, and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Construction at Locations B or C would not result in direct impacts to wetlands. However, the hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. The impacts at Location A may potentially be avoided by an alternative routing of the entrance road, or mitigation may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the State of Ohio. Unavoidable impacts to isolated wetlands may require an Isolated Wetlands Permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor for the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found in this part of Ohio, which in many cases involve previously disturbed habitats.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2005-09-09

412

Interactive Effects of Nutrient and Mechanical Stresses on Plant Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. Methods An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Key Results Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. Conclusions These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species. PMID:17913725

Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

2007-01-01

413

Creating Effective Insulation Solutions, Taking into Account the Law of Affinity Structures in Construction Materials  

E-print Network

Abstract: Theoretical approach to the creation of thermal insulation solutions with high thermo-physical and physical-mechanical properties. When you create a material with the desired characteristics used previously suggested by the authors, the law of affinity structures in construction materials, allowing to predict and obtain building composites with desired properties. The results of research on the production of composite binders using waste perlite manufacture for thermal barrier solutions. The microstructure insulation solutions. The method of electron microprobe analysis revealed that between cement and perlite chemical interactions occur. The compositions composite binders for insulating solutions based on local raw materials and plasticizers. The composite binders optimal composition have a compressive strength of 95.2 MPa. It is proved that when using the suggested approaches for creating material may get effective insulating solutions with high heat-shielding properties. Key words: Law of affinity structures in construction materials Composite binders Expanded perlite insulation solutions on the basis of dry construction mixtures Microstructure Microprobe analysis of spectral Thermal and performance characteristics Physical and mechanical properties

Lesovik Valeriy Stanislavovich; Zagorodnuk Liliya Hasanovna; Andrey Vasilevich Shkarin; Denis Alekseevich Belikov; Anna Aleks; Rovna Kuprina

414

Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

2014-05-01

415

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

416

Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

2013-04-01

417

Effect of Animal Facility Construction on Basal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Renin-Aldosterone Activity in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Although loud noise and intense vibration are known to alter the behavior and phenotype of laboratory animals, little is known about the effects of nearby construction. We studied the effect of a nearby construction project on the classic stress hormones ACTH, corticosterone, renin, and aldosterone in rats residing in a barrier animal facility before, for the first 3 months of a construction project, and at 1 month after all construction was completed. During some of the construction, noise and vibrations were not obvious to investigators inside the animal rooms. Body weight matched for age was not altered by nearby construction. During nearby construction, plasma ACTH, corticosterone, and aldosterone were approximately doubled compared with those of pre- and postconstruction levels. Expression of CRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, CRH receptor and POMC mRNA in the anterior pituitary, and most mRNAs for steroidogenic genes in the adrenal gland were not significantly changed during construction. We conclude that nearby construction can cause a stress response without long-term effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis gene expression and body weight. PMID:21248141

Bruder, Eric D.; Cullinan, William E.; Ziegler, Dana R.; Cohen, Eric P.

2011-01-01

418

Effectiveness of gene silencing induced by viral vectors based on Citrus leaf blotch virus is different in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants.  

PubMed

Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for gene function analysis in plants. We assessed the VIGS effectiveness in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus plants of different Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV)-based vectors, using insets of the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene. While in N. benthamiana the silencing phenotype was induced only by the construct carrying a 58-nt pds hairpin, in citrus plants all the constructs induced the silencing phenotype. Differences in the generation of secondary small interfering RNAs in both species are believed to be responsible for differential host-species effects. The ability of CLBV-based vectors to silence different endogenous citrus genes was further confirmed. Since CLBV-based vectors are known to be stable and induce VIGS in successive flushes for several months, these vectors provide an important genomic tool and it is expected that they will be useful to analyze gene function by reverse genetics in the long-lived citrus plants. PMID:25010281

Agüero, Jesus; Vives, María del Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Pina, José Antonio; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, Jose

2014-07-01

419

Wording effect leads to a controversy over the construct of the social dominance orientation scale.  

PubMed

Most investigations of individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) have used the 16-item SDO scale developed by F. Pratto, J. Sidanius, L. M. Stallworth, and B. F. Malle (1994). The scale's authors believed it to be a unidimensional scale, but other researchers have found the scale has 2 or more factors. The present authors proposed a new hypothesis: The controversy of the scale structure was related to the wording effect of the scale. Based on a sample of Americans, Canadians, and Chinese, the present study indicated that what the scale measured was not only 1 trait of SDO, but also a negative-wording effect factor and that the scale structure was invariant across the 3 cultural groups. The existence of a wording effect reminds us to be cautious of the construct validity of the scale and interpretations of results. PMID:20806851

Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping

2010-01-01

420

Direct construction of the effective action of chiral gauge fermions in the anomalous sector  

E-print Network

The anomaly implies an obstruction to a fully chiral covariant calculation of the effective action in the abnormal parity sector of chiral theories. The standard approach then is to reconstruct the anomalous effective action from its covariant current. In this work we use a recently introduced formulation which allows to directly construct the non trivial chiral invariant part of the effective action within a fully covariant formalism. To this end we develop an appropriate version of Chan's approach to carry out the calculation within the derivative expansion. The result to four derivatives, i.e., to leading order in two and four dimensions and next-to-leading order in two dimensions, is explicitly worked out. Fairly compact expressions are found for these terms.

L. L. Salcedo

2008-04-14

421

Experimental study of the hypoglycemic effect of some antidiabetic plants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to look for the hypoglycemic effect of 12 plants most used in Mexico for controlling diabetes mellitus. The studies were realized in 27 rabbits submitted weekly to glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a preparation of the plant. The results showed that tolbutamide and studied plants (except Aloe barbadensis) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) the area under glucose tolerance curve, in relation with the water control. The strongest effect was yielded by Psacalium peltatum (27.9%), followed by Curcubita ficifolia (26.4%), Lepechinia caulescens (26.0%), Opuntia streptacantha (21.4%), Slanum verbascifolum (21.1%), Teucrium cubense (19.4%), Cecropia obtusifolia (18.9%), Phaseolus vulgaris (18.5%), Tecoma stans (17.5%), Eriobotrya japonica (17.2%), Salpianthus macrodonthus (15.0%), tolbutamide (14.3%), and Aloe barbadensis (1.4%). Our results point out that the majority of the plants most used by the Mexican population to control diabetes mellitus have an evident hypoglycemic action. PMID:1819981

Román-Ramos, R; Flores-Sáenz, J L; Partida-Hernández, G; Lara-Lemus, A; Alarcón-Aguilar, F

1991-01-01

422

DOE/EA-1517: Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana (April 2005)  

SciTech Connect

Based on action by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funding available to support a proposal by the Iroquois Bio-energy Company (IBEC), an Indiana limited liability company, to construct a fuel ethanol plant in Jasper County, Indiana (the proposed plant). Congress has acknowledged the merit of this project by providing specific funding through DOE. Consequently, DOE proposes to provide partial funding to IBEC to subsidize the design and construction of the proposed plant (the Proposed Action). In accordance with DOE and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing regulations, DOE is required to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE facilities, operations, and related funding decisions. The proposal to use Federal funds to support the project requires DOE to address NEPA requirements and related environmental documentation and permitting requirements. In compliance with NEPA (42 U.S.C. {section} 4321 et seq.) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR section 1021.330) and procedures, this environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Action and a No Action Alternative.

N /A

2005-04-29

423

Use of filler limestone and construction and demolition residues for remediating soils contaminated with heavy metals: an assessment by means of plant uptake.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greenhouse trial was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (lettuce, broccoli and alfalfa), different parts of which are destined for human and animal consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). The plants were cultivated in four types of soil, one uncontaminated (T1), one soil collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera (T2), the third being remediated with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (T3) and the four remediated with filler limestone (T4). To determine the metal content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. The DTPA-extractable content was also determined to calculate the bioavailable amount of metal. Finally, the translocation factor (TF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were calculated. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer and Cd, Pb and Zn was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Samples of the leached water were also obtained and analyzed. According to our results, the retention of the studied elements varies with the type of plant and is strongly decreased by the incorporation of filler limestone and/or construction and demolition residues to the soils. This practice represents a suitable way to reduce the risk posed to the biota by the presence of high levels of heavy metal in soil.

Banegas, Ascension; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen

2010-05-01

424

Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in line with predictions based on island biogeography and resource concentration theory. We discuss how a thorough knowledge of the immigration behaviour of this fly might help to understand the patterns found.

Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes

2011-03-01

425

"The Mall" and "the Plant": Choice and the Classed Construction of Possible Futures in Two Specialized Arts Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how conceptions of choice and visions of the future are constructed within the context of specialized arts programs in two Canadian public high schools. The authors consider how discourses of the arts are implicated in the way that possible futures are envisioned differently, delimiting the range of choices available to…

Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén; VanderDussen, Elena; Cairns, Kate

2014-01-01

426

Grassland Plant Composition Alters Vehicular Disturbance Effects in Kansas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many “natural” areas are exposed to military or recreational off-road vehicles. The interactive effects of different types\\u000a of vehicular disturbance on vegetation have rarely been examined, and it has been proposed that some vegetation types are\\u000a less susceptible to vehicular disturbance than others. At Fort Riley, Kansas, we experimentally tested how different plant\\u000a community types changed after disturbance from an

Timothy L. Dickson; Brian J. Wilsey; Ryan R. Busby; Dick L. Gebhart

2008-01-01

427

Long-term effects of heavy metals on aquatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In long-term experiments lasting up to 73 days the effect of rather low levels of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium on the growth and metal uptake was studied by investigating four aquatic plant species: Elodea nuttallii, Callitriche plataycarpa, Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemma gibba. Except Elodea, which was already very sensitive to 5 ..mu..mol Cu 1⁻¹, no differentiation in growth or

M. van der Werff; M. J. Pruyt

1982-01-01

428

Magnetic fluids effect upon growth processes in plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The metabolic processes of plants growth and development take place according to some organic rules which are specific to their genetic potential. These processes may exhibit modifications of intensity, rhythm, sense, under the influence of the environmental conditions of agricultural systems, through certain factors and bioregulators artificially introduced by man. The results of some investigations regarding effects of biocompatible magnetic fluids (LMW 100 G) on the vegetal organism's (growth, development, fructifying, the level and quality of the yield precocity) are presented.

Sala, F.

1999-07-01

429

Determination of diffusivities in the Rustler Formation from exploratory-shaft construction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The construction of an exploratory shaft 12 feet in diameter into the Salado Formation (repository horizon for transuranic waste material) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico affected water-levels in water-bearing zones above the repository horizon. By reading the construction history of the exploratory shaft, an approximation of construction-generated hydraulic stresses at the shaft was made. The magnitude of the construction-generated stresses was calibrated using the hydrographs from one hydrologic test pad. Whereas flow rates from the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members in the Rustler Formation into the exploratory shaft were unknown, the ratio of transmissivity to storage (diffusivity) was determined by mathematically simulating the aquifers and the hydrologic stresses with flood-wave-response digital model. These results indicate that the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation can be modeled as homogeneous, isotropic, and confined water-bearing zones. One simple and consistent explanation, but by no means the only explanation, of the lack of a single diffusivity value in the Culebra aquifer is that the open-hole observation wells at the hydrologic test pads dampen the amplitude of water-level changes. (USGS)

Stevens, Ken; Beyeler, Walt

1985-01-01

430

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

431

Watershed Ecology and the Effects of Construction on Erosion and Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lab is to allow middle and high school students to begin to understand their place in their watershed, explore erosion, water quality assessment and the impact of construction sites through both field work and inquiry-based experiments. Students should have prior knowledge of the water cycle. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to describe the impact that erosion has on water quality, including the effects of soil types and potential effects of the watershed. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Norman Leonard (Pike High School)

2007-08-01

432

Using project performance to measure effectiveness of quality management system maintenance and practices in construction industry.  

PubMed

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Zakuan, Norhayati; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Tan, Choy Soon

2014-01-01

433

Fabrication of Flexible Organic Field Effect Transistor Constructed with a Polymer Gate Dielectric Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated organic field effect transistors constructed with pentacene active layers grown by vacuum deposition, polycarbonate (PC) gate dielectric layers fabricated by spin-coating and polyethylene naphthalate thin films used as substrates. The surface morphology of PC thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was confirmed that the surface morphology of PC thin films had smoothness at a molecular level, although there was a problem to keep a balance between insulation property and smoothness of the surface. From the performance of the obtained organic field effect transistor, the carrier mobility was estimated to be 0.7×10-3 cm2/Vs, the on/off ratio to be 102 and the sub threshold voltage to be 32 V.

Jin, Yonglong; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Sawa, Goro; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Kojima, Kenzo; Ohashi, Asao; Mizutani, Teruyoshi

434

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342

Atta, A H; Abo EL-Sooud, K

2004-12-01

435

Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

2006-08-01

436

Effects of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on plants.  

PubMed

One of the main purposes leading botanists to investigate the effects of ionizing radiations is to understand plant behaviour in space, where vegetal systems play an important role for nourishment, psychological support and functioning of life support systems. Ground-based experiments have been performed with particles of different charge and energy. Samples exposed to X- or ?-rays are often used as reference to derive the biological efficiency of different radiation qualities. Studies where biological samples are exposed directly to the space radiation environment have also been performed. The comparison of different studies has clarified how the effects observed after exposure are deeply influenced by several factors, some related to plant characteristics (e.g. species, cultivar, stage of development, tissue architecture and genome organization) and some related to radiation features (e.g. quality, dose, duration of exposure). In this review, we report main results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations, including cosmic rays, on plants, focusing on genetic alterations, modifications of growth and reproduction and changes in biochemical pathways especially photosynthetic behaviour. Most of the data confirm what is known from animal studies: densely ionizing radiations are more efficient in inducing damages at several different levels, in comparison with sparsely ionizing radiation. PMID:21113610

De Micco, Veronica; Arena, Carmen; Pignalosa, Diana; Durante, Marco

2011-03-01

437

Radioprotective effects of antioxidative plant flavonoids in mice.  

PubMed

Radioprotective effects of tea infusions and plant flavonoids were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity and the thiobarbituric acid assay for antioxidative activity. A single gastric intubation of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) infusion at 1 ml per mouse 2 h prior to gama-ray irradiation (1.5 Gy) reduced the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs). After the fractionation of rooibos tea infusion, the flavonoid fraction was found to be most anticlastogenic and antioxidative. From this fraction, luteolin was isolated as an effective component. Then, anticlastogenic effects of 12 flavonoids containing luteolin and their antioxidative activities against lipid peroxidation by Fenton's reagent were examined. A good correlation (r=0.717) was observed between both activities. Luteolin showed the most effective potency. A gastric intubation of luteolin (10 micromoles/kg) 2 h prior to gamma-ray irradiation (6 Gy) suppressed lipid peroxidation in mouse bone marrow and spleen and a trend of protective effect of luteolin against the decrease of endogenous ascorbic acid in mouse bone marrow after gamma-ray irradiation (3 Gy) was observed. These results suggest that plant flavonoids, which show antioxidative potency in vitro, work as antioxidants in vivo and their radioprotective effects may be attributed to their scavenging potency towards free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, the flavonoids contained in tea, vegetables and fruits seem to be important as antioxidants in the human diet. PMID:8657176

Shimoi, K; Masuda, S; Shen, B; Furugori, M; Kinae, N

1996-02-19

438

Effective Automated Feature Construction and Selection for Classification of Biological Sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Many open problems in bioinformatics involve elucidating underlying functional signals in biological sequences. DNA sequences, in particular, are characterized by rich architectures in which functional signals are increasingly found to combine local and distal interactions at the nucleotide level. Problems of interest include detection of regulatory regions, splice sites, exons, hypersensitive sites, and more. These problems naturally lend themselves to formulation as classification problems in machine learning. When classification is based on features extracted from the sequences under investigation, success is critically dependent on the chosen set of features. Methodology We present an algorithmic framework (EFFECT) for automated detection of functional signals in biological sequences. We focus here on classification problems involving DNA sequences which state-of-the-art work in machine learning shows to be challenging and involve complex combinations of local and distal features. EFFECT uses a two-stage process to first construct a set of candidate sequence-based features and then select a most effective subset for the classification task at hand. Both stages make heavy use of evolutionary algorithms to efficiently guide the search towards informative features capable of discriminating between sequences that contain a particular functional signal and those that do not. Results To demonstrate its generality, EFFECT is applied to three separate problems of importance in DNA research: the recognition of hypersensitive sites, splice sites, and ALU sites. Comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms show that the framework is both general and powerful. In addition, a detailed analysis of the constructed features shows that they contain valuable biological information about DNA architecture, allowing biologists and other researchers to directly inspect the features and potentially use the insights obtained to assist wet-laboratory studies on retainment or modification of a specific signal. Code, documentation, and all data for the applications presented here are provided for the community at http://www.cs.gmu.edu/~ashehu/?q=OurTools. PMID:25033270

Kamath, Uday; De Jong, Kenneth; Shehu, Amarda

2014-01-01

439

Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assess