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1

Effectiveness of Constructed Wetland Plants in Filtering Pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many case studies of vertical flow constructed wetlands. However, issues of effectiveness of the vertical flow constructed wetland plants in filtering pollutants needs to be addressed. In the current experiment, three plant species are discussed. The results show that among the three chosen plant species, Juncus effuses was more effective in removing pollutants than Canna generalis and Typha

Yu-ling Huang; De-fu Liu; Hsiang-te Kung

2010-01-01

2

Aerial Plant Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin replaces RUS Telecommunications Engineering & Construction Manual (TE&CM) Section 635, Construction of Aerial Cable Plant, Issue 3, dated February 1962; Addenda 2, 3, and 4, dated October 1966, March 1979, and August 1979; respectively.

1996-01-01

3

Effects of plant root on hydraulic performance of clogging process in subsurface flow constructed wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) have proven to be an efficient ecological technology for the treatment of various kinds of wastewaters. The clogging issue is the main operational problem, which limits its wide application. Clogging is a complicated process with physical (such as physical filtration), biogeochemical and plant-related processes. It was generally stated that suspended solids accumulation and biofilm play dominant roles response for clogging. However, the role of plants in SFCWs clogging remains unclear and debatable. In this paper, the performance of plants in the whole clogging process was addressed based on the lab-experiments between planted and unplanted system by measuring effective porosity, coefficient of permeability of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, flow pattern and transport properties of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by hydraulic performance (e.g. mean residence time, short-circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, hydraulic efficiency factor, etc.) with salt tracer experiments. Plants played different roles in different clogging stage. In the earlier clogging stage, there were no obvious different effects on clogging process between planted and unplanted system. The effective porosity and coefficient of permeability slightly decreased within the planted system, which indicated that plant root restricted the flow of water when the pore spaces were lager. In the middle and later clogging stage, especially, in the later stage, the effective porosity and the coefficient of permeability increased considerably in the plant root zone. Furthermore, the longer retention times and higher hydraulic efficiency factors were gained in the planted system compared to that of unplanted, which implied that growing roots might open the new pore spaces in the substrate. The results are expected to be useful in the design of constructed wetland. Key words: clogging; plant root; salt tracers; hydraulic performance; subsurface flow constructed wetlands

Hua, Guofen; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zeng, Yitao

2013-04-01

4

Plant Light Box Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These instructions describe how to construct a plant light box from two stackable plastic file crates that are cut, lined with aluminum foil and lit with a 40/42-watt CFL bulb. This 3-page document includes a complete materials list and 12-step assembly instructions with photographs that illustrate each step. This light box works well for growing Fast Plants.

Program, The W.

5

Effects of plant community and phosphorus loading rate on constructed wetland performance in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of constructed wetlands with varying plant communities for phosphorus (P) reduction from the\\u000a Everglades Agricultural Area runoff in south Florida. Weekly or biweekly water samples from the inflow and outflow regions\\u000a of 11 test cells (2,000 m2) were analyzed for various forms of P and other selected water quality variables between January 2002 and August 2004.

Binhe Gu; Thomas Dreschel

2008-01-01

6

Effect of plant harvest on methane emission from two constructed wetlands designed for the treatment of wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of methane from two constructed wetlands [a free water surface flow system (FWS) and a subsurface flow system (SF)], constructed for the treatment of waste water, was evaluated at different sites inhabited by reeds (Phragmites communis), to test the effects of plant harvest. High methane emission was recorded immediately after harvesting in both wetlands. Several days after harvesting,

Nanwen Zhu; Ping An; B. Krishnakumar; Ling Zhao; Liwei Sun; Motoyuki Mizuochi; Yuhei Inamori

2007-01-01

7

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Hg,Pb,Mg,Mn,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants and aquatic insects of three acidified (pH [approximately] 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH [approximately] 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicated that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threatened egg production and development of young.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

1993-06-01

8

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Hg,Pb,Mg,Mn,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants and aquatic insects of three acidified (pH [approximately] 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH [approximately] 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than

Peter H. Albers; Michael B. Camardese

1993-01-01

9

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

1993-01-01

10

Development of a constructed Willamette Valley plant community to determine non-target effects of herbicide drift on native plants  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection must consider potential environmental effects, including impacts to nontarget plants. Normally the risk assessment to determine these impacts requires simple, individual species, greenhouse, dose-response e...

11

Effects of plant diversity on nutrient retention and enzyme activities in a full-scale constructed wetland.  

PubMed

This study focused on the relationship between plant diversity (six species richness levels) and nutrient retention and enzyme activities associated with carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in a full-scale constructed wetland (CW) fed with post-treatment domestic wastewater. Effects of plant species richness on nutrient retention and enzyme activities were assessed using soil chemical and zymological methods, respectively. Retention of NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N in the wetland substrate increased with increasing species richness, while phosphorus retention significantly decreased under the richness level of 16 species per plot. Activities of enzymes such as dehydrogenase, beta-glucosidase, invertase, phenol oxidase, L-arsparaginase, protease and nitrate reductase, while they were affected by plant species richness, were strongly depended on the presence or absence of plants in CW substrate, while activities of enzymes such as CM-cellulase, urease and acid phosphatase were strongly depended on plant species richness. We conclude that plant species richness influenced nutrient retention and enzyme activities in the substrate in our subtropical CW; increase plant species richness in CW will likely improve the efficiency of wastewater treatment. PMID:19864127

Zhang, Chong-Bang; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Wen-Li; Zhu, Si-Xi; Liu, Dong; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

2010-03-01

12

Nuclear plant construction and investment risk  

SciTech Connect

Escalated cost estimations, delays and cancellations in nuclear construction have caused a preoccupation with the risks of nuclear power plant construction that dominates utility stock investment, overshadowing increased earnings per share and recent growth in production. The issue will be resolved when increased power demand requires new construction, but the effect has so far been to erode the economic advantage of nuclear power and threaten the ability of utilities to get rate increases high enough to cover their costs. Projected delays and cost escalations and their effects must go into an economic appraisal of the investment risks.

Studness, C.M.

1984-07-05

13

Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The effect of Typha latifolia and its litter on density and abundance of three denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) were investigated in six laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms. Results showed that the copy numbers of nirS, nirK and nosZ in wetland microcosms were ranged between 10(8)-10(9), 10(6)-10(7) and 10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1), respectively. The presence of T. latifolia encouraged the growth of nirK containing bacteria. Addition of cattail litter could greatly stimulate the growth of bacteria containing nirS and nosZ gene. Path analysis illustrated that the presence of plants and litters had no significant direct impact on denitrifying genes, while it affected the denitrifying genes via alteration of dissolved oxygen and carbon sources. PMID:24565872

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

2014-04-01

14

Effect of different plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms distribution in horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Three macrophyte species, Phragmites australis, Arundo donax L., and Typha latifolia L. have been separately grown in a horizontal-flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) fed with domestic wastewater to investigate effects of plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms. All the three mesocosms have been in operation for eight months under the loading rates of 1.14 g Nm(-2) d(-1) and 0.014gP m(-2) d(-1). Appropriately 34-43% phosphorus (P) was removed in HF CWs, and no distinct difference was found among the plants. In the growing season, A. donax L. removed 31.19 gm(-2) of nitrogen (N), followed by P. australis (29.96 g m(-2)), both of which were significantly higher than T. latifolia L. (7.21 g m(-2). Depending on the species, plants absorbed 1.73-7.15% of the overall N, and 0.06-0.56% of the P input. At least 10 common dominant microorganisms were found in the rhizosphere of all the three plants, and 6 of the 10 kinds of bacteria had close relationship with denitrifying bacteria, implying that denitrifiers were dominant microorganism distributed in rhizosphere of wetland plants. PMID:24645463

Meng, Panpan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Hou, Qingjie; Ji, Yan

2014-01-01

15

Effect of plants and filter materials on bacteria removal in pilot-scale constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lack of testing units or appropriate experimental approaches, only little is known about the removal of bacteria in constructed wetlands. However, improved performance in terms of water sanitation requires a detailed understanding of the ongoing processes. Therefore, we analyzed the microbial diversity and the survival of Enterobacteriaceae in six pilot-scale constructed wetland systems treating domestic wastewater: two

Gabriela Vacca; Helmut Wand; Marcell Nikolausz; Peter Kuschk; Matthias Kästner

2005-01-01

16

Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

The response of nitrification potentials, denitrification potentials, and N removal efficiency to the introduction of earthworms and wetland plants in a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Addition of earthworms increased nitrification and denitrification potentials of substrate in non-vegetated constructed wetland by 236% and 8%, respectively; it increased nitrification and denitrification potentials in rhizosphere in vegetated constructed wetland (Phragmites austrail, Typha augustifolia and Canna indica), 105% and 5%, 187% and 12%, and 268% and 15% respectively. Denitrification potentials in rhizosphere of three wetland plants were not significantly different, but nitrification potentials in rhizosphere followed the order of C. indica>T. augustifolia>P. australis when addition of earthworms into constructed wetland. Addition of earthworms to the vegetated constructed significantly increased the total number of bacteria and fungi of substrates (P<0.05). The total number of bacteria was significantly correlated with nitrification potentials (r=913, P<0.01) and denitrification potentials (r=840, P<0.01), respectively. The N concentration of stems and leaves of C. indica were significantly higher in the constructed wetland with earthworms (P<0.05). Earthworms had greater impact on nitrification potentials than denitrification potentials. The removal efficiency of N was improved via stimulated nitrification potentials by earthworms and higher N uptake by wetland plants. PMID:23591133

Xu, Defu; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong

2013-06-01

17

Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project: construction schedule  

SciTech Connect

The construction schedule for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and its evolution are described. The initial schedule basis, changes necessitated by the evaluation of the overall plant design, and constructability improvements that have been effected to assure adherence to the schedule are presented. The schedule structure and hierarchy are discussed, as are tools used to define, develop, and evaluate the schedule.

Purcell, W.J.; Martin, E.M.; Shivley, J.M.

1982-01-01

18

MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

19

Development of virtual simulation system on power plant construction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of power plant construction process, the virtual simulation technology is applied to power plant construction area. Three-dimension models of the power plant parts are established, and virtual simulation system of power plant construction process is developed. The system simulates dynamically the construction process of all equipments in the power plant. Combined with voice caption and word description,

Che De-yong; Li Shao-hua; Liang Xing-bao; Zhang Qing-zhe; Yao Jian-feng; Wang Hu

2010-01-01

20

47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32.2003 Section...Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account...may be charged directly to the appropriate plant accounts the cost of any...

2013-10-01

21

Construction poses highest power plant fire threat  

SciTech Connect

Power plants are more vulnerable to fire during the construction period than at any other time. Data gathered from fires at plant construction sites show that 65% result from cutting and welding activities and that the Control of combustible materials and work processes is the key factor. Contractors need to cooperate on cleanup and to upgrade the quality of temporary buildings on the site. Among the steps which could reduce fire risks are the early installation of water for fire hydrants and automatic sprinklers, testing of tarpaulins for flame retardency, the use of metal or fire retardant scaffolding and forms, approved temporary heating equipment, flushing turbine oil systems before startup, and the use of non-flammable water pipe tubing. Seven safety rules are outlined for welding and cutting procedures. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-03-01

22

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

23

Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

1991-07-01

24

Construction Costs for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants: 1973-1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purposes of this study were to collect, categorize and analyze construction bid data for wastewater treatment plants nationwide with the goal of providing a reference for estimating future facility costs. The construction bid information was obtained ...

1978-01-01

25

Power plant construction is over: What do I do now  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 20 years, a massive power plant construction program was undertaken in the United States. During the second decade of this construction program, the cost and schedule of many power plants exceeded initial estimates by orders of magnitude. The prudence of utility management came under heavy fire from regulatory bodies, urged on by consumer advocates, pro-environment groups, and

T. B. Thamm; M. Strandell

1990-01-01

26

Construction Labor Assessment for Coal Gasification Plant Murphy Hill, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northe...

1981-01-01

27

Reducing environmental pollution caused by construction plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifiable data in a report by the Environment Agency of England and Wales entitled Water Pollution Incidents in England and Wales 1997 identifies over 3,723 substantiated pollution incidents across England and Wales in 1997. The construction industry was the most frequent polluter responsible for 22 percent of all substantiated water-related pollution incidents in the “Industry” sector. Also 28 percent of

Roy Morledge; Frank Jackson

2001-01-01

28

Reducing environmental pollution caused by construction plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantifiable data produced in a national report by the Environment Agency of England and Wales entitled Water Pollution Incidents in England and Wales 1997 and published by the Stationery Office in 1998, identifies over 3,723 substantiated pollution incidents across England and Wales in 1997. Within the generic sector classed as “Industry” the construction industry was the most frequent polluter responsible

Roy Morledge; Frank Jackson

2001-01-01

29

Materials Availability for Fusion Power Plant Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power pla...

J. N. Hartley L. E. Erickson R. L. Engel T. J. Foley

1976-01-01

30

8. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING STEEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING STEEL MANIFOLD RUNNING BELOW GRADE, April 24, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

31

9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE FORMS, April 24, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

32

Constructing and Planting Fast Plants in a Deli-containter Growing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrated instructions for constructing and planting in the Fast Plants deli-container growing system. This is a stable growing system that is easy to construct for all age learners, and works well for growing Wisconsin Fast Plants. Made from recycled deli-containers, these growing systems can be cleaned and reused for multiple years.

Program, The W.

33

ITER Construction--Plant System Integration  

SciTech Connect

This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

Tada, E. [ITER Organization Cadarache Center, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Matsuda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Agency, 100-0011, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

2009-02-19

34

Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion  

PubMed Central

The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change.

Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

35

St. Thomas and St. Croix, Virgin Islands. Construction of Desalinization Plants. Project PFL VI-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposal for construction of Two Water Desalinization Plants on the Islands of St. Thomas and St. Croix, Virgin Islands. A summary of environmental impact and adverse environmental effects is given.

1972-01-01

36

The construction and operation of sulfur recovery plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sour gas-condensate production has become a major objective within the Smackover trend area. With the large sulfur reserves thus being uncovered, construction of sulfur recovery plants has increased rapidly in the area. Experience has shown that several often overlooked design features are necessary. Methods of materials of production and design to give the best performance of a sulfur recovery plant

Mottley

1967-01-01

37

10. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View to northwest, 1904. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 9760, USM #F108N10, 6/1/04 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Central Power Plant, Attached to northeast end of Building 107 at intersection of Third Avenue & Ninth Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

38

11. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View to northwest, 1916. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS9761, USN #2438, 11/2/16 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Central Power Plant, Attached to northeast end of Building 107 at intersection of Third Avenue & Ninth Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

39

9. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Historic view, Central Power Plant (Building 108) construction. View to northwest, 1903. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 9760, USN #F108N9, 12/1/03 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Central Power Plant, Attached to northeast end of Building 107 at intersection of Third Avenue & Ninth Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

40

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20...HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you...

2011-04-01

41

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20...HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you...

2012-04-01

42

Hydraulic modelling of horizontal-subsurface flow constructed wetlands: Influence of operation time and plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic behaviour is a very important aspect in the design of a constructed wetland (CW). Different hydraulic models have been widely applied to obtain a better understanding of CW flow properties and provide tools that optimise the design of constructed wetlands as wastewater treatments. This work studied the effects of the time of operation and the plant species used on

Javier Mena; José Villaseñor; Francisco J. Fernández; Rocío Gómez; Antonio De Lucas

2011-01-01

43

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—I. Removal of oxygen demand, suspended solids and faecal coliforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of BOD, SS and faecal coliforms (FC) from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

44

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—II. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20 month period. Hydraulic

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

45

17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of spillway gates. Needle valves at lower left are for bypass. Photographer unknown, March 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

46

Rakentamisen Tyoellisyysvaikutukset (Employment Effect of Construction Sector).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VTT Building Technology and Tampere University of Technology computed some employed indicators for various sectors of the construction industry. The indicators are used as tools in determining the employment effects of new construction, renovation and mod...

T. Alanen E. Lehtinen P. Ratia P. Tienhaara

1998-01-01

47

Mass customization in power plant design and construction  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how Bechtel`s PowerLine concept brings economies of scale and the fundamentals of mass production to plant design and construction. Privatization, globalization and commoditization will shape the power industry for decades to come. Diverse as these forces are, they are bound together by a common business imperative: the need for low-cost, high-quality energy that provides operators and developers with the great potential for a return on equity. One solution to this challenge is predicated chiefly on the design and construction of reliable, low-cost generating plants--the concept of mass customization. More than simply standardization, mass customization achieves the economies of mass production but also provides the flexibility needed by individual plants and owners. This process reaps the benefits of standardization and, at the same time, permits a degree of customization so the design will meet the differing needs of independents, utilities and other power producers.

Choi, K.C.; Jarboe, T.B.

1996-01-01

48

Signalling Network Construction for Modelling Plant Defence Response  

PubMed Central

Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for modelling other biological systems, given that an adequate vocabulary is provided.

Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjasa; Mozetic, Igor; Podpecan, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavrac, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

2012-01-01

49

Construction of full-length cDNA clones of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and the effects of intron-insertion on their viability in Escherichia coli and on their infectivity to plants.  

PubMed

A full length cDNA copy of the genomic RNA of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) was constructed under the control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter and of the NOS terminator. This construct was found infectious when inoculated to lettuce plants. The intron II of the bean nitrite reductase gene was engineered into the LMV FL cDNA in order to relieve possible deleterious effects of viral sequences to Escherichia coli cells and to evaluate the effects of the presence of the intron on the FL cDNA infectivity. The intron-less FL cDNA was found to be as stable as its intron-containing counterpart in E. coli. Sequence analysis of progeny RNA derived from plants inoculated with the intron-containing FL cDNA demonstrated that the inserted intron was perfectly spliced out. The symptoms induced in lettuce by either the intron-less or the intro-containing constructs were identical to those caused by the wild-type virus. However a slight delay in the establishment of infection in lettuce and a more obvious lag in Nicotiana benthamiana were observed with the intron-containing FL cDNA. PMID:9930200

Yang, S J; Revers, F; Souche, S; Lot, H; Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Dunez, J

1998-01-01

50

[Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].  

PubMed

Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers. PMID:23745437

He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

2013-03-01

51

Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

2004-10-06

52

Plant response to utility right of way construction in the Mojave Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance of flora from utility construction tends to generate new plant growth. This growth changes productivity, diversity, and stability. Although the enhancement of vegetation may balance out the biomass destroyed by the original disturbance, it often adversely affects the quality of the vegetation. Percentage composition of the dominant long-lived perennials combined with quantitative measures are used to assess longterm effects

Earl W. Lathrop; Edwin F. Archbold

1980-01-01

53

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE AMMONIUM NITRATE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST 24, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

54

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

55

Application of RFID to High-Reliability Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear power plant construction, countless variety of parts, products, and jigs more than one million are treated under construction. Furthermore, strict traceability to the history of material, manufacturing, and installation is required for all products from the start to finish of the construction, which enforce much workforce and many costs at every project. In an addition, the operational efficiency improvement is absolutely essential for the effective construction to reduce the initial investment for construction. As one solution, RFID (Radio Frequent Identification) application technology, one of the fundamental technologies to realize a ubiquitous society, currently expands its functionality and general versatility at an accelerating pace in mass-production industry. Hitachi believes RFID technology can be useful of one of the key solutions for the issues in non-mass production industry as well. Under this situation, Hitachi initiated the development of next generation plant concept (ubiquitous plant construction technology) which utilizes information and RFID technologies. In this paper, our application plans of RFID technology to nuclear power is described. (authors)

Kenji Akagi; Masayuki Ishiwata; Kenji Araki; Jun-ichi Kawahata [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)

2006-07-01

56

Arrival order among native plant functional groups does not affect invasibility of constructed dune communities.  

PubMed

Different arrival order scenarios of native functional groups to a site may influence both resource use during development and final community structure. Arrival order may then indirectly influence community resistance to invasion. We present a mesocosm experiment of constructed coastal dune communities that monitored biotic and abiotic responses to different arrival orders of native functional groups. Constructed communities were compared with unplanted mesocosms. We then simulated a single invasion event by bitou (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata), a dominant exotic shrub of coastal communities. We evaluated the hypothesis that plantings with simultaneous representation of grass, herb and shrub functional groups at the beginning of the experiment would more completely sequester resources and limit invasion than staggered plantings. Staggered plantings in turn would offer greater resource use and invasion resistance than unplanted mesocosms. Contrary to our expectations, there were few effects of arrival order on abiotic variables for the duration of the experiment and arrival order was unimportant in final community invasibility. All planted mesocosms supported significantly more invader germinants and significantly less invader abundance than unplanted mesocosms. Native functional group plantings may have a nurse effect during the invader germination and establishment phase and a competitive function during the invader juvenile and adult phase. Arrival order per se did not affect resource use and community invasibility in our mesocosm experiment. While grass, herb and shrub functional group plantings will not prevent invasion success in restored communities, they may limit final invader biomass. PMID:23468238

Mason, T J; French, K; Jolley, D

2013-10-01

57

Bacterial activity in plant (Schoenoplectus validus) biofilms of constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Biofilm-bacterial communities have been exploited in the treatment of wastewater in 'fixed-film' processes. Our understanding of biofilm dynamics requires a quantitative knowledge of bacterial growth-kinetics in these microenvironments. The aim of this paper was to apply the thymidine assay to quantify bacterial growth without disturbing the biofilm on the surfaces of emergent macrophytes (Schoenoplectus validus) of a constructed wetland. The isotope was rapidly and efficiently taken-up and incorporated into dividing biofilm-bacteria. Isotope diffusion into the biofilm did not limit the growth rate measurement. Isotope dilution was inhibited at >12 ?M thymidine. Biofilm-bacterial biomass and growth rates were not correlated to the plant surface area (r(2) < 0.02). The measurements of in situ biofilm-bacterial growth rates both displayed, and accommodated, the inherent heterogeneity of the complex wetland ecosystem. Biofilm-bacterial respiratory activities, measured using the redox dye CTC, and growth rates were measured simultaneously. The dye did not interfere with bacterial growth. Biofilm-bacterial specific growth rates ranged from 1.4 ± 0.6 d(-1) to 3.3 ± 1.3 d(-1). In the constructed wetlands of this study biofilm-bacterial specific growth rates, compared to those of natural ecosystems, could be markedly improved through changes in wetland design that increased bacterial respiration while minimising biofilm growth. PMID:20723964

Pollard, Peter C

2010-12-01

58

Design and construction of multigenic constructs for plant biotechnology using the GoldenBraid cloning strategy.  

PubMed

GoldenBraid (GB) is an iterative and standardized DNA assembling system specially designed for Multigene Engineering in Plant Synthetic Biology. GB is based on restriction-ligation reactions using type IIS restriction enzymes. GB comprises a collection of standard DNA pieces named "GB parts" and a set of destination plasmids (pDGBs) that incorporate the multipartite assembly of standardized DNA parts. GB reactions are extremely efficient: two transcriptional units (TUs) can be assembled from several basic GBparts in one T-DNA less than 24 h. Moreover, larger assemblies comprising 4-5 TUs are routinely built in less than 2 working weeks. Here we provide a detailed view of the GB methodology. As a practical example, a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation construct comprising four TUs in a 12 kb DNA fragment is presented. PMID:24395362

Sarrion-Perdigones, Alejandro; Palaci, Jorge; Granell, Antonio; Orzaez, Diego

2014-01-01

59

Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant  

SciTech Connect

A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

NONE

1995-05-05

60

Effective Heuristics for Timing Driven Constructive Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to path-based timing driven constructive placement based on simple yet effective heuristics. A novel circuit model is proposed. We have extended an existing pad placement technique for sequential circuits, the results for which are compared to the existing work by using the TimberWolf placement package for cell placement. In cell placement, demonstrated in this paper

R. V. Raj; N. S. Murty; P. S. Nagendra Rao; Lalit M. Patnaik

1997-01-01

61

High-Throughput Construction of Intron-Containing Hairpin RNA Vectors for RNAi in Plants  

PubMed Central

With the wide use of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) for the analysis of gene function in plants, a high-throughput system for making hairpin RNA (hpRNA) constructs is in great demand. Here, we describe a novel restriction-ligation approach that provides a simple but efficient construction of intron-containing hpRNA (ihpRNA) vectors. The system takes advantage of the type IIs restriction enzyme BsaI and our new plant RNAi vector pRNAi-GG based on the Golden Gate (GG) cloning. This method requires only a single PCR product of the gene of interest flanked with BsaI recognition sequence, which can then be cloned into pRNAi-GG at both sense and antisense orientations simultaneously to form ihpRNA construct. The process, completed in one tube with one restriction-ligation step, produced a recombinant ihpRNA with high efficiency and zero background. We demonstrate the utility of the ihpRNA constructs generated with pRNAi-GG vector for the effective silencing of various individual endogenous and exogenous marker genes as well as two genes simultaneously. This method provides a novel and high-throughput platform for large-scale analysis of plant functional genomics.

Yan, Pu; Shen, Wentao; Gao, XinZheng; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng; Duan, Jun

2012-01-01

62

Plant and Invertebrate Community Changes Caused by Flood-Pulsing in a Constructed Riparian Wetland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002, Kent State University constructed a research facility that includes ten independently flooded wetland basins (10 m X 20 m) along a second order creek. We tested the effects of flood-pulsing on the wetland biota by allowing 5 basins (flood-pulse wetlands) to fluctuate with creek water levels to simulate floodplain marshes, and maintaining 5 basins (static wetlands) at constant water levels. We sampled emergent plants and aquatic invertebrates in 2003 and 2004. Abiotic conditions were different between treatments. We collected 83 plant species, and flood pulsing had strong effects on plant communities. Mean species richness and plant cover were higher in static wetlands, and Sorensen's similarity indices between habitat types decreased over time. Plant biomass increased in all wetlands from 2003 to 2004, but mean biomass was not different between treatments. Many dominant plant species were affected by the flood pulsing treatment. Wetland invertebrate communities were diverse (47 taxa), but we detected few responses. Total abundance, species richness, and numbers of most dominant species were not different between treatments. These results indicate that flood-pulsing acted as a stressor on emergent plant communities, but did not strongly impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

Caiazza, M. K.; Nieset, J. E.; Romito, A.; de Szalay, F. A.

2005-05-01

63

Development of Advanced Concept for Shortening Construction Period of ABWR Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires a very long period because of large amount of construction materials and many issues for negotiation among multiple sections. Shortening the construction period advances the date of return on an investment, and can also result in reduced construction cost. Therefore, the study of this subject has a very high priority for utilities.

Hiroshi Ijichi; Toshio Yamashita; Masahiro Tsutagawa; Hiroya Mori; Nobuaki Ooshima; Jun Miura; Minoru Kanechika; Nobuaki Miura

2002-01-01

64

DESIGN MANUAL: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND AQUATIC PLANT SYSTEMS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication is a compilation of all available design and operating criteria for the various constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems. opics discussed include: aquatic treatment systems, environmental and health considerations, design of constructed wetlands, design of ...

65

Effects of Plant Closing on Employee Attitudes: The Case of the GE Plant in Columbia, Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of plant closing on hourly production employees' attitudes and behavior intentions at a General Electric (GE) plant in Columbia, Tennessee. A survey was constructed and used to collect data from 5 percent of the 400 hourly employees in November 1993, shortly after the announcement of the plant closing. The survey…

Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Crofford, Amy Beth

66

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar contracts...improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar contracts...term âstructureâ is defined to mean plant equipment which: (1) Is held...

2013-07-01

67

Biosynthesis of plant-specific phenylpropanoids by construction of an artificial biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Biological synthesis of plant secondary metabolites has attracted increasing attention due to their proven or assumed beneficial properties and health-promoting effects. Phenylpropanoids are the precursors to a range of important plant metabolites such as the secondary metabolites belonging to the flavonoid/stilbenoid class of compounds. In this study, engineered Escherichia coli containing artificial phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways utilizing tyrosine as the initial precursor were established for production of plant-specific metabolites such as ferulic acid, naringenin, and resveratrol. The construction of the artificial pathway utilized tyrosine ammonia lyase and 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase from Saccharothrix espanaensis, cinnamate/4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase from Streptomyces coelicolor, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase and chalcone synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana, and stilbene synthase from Arachis hypogaea. PMID:21424580

Choi, Oksik; Wu, Cheng-Zhu; Kang, Sun Young; Ahn, Jong Seog; Uhm, Tai-Boong; Hong, Young-Soo

2011-10-01

68

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. III - Design and construction of test plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of a test plant of hydrogen capacity 4 cu Nm\\/hour based on high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis which was built to obtain technical data for the construction of a 20-cu Nm\\/hour pilot plant are outlined. The test plant is a forced circulation system comprised of an electrolyzer, electrolyte circulation line, gas-liquid separator, hydrogen\\/oxygen production gas line, measurement

Y. Kajiwara; S. Maezawa; K. Matsunaga

1981-01-01

69

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Three Plant Species in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three common Appalachian plant species (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus validus L., and Typha latifolia L.) were planted into small-scale constructed wetlands receivingprimary treated wastewater. The experimental design includedtwo wetland gravel depths (45 and 60 cm) and five plantingtreatments (each species in monoculture, an equal mixture of the three species, and controls without vegetation), with two replicates per depth × planting

Jerry Coleman; Keith Hench; Keith Garbutt; Alan Sexstone; Gary Bissonnette; Jeff Skousen

2001-01-01

70

Construction and startup of a wood gasification pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech embarked on the development of a pilot plant for wood gasification research in March 1979. The pilot plant gasifier was designed for a wide range of research. This includes modeling and testing of gasifier feed systems, ash extraction systems, air and steam injection systems, burners, gas cleanup equipment, waste disposal systems, and safety equipment. Potential application to be

A. D. Jape; T. F. McGowan

1982-01-01

71

The Small Biogas Plant: Its Construction, Operation and Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet has been prepared in response to the demand for reference material to help interested parties design and operate small biogas plants. It is written in relatively simple language, understandable to people with limited scientific and technical ...

F. D. Maramba E. D. Obias C. C. Taganas

1977-01-01

72

What Construction Cost Might Trigger New Nuclear Power Plant Orders?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nuclear power plants are being built in South and East Asia, they have not been ordered in the U.S. since the accident at Three Mile Island in 1978. For many reasons, including the Kyoto Protocol, new attention is being given to light water reactors. Currently operating nuclear power plants in the U.S. were built under rate-of-return regulation. Now they

Geoffrey Rothwell

2004-01-01

73

Effect of Vibration on Concrete Strength During Foundation Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many studies have been conducted on the effect of construction vibrations on properties of freshly placed concrete. This study was concerned with the drilled shaft construction and its effect on the green concrete. The differences between the common const...

K. Tawfiq T. Abichou

2003-01-01

74

49 CFR 240.5 - Preemptive effect and construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect and construction. 240.5 Section 240.5 Transportation...CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS General § 240.5 Preemptive effect and construction. (a) Under 49...

2010-10-01

75

49 CFR 240.5 - Preemptive effect and construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preemptive effect and construction. 240.5 Section 240.5 Transportation...CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS General § 240.5 Preemptive effect and construction. (a) Under 49...

2013-10-01

76

CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS MANAGEMENT EFFECTIVENESS MODELLING WITH NEURAL NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with important aspects of construction management key factors identification and their relative significance for the construction projects management effectiveness. The approach of artificial neural network allows the construction projects management effectiveness model to be built and to determine the key determinants from a host of possible management factors that influence the project effectiveness in terms of budget

Rasa Apanavi?ien?; Arvydas Juodis

2003-01-01

77

Effect of HRT on nitrogen removal in a coupled HRP and unplanted subsurface flow gravel bed constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on nitrogen removal in a coupled high rate pond (HRP) and a gravel bed subsurface constructed wetland (SSCW) wastewater treatment plant. A pilot plant consisting of a high rate pond (HRT) coupled to an unplanted gravel bed subsurface constructed wetland (SSCW) was used to investigate nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater

A. W. Mayo; J. Mutamba

2004-01-01

78

Risk Management Evaluation Based on Elman Neural Network for Power Plant Construction Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Risk management is very important to the power construction. The power plant construction project risk management means the\\u000a uncertain influence on construction project goals and production operation management throughout the life cycle which could\\u000a cause the losses made by uncertain events. The purpose of this paper is to establish an evaluation model for risk management\\u000a evaluation. Firstly, the method of

Yongli Wang; Dongxiao Niu; Mian Xing

2010-01-01

79

Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

1981-04-01

80

Design and construction of a modular pilot plant for the treatment of oil-containing wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular pilot size plant involving coagulation\\/flocculation, centrifugation, ultrafiltration and sorption processes has been designed and constructed. The pilot plant can be used for the treatment of different water-based coolants and oily wastewaters, generated in metalworking processes and steel cold rolling operations. Different treatments are considered depending on the nature of the oily waste emulsion. The main advantage of the

JoséManuel Benito; Guillermo Ríos; Enrique Ortea; Eva Fernández; Angel Cambiella; Carmen Pazos; José Coca

2002-01-01

81

CONSTRUCTING, MAINTAINING, AND USING PLANT GROWING STRUCTURES. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE ABILITIES NEEDED TO CONSTRUCT, MAINTAIN AND OPERATE PLANT GROWING STRUCTURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) PLANT

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

82

Construction  

Cancer.gov

The Biomedical Research Extension Act of 1977 (P.L. 95-83) No statutory changes or report language affecting construction. The Health Program Extension Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-538) No statutory changes or report language affecting construction. The Health Omnibus Program Extension of 1988 (P.L. 100-607) There were no statutory changes to the construction provisions.

83

Opportunities to expedite the construction of new coal-based power plants  

SciTech Connect

US Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the National Coal Council prepare a study identifying 'which opportunities could expedite the construction of new coal-fired electricity generation.' He also requested that the Council 'examine opportunities and incentives for additional emissions reduction including evaluating and replacing the oldest portion of our coal-fired power plant fleet with more efficient and lower emitting coal-fired plants.' A study group of experts who conducted the work can be found in Appendix D. The National Coal Council found the following: Coal is the fuel of choice now, and will remain so into the future; Natural gas has been the dominant fuel for new power plants in the last decade; Coal provides a pathway for greater energy independence; There is renewed interest in using coal to fuel new power plants; Generators are expected to remain credit worthy; Permitting delays have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Environmental regulatory approaches have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Uncertainty about CO{sub 2} emission reductions has been an impediment to the construction of new coalbased power plants; Incentives are still needed to facilitate the construction of advanced coal-based power plants; Lack of a regional planning approach has been an impediment to the construction of new coal-based power plants; and Infrastructure hurdles are impediments to the construction of new coal-based power plants. The Council's recommendations include: Streamline the permitting process; Recognize the strategic importance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology; Recognize the importance of other coal-based technologies; Encourage regional planning; Continue with meaningful R&D and with technology demonstration; Provide meaningful incentives for the commercialization and deployment of new advanced coal-based technologies. 7 apps.

Thomas G. Kraemer; Georgia Nelson; Robert Card; E. Linn Draper, Jr.; Michael J. Mudd [Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Co. (United States)

2004-07-01

84

Construction of short tandem target mimic (STTM) to block the functions of plant and animal microRNAs.  

PubMed

Small RNAs are widespread in plants and animals. They largely include microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and they play key roles in gene and chromatin regulations. Here we describe in detail the method for an effective construction of the recently developed short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology to block small RNA functions in plants and animals. STTM is a powerful technology complementing the previous target mimic (TM) in plants and the miRNA sponge, as well as the recently defined endogenous competing RNA (CeRNA) in animals. We expect STTM will not only be effective in blocking small RNA functions in plants but will also become a popular approach in animals. PMID:23098881

Tang, Guiliang; Yan, Jun; Gu, Yiyou; Qiao, Mengmeng; Fan, Ruiwen; Mao, Yiping; Tang, Xiaoqing

2012-10-01

85

The Comparative Effect of Individually-Constructed vs. Collaboratively-Constructed Computer-Based Concept Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researchers investigated the comparative effects of individually-constructed and collaboratively-constructed computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. One hundred and sixty one students completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups,…

Kwon, So Young; Cifuentes, Lauren

2009-01-01

86

Improved Construction and Project Management for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Westinghouse Perspective  

SciTech Connect

The economic competitiveness of future nuclear power plants is the key issue to the expansion of this vital technology. The challenge is greater today than it has been because of the worldwide trend of deregulation of the power market. Deregulation favors smaller investments with shorter payback times. However, the key economic parameter is the power generation cost and its competitiveness to other sources of electric generation, principally natural gas and coal. The relative competitiveness of these three fuel types today is largely dictated by the availability of domestic sources of both fuel and technology infrastructure. The competitiveness of new nuclear power plants can be improved in any power market environment first by the features of the design itself, second by the approach to construction, and finally by the project structure used to implement the plant, or more importantly, a series of plants. These three aspects form the cornerstone to a successful resurgence of new nuclear power plant construction. (author)

Matzie, Regis A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 2000 Day Hill Road, Windsor, CT (United States)

2002-07-01

87

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

88

Simple construction of chimeric hairpin RNA for virus resistance in plants.  

PubMed

RNA silencing has been adopted to develop virus-resistant plants through expression of virus-derived hairpin RNAs. Due to the high sequence specificity of RNA silencing, this technology has been limited to the targeting of single viruses. Simultaneous targeting of multiple viruses or plant genes can be achieved by using a chimeric cassette. In this study, a simple method was developed to construct chimeric hairpin RNA rapidly and efficiently. This method splices two DNA fragments from viruses or plant genes to be a chimeric sequence using Overlap Extension PCR (OE-PCR); then this chimeric sequence was assembled with an intron sequence to generate an intron-containing hairpin RNA construct in one step mediated by OE-PCR. This method is neither dependent on restriction enzymes nor requires expensive consumables, so a chimeric hairpin RNA can be constructed rapidly and costlessly. Two chimeric hairpin RNA constructs were amplified successfully using this method, with the targeting sequences from both papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and two plant genes encoding translation initiation factors eIF4E and eIFiso4E. This novel method is a useful strategy to construct chimeric hairpin RNA for RNA silencing in plants. PMID:20307576

Yan, Pu; Wang, Shuchang; Shen, Wentao; Gao, Xinzheng; Wu, Jinyan; Zhou, Peng

2010-06-01

89

A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant  

SciTech Connect

Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President’s Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project.

Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

2004-06-01

90

Modeling of fugitive dust emission for construction sand and gravel processing plant.  

PubMed

Due to rapid economic development in Taiwan, a large quantity of construction sand and gravel is needed to support domestic civil construction projects. However, a construction sand and gravel processing plant is often a major source of air pollution, due to its associated fugitive dust emission. To predict the amount of fugitive dust emitted from this kind of processing plant, a semiempirical model was developed in this study. This model was developed on the basis of the actual dust emission data (i.e., total suspended particulate, TSP) and four on-site operating parameters (i.e., wind speed (u), soil moisture (M), soil silt content (s), and number (N) of trucks) measured at a construction sand and gravel processing plant. On the basis of the on-site measured data and an SAS nonlinear regression program, the expression of this model is E = 0.011.u2.653.M-1.875.s0.060.N0.896, where E is the amount (kg/ton) of dust emitted during the production of each ton of gravel and sand. This model can serve as a facile tool for predicting the fugitive dust emission from a construction sand and gravel processing plant. PMID:11393989

Lee, C H; Tang, L W; Chang, C T

2001-05-15

91

Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin.

Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2014-01-01

92

Construct Validity of Leader Effectiveness Criteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous research on leadership effectiveness has often used criteria of one type and from one source. In this research, data on leadership effectiveness were collected with a variety of measures from different sources (leaders, peers, subordinates). Find...

R. G. Downey P. J. Duffy S. Shiflett

1979-01-01

93

Effect research of nitrogen removal out of sewage in constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research, in selection of constructed wetland system planted with reeds and cattails, takes vertical and horizontal flow experiment for study of TN removal out of sewage in various temperatures and waterpower length of stay. The effect and ratio of removal of sewage TN, ammonia nitrogen can be approached. The test shows that, temperature and TN removal have some correlativity,

Ai-Xia Chen; Yuan Ma; Xiao-Ru Liu; Jing-Wen Chen

2011-01-01

94

Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands

Beverly S. Collins; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Daniel P. Coughlin

2005-01-01

95

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26

96

Construction of a new vector conferring methotrexate resistance in Nicotiana tabacum plants.  

PubMed

A new binary vector encoding for Candida albicans dihydrofolate reductase (DFR1) has been constructed and used as a dominant selectable marker for plant transformation. Transgenic tobacco plants with an increased resistance to methotrexate (Mtx) were obtained by co-transformation of tobacco leaf discs with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains carrying two new binary vectors: pTI20 and pTI18. Co-transformants of Nicotiana tabacum were directly selected for and rooted on medium containing both kanamycin (kan) and Mtx. Leaf discs of transgenic plants were assayed for capacity of regeneration at different Mtx concentrations. Analysis of transcripts was performed on total RNA extracted from two Mtx-resistant plants. The transgenic plants increased resistance to Mtx can be explained by the exceptionally low capacity of Mtx to bind C. albicans dihydrofolate reductase, accountable by the presence of two amino acid residues strategically important in Mtx binding. PMID:9700079

Irdani, T; Bogani, P; Mengoni, A; Mastromei, G; Buiatti, M

1998-08-01

97

Constructive Critical Thinking. Ten Steps to Effective Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was written for junior and senior high school students to help them learn to cope more effectively with their problems. It is intended as a quide for helping adolescents explore and solve problems through constructive critical thinking. Ten steps in the process of constructive critical thinking are presented with personal and social…

Valett, Robert E.

98

Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC50 4 ?M) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg/d for 24 d) to healthy rats fed normal diet (protein content 23.9%) increased food intake, body weight gain, lean body mass, and gastrocnemius muscle mass as compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effect of HB administration increased slightly in animals fed a high-protein diet (protein content 39.4%). Both oral (up to 60 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (up to 4 mg/kg) administration of HB showed low androgenic activity when tested in the Hershberger assay. Moreover, HB showed no direct binding to the androgen receptor in vitro. HB treatment was also associated with an improved physical fitness of untrained healthy rats, as evident from a 6.7% increase in lower extremity strength, measured by grip test. In the gastrocnemius muscle of castrated animals, HB treatment significantly increased the number of type IIa and IIb fibers and the cross-sectional area of type I and type IIa fibers. These findings suggest that oral application of HB triggers selective anabolic response with minimal or no androgenic side-effects and begin to elucidate the putative cellular targets for plant brassinosteroids in mammals.—Esposito, D., Komarnytsky, S., Shapses, S., Raskin, I. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid.

Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

2011-01-01

99

Construction of a 100 kW solar thermal-electric experimental plant  

SciTech Connect

A focusing collector thermal-electric power plant has been erected in Corsica (France). This plant consists of a field of 1176 sq m fixed mirror concentrators, producing heat at 250 C, a stratification thermal energy storage of about 1250 kWh, two power conversion units of 45 kWe each, with a supersonic turbine expanding a heavy organic working fluid, and two cooling towers of 200 kW each. This full-scale prototype has been built mainly to demonstrate the capability of the distributed collector solar plant concept, in the power range from 50 kWe to 1000 kWe, and the temperature range from 150 to 300 C. This paper describes the conceptual design and the performance of the plant and discusses problems that were met during construction.

Boy-Marcotte, J.L.; Dancette, M.; Bliaux, J.; Bacconnet, E.; Malherbe, J.

1985-08-01

100

Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)  

SciTech Connect

The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

JANSKY, M.T.

1999-12-01

101

Processes and Effects in the Construction of Social Reality: Construct Accessibility as an Explanatory Variable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds support for the general notion of construct accessibility and its effect on judgments can help account for the influence of television viewing on social reality estimates. Shows that subjects who watch comparatively more television not only overestimate frequency or probability but also give faster responses to various types of cultivation…

Shrum, L. J.; O'Guinn, Thomas C.

1993-01-01

102

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

103

Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

2013-01-01

104

Effective Stimuli for Constructing Reliable Neuron Models  

PubMed Central

The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose.

Druckmann, Shaul; Berger, Thomas K.; Schurmann, Felix; Hill, Sean; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

2011-01-01

105

Improving the organization of concrete work performed during construction of the Sayano-Shushenskoe hydroelectric plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  Basic means of attaining a further increase in the rate of concrete placement and reduction in labor during construction of the Sayano-Shushenskoe hydroelectric plant are as follows:a) \\u000amaximum use of highly productive, manneuverable KBGS-1000-type cranes with a high lift capacity designed especially for concrete placement;\\u000ab) \\u000ause of self-hoisting gantries for raising several cranes as the dam rises in accordance

N. A. Zinchenko; S. I. Sadovskii

1979-01-01

106

Performance evaluation of laboratory scale up-flow constructed wetlands with different designs and emergent plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of present study was to assess the simultaneous removal of organic pollutants and nutrients by five laboratory scale up-flow constructed wetlands (UFCWs). Aerobic and anaerobic regions were well developed at the upper and lower beds, respectively, in the UFCW reactors with supplementary aeration. The emergent plants employed were Phragmites australis and Manchurian wild rice. The COD, T–N, T–P,

Soon-An Ong; Katsuhiro Uchiyama; Daisuke Inadama; Yuji Ishida; Kazuaki Yamagiwa

2010-01-01

107

Physiological parameters of plants as indicators of water quality in a constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Increasing demand for water has stimulated efforts to treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture. Decentralized facilities\\u000a for wastewater treatment became popular as a solution to remote and small communities. These systems mimic natural wetlands,\\u000a cleaning wastewater as they flow through a complex of filter media, microbial fauna, and vegetation. The function of plants\\u000a in constructed wetlands (CWs) has not been

Oren Shelef; Avi Golan-Goldhirsh; Tanya Gendler; Shimon Rachmilevitch

108

A novel approach to the generation of seamless constructs for plant transformation  

PubMed Central

Background When creating plant transformation vectors, full control of nucleotides flanking the insert in the final construct may be desirable. Modern ligase-independent methods for DNA-recombination are based on linearization by classical type II restriction endonucleases (REs) alone or in combination with nicking enzymes leaving residual nucleotides behind in the final construct. We here explore the use of type IIS and type IIB REs for vector linearization that combined with sequence and ligase-independent cloning (SLIC) overcomes this problem and promotes seamless gene-insertion in vectors. Providing the basis for a collection of biolistic plant transformation vectors ready to be cloned with different genes-of-interest, we present two vectors, where promoter and terminator are joined by a spacer. During spacer-removal linearization (SRL), type IIS and type IIB REs remove their own recognition sequences from the vector leaving no undesired, short sequences behind. Results We designed two plant transformation vectors prepared for SRL in combination with SLIC, pAUrumII and pAUrumIII, harboring a spacer with recognition sites for a type IIS and IIB RE, respectively. The gene for a green fluorescent protein, gfp, was successfully cloned into both vectors; traces of pAUrumIII, however, contaminated the transformation due to incomplete linearization, an issue not encountered with the type IIS linearized pAUrumII. Both constructs, pAUrumII-gfp and pAUrumIII-gfp, were functional, when tested in vitro on wheat and barley endosperm cells for transient gfp expression. Conclusions All nucleotides flanking an insert in a biolistic plant transformation vector can be customized by means of SRL in combination with SLIC. Especially type IIS REs promote an efficient cloning result. Based on our findings, we believe that the SRL system can be useful in a series of plant transformation vectors, favoring the presence of functional sequences for optimal expression over redundant cloning-site remnants.

2014-01-01

109

Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.  

PubMed

Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

2009-01-01

110

Worldwide construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle

1994-01-01

111

The Effect of Designated Pollutants on Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phototoxicity of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was studied with particular emphasis on various external plant stresses. Greenhouse grown plants and indoor exposure chambers were utilized to test the effect of viral infection, insecticide treatment, weed...

A. L. Granett O. C. Taylor

1979-01-01

112

Effect of building construction on Aspergillus concentrations in a hospital.  

PubMed

Air samples taken in a hospital undergoing construction and analyzed with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the Aspergillus genus did not show elevated concentrations of Aspergillus or particulate matter with a diameter of 5 microm or less in patient areas. Air samples from the construction zone indicated the containment system, which used polyethylene film barrier and negative pressure, was effective. PMID:18419373

Goebes, Marian D; Baron, Ellen Jo; Mathews, Kathleen L; Hildemann, Lynn M

2008-05-01

113

Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.  

PubMed

Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:18937893

AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

2008-12-01

114

Demography and management of the invasive plant species Hypericum perforatum. II. Construction and use of an individual-based model to predict population dynamics and the effects of management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Hypericum perforatum , St John's wort, is an invasive weed of natural and agro- ecosystems in south-eastern Australia. In previous work we used a long-term data set to determine which plant traits and environmental factors influence population growth and persistence in this species. These results were then used to parameterize an individual- based model of the population dynamics

Yvonne M. Buckley; David T. Briese; Mark Rees

2003-01-01

115

Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.  

PubMed

A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance. PMID:15620752

Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

2005-02-01

116

Enhanced arsenic removals through plant interactions in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) removal in pilot-scale subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) was investigated by comparing between CW units with vetiver grasses (CWplanted) and CW units without vetiver grasses (CWunplanted) in order to determine the roles of vetiver grasses affecting As removal. Based on the data obtained from 147 days of experiment, it is apparent that CWplanted units could remove As significantly higher than those of CWunplanted units with approximately 7-14%. Although analysis of As mass balance in CW units revealed that only 0.5-1.0% of total As was found in vetiver grasses, the As retained within bed of the CWplanted units (23.6-29.7 g) was higher than those in the CWunplanted units (21.3-26.8 g) at the end of the experiment, illustrating the effect of vetiver grasses on As accumulation in the CW units. Determination of As in different fractions in the CW bed suggested that the main mechanism of As retention was due mainly to As entrapment into the porous of bed materials (50-57% of total fraction), this mechanism is likely not affected by the presence of vetiver grasses. However, fraction of As-bound in organic matters that could be released from plant roots decomposition indicated the increase adsorption capacity of CW bed. In addition, organic sulfides produced from their root decomposition could help remove As through the precipitation/co-precipitation process. Under reducing condition in those CWplanted units, As could be leached out in the form of iron and manganese-bound complexes. PMID:19123096

Singhakant, Chatchawal; Koottatep, Thammarat; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

2009-02-01

117

Related to Construction of Midland Plant Units 1 and 2, Consumers Power Company Docket Nos. 50-329, and 50-330.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns construction and operation of Midland Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 at Midland, Michigan, on the south shore of the Tittabawassee River. The adverse effects include: Reassignment of use of about 1100 acres of agricultural and resid...

1972-01-01

118

Worldwide construction  

SciTech Connect

The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

Williamson, M.

1994-10-17

119

A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

Hopkins, A. [Fluor Hanford, Inc, Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

120

THE USE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TO PHYTOREMEDIATE EXPLOSIVES-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE MILAN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT, MILAN, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

The groundwaters beneath many Army ammunition plants in the United States are contaminated with explosives. To help address this problem, the USAEC and TVA initiated a field demonstration program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using constructed wetlands for remediating ...

121

RADON MITIGATION EFFECTS OF PASSIVE STACKS IN RESIDENTIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effects of passive stacks in mitigating radon levels in residential new construction. Although passive stacks have been installed as a radon resistant measure in new houses, little quantitative data on their performance has been collected. This study invol...

122

The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

2008-01-01

123

Effectiveness of Push and Pull Learning Strategies in Construction Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study of a construction contractor modernizing production showed that creation of an effective learning mood was more likely in a supportive environment in which people explore their actions as they work ("pull learning"). However, an external change agent ("push learning") was useful in provoking the reflection that triggered workplace learning.…

Santos, Aguinaldo; Powell, James Alfred

2001-01-01

124

Design and performance of experimental constructed wetlands treating coke plant effluents.  

PubMed

Reed beds were chosen to treat effluents from a coke plant in France (Usinor-Sollac, Fos/mer). The pilot is composed by a two-stage gravel bed with subsurface flow and Phragmites australis as plant. This experimental constructed wetland was monitored for one year at steady-state conditions. The composition of influent shows high concentrations of organic compounds. The hydraulic residence time was close to 10-12 days with a plug flow with longitudinal dispersion. Results show that global removal of nitrogen ranged from 54 to 94% of load removal efficiency, but corresponds easily to the regulation recommendations. Because of wintertime, the denitrification process was inhibited by aerobic conditions observed in the gravel bed with oxygen concentrations higher than 2-3 mg/L, and by small amounts of biodegradable carbon. The fate of mineral pollutants are linked to the complex ferric hydroxides balance and a lack of phosphorus was observed for reed plants, as this nutrient is dependent on iron compounds. Some necrosis was observed on plant tissues corresponding with anthocyanic pigments accumulation caused by phosphorus absorption deficiency due to its co-precipitation with iron. PMID:11804139

Jardinier, N; Blake, G; Mauchamp, A; Merlin, G

2001-01-01

125

Studies on adsorption of nickel on sand from constructed wetland and effect of leaching agents.  

PubMed

The present study chronicles experiments done on the feasibility of exploiting sand's natural capacity as an adsorbant for the removal of nickel laden wastewater. Batch adsorbtion studies were carried out. Leaching agents such as 0.01 M EDTA (disodium salt), 0.1 N HCI and acetic acid alongwith water as control showed 0.01 M EDTA-Na and 0.1 N HCl as suitable leaching agents to enhance metal removal from sand. Pot experiments were successively carried out with Arundo donax plants to determine the effectiveness of treatment on the sand. It was found that sand could continue as a good substrate for plant growth and the amount of leaching agent required for a pilot scale constructed wetland was estimated. The maximum amount of nickel adsorbed was 5 mg/L at a pH of 6. EDTA was selected as the chelating agent and the pot experiments showed no immediate effects on plant growth. PMID:24749193

Vasudevan, Namasivayam; Palanivelu, Kandasamy; Joysula, Sowmya; Manoj, Valsa Remony

2012-07-01

126

Construction of River Model Biofilm for Assessing Pesticide Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the high importance of biofilms on river ecosystems, assessment of pesticides’ adverse effects is necessary but is\\u000a impaired by high variability and poor reproducibility of both natural biofilms and those developed in the laboratory. We constructed\\u000a a model biofilm to evaluate the effects of pesticides, consisting in cultured microbial strains, Pedobacter sp. 7-11, Aquaspirillum sp. T-5, Stenotrophomonas sp.

Shohei Hayashi; Ji Eun Jang; Kazuhito Itoh; Kousuke Suyama; Hiroki Yamamoto

2011-01-01

127

Effect of Ultrasonic Vibrations on Plant Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earlier studies on the effects of ultrasound on plant growth failed to specify the intensities of ultrasonic vibrations in USSR. This study examines the effect of ultrasound with specified intensity, exposure time, and frequency on the seeds of several pl...

R. S. Limar

1973-01-01

128

Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. The leachate from the irrigation of the pots is also monitored and assessed to ensure that if selected for field trials, the mix will not pose a threat to water bodies. The presentation at the conference will aim to report the latest results from the on-going experiment.

Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

2014-05-01

129

[Reduction of hyperspectral dimensions and construction of discriminating models for identifying wetland plant species].  

PubMed

The present paper researched and analyzed the hyperspectral data of wetland plant species often occurred in Beijing. The methods of Mahalanobis Distance (MD) and principal component analysis (PCA) were mainly applied to reduce the dimensions of hyperspectral data and to analyze and extract the features of spectra. The authors use the extracted spectra to build identification models for identifying the wetland species. The authors then compared and evaluated the precisions of models and finally obtained the best discriminating model. The results showed that (1) the dimensions of hyperspectral data can be efficiently reduced by both MD and PCA methods. (2) The discriminating models established using the parameters extracted from the resulting spectra of MD and PCA could identify the wetland plants with high precisions of more than 90%. As a result, the conversion and usage of the hyperspectral data can help better understand and well extract the spectra of different wetland plants. Furthermore, the constructed discriminating models for wetland species could also be used in the future to guide us in mapping and monitoring of wetland ecosystem by applying the remote sensing data. PMID:22512190

Liu, Xue-hua; Sun, Yan; Wu, Yan

2012-02-01

130

Effect of Environment on Plant Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this plant biotechnology activity is to demonstrate the effect of changes in the environment on the growth and fertility of landscape grasses and crop grasses such as wheat and rice. Plants are placed in environments such as high salinity, cold, heat, or drought and learners observe the different reactions of the plants to these conditions. Learners compare the growth of treated plants to that of the control plants, which are grown under optimal conditions. Learners then discuss the desirability of breeding new types of plants that are better able to withstand these changes if they occur in the general environment. In the original description of the activity, the planting is prepared by the instructor as a demonstration, but learners could be involved in this process. This resource contains background information and questions for learners.

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

131

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

1991-07-01

132

Effect of microgravity on plant growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

Lewis, Norman G.

1994-01-01

133

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni-Cr-Mo alloys 59 and C-276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S. [Univ. of Madras (India). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

1996-02-01

134

A potent effect of observational learning on chimpanzee tool construction  

PubMed Central

Although tool use occurs in diverse species, its complexity may mark an important distinction between humans and other animals. Chimpanzee tool use has many similarities to that seen in humans, yet evidence of the cumulatively complex and constructive technologies common in human populations remains absent in free-ranging chimpanzees. Here we provide the first evidence that chimpanzees have a latent capacity to socially learn to construct a composite tool. Fifty chimpanzees were assigned to one of five demonstration conditions that varied in the amount and type of information available in video footage of a conspecific. Chimpanzees exposed to complete footage of a chimpanzee combining the two components to retrieve a reward learned to combine the tools significantly more than those exposed to more restricted information. In a follow-up test, chimpanzees that constructed tools after watching the complete demonstration tended to do so even when the reward was within reach of the unmodified components, whereas those that spontaneously solved the task (without seeing the modification process) combined only when necessary. Social learning, therefore, had a powerful effect in instilling a marked persistence in the use of a complex technique at the cost of efficiency, inhibiting insightful tool use.

Price, Elizabeth E.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steve J.; Whiten, Andrew

2009-01-01

135

Use and effectiveness of hearing protection in construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of data on noise exposure and hearing protection device (HPD) use among construction workers drawn from several large datasets covering nine construction trades. A unique combination of one-minute dosimetry noise exposure level and simultaneous self-reported HPD use data were evaluated, as were occupational and non-occupational HPD use data collected by questionnaire as part of a longitudinal noise and hearing loss study among apprentices. Direct HPD attenuation measurements were also made on workers at their worksite. Workers reported using HPDs less than one-quarter of the time they were exposed above 85 dBA, the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit. Workers who reported always using HPDs in high noise were found to wear them only one-third of the time their exposures exceeded 85 dBA. Direct attenuation measurements indicated that workers achieved more than 50% of the rated attenuation of their HPD on average, but that the variability in achieved attenuation was large. Lastly, when the measured HPD attenuation level and use time data were combined, the effective protection afforded by HPDs was less than 3 dB on average, though there was substantial variation among the different trades. These results demonstrate the need for better hearing conservation programs in construction.

Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah

2005-04-01

136

Field effect transistor and method of construction thereof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field effect transistor is constructed by placing a semi-conductor layer on an insulating substrate so that the gate region is separated from source and drain regions. The gate electrode and gate region of the layer are of generally reduced length, the gate region being of greatest length on its surface closest to the gate electrode. This is accomplished by initially creating a relatively large gate region of one polarity, and then reversing the polarity of a central portion of this gate region by ion bombardment, thus achieving a narrower final gate region of the stated configuration.

Fletner, W. R. (inventor)

1978-01-01

137

Changes in herbaceous plants in an urban habitat garden in Kyoto city, Japan, 9 years after construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the characteristics and problems of artificial urban ecological environments, we investigated the changes in\\u000a herbaceous plants in an urban habitat garden for 9 years after construction and compared the results with 15 remnant semi-natural\\u000a green spaces in Kyoto city, Japan. The area of the habitat garden is 0.6 ha and it was constructed approximately 3 km from\\u000a the nearest mountains in

Ayumi Imanishi; Chieko Kitagawa; Susumu Nakamura; Hiroshi Hashimoto; Keizo Tabata; Junichi Imanishi; Kentaro Murakami; Yukihiro Morimoto; Mifumi Miyamoto

2007-01-01

138

Nitrogen transformation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands II: Effect of biofilm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the significance of the biofilm biomass present in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland in removal of nitrogen was demonstrated. The model was developed and optimised using data obtained in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites mauritianus and filled with 6-25 mm diameter gravel pack. The effects of biofilm biomass activities were studied by removing the effects of plant and gravel bed biofilm in an already calibrated model and re-run the same. Research results indicate that total nitrogen removal was largely influenced by growth of biofilm on plants than on aggregates. When plant biofilm and suspended biomasses were considered total nitrogen removal of 38.1% was observed compared with 25.1% when aggregate-biofilm and suspended biomasses were considered because plants have more surface areas, which are active sites for the effective biofilm activities than aggregates. However, in a natural wetland where the soil grain size is smaller, the effect of biofilm on plants may be smaller than biofilm on soil particles. There was no significant difference in organic-nitrogen effluent concentrations when biofilm biomass was considered or rejected. The averages in organic-nitrogen effluent concentrations were 0.39, 0.41 and 0.53 gN/m 2 for suspended alone, aggregate-biofilm and suspended; and suspended and plant-biofilm, respectively. This indicates that the removal of organic-nitrogen in wastewater is not significantly influenced by biofilm activities. Sedimentation and mineralization processes are the major factors influencing the concentration of organic-nitrogen in the effluent. On the other hand, biofilm activities had significant influence on ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen transformation. The developed model output indicates that the effluent ammonia concentration was 2 gN/m 2, but in absence of biofilm the effluent ammonia concentration increases to 3.5 gN/m 2. Statistical analysis indicates that the mean average nitrogen-nitrogen in the effluent was 0.71 gN/m 2 when aggregate-biofilm was considered, but increased to 0.83 gN/m 2 when it was not considered.

Bigambo, T.; Mayo, A. W.

139

Effect of loading rate on performance of constructed wetlands treating an anaerobic supernatant.  

PubMed

The effect of organic loading, season and plant species on the treatment of fish farm effluent was tested using three-year old mesocosm wetland systems. During one year, nine 1 m2 mesocosms (horizontal subsurface flow), located in a controlled greenhouse environment, were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent containing a high fraction of soluble components (1,600 microS/cm and in mg/L: 230 +/- 80 COD, 179 +/- 60 sCOD, 100 +/- 40 TSS, 37 +/- 7 TKN, 14 +/- 2 TP). Combinations of three hydraulic loading rates (30, 60 and 90 L.m(-2) d(-1)) and two plant species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) and an unplanted control were tested for treatment performance and hydraulic behaviour. Loadings higher than 15 g COD m(-2) d(-1) resulted in a net decrease of hydraulic performances (generation of short circuiting) coupled with low TKN removal. Maximal TKN removal rates (summer: 1.2, winter: 0.6 g.m(-2) d(-1)) were reached in planted units. In all mesocosms, phosphorus was removed during summer (maximal removal rate: 0.3 g TP m(-2) d(-1)) and was released in winter (release rate = approximately half of summer removal rate). This study confirmed that constructed wetlands are susceptible to clogging when treating anaerobic storage tank supernatant rich in highly biodegradable compounds. Contributions of plants to hydraulic efficiency were mainly observed in summer, associated with high evapotranspiration rates. Both plant species gave a similar removal efficiency for all pollutants. PMID:17802834

Chazarenc, F; Maltais-Landry, G; Troesch, S; Comeau, Y; Brisson, J

2007-01-01

140

Disturbance of Dabao highway construction on plant species and soil nutrients in Longitudinal Range Gorge Region (LRGR) of Southwestern China.  

PubMed

The disturbance of highway construction upon surrounding vulnerable ecosystems is a common threat in the Longitudinal Range Gorge Region of southwestern China. We evaluated the disturbance of highway on plant species richness and diversity and soil nutrients from adjacent to the highway to 300 m upslope and 100 m downslope in forests and grasslands by setting 12 belt transects in forests and grasslands (six belt transects and six control belt transects, respectively). The results showed that there were some significant variances in belt transects with respective control belt transects for species richness and diversity in both forests and grasslands. Species richness and diversity of trees were lower within a 50-m distance from the highway and more noticeable on the downslope portion. Species richness and diversity of shrubs and herbs appeared higher near highway edge. Both species richness and diversity of herbs were similar in forests. In addition, exotic species, such as Eupatorium adenophorum, were further from the road and more widely dispersed in grasslands. Soil nutrients except total potassium (TK) were lower in the downslope area adjacent to highway edge and showed a significant increase with increasing distance from the highway in both forests and grasslands. This indicates that grasslands acted as microhabitats for exotic species and are more easily to be invaded than forests, especially if disturbed. Once destroyed, plant species and soil nutrients will require a significant amount of time to be restored to control levels. This work illustrates that the effects extend considerably to distances upslope and downslope from the construction site. Given that these changes occurred relatively quickly, the study suggests that the environmental "footprint" grows far beyond the road and adjacent zone of disruption. PMID:18974942

Cui, Baoshan; Zhao, Shuqing; Zhang, Kejiang; Li, Shaocai; Dong, Shikui; Bai, Junhong

2009-11-01

141

Predicting effectiveness of construction project management: Decision-support tool for competitive bidding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents construction project management effectiveness modelling from the construction management organization\\u000a perspective. The paper reports on construction project performance data collected from construction management companies in\\u000a Lithuania and the United States of America. Construction project management effectiveness model (CPMEM) was established by\\u000a applying artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology. The discussions of project management effectiveness (success) factors\\u000a identified in

Rasa Apanaviciene; Arvydas Juodis

2006-01-01

142

Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others] [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

1997-02-01

143

The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 μl\\/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was

R. Beard; M. Harrison

1990-01-01

144

Construction of river model biofilm for assessing pesticide effects.  

PubMed

Due to the high importance of biofilms on river ecosystems, assessment of pesticides' adverse effects is necessary but is impaired by high variability and poor reproducibility of both natural biofilms and those developed in the laboratory. We constructed a model biofilm to evaluate the effects of pesticides, consisting in cultured microbial strains, Pedobacter sp. 7-11, Aquaspirillum sp. T-5, Stenotrophomonas sp. 3-7, Achnanthes minutissima N71, Nitzschia palea N489, and/or Cyclotella meneghiniana N803. Microbial cell numbers, esterase activity, chlorophyll-a content, and the community structure of the model biofilm were examined and found to be useful as biological factors for evaluating the pesticide effects. The model biofilm was formed through the cooperative interaction of bacteria and diatoms, and a preliminary experiment using the herbicide atrazine, which inhibits diatom growth, indicated that the adverse effect on diatoms inhibited indirectly the bacterial growth and activity and, thus, the formation of the model biofilm. Toxicological tests using model biofilms could be useful for evaluating the pesticide effects and complementary to studies on actual river biofilms. PMID:20422166

Hayashi, Shohei; Jang, Ji Eun; Itoh, Kazuhito; Suyama, Kousuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki

2011-01-01

145

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

146

Construction of a Chemical-Microbial Pilot Plant for Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cellulosic Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, construction, and operation of a pilot-plant unit to convert waste sugarcane bagasse into microbial single-cell protein by a previously developed process is described. After the bagasse was ground and given a milk alkaline oxidation treatment ...

C. D. Callihan C. E. Dunlap

1971-01-01

147

Linear transgene constructs lacking vector backbone sequences generate transgenic rice plants which accumulate higher levels of proteins conferring insect resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biolistic transformation was used to introduce genes encoding the insecticidal proteins snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) and cry1Ac Bt toxin (d-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis) into elite rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars. Plant transformation was carried out in parallel experiments simultaneously by using either whole plasmids containing suitable gene constructs, or the corresponding minimal gene cassettes, which were linear DNA fragments

Nguyen Thi Loc; Porntip Tinjuangjun; Angharad M. R. Gatehouse; Paul Christou; John A. Gatehouse

2002-01-01

148

WELL CONSTRUCTION AND PURGING EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Multiple well installations of selected casing materials (i.e., polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 304 stainless steel (SS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were constructed and sampled to determine if well purging and construction procedures would significantly bias chemical constitu...

149

[The effects of plant sterols on hypercholesterolemia].  

PubMed

Increased serum total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Many clinical trials have proven that plant sterol and stanol esters can effectively decrease high serum total and LDL cholesterol. They reduce the intestinal absorption of cholesterol by decreasing the incorporation of dietary and biliary cholesterol into micelles displacing cholesterol from these micelles. They also increase LDL receptor activity on liver cells causing a higher uptake of LDL cholesterol and thus decreasing the serum LDL cholesterol concentration. Animal studies have indicated that plant sterols and stanols may also lower atherosclerotic lesions development. However, the evidence from human studies to confirm this is still lacking. Anyhow, plant sterol and stanol esters can be considered as an effective and safe cholesterol-lowering functional food ingredient. To achieve additional effects they can be combined with statin therapy, and this combination is also well tolerated and safe. PMID:18198627

Reiner, Zeljko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia

2007-01-01

150

Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

1998-09-30

151

Effects of irrigation water quality on loquat plant nutrition: Sensitivity of loquat plant to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was conducted to study the possible use of municipal wastewater for watering loquat plants, and to determine the effects of this water on nutrient status of two?year?old loquat plants (Eriobotriae japonica L.) during two complete vegetative cycles. The plants, grafted on franco and Anger stocks, were planted on major soils of the area of La Marina Babea. Plants

1997-01-01

152

Domestic wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland system planted with rice.  

PubMed

The experiments were conducted in four concrete laboratory scale free water surface constructed wetland units 1 m wide, 1.5 m long and 0.8 m deep. Paddy field soil was added to a depth of 0.4 m and rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were transplanted into the units at a density of 25 plants/m(2). Domestic wastewater collected from Chiang Mai University was applied into each unit via two different modes to evaluate suitable conditions for wastewater treatment and rice yield. In the first experiment, the wastewater was fed intermittently (7 h/day) with a hydraulic loading rate of 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm/day. The maximum removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were only 49.1, 58.7, 64.0 and 59.4%, respectively, due to the short hydraulic retention time for the biodegradation of organic substances. In the second experiment, the wastewater in each unit was inundated to a depth of 15 cm for 10, 15, 20 and 25 days in each unit and then drained and re-flooded. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were greater than in the first experiment especially at the 25 day retention time and except for suspended solids met the Thai national effluent standard. The study revealed that apart from wastewater treatment, wastewater can replace natural water to grow rice in the dry season or throughout the year. Moreover, nutrients in wastewater can be a substitute for chemical fertilizers. Rice grain production was 4,700 kg/ha and only 6% less than the production from the conventional paddy field. PMID:22170830

Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Duangjaisak, Wanida

2011-01-01

153

The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants  

SciTech Connect

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 {mu}l/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was measured under ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} conditions for three weeks. Plants grown under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions were significantly taller and showed earlier flower development. These plants also contained greater protein content per gram fresh weight. Crude leaf extracts was used as a source of pentose-5-isomerase which controls the conversion of ribose-5-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate in carbon fixation. The activity of this enzyme was measured spectrophotometrically and found to be somewhat greater in plants grown under the higher CO{sub 2} conditions. These physiological changes associated with elevated CO{sub 2} can be used as an introduction to the greenhouse effect as well as to study the regulation of carbon fixation.

Beard, R.; Harrison, M. (Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV (USA))

1990-05-01

154

Mulching Effects on Plant Climate and Yield.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of mulching - the covering of the soil surface with crop residue or other material such as paper or plastic - on temperature, soil moisture, erosion and soil physics, pests and diseases, growth and yield of plants, and weed suppression are rev...

J. W. Davies

1975-01-01

155

UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impacts of an increase in solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion have been investigated by several research groups during the last 15 years. uch of this research has centered on the effects of plant growth and physiolo...

156

Seasonal effectiveness of a constructed wetland for processing milkhouse wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands are gainign increased attention for treatment of nonpoint source pollution. Although constructed wetlands\\u000a have been used for wastewater treatment in warm climates, their performance in cold climates has been questioned. A surface-flow\\u000a wetland, designed to treat 2.65 m3d?1 of milkhouse wastewater, was constructed on the University of Connecticut’s Storrs campus in 1994. The purpose of the project\\u000a was

Jana Majer Newman; John C. Clausen

1997-01-01

157

Constructs of highly effective heat transport paths by bionic optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization approach based on the biological evolution principle is used to construct the heat transport paths for volume-to-point\\u000a problem. The transport paths are constructed by inserting high conductivity materials in the heat conduction domain where\\u000a uniform or nonuniform heat sources exist. In the bionic optimization process, the optimal constructs of the high conductivity\\u000a material are obtained by numerically simulating

Xinguang Cheng; Zhixin Li; Zengyuan Guo

2003-01-01

158

Is the Trend Towards Large Power Units in Power-Plant Construction Justified.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The numerous factors which influence the price and economics of power plants are examined in an effort to determine what power plant size is the cheapest to build and operate. These factors include costs for: licensing; environmental protection; site sele...

A. Buch

1977-01-01

159

Effects of the substrate depth on purification performance of a hybrid constructed wetland treating domestic sewage.  

PubMed

The depth of substrate in constructed wetlands (CWs) has a significant effect on the construction investment and the purification performance of CWs. In this study, a pilot scale CW system was operated in a domestic sewage treatment plant in Xi'an, China. The experimental systems included three-series CWs systems with substrate depths of 0.1m, 0.3 m and 0.6 m, respectively. Each series was composed of a hydroponic ditch, a horizontal subsurface flow CW and a vertical flow CW. The effluent from the primary clarifier in the sewage treatment plant was intermittently conducted to the wetlands at a flow rate of 0.3 m(3)/d. The hydraulic loading rate of each CWs system was regulated at 0.1 m(3)/m(2).d and the hydraulic retention time was 3 days. Canna indica L. was planted both in the hydroponic ditches and the CWs systems. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of NH(+)(4)-N and TP was obtained in the hybrid CW with 0.1 m substrate depth. The average removal efficiency for NH(+)(4)-N and TP were 90.6 % and 80.0 %, respectively. The highest average removal efficiency of COD was obtained in hybrid CWs system with 0.6 m substrate depth. Therefore, a simultaneous removal of COD and nutrients can be achieved through the combination of different wetlands using different substrate depths. In addition, the substrate depth presents significant effects on the concentration of DO and root growth characteristics of canna in the system. As a result, the highest concentration of DO (>2 mg/L) and the highest amount of roots production were achieved in the 0.1 m substrate depth horizontal and vertical flow CWs. PMID:21644156

Ren, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Chao; Yang, Yong-Zhe; Qin, Zhen; Ma, Yun

2011-01-01

160

Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power: Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Quarterly report, March 1-May 31, 1981  

SciTech Connect

Progress in Phase III of the Engineering Program to design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant is reported. Phase III includes pilot plant fabrication, construction and initial check out. Fabrication of the upper and lower PFB combustor vessels is being followed by a short interval schedule and delivery is projected for July 15, 1981. Fabrication of component parts of the combustor recycle loop is on schedule. The recycle cyclone, freeboard tee, recycle cyclone tee, trickle valve and upper spool piece have all been received for the installation of refractory lining. The bellows assembly is scheduled for completion on July 15, 1981. Material handling equipment purchase orders were placed for the coal handling equipment, electric elevator, coal preparation, and ash handling equipment. Fire protection specifications were issued. The overall project is 43% complete. (LCL)

Not Available

1981-01-01

161

Effects of actinobacteria on plant disease suppression and growth promotion.  

PubMed

Biological control and plant growth promotion by plant beneficial microbes has been viewed as an alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Bacteria and fungi that are naturally associated with plants and have a beneficial effect on plant growth by the alleviation of biotic and abiotic stresses were isolated and developed into biocontrol (BCA) and plant growth-promoting agents (PGPA). Actinobacteria are a group of important plant-associated spore-forming bacteria, which have been studied for their biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and interaction with plants. This review summarizes the effects of actinobacteria as BCA, PGPA, and its beneficial associations with plants. PMID:24092003

Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhang, Lixin; Suh, Joo-Won

2013-11-01

162

The Business Roundtable Construction Industry Cost Effectiveness Task Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Business Roundtable, an organization founded in 1972 and formed of chief executive officers representing several leading international corporations, has had a major impact on the construction industry in the United States. Member companies are some of the major users of construction services. These business and industry leaders formed task forces to investigate, report, and recommend means by which escalating

Jack Roberts

1987-01-01

163

Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.  

PubMed

The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB-induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P-induced neoplasia alone, while the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves, solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:1473788

Aruna, K; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

1992-11-01

164

Unexpected earthworm effects on forest understory plants  

PubMed Central

Background Introduced earthworms are widespread in forests of North America creating significant negative impacts on forest understory communities. However, much of the reported evidence for negative earthworm effects comes from field investigations either comparing invaded and non-invaded forests or across invasion fronts. While important, such work is rarely able to capture the true effect of earthworms on individual plant species because most forests in North America simultaneously face multiple stressors which may confound earthworm impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to isolate effects of the anecic introduced earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L. on seedlings of 14 native plant species representing different life form groups (perennial herb, graminoid, and tree). Results Earthworm presence did not affect survival, fertility or biomass of any of the seedling plant species tested over a 17-week period. However, L. terrestris presence significantly decreased growth of two sedges (Carex retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. and Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small) by decreasing the number of culms. Conclusions Our mesocosm results with seedlings contrast with field reports indicating extensive and significant negative effects of introduced earthworms on many mature native forbs, and positive effects on sedges. We suggest that earthworm impacts are context- and age-specific and that generalizations about their impacts are potentially misleading without considering and manipulating other associated factors.

2013-01-01

165

Winter study of power plant effects  

SciTech Connect

As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.

Patrinos, A.A.N.

1980-10-01

166

Effect of implantation on engineered skeletal muscle constructs.  

PubMed

The development of engineered skeletal muscle would provide a viable tissue for replacement and repair of muscle damaged by disease or injury. Our current tissue-engineering methods result in three-dimensional (3D) muscle constructs that generate tension but do not advance phenotypically beyond neonatal characteristics. To develop to an adult phenotype, innervation and vascularization of the construct must occur. In this study, 3D muscle constructs were implanted into the hindlimb of a rat, along the sciatic nerve, with the sural nerve isolated, transected and sutured to the construct to encourage innervation. Aortic ring anchors were sutured to the tendons of the biceps femoris muscle so that the construct would move dynamically with the endogenous muscle. After 1?week in vivo, the constructs were explanted, evaluated for force production and stained for muscle, nerve and collagen markers. Implanted muscle constructs showed a developing capillary system, an epimysium-like outer layer of connective tissue and an increase in myofibre content. The beginning of ?-bungarotoxin clustering suggests that neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) could form on the implanted muscle, given more time in vivo. Additionally, the constructs increased maximum isometric force from 192?±?41 ?N to 549?±?103 ?N (245% increase) compared to in vitro controls, which increased from 276?±?23 ?N to 329?±?27?N (25% increase). These findings suggest that engineered muscle tissue survives 1?week of implantation and begins to develop the necessary interfaces needed to advance the phenotype toward adult muscle. However, in terms of force production, the muscle constructs need longer implantation times to fully develop an adult phenotype. PMID:22328229

Williams, Michael L; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Arruda, Ellen M; Larkin, Lisa M

2013-06-01

167

Effect of Implantation on engineered skeletal muscle constructs  

PubMed Central

The development of engineered skeletal muscle would provide a viable tissue for replacement and repair of muscle damaged by disease or injury. Current tissue engineering methods result in three-dimensional (3-D) muscle constructs that generate tension, but do not advance phenotypically beyond neonatal characteristics (Larkin et al., 2006). To develop to an adult phenotype, innervation and vascularization of the construct must occur. In this study, 3-D muscle constructs were implanted into the hindlimb of a rat along the sciatic nerve with the sural nerve isolated, transected and sutured to the construct to encourage innervation. Aortic ring anchors were sutured to the tendons of the biceps femoris muscle so that the construct would move dynamically with the endogenous muscle. After 1 week in vivo, constructs were explanted, evaluated for force production, and stained for muscle, nerve, and collagen markers. Implanted muscle constructs showed a developing capillary system, an epimysium-like outer layer of connective tissue, and an increase in myofiber content. The beginning of alpha-bungarotoxin clustering suggests that neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) could form on the implanted muscle given more time in vivo. Additionally, the constructs increased maximum isometric force from 192±41?N to 549±103?N (245% increase) compared to in vitro controls that increased from 276±23?N to 329±27?N (25% increase). These findings suggest that engineered muscle tissue survives 1 week implantation and begins to develop the necessary interfaces needed to advance the phenotype toward adult muscle. However, in terms of force production, the muscle constructs need longer implantation times to fully develop an adult phenotype.

Williams, Michael L; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Arruda, Ellen M.; Larkin, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

168

Monitoring of the effect of biological activity on the pedogenesis of a constructed Technosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedogenesis is the set of steps, which lead to the formation and evolution of soils under pedogenetic factors and processes. They may be described quantitatively for a modeling end. For this purpose, constructed Technosols are candidates to be studied, because their initial composition is well described. Furthermore, among pedogenetic factors, living organisms are known to play a major role in soil formation. The most challenging objective of our work is then to monitor in situ the effect of biological agents on soil evolution. However, soil pedogenesis is known to be dynamic, therefore visualizing in situ plant roots or soil fauna in contact with soil, will help understand better how pedogenesis occurs realistically. The aim of this work is to study in situ, visually and quantitatively, the evolution of a constructed Technosol pedogenesis using an innovative dispositive of observation on cosmes. The Technosol is constructed in three horizons, from bottom to top we have: gravels, treated industrial soil and paper mill sludge (2/3, 1/3 masse ratio) and green waste compost. The soil is put into a cosme equipped with image acquisition devices. Factors are organized into two modalities each repeated three times. "Plant", where five seeds of white lupin are sown in each cosme. "Plant and Fauna" where six epigeic adult earthworms and five seeds of white lupin are inoculated, and a "control". A moisture of 60 - 80 % field capacity is maintained in all modalities. Results show that roots grow at 10 mm.day-1 speed during the first three weeks. Roots increase porosity and aggregation with time. Earthworms explore the soil randomly by creating and filling burrows. At a second time, they create their burrows preferentially along plant roots. Roots and earthworms contribute to the rapid increase of porosity (9.81 times control at 268 days) and aggregation (10.15 times control at 268 days) during time, in the early stages of pedogenesis. In situ and non-destructive observation of soil profiles is therefore an innovative way of monitoring and quantifying the impact of pedogenetic factors on the evolution of Technosols.

Salifou Jangorzo, Nouhou; Watteau, Françoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2014-05-01

169

Are Animals "More Alive" than Plants? Animistic-Anthropocentric Construction of Life Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the characteristics students use in attributing value to and classifying the living things; the relational construction of the life concepts and the living things and the place of human in this construction. Participants were first-year high school students from seven schools in Izmir (a large western city in Turkey). An…

Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Aydin, Halil

2009-01-01

170

Construction of phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) transformation vectors and evaluation of the effectiveness of vectors in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L)  

PubMed Central

Phosphomannose isomerase (pmi) gene isolated from Escherichia coli allows transgenic plants carrying it to convert mannose-6- phosphate (from mannose), a carbon source that could not be naturally utilized by plants into fructose-6-phosphate which can be utilized by plants as a carbon source. This conversion ability provides energy source to allow the transformed cells to survive on the medium containing mannose. In this study, four transformation vectors carrying the pmi gene alone or in combination with the ?-glucuronidase (gusA) gene were constructed and driven by either the maize ubiquitin (Ubi1) or the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV35S) promoter. Restriction digestion, PCR amplification and sequencing were carried out to ensure sequence integrity and orientation. Tobacco was used as a model system to study the effectiveness of the constructs and selection system. PMI11G and pMI3G, which carry gusA gene, were used to study the gene transient expression in tobacco. PMI3 construct, which only carries the pmi gene driven by CaMV35S promoter, was stably transformed into tobacco using biolistics after selection on 30 g 1-1 mannose without sucrose. Transgenic plants were verified using PCR analysis. Abbreviations PMI/pmi - Phosphomannose isomerase, Ubi1 - Maize ubiquitin promoter, CaMV35S - Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, gusA - ?-glucuronidase GUS reporter gene.

Bahariah, Bohari; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Khalid, Norzulaani

2012-01-01

171

Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission line construction  

SciTech Connect

At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were signficantly reduced on the disturbed area. Our results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Cosntruction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements.

Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

1983-03-01

172

[Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].  

PubMed

In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

2014-02-01

173

Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The prim...

D. Meikrantz J. Law M. Greenhalgh T. Garn

2008-01-01

174

DNA constructs related to capsanthin capsorubin synthase, cells and plants derived therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A DNA construct comprising a DNA sequence homologous to some or all of a sequence encoding a xanthophyll biosynthetic enzyme or a xanthophyll degradative enzyme. In an embodiment the DNA sequence encodes capsanthin-capsorubin synthase (CCS).

1999-03-09

175

Prevailing Wage Rates: The Effects on School Construction Costs, Levels of Taxation, and State Reimbursements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of study of impact of Pennsylvania Prevailing Wage Act on 25 school-construction project costs from 1992-97 and effect thereof on local school districts' taxes. All districts had higher construction costs and property taxes. Projects increased construction costs for the Commonwealth and recommends revisions in prevailing wage-rate law.…

Keller, Edward C.; Hartman, William T.

2001-01-01

176

Responses of a constructed plant community to combinations of herbicides, a model for field tests?  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection Agency considers environmental risks, including impacts to nontarget plants exposed to pesticide drift. Normally these risk assessments consider impacts to individual species, using greenhouse, exposure-res...

177

Pest-resistant plants comprising a construct encoding a vacuole targeting sequence and avidin or streptavidin  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to nucleic acids encoding chimeric polypeptides comprising vacuole targeting sequences and sequences encoding avidin or streptavidin. The nucleic acids are useful for conferring pest resistance on plants and in the production of compositions useful as pesticides.

2005-12-06

178

Benchmarking--an approach to efficiency enhancement in planning, construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

In the following paper the technique of benchmarking was transferred to the field of wastewater treatment. The method was developed within a pilot project, in which 4 wastewater treatment plants (WVTP) (size category: 10,000-100,000 p. e.) of the Emschergenossenschaft/Lippeverband and the Aggerverband were involved. Meanwhile this method is applied to more than 100 WWTP. Specific technical and economic parameters were determined for the whole treatment plant and afterwards assigned to the different treatment steps. With these numbers differences between the examined plants and the respective benchmarks were visible. On the basis of the following cause analysis a schedule could be developed containing at first measures, which could be translated into action immediately. The less obvious reasons for differences between individual numbers required a deeper cause analysis. Because of external influences not all the plants can reach the benchmarks. PMID:11547973

Stemplewski, J; Schulz, A; Schön, J

2001-01-01

179

GENE FLOW STUDIES BETWEEN BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. RAPA IN CONSTRUCTED PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The commercial production of genetically modified crops has led to a growing awareness of the difficulties of transgene confinement and of the potential environmental risks associated with the escape of transgenes into naturalized or native plant populations. A potential conseque...

180

Effective Nonlinear Sigma Model Method of Exact Solutions Construction in GR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective nonlinear sigma model (NSM) is taken into consideration. Possibility of construction of the effective NSM is discussed. Exact solutions of such a model are presented. The effective NSM of physical chiral fields coupled with plane- and axially-symmetric gravitation fields is constructed. Family of exact solutions of such a system are found out by generalized method of functional parameter.

Chervon, S. V.; Shabalkin, D. Yu.

2002-12-01

181

Design of a Plant-Exposure Cuvette System Effects of Air Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This cuvette system has been built in the laboratory to make it possible to more carefully study uptake and different effects of air pollutants on vegetation. The construction details of the plant-exposure cuvette system have been described. The cuvettes ...

L. Skaerby

1978-01-01

182

Preparation of Effective Operating Manuals to Support Waste Management Plant Operator Training  

SciTech Connect

Effective plant operating manuals used in a formal training program can make the difference between a successful operation and a failure. Once the plant process design and control strategies have been fixed, equipment has been ordered, and the plant is constructed, the only major variable affecting success is the capability of plant operating personnel. It is essential that the myriad details concerning plant operation are documented in comprehensive operating manuals suitable for training the non-technical personnel that will operate the plant. These manuals must cover the fundamental principles of each unit operation including how each operates, what process variables are important, and the impact of each variable on the overall process. In addition, operators must know the process control strategies, process interlocks, how to respond to alarms, each of the detailed procedures required to start up and optimize the plant, and every control loop-including when it is appropriate to take manual control. More than anything else, operating mistakes during the start-up phase can lead to substantial delays in achieving design processing rates as well as to problems with government authorities if environmental permit limits are exceeded. The only way to assure return on plant investment is to ensure plant operators have the knowledge to properly run the plant from the outset. A comprehensive set of operating manuals specifically targeted toward plant operators and supervisors written by experienced operating personnel is the only effective way to provide the necessary information for formal start-up training.

Brown, S. R.

2003-02-25

183

Dependence between quality and removal effectiveness of organic matter in hybrid constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

The operation of three hybrid constructed wetland systems composed with vertical flow (VF-CW) and horizontal flow (HF-CW) constructed wetlands was analysed. The analyses were carried out in two wetlands (CWs) located in northern Poland: in Wiklino and Wieszyno and one in Wiedersberg in Germany. The wetlands were supplied with domestic sewage after mechanical treatment. It was proved that the decomposition rate of organic matter was determined by proportions of organic hardly decomposed (COD-X(S)) and non-decomposed (COD-X(I)) suspension. It was proved that increase of organic matter (OM) concentration in filter material of first beds in plants: Wiklino and Wieszyno caused clogging and decreased removal efficiency. In the two-years long study no accumulation of organic matter in the VF-CW in Wiedersberg was observed. Therefore, the aerobic conditions maintained in the bed enabled efficient decomposition of soluble organic easy-to-decompose fraction (COD-S(S))and COD-X(S) and no accumulation of OM was observed. The effectiveness of COD removal in the VF-CW in Wiklino and Wieszyno was lower in comparison to Wiedersberg, which was due to lower biodegradation potential of treated sewage (in Wiklino) and accumulation of OM in the sub-surface bed layer, resulting in pores clogging and reduction of air inflow (in Wieszyno). PMID:18226888

Tuszy?ska, A; Obarska-Pempkowiak, H

2008-09-01

184

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

185

Effect of free fall on higher plants.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

Gordon, S. A.

1973-01-01

186

[Antitumor effects of a plant extract mixture].  

PubMed

Cancer is the most common cause of death in Japan. Fundamental and clinical studies on cancer were conducted from the viewpoint of Western medicine so far. However, a sustained complete remission has not been achieved yet. In order to alleviate the side effects of anticancer drugs, some traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicines) have been prescribed to cancer patients. We have been studying on antitumor substances in medicinal herbs and found an antitumor medicinal herb named Rhus verniciflua (lacquer, Urushi in Japanese). To investigate the antitumor effect in vitro, a plant extract mixture was prepared from six medicinal herbs containing lacquer. The plant extract mixture containing lacquer (Rv-PEM) inhibited the proliferation of several mouse and human tumor cell lines. Rv-PEM had more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human leukemia cell lines (MOLT-3, KG-1) than on other tumor cell lines. The IC50 values of Rv-PEM on MOLT-3 and KG-1 cells were 0.208 and 0.293 mg/mL, respectively. After treating Rv-PEM to the tumor cells, DNA fragmentation and Caspase-3 and -9 activity increased in the treated cells. The mechanisms of the inhibitory proliferation activity of Rv-PEM would involve apoptosis of human leukemia cells (MOLT-3, KG-1, K-562) by the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23649388

Hiruma, Wataru; Suruga, Kohei; Kadokura, Kazunari; Tomita, Tsuyoshi; Sekino, Yoshihiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Ono, Nobufumi

2013-01-01

187

Compartmentalisation of uranium and heavy metals into sediment and plant biomass in a constructed wetland filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compartmentalisation of contaminants derived from retention pond water passed through a newly commissioned constructed wetland filter (CWF) at Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia was studied. The CWF is composed of 8 cells and a sump and is dominated by Eleocharis sphacelata. Following two dry seasons, during which time retention pond water was polished by the CWF, sediment was

David A. Klessa

188

Nitrogen removal efficiencies in a free water surface constructed wetland in relation to plant coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation coverage is considered to be a key factor controlling nitrogen removal in wetlands. We describe the use of newly designed stainless steel incubation chambers to detect shifts in the in situ nitrate reduction activities associated to areas covered with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) in the sediment of a free water surface constructed wetland (FWS-CW). Activities

A. García-Lledó; O. Ruiz-Rueda; A. Vilar-Sanz; L. Sala; L. Bañeras

2011-01-01

189

H-Coal Pilot Plant. Phase II Construction and Phase III Operation. Monthly Report, May 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All ASFI construction subcontractors report acceptable progress. Sections 100, 200 and 400 are at 45.4% completion. ASFI predicts the Section 500 civil account will be 80% complete and that Section 600 foundations will be completed in June. The bid evalua...

1978-01-01

190

75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) proposes to amend its regulations on Telecommunications...Equipment and Construction, by revising RUS Bulletin 1753F- 150, Specifications and...DATES: Written comments must be received by RUS or be postmarked no later than August...

2010-06-08

191

Concise biogas plant construction suitable for Ghana and other tropical countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is intended to be used by people in the field of biogas for workshops, technicians, teachers to educate as well as to carry out hands on constructions in Ghana and other tropical countries. Chapter 1, discusses the biogas technology, what a bi...

J. K. N. Gbagbo

1997-01-01

192

Construction and operation of a demonstration biogas plant, problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the design, construction and operation of a low cost farm scale digester in which animal wastes were used. The biogas produced contains about 65% CH4 by volume. Production quantities and qualities were measured for a period of more than six months, both in summer and in winter. Biogas was used in two different systems: an instant gas

R. Aburas; M. A. Hammad; S. E. Hiary; S. Qousous; I. Abu-Reesh

1996-01-01

193

Design, construction, operation and costs of a modern small-scale fuel-alcohol plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design used for the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAP) is discussed. By incorporating a microprocessor into the plant design, most plant operations were automated and labor requirements were reduced. Continuous processing made energy conservation possible, thus reducing energy requirements. A low-temperature, continuous plug-flow cooker design made high yields possible. Ethanol was consistently produced at the SSFAP from corn at a yield of 2.6 gallons (anhydrous) per bushel and an energy requirement of 30,000 to 35,000 Btu/gallon (190-proof). In addition, barley, grain dust, and potato waste were converted at the SSFAP. The capacity of the SSFAP is 180,000 gallons per year (300 days operation). Competitively priced ethanol is produced at this capacity.

Leeper, S. A.; Dawley, L. J.; Wolfram, J. H.; Berglund, G. R.; Richardson, J. G.; McAtee, R. E.

1982-01-01

194

Effect of collagen hydrolysate on chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs.  

PubMed

The mechanical properties of engineered cartilage are strongly dependent on collagen content, but the collagen to glycosaminoglycan ratio in engineered cartilage is often much lower than that of the native tissue. Therefore culture medium supplements which increase collagen production by chondrocytes are of interest. It had previously been reported that collagen hydrolysate stimulated type II collagen biosynthesis in short-term, high density monolayer chondrocyte cultures. It was hypothesized that collagen hydrolysate added to the culture medium of three dimensional chondrocyte-agarose constructs would enhance their mechanical properties. Porcine articular chondrocytes were embedded in 2% agarose and cultured for up to 6 weeks with and without 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate. The instantaneous compressive modulus and equilibrium compressive modulus were significantly lower in the collagen hydrolysate-treated constructs, consistent with the finding of lower collagen and GAG content. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results indicate that 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate may actually inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis and be detrimental to the mechanical properties of long term chondrocyte-agarose constructs. PMID:20231793

Elder, Steven H; Borazjani, Ali

2009-01-01

195

[Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].  

PubMed

In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from waste water treatment plants could not be found. In conclusion, it can be said that different individual plant unit designs have a large influence on the concentration of micro-organisms in the ambient air of places of work of waste water treatment plant personnel. Emission rates can be limited to such a degree that, even in the immediate vicinity of the plant units, a decrease of micro-organism concentrations can be attained as comparable to the area outside the treatment plant. PMID:3087104

Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

1986-04-01

196

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30

197

SERVICE PROBLEMS OF FRESH AIR FAN OF FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANT - PART II CONSTRUCTION DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to improper bearing mounting on the a fresh air fan shaft in fosilfuel power plant, loss of operational reliability of immobile spherical roller bearing took place. That caused total failure of the fresh air fan installation. The consequence of this failure was a damage of the impeller with blades, and a total fracture of the shaft at the bearing

R. MITROVIC; M. RISTIVOJEVIC; N. STEFANOVIC; Z. STAMENIC; T. LAZOVIC

198

Phenotypic plasticity of plant response to herbivore eggs: effects on resistance to caterpillars and plant development.  

PubMed

Herbivory induces direct resistance responses in plants that negatively affect subsequently colonizing herbivores. Moreover, eggs of herbivorous insects can also activate plant resistance, which in some cases prevents hatching larvae from feeding. Until now, plant-mediated effects of eggs on subsequent herbivory, and the specificity of such responses, have remained poorly understood. We studied the specificity and effects of plant resistance induced by herbivore egg deposition against lepidopteran larvae of species with different dietary breadths, feeding on a wild annual plant, the crucifer Brassica nigra. We examined whether this plant-mediated response affects the growth of caterpillars of a specialist (Pieris brassicae) that feeds on B. nigra leaves and flowers, and a generalist (Mamestra brassicae) that rarely attacks this wild crucifer. We measured growth rates of neonate larvae to the end of their second instar after the larvae had hatched on plants exposed to eggs vs. plants without eggs, under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Moreover, we studied the effects of egg deposition by the two herbivore species on plant height and flowering rate before and after larval hatching. Larvae of both herbivore species that developed on plants previously infested with eggs of the specialist butterfly P. brassicae gained less mass compared with larvae that developed on egg-free plants. Plants exposed to butterfly eggs showed accelerated plant growth and flowering compared to egg-free plants. Egg deposition by the generalist moth M. brassicae, in contrast, had no effect on subsequent performance by either herbivore species, or on plant development. Our results demonstrate that B. nigra plants respond differently to eggs of two herbivore species in terms of plant development and induced resistance to caterpillar attack. For this annual crucifer, the retardation of caterpillar growth in response to deposition of eggs by P. brassicae in combination with enhanced growth and flowering likely result in reproductive assurance, after being exposed to eggs from an herbivore whose larvae rapidly reduce the plant's reproductive potential through florivory. PMID:23687896

Pashalidou, Foteini G; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

2013-03-01

199

Monolithizing the joints in pipelines during construction of the Zagorsk water storage power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The stockholder firm “Gidrospetsstroi” first developed, made feasible, and completely mastered a new procedure for work involving the monolithizing of large-diameter steel-reinforced-concrete pipelines in the domestic practice of special operations. 978 butt joints between individual elements have been successfully grouted.2.A procedure for monolithizing joints between reinforced-concrete elements in pipelines, which has been implemented in the construction of the Zagorsk

N. V. Dmitriev; V. N. Zhivoderov; Yu. D. Chertykov

1992-01-01

200

Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra\\u000a methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact,\\u000a plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested\\u000a the efficacy of plant

Suhad S. AbuMweis; Peter J. H. Jones

2008-01-01

201

Effects of Evaluative vs. Co-Constructive Interactions on Learning in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We conducted an experimental study to assess the effects of two physics-learning situations that differed in the type of teacher-student interactions that took place: evaluative or co-constructive. As found in various studies on physics teaching and social psychology, the results showed that co-constructive interactions generated a more effective

Toczek, Marie-Christine; Morge, Ludovic

2009-01-01

202

Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did…

Shrum, L. J.

1996-01-01

203

Effectiveness of mitigation measures with constructed forested wetlands in Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intensive research on six constructed forested wetlands in Central Maryland was conducted in 1993-1996 to determine success of these habitats as functional forested wetlands for wildlife. Areas studied ranged in size from 2 to 35 acres and were constructed by private companies under contract with three mitigation agencies. Adjacent natural forested wetlands were used as reference sites where similar data were collected. Based on data from the first four years of this study it appears that it will take 35-50 years before these areas have forested wetland vegetation and wildlife similar to that found on mature forested wetlands. This long-time period is based on the high mortality and slow growth of nursery-stock trees and shrubs transplanted on the areas. Mortality and slow growth resulted mostly from excessive surface water on the sites. The level of ground water did not appear to be a factor in regard to transplant mortality. Green ash was the woody transplant species that had the least mortality. Sampling of vegetative ground cover with one-meter square quadrats showed the predominance of grasses and herbs. [abridged abstract

Perry, M.C.

1997-01-01

204

Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

1977-01-01

205

Radiation safety during construction of the encapsulation for unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant caused high levels of source contamination by radionuclides (up to 1.E8 dis.\\/min. per square cm for beta radiation, and 1.E5 dis.\\/min per square cm for alpha radiation) and gamma radiation exposure dose levels in excess of 400 R\\/h. Moreover, the radiation fields were uneven and inhomogeneous, amongst other things with regard to

Belovodskiy

1994-01-01

206

PC-based Simulator for Education in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PC-based reactor simulation software PCTRAN was recently expanded to cover light water advanced reactors. The plant models include Generation III+ advanced PWR and BWR. The evolutionary designs are Areva EPR and GE ABWR by adding cooling path redundancy and devises for severe accident mitigation. One-step further is the passive-cooled Westinghouse AP1000 and GE ESBWR. Combined with PCTRAN's models of

Li-chi Cliff Po; Navajo Court

2008-01-01

207

Evaluation of clogging in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: solids accumulation and hydraulic conductivity reduction.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units regarding solids build up and clogging of the filter medium. In order to analyse the causes of this process, which is considered the major operational problem of constructed wetlands, studies were carried out to characterize accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity at specific points of the beds of two wetlands (planted with Typha latifolia and unplanted units) receiving effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating sanitary sewage (population equivalent of 50 inhabitants each unit). The experiments were performed after the units were operating for 2 years and 4 months. This study presents comparative results related to the quantification and characterization of accumulated solids and hydraulic conductivity along the length and width of the filter beds. Approximately 80% of the solids found were inorganic (fixed). Near the inlet end, the rate interstitial solids/attached solids was 5.0, while in the outlet end it was reduced to 1.5. Hydraulic conductivity was lower near the inlet of the units (as expected) and, by comparing the planted wetland with the unplanted, the hydraulic conductivity was lower in the former, resulting in larger undesired surface flow. PMID:23508161

De Paoli, André Cordeiro; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

208

Design, Construction, and Field Evaluation Tests of a 10,000 GPD Skid-Mounted Alumina-Lime-Soda Pilot Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 10,000 gal/day skid-mounted alumina-lime-soda (ALS) pilot plant has been constructed and operated at the Office of Water Research and Technology Station at Roswell, New Mexico. The purpose of the pilot plant was to establish ALS operating parameters for...

A. D. Tippit E. P. Shea J. W. Nebgen

1978-01-01

209

Additive effects of exotic plant abundance and land-use intensity on plant-pollinator interactions.  

PubMed

The continuing spread of exotic plants and increasing human land-use are two major drivers of global change threatening ecosystems, species and their interactions. Separate effects of these two drivers on plant-pollinator interactions have been thoroughly studied, but we still lack an understanding of combined and potential interactive effects. In a subtropical South African landscape, we studied 17 plant-pollinator networks along two gradients of relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity. In general, pollinator visitation rates were lower on exotic plants than on native ones. Surprisingly, while visitation rates on native plants increased with relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity, pollinator visitation on exotic plants decreased along the same gradients. There was a decrease in the specialization of plants on pollinators and vice versa with both drivers, regardless of plant origin. Decreases in pollinator specialization thereby seemed to be mediated by a species turnover towards habitat generalists. However, contrary to expectations, we detected no interactive effects between the two drivers. Our results suggest that exotic plants and land-use promote generalist plants and pollinators, while negatively affecting specialized plant-pollinator interactions. Weak integration and high specialization of exotic plants may have prevented interactive effects between exotic plants and land-use. Still, the additive effects of exotic plants and land-use on specialized plant-pollinator interactions would have been overlooked in a single-factor study. We therefore highlight the need to consider multiple drivers of global change in ecological research and conservation management. PMID:23817775

Grass, Ingo; Berens, Dana Gertrud; Peter, Franziska; Farwig, Nina

2013-11-01

210

Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher plants used extensively in traditional medicines are increasingly being screened for their role in modulating the activity\\u000a of environmental genotoxicants. The property of preventing carcinogenesis has been reported in many plant extracts. The observation\\u000a of a close association between carcinogenesis and mutagenesis has extended the survey to include plant extracts and plant\\u000a products able to modify the process of

Debisri Sarkar; Archana Sharma; Geeta Talukder

1996-01-01

211

Bacterial community dynamics in horizontal flow constructed wetlands with different plants for high salinity industrial wastewater polishing.  

PubMed

This study is focused on the diversity of bacterial communities from two series of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (CW) polishing high salinity tannery wastewater. Each series was planted with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia sp. in a substrate composed by expanded clay and sand. Chemical and biochemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies were similar in each series, varying between 58 and 67% (inlet COD 218 ± 28 mg L(-1)) and 60 and 77% (inlet BOD(5) 37 ± 6 mg L(-1)), respectively. High numbers of culturable bacteria were obtained from substrate and root samples - 5.75 × 10(6)-3.95 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) recovered on marine agar and 1.72 × 10(7)-8.46 × 10(8) CFU g(-1) on nutrient agar. Fifty bacterial isolates were retrieved from the CW, related phylogenetically to Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. Changes in the bacterial communities, from roots and substrate of each series, related to the plant species, hydraulic loading rates and along CW operation were examined using denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The clustering analysis suggested that a diverse and distinct bacterial community inhabits each series, which was related to the type of plant present in each CW. PMID:20692679

Calheiros, C S C; Teixeira, A; Pires, C; Franco, A R; Duque, A F; Crispim, L F C; Moura, S C; Castro, P M L

2010-09-01

212

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

213

Positive effects of shade and shelter construction by ants on leafhopper-ant mutualism.  

PubMed

The myrmecophilous five-spotted gamagrass leafhopper, Dalbulus quinquenotatus DeLong and Nault, and its tending ants on gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides L. were examined to determine the influence of shade and ant-constructed shelters on the population sizes of D. quinquenotatus and ants. Gamagrass plants hosting ants and leafhoppers were exposed to 50, 30, or 0% artificially constructed shade. The greatest numbers of leafhoppers and ants were found on plants that received 50% shade. Shelters made by the ant Solenopsis geminata (F.) contained large numbers of leafhoppers and ants but were found only on T. dactyloides exposed to 50% shade in artificially constructed habitats. Additional sampling was conducted on wild gamagrass plants in the field to explore the presence of ants tending leafhoppers in shelters and to evaluate whether ant-constructed shelters protect leafhopper nymphs from parasitoid wasps. Large aggregations of S. geminata in shelters were also found in natural gamagrass habitats. Leafhopper nymphs living in shelters made by S. geminata may be protected against the dryinid wasp parasitoid Anteon ciudadi Olmi. No sheltered nymphs were parasitized by dryinids, whereas 24% of unsheltered nymphs had dryinid parasitism. PMID:19161690

Moya-Raygoza, Gustavo; Larsen, Kirk J

2008-12-01

214

An inductive exploration of the social effectiveness construct space.  

PubMed

There is no agreement regarding the nature or number of dimensions that make up the social effectiveness domain. We inductively explore the relationships between a set of social effectiveness measures with the intention of identifying an initial set of dimensions. An exploratory factor analysis of the Social Competence Inventory (SCI, Schneider, 2001) resulted in the identification of four factors: Social Potency, Social Appropriateness, Social Emotional Expression, and Social Reputation. A joint factor analysis between the SCI and a set of extant measures resulted in the identification of the same four factors. A fifth factor emerged when a set of scales from an emotional intelligence measure was included in the analysis, suggesting that emotional intelligence is not captured within the common factor space defined by measures of social effectiveness. This study represents a first step in the establishment of a set of common social effectiveness dimensions. PMID:18507711

Heggestad, Eric D; Morrison, Morgan J

2008-07-01

215

Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodide was

D. Janik; B. Macler; Y. Thorstenson; R. Sauer; R. D. MacElroy

1989-01-01

216

Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992  

SciTech Connect

This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

217

Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate Using a Compact Constructed Wetland and the Effect of Chemical Pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Onsite treatment of leachate was implemented at the Tveta Landfill, adjacent to the city of Södertälje, Sweden. The system consists of leachate collection in a pond, precipitation of metals with chemicals, a constructed wetland, and forest irrigation. This article describes the constructed wetland and its effectiveness at removing ammonia in the system. Pulsed-discharge hydrology and wetland ecology formed the basis

AGNIESZKA KIETLI?SKA; GUNNO RENMAN; SARA JANNES; GUSTAV THAM

2005-01-01

218

Effects of Gender, Construct Type, Occupational Information, and Career Relevance on Vocational Differentiation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study on vocational differentiation conducted with 387 college students revealed that higher levels of vocational differentiation were found in men than in women and were related to use of personal constructs when subjects judged highly irrelevant career alternatives. Effects were qualified by interaction between construct type (personal and…

Parr, Jane; Neimeyer, Greg J.

1994-01-01

219

Construction of a SSR-based genetic map and identification of QTLs for catechins content in tea plant (Camellia sinensis).  

PubMed

Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n = 2x = 30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

Ma, Jian-Qiang; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

2014-01-01

220

Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n?=?2x?=?30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant.

Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

2014-01-01

221

Effects of Rotenoids on Isolated Plant Mitochondria  

PubMed Central

The effects of several rotenoids have been studied on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber and etiolated mung bean (Phaseolus aureus Roxb.) hypocotyls mitochondria. The selective inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is characterized by several tests: (a) no effect can be observed on exogenous NADH or succinate oxidation; (b) malate oxidation is inhibited at pH 7.5; (c) one-third decrease of ADP/O ratio appears during malate oxidation at pH 6.5 or during ?-ketoglutarate, citrate, or pyruvate oxidation at a pH about 7; (d) during malate oxidation at pH 6.5, a transient inhibition appears which can be maintained by addition of exogenous oxaloacetate; (e) in potato mitochondria, the inhibition of malate oxidation disappears at pH 6.5 when NAD+ is added. Then, a one-third decrease of the ADP/O ratio can be measured. Such a selective inhibition of complex I is obtained with deguelin, tephrosin, elliptone, OH-12 rotenone, and almost all the rotenoids extracted from Derris roots. The presence of the rings A, B, C, D, E seems to be necessary for the selective inhibition. Opening of the E ring and hydroxylation of the 9 position (rot-2?-enoic acid) give a rotenoid derivative with multisite inhibitory activities on flavoproteins, which are quite comparable to those of common flavonoids such as kaempferol (Ravanel et al. 1982 Plant Physiol 69: 375-378).

Ravanel, Patrick; Tissut, Michel; Douce, Roland

1984-01-01

222

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

223

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

224

Plant Diversity has "Luxury" Effect, Say Scientists  

NSF Publications Database

... overview of features such as plant diversity, soil chemistry, and animal distributions," explained ... area of surface cover; collecting samples of soils, insects, microbes and pollen; and taking photos ...

225

The effects of highway construction on sediment discharge into Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From October 1972 through September 1977, the effects of highway construction in the 38 square mile Blockhouse Creek basin were studied. Water discharge, suspended-sediment discharge, and stream-temperature data were collected at four stations in the basin. The 5-year period included 1 year before construction, 2 years during construction, and 2 years after construction. The effects of stream relocation and sediment-control methods used in the highway construction were also investigated. During the period of data collection, about 35,500 tons of suspended sediment was transported by Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run. The data indicate that 9,100 tons was introduced to the stream from construction areas. The normal sediment yield for the two basins was determined to be 80 tons per square mile per year. Most of the sediment was transported by the streams during high flows and probably passed through Blockhouse Creek, as little deposition was observed below the construction area. Stream temperature seemed to be relatively unaffected by the stream relocations and diversions. Stream relocation and diversion methods were successful in limiting the amount of sediment discharged by the new channels. Physical sediment-control methods limited sediment discharge during baseflow periods and small storms. Coarse sediments especially were controlled by these methods. The most effective method of sediment control was limiting the amount of time that the construction-area soils were exposed. (USGS)

Hainly, Robert A.

1980-01-01

226

Modeling the Construction of Actionable Knowledge within an Effects- Based Targeting Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an overview of the modeling issues relevant to portraying the construction of actionable knowledge within an effects-based targeting process. At the heart of these issues is the need to consider the various political, military, economi...

D. K. Leedom R. G. Eggleston

2005-01-01

227

Feasibility of constructed wetland planted with Leersia hexandra Swartz for removing Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater.  

PubMed

As a low-cost treatment technology for effluent, the constructed wetlands can be applied to remove the heavy metals from wastewater. Leersia hexandra Swartz is a metal-accumulating hygrophyte with great potential to remove heavy metal from water. In this study, two pilot-scale constructed wetlands planted with L. hexandra (CWL) were set up in greenhouse to treat electroplating wastewater containing Cr, Cu and Ni. The treatment performance of CWL under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and initial metal concentrations were also evaluated. The results showed that CWL significantly reduced the concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in wastewater by 84.4%, 97.1% and 94.3%, respectively. High HLR decreased the removal efficiencies of Cr, Cu and Ni; however, the heavy metal concentrations in effluent met Emission Standard of Pollutants for Electroplating in China (ESPE) at HLR less than 0.3 m3/m2 d. For the influent of 5 mg/L Cr, 10 mg/L Cu and 8 mg/L Ni, effluent concentrations were below maximum allowable concentrations in ESPE, indicating that the removal of Cr, Cu and Ni by CWL was feasible at considerably high influent metal concentrations. Mass balance showed that the primary sink for the retention of contaminants within the constructed wetland system was the sediment, which accounted for 59.5%, 83.5%, and 73.9% of the Cr, Cu and Ni, respectively. The data from the pilot wetlands support the view that CWL could be used to successfully remove Cr, Cu and Ni from electroplating wastewater. PMID:24600856

You, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yi-Nian; Gu, Chen

2014-01-01

228

Antimalarial effects of eight African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Crude hot water extracts from eight medicinal plants collected in Togo, West Africa, were examined for antimalarial properties against Plasmodium falciparum using an in vitro test. The activity differed with the plant species with extracts of Cassia siamea, Jatropha gossypiifolia and Pavetta crassipes capable of 100% inhibition. PMID:2654489

Gbeassor, M; Kossou, Y; Amegbo, K; de Souza, C; Koumaglo, K; Denke, A

1989-02-01

229

RADIATION EFFECTS ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological changes in chronically irradiated plants are expressed in ; supplementary buds. Muitiple budding is seen in corn after seed irradiation. ; Buckwheat. jute, and hemp grow side stems that often are higher than the main ; stems. Other plants and fruit trees also exhlbit branching, leaf doubling, and ; extra budding. (R.V.J.);

N. M. Berezina; V. I. Ostapenko; E. I. Korneva; R. R. Riza-zade

1962-01-01

230

EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON SUBMARINE PLANT SYNECOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Synecology of marine plant communities has been studied in areas differing in water quality. Major sources of deterioration of water quality include the Nooksack River, an oil refinery and an alumina reduction plant. A method of analysis involving comparisons of standing crops of...

231

Construction 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (Stringline Effects on Concrete Pavement Construction, Assessment of Profiler Performance for Construction, Quality Control with Simulated Profilograph index, Active Crack Control for Continuously Reinf...

2004-01-01

232

Reed beds: constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reed beds are an alternative technology wastewater treatment system that mimic the biogeochemical processes inherent in natural wetlands. The purpose of this project was to determine the effectiveness of a reed bed sludge treatment system (RBSTS) in southern New England after a six-year period of operation by examining the concentrations of selected metals in the reed bed sludge biomass and

J. S. Begg; R. L. Lavigne; P. L. M. Veneman

233

Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species.

Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

2013-01-01

234

Effect of water level fluctuation on nitrogen removal from constructed wetland mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen removal processes were investigated at three frequencies of water level fluctuation, static, low and high (0, 2 and 6 d?1), in duplicate gravel-bed constructed wetland mesocosms (0.145 m3) with and without plants (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). Fluctuation was achieved by temporarily pumping wastewater into a separate tank (total drain time ?35 min). Intensive sampling of the mesocosms, batch-fed weekly with ammonium-rich

Chris C. Tanner; Joachim D'Eugenio; Graham B. McBride; James P. S. Sukias; Keith Thompson

1999-01-01

235

Effects of Road De-icing Salts in Constructed Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In November 2003, a 4-lane highway and 6 mitigation wetlands were opened across the Penn State campus, Erie, Pennsylvania. Road runoff overflows into 1 wetland (T3), and another (R3) receives salt spray and plowed snow. I have logged conductivity and temperature hourly at the sediment-water interface in R3 and T3 since January 2004, and I measure conductivity, temperature, and chironomid density biweekly in all 6 wetlands. Salinity in the wetlands that receive no salt is 0 psu. Biweekly checks of conductivity grossly underestimated winter salinities in T3 and R3. Between January and March 2004, salinity was >5 psu 5 times in R3, and >10 psu 6 times and >30 psu twice in T3. Flushing rates were similar in both wetlands, but time constants were significantly greater in T3 than R3. Salinities returned to 0 psu in both wetlands in May. Chironomid density was significantly lower in T3 than in all other wetlands in summer and autumn, long after salinities at the sediment-water interface returned to 0. Thus, chironomid densities indicated persistent biological effects of de-icers even when measurable salinities were 0 psu. Winter 2005 data show decreasing chironomid density in T3, whereas densities are increasing in the other wetlands.

Silver, P.

2005-05-01

236

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since relatively little is known about the effects of acid precipitation on growth and productivity of crop plants, a crop survey was initiated to study effects of HâSOâ rain simulants on growth, yield, and quality of selected crops which were chosen to represent diverse taxonomic groups and crop products. Plants were grown in pots in field-exposure chambers and subjected to

C. J. Cohen; L. C. Grothaus; S. C. Perrigan

1981-01-01

237

Effects of plant host species and plant community richness on streptomycete community structure.  

PubMed

We investigated soil streptomycete communities associated with four host plant species (two warm season C4 grasses: Andropogon gerardii, Schizachyrium scoparium and two legumes: Lespedeza capitata, Lupinus perennis), grown in plant communities varying in species richness. We used actinobacteria-selective PCR coupled with pyrosequencing to characterize streptomycete community composition and structure. The greatest pairwise distances between communities were observed in contrasts between monocultures of different plant species, indicating that plant species exert distinct selective effects on soil streptomycete populations. Increasing plant richness altered the composition and structure of streptomycete communities associated with each host plant species. Significant relationships between plant community characteristics, soil edaphic characteristics, and streptomycete community structure suggest that host plant effects on soil microbial communities may be mediated through changes to the soil environment. Co-occurring streptomycete taxa also shared consistent relationships with soil edaphic properties, providing further indication of the importance of habitat preference for taxon occurrence. Physical distance between sampling points had a significant influence on streptomycete community similarity. This work provides a detailed characterization of soil streptomycete populations across a field scale and in relation to plant host identity and plant community richness. PMID:23013423

Bakker, Matthew G; Bradeen, James M; Kinkel, Linda L

2013-03-01

238

The Effect of Political Unrest on Construction Time for Food Grain Warehouses in Bangladesh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that effect actual construction time in the context of food sector projects in Bangladesh. One of the factors of particular interest is political unrest. The data for the study was obtained from a leading design and construction management company in Bangladesh. The sample size consisted of data for 104 food grain warehouse projects scattered all over the country. The effect of political unrest on construction time was analyzed in conjunction with other known variables of time overrun, such as increase in project cost and delay in procurement of construction materials. The results indicated that the effect local political unrest on construction time was statistically significant even in the presence project cost and procurement of materials variables. It was concluded that political unrest could be included in prediction models used for finding out actual construction time of food grain warehouse projects in Bangladesh. Based on these findings, a prediction model for construction time for such projects was developed.

Choudhury, Ifte

2009-08-17

239

Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population.  

PubMed

Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed production neutralized the decreasing effect of pre-planting irrigation and two-row planting of maize on weed seed bank population. PMID:22696965

Hemmati, E; Vazan, S; Oveisi, M

2011-01-01

240

Effects of Composted Municipal Sludge on Soilborne Plant Pathogens,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested...

H. A. J. Hoitink A. F. Schmitthenner J. A. Ryan

1988-01-01

241

Effect of treatment in a constructed wetland on toxicity of textile wastewater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Constructed wetlands for treating wastewater have proliferated in recent years and their characteristics have been studied extensively. In most cases, constructed wetlands have been used primarily for removal of nutrients and heavy metals. Extensive literature is available concerning construction and use of wetlands for treatment of wastewater. Even so, quantitative descriptions of wetland function and processes are highly empirical and difficult to extrapolate. The processes involved in removal of pollutants by wetlands are poorly understood, especially for waste streams as complex as textile effluents. The few studies conducted on treatment of textile wastewater in constructed wetlands were cited in earlier publications. Results of a two-year study of a full-scale wetland treating textile effluent are presented here. The paper describes the effects of the wetland on aquatic toxicity of the wastewater and draws conclusions about the utility and limitations of constructed wetlands for treatment of textile effluents.

Baughman, G. L.; Perkins, W. S.; Lasier, P. J.; Winger, P. V.

2003-01-01

242

Effectiveness of sediment-control techniques used during highway construction in central Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A different method for controlling erosion and sediment transport during highway construction was used in each of four adjacent drainage basins in central Pennsylvania. The basins ranged in size from 240 to 490 acres (97 to 198 hectares), and the area disturbed by highway construction in each basin ranged from 20 to 48 acres (8 to 19 hectares). Sediment discharge was measured from each basin for 3 years before construction began and for 2 years during construction. In one of the basins affected by the construction, three offstream ponds were constructed to intercept runoff from the construction area before it reached the stream. In another basin, a large onstream pond was constructed to trap runoff from the construction area after it reached the stream. In a third area, seeding, mulching, and rock dams were used to limit erosion. In the fourth area, no sediment controls were used. The effectiveness of the various sediment-control measures were determined by comparing the sediment loads transported from the basins with sediment controls to those without controls. For most storms the offstream ponds trapped about 60 percent of the sediment that reached them. The large onstream pond had a trap efficiency of about 80 percent, however, it remained turbid and kept the stream flow turbid for long periods following storm periods. Samples of runoff water from the construction area were collected above and below rock dams to determine the reduction in sediment as the flow passed through the device. Rock dams in streams had a trap efficiency of about 5 percent. Seeding and mulching may reduce sediment discharge by 20 percent during construction, and straw bales placed to trap runoff water may reduce sediment loads downstream by 5 percent.

Reed, Lloyd A.

1978-01-01

243

Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants.  

PubMed

The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal. PMID:23579843

Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W

2013-01-01

244

Seismic effects on bedrock and underground constructions. A literature survey of damage on constructions; Changes in groundwater levels and flow; Changes in chemistry in groundwater and gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a literature review of direct and indirect effects of earthquakes on underground constructions as tunnels, caverns and mines. The direct damage will cause vibrations, shaking and displacement, which may lead to partial or total destruction ...

K. Roeshoff

1989-01-01

245

Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

1989-01-01

246

Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodide was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.; MacElroy, R. D.

247

Anthropogenic Effects of Reservoir Construction on the Parasite Fauna of Aquatic Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of large freshwater reservoirs is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic impacts on the natural environment.\\u000a With worldwide rising demand for water, the construction of more reservoirs is inevitable. Although the effects of reservoir\\u000a construction on many medically important parasites are well known and appreciated, changes to aquatic wildlife host–parasite\\u000a interactions have been largely undervalued even though a

Neil J. Morley

2007-01-01

248

Effect of design parameters in horizontal flow constructed wetland on the behaviour of volatile fatty acids and volatile alkylsulfides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCW) system planted with common reed (Phragmites sp.) was constructed to study how hydraulic loading rate (HLR), aspect ratio, water depth, and granular medium affect to the fate of several organic matter degradation intermediates namely, acetic acid (HAc), isovaleric acid (Isoval), and dimethylsulfide (DMS). ANOVA statistical analysis performed on the data set of 8

Yuming Huang; Laura Ortiz; Paula Aguirre; Joan García; Rafael Mujeriego; Josep M. Bayona

2005-01-01

249

Effects of Sulfur Dioxide on Stomatic Movements in Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations made at sites of pollution strongly indicate a protective role for stomata against the effects of atmospheric sulfur dioxide on vegetation. To confirm this hypothesis, we constructed equipment for exposing a single leaf to atmospheres contain...

J. Bonte L. de Cornis

1973-01-01

250

Effects of the organophosphorus plant growth regulator melaphen on structural characteristics of animal and plant membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of low (from 4 × 10?12 to 2 × 10?7 M) doses of the organophosphorus plant growth regulator Melaphen on structural characteristics of plant and animal cellular\\u000a membranes were compared with special reference to changes in the microviscosity of free membrane lipid bilayers and annular\\u000a lipids bound to protein clusters. It was found that effective concentrations of Melaphen were

I. V. Zhigacheva; L. D. Fatkullina; E. B. Burlakova; A. G. Shugaev; I. P. Generozova; S. G. Fattakhov; A. I. Konovalov

2008-01-01

251

The effect of external representation on constructing computer models of complex phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer modeling – creating executable modelsof science domains – has been recognized as animportant teaching method. Still not much isknown about the factors making modelingenvironments effective in use. We investigatethe effect of different externalrepresentations on the construction of computermodels. Representations can significantlyinfluence the processes of modeling. In orderto find the specific benefits of two differentrepresentations, we compare dyads working on

Simone Löhner; Wouter R. van Joolingen; Elwin R. Savelsbergh

2003-01-01

252

Effects of some little noticed water impurities on stress corrosion cracking of BWR construction materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of some little noticed dissolved impurities in simulated BWR water on environmental cracking for some BWR pressure bearing construction materials were studied by constant elongation rate tensile (CERT) tests. Fluoride, silica and thiosulfate were found to be harmful. Phosphate and perchlorate in concentration up to 1 ppm had no effect in simulated hydrogen water chemistry. Organic acids and

L. G. Ljungberg; D. Cubicciotti; M. Trolle

1988-01-01

253

Comparison of Approaches to Constructing Confidence Intervals for Mediating Effects Using Structural Equation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mediators are variables that explain the association between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used to test models with mediating effects. This article illustrates how to construct confidence intervals (CIs) of the mediating effects for a variety of models in SEM. Specifically, mediating…

Cheung, Mike W. L.

2007-01-01

254

Effect of constructed wetlands receiving agricultural return flows on disinfection byproduct precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of wetland treatment on disinfection byproduct precursors were evaluated for six constructed wetlands receiving agricultural return flows in the Central Valley of California. Wetlands varied in size, age, vegetation, hydrologic residence time (0.9–20days) and water management (continuous flow vs. flood pulse). The effects of wetland treatment were determined by analyzing input and outflow waters for dissolved organic carbon

Francisco J. Díaz; Alex T. Chow; Anthony T. O’Geen; Randy A. Dahlgren; Po-Keung Wong

2009-01-01

255

The Effects of Tannery Wastewater on the Development of Different Plant Species and Chromium Accumulation in Phragmites australis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity tests were performed to assess the effect of tannery wastewater with different treatment levels on two wetland plants,\\u000a Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia, which are frequently used in constructed wetlands (CWs) for water treatment, and thus deepen the knowledge on their capacity\\u000a to withstand the application of industrial wastewater. Trifolium pratense, a plant generally used as an indicator in

Cristina S. C. Calheiros; António O. S. S. Rangel; Paula M. L. Castro

2008-01-01

256

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

257

Effect of Designated Pollutants on Plant Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phytotoxicity of short (20 minute) exposure of HCl and HF gases and of liquid HCl as investigated in a series of studies under controlled greenhouse conditions and in the field. Field plants exposed weekly to gaseous HCl were injured when young but fi...

A. L. Granett O. C. Taylor

1981-01-01

258

Effects of Rainfall Acidification on Plant Pathogens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The chemical nature of the aqueous microenvironment at the infection court is a potentially significant factor in the successful diss...

D. S. Shriner E. B. Cowling

1980-01-01

259

Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Solid Waste Treatment Facility (T Plant) Fuel Removal Project  

SciTech Connect

This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI.

JOHNSON, R.E.

2000-11-16

260

Effects of effluent recirculation in vertical-flow constructed wetland on treatment efficiency of livestock wastewater.  

PubMed

Enhancing the treatment efficiency of livestock wastewater by effluent recirculation is investigated in a pilot-scale vertical-flow constructed wetland. The wetland system is composed of downflow and upflow stages, on which narrow-leaf Phragmites communis and common reed Phragmites typhia are planted, respectively; each stage has a dimension of 4 m(2) (2 m x 2 m). Wastewater from the facultative pond is fed into the system intermittently at a flow rate of 0.4 m(3)/d. Recirculation rates of 0, 25%, 50%0, 100% and 150% are adopted to evaluate the effect of the recirculation rate on pollutants removal. This shows that with effluent recirculation the average removal efficiencies of NH4-N, BOD5 and SS obviously increase to 61.7%, 81.3%, and 77.1%, respectively, in comparison with the values of 35.6%o, 50.2%, and 49.3% without effluent recirculation. But the improvement of TP removal is slight, only from 42.3% to 48.9%. The variations of NH4-N, DO and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of inflow and outflow reveal that the adoption of effluent recirculation is beneficial to the formation of oxide environment in wetland. The exponential relationships with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.93) are found between the removal rates of NH4-N and BOD5 and the recirculation rates. With recirculation the pH value of the outflow decreases as the alkalinity is consumed by the gradually enhanced nitrification process. When recirculation rate is kept constant at 100%, the ambient temperature appears to affect NH4-N removal, but does not have significant influence on BOD5 removal. PMID:17302314

Lian-sheng, He; Hong-liang, Liu; Bei-dou, Xi; Ying-bo, Zhu

2006-01-01

261

Construction of a recombinant Bacillus velezensis strain as an integrated control agent against plant diseases and insect pests.  

PubMed

To construct a new recombinant strain of Bacillus velezensis that has antifungal and insecticidal activity via the expression of the insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein, a B. thuringiensis expression vector (pHT1K-1Ac) was generated that contained the B. thuringiensis cry1Ac gene under the control of its endogenous promoter in a minimal E. coli-B. thuringiensis shuttle vector (pHT1K). This vector was introduced into a B. velezensis isolate that showed high antifungal activities against several plant diseases, including rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea), rice sheath blight (Rhizotonia solani), tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea), tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans), and wheat leaf rust (Puccinia recondita), by electroporation. The recombinant B. velezensis strain was confirmed by PCR using cry1Ac-specific primers. Additionally, the recombinant strain produced a protein approximately 130 kDa in size and parasporal inclusion bodies similar to B. thuringiensis. The in vivo antifungal activity assay demonstrated that the activity of the recombinant B. velezensis strain was maintained at the same level as that of wild-type B. velezensis. Furthermore, it exhibited high insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran pest, Plutella xylostella, although its activity was lower than that of a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain, whereas wild-type B. velezensis strain did not show any insecticidal activity. These results suggest that this recombinant B. velezensis strain can be used to control harmful insect pests and fungal diseases simultaneously in one crop. PMID:19884784

Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Choi, Jae Young; Wang, Yong; Shim, Hee Jin; Xu, Hong Guang; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Je, Yeon Ho

2009-10-01

262

Effect of desert plant ecophysiological adaptation on soil nematode communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient source limitation in desert ecosystems enhances competition among plant communities, leading to creation of microhabitats beneath the shrubs that can determine composition and abundance of soil organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of plant ecophysiological adaptation on soil nematode communities in the rhizosphere of tightly interweaving shrubby communities. Soil samples were collected monthly under

Stanislav Pen-Mouratov; Ginetta Barness; Yosef Steinberger

2008-01-01

263

Dual Effects of Plant Steroidal Alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary me- tabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals

Veronika Simons; John P. Morrissey; Maita Latijnhouwers; Michael Csukai; Adam Cleaver; Carol Yarrow; Anne Osbourn

2006-01-01

264

Evaluation of composition and crosslinking effects on collagen-based composite constructs.  

PubMed

Vascular grafts are widely used for a number of medical treatments. Strength, compliance, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. With current approaches, these requirements are difficult to satisfy simultaneously. To explore an alternative approach, the present study has engineered the collagen gel construct by incorporating mimetic components and crosslinking the construct with different crosslinkers. The effects of component additives, such as chitosan and elastin, have been evaluated in terms of their mechanical and biological properties. Results demonstrate that the incorporation of chitosan and/or elastin alter stress-strain curves in the low stress loading region, and significantly improve the stretching ratio and ultimate stress of gel constructs compared to collagen constructs. Electron microscopy results suggest that the mechanical improvements might be due to microstructural modifications by chitosan sheets and elastin fibers. The effects of crosslinkers, such as formaldehyde, genipin and ethyl-(dimethyl aminopropyl) and carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) have also been evaluated. Results demonstrate that formaldehyde, EDAC and genipin employ different mechanisms to crosslink collagen-based constructs, and use of genipin as a construct crosslinker exhibits improved elongation and endothelial coverage as compared to formaldehyde and EDAC. In addition, extending gelation time increased the elastic modulus but not the ultimate strength. Therefore, this study suggests that the mimicry of natural vessel tissues with properly crosslinked biopolymer composites could be a potential material design strategy for vascular graft materials. PMID:19815100

Madhavan, Krishna; Belchenko, Dmitry; Motta, Antonella; Tan, Wei

2010-04-01

265

Plants Selection Method for Equipment Service Considering Use Effect Risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment service increases in which venders have equipments in place of users and receive charge corresponding to effect of use. In this service business, income of venders change by performance that how users operate motors. To promote the business safely, a method of selecting plants where equipments are introduced is necessary, not only increasing expected earnings but also decreasing width of the earnings change. In addition, venders should negotiate interactively with users, so a method of selecting plant combination in a short time is necessary. In this paper, we propose the method for selecting plants combination considering the correlation between plants and using branch and bound approach in short time.

Tani, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Tadasuke; Komoda, Norihisa

266

Anti-chlamydial effect of plant peptides.  

PubMed

Even in asymptomatic cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the aim of the antibiotic strategy is eradication of the pathogen so as to avoid the severe late sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal infertility. Although first-line antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated to be predominantly successful in the treatment of C. trachomatis infection, treatment failures have been observed in some cases. Rich source of antimicrobial peptides was recently discovered in Medicago species, which act in plants as differentiation factors of the endosymbiotic bacterium partner. Several of these symbiotic plant peptides have proved to be potent killers of various bacteria in vitro. We show here that 7 of 11 peptides tested exhibited antimicrobial activity against C. trachomatis D, and that the killing activity of these peptides is most likely due to their interaction with specific bacterial targets. PMID:24939689

Balogh, Emese Petra; Mosolygó, Tímea; Tiricz, Hilda; Szabó, Agnes Míra; Karai, Adrienn; Kerekes, Fanni; Virók, Dezs? P; Kondorosi, Eva; Burián, Katalin

2014-06-01

267

Haussknechtia Elymatica: A Plant with Immunomodulatory Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Plant extracts have been widely investigated for possible immunomodu- latory properties. Objective: To study the immunomodulatory functions of the metha- nol extract of Haussknechtia elymatica (Apioideae), an herb native to south-western Iran. Methods: Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test and measurement of an- tibody titer after immunization with Sheep-RBC was performed. (3H)-thymidine incor- poration assay on the human lymphocytes

Zahra Amirghofran; Abbas Azadmehr; Katayoun Javidnia

268

Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids (PtDA) requires evidence that PtDAs improve the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice made, or decision quality. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical evidence for PtDA effectiveness and discuss emerging practical and research issues in the measurement of effectiveness. Methods This updated overview incorporates: a) an examination of the instruments used to measure five key decision-making process constructs (i.e., recognize decision, feel informed about options and outcomes, feel clear about goals and preferences, discuss goals and preferences with health care provider, and be involved in decisions) and decision quality constructs (i.e., knowledge, realistic expectations, values-choice agreement) within the 86 trials in the Cochrane review; and b) a summary of the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of PtDAs for these key constructs. Data on the constructs and instruments used were extracted independently by two authors from the 86 trials and any disagreements were resolved by discussion, with adjudication by a third party where required. Results The 86 studies provide considerable evidence that PtDAs improve the decision-making process and decision quality. A majority of the studies (76/86; 88%) measured at least one of the key decision-making process or decision quality constructs. Seventeen different measurement instruments were used to measure decision-making process constructs, but no single instrument covered all five constructs. The Decisional Conflict Scale was most commonly used (n = 47), followed by the Control Preference Scale (n = 9). Many studies reported one or more constructs of decision quality, including knowledge (n = 59), realistic expectation of risks and benefits (n = 21), and values-choice agreement (n = 13). There was considerable variability in how values-choice agreement was defined and determined. No study reported on all key decision-making process and decision quality constructs. Conclusions Evidence of PtDA effectiveness in improving the quality of the decision-making process and decision quality is strong and growing. There is not, however, consensus or standardization of measurement for either the decision-making process or decision quality. Additional work is needed to develop and evaluate measurement instruments and further explore theoretical issues to advance future research on PtDA effectiveness.

2013-01-01

269

[Stress effects of simulant acid rain on three woody plants].  

PubMed

Osmanthus fragrana, Chimonanthus praecox and Prunus persica were used as materials to investigate the effect of simulant acid rain on chlorophyll (Chl) content, cell membrane permeability(L%), the content of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in three woody plants with different resistance, and effects of the light and dark conditions on acid rain injury. The results showed that the change degree of four kinds of physiological and biochemical indexes for these woody plants was as sequence: Osmanthus fragrana > Chimonanthus praecox > Prunus persica. The change of chlorophyll content in these woody plants was not obviously when acid rain stress was influenced by the light and dark. PMID:12533924

Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaolin

2002-09-01

270

Constructing probability distributions of uncertain variables in models of the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: The 1990 performance simulations  

SciTech Connect

A five-step procedure was used in the 1990 performance simulations to construct probability distributions of the uncertain variables appearing in the mathematical models used to simulate the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP's) performance. This procedure provides a consistent approach to the construction of probability distributions in cases where empirical data concerning a variable are sparse or absent and minimizes the amount of spurious information that is often introduced into a distribution by assumptions of nonspecialist. The procedure gives first priority to the professional judgment of subject-matter experts and emphasizes the use of site-specific empirical data for the construction of the probability distributions when such data are available. In the absence of sufficient empirical data, the procedure employs the Maximum Entropy Formalism and the subject-matter experts' subjective estimates of the parameters of the distribution to construct a distribution that can be used in a performance simulation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Tierney, M.S.

1990-12-01

271

The Effects of Water Stress on Plant Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant growth can be limited by several factors, among which a lack of water is considered of major importance. Despite the vast knowledge of the effect of water stress on photosynthesis, there is much less known about its effect on respiration. Respiration, unlike photosynthesis, never halts, and it reflects the overall metabolism. However, the data available on the effect of

Jaume Flexas; Jeroni Galmes; Miquel Ribas-Carbo; Hipólito Medrano

272

Effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater.  

PubMed

Total phosphorus (TP) removal in aged constructed wetlands poses a challenge, especially when treated with swine wastewater with high concentrations of phosphorus (P). Our earlier studies with anaerobic lagoon swine wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands showed a decline in P removal (45-22%) with increased years of operation. These particular wetlands have been treated with swine wastewater every year since the first application in 1997. Preliminary lab-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in the removal of phosphate-P (PO4-P) from swine wastewater. The experimental objective was to increase the phosphorus treatment efficiency in constructed wetland by adding PAC as a precipitating agent. PAC was added by continuous injection to each wetland system at a rate of 3 L day(-1) (1:5 dilution of concentrated PAC). Swine wastewater was added from an anaerobic lagoon to four constructed wetland cells (11m wide x 40m long) at TP loads of 5.4-6.1 kg ha(-1) day(-1) in two experimental periods, September to November of 2008 and 2009. Treatment efficiency of two wetland systems: marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and continuous marsh (CM) was compared. The wetlands were planted with cattails (Typha latifolia L.) and bulrushes (Scirpus americanus). In 2008, PAC treatment showed an increase of 27.5 and 40.8% of TP removal over control in M-P-M and CM respectively. Similar trend was also observed in the following year. PAC as a flocculant and precipitating agent showed potential to enhance TP removal in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater. PMID:22049722

Reddy, G B; Forbes, Dean A; Hunt, P G; Cyrus, Johnsely S

2011-01-01

273

Effect of Strain Magnitude on the Tissue Properties of Engineered Cardiovascular Constructs  

PubMed Central

Mechanical loading is a powerful regulator of tissue properties in engineered cardiovascular tissues. To ultimately regulate the biochemical processes, it is essential to quantify the effect of mechanical loading on the properties of engineered cardiovascular constructs. In this study the Flexercell FX-4000T (Flexcell Int. Corp., USA) straining system was modified to simultaneously apply various strain magnitudes to individual samples during one experiment. In addition, porous polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds, coated with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB), were partially embedded in a silicone layer to allow long-term uniaxial cyclic mechanical straining of cardiovascular engineered constructs. The constructs were subjected to two different strain magnitudes and showed differences in biochemical properties, mechanical properties and organization of the microstructure compared to the unstrained constructs. The results suggest that when the tissues are exposed to prolonged mechanical stimulation, the production of collagen with a higher fraction of crosslinks is induced. However, straining with a large strain magnitude resulted in a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the tissue. In addition, dynamic straining induced a different alignment of cells and collagen in the superficial layers compared to the deeper layers of the construct. The presented model system can be used to systematically optimize culture protocols for engineered cardiovascular tissues.

Rubbens, Mirjam P.; Driessen, Niels J. B.; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.; Baaijens, Frank P. T.

2007-01-01

274

Fabrication of Flexible Organic Field Effect Transistor Constructed with a Polymer Gate Dielectric Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated organic field effect transistors constructed with pentacene active layers grown by vacuum deposition, polycarbonate (PC) gate dielectric layers fabricated by spin-coating and polyethylene naphthalate thin films used as substrates. The surface morphology of PC thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was confirmed that the surface morphology of PC thin films had smoothness at

Yonglong Jin; Shizuyasu Ochiai; Goro Sawa; Yoshiyuki Uchida; Kenzo Kojima; Asao Ohashi; Teruyoshi Mizutani

2006-01-01

275

Examining the Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Students Construct and Study Computerized Notes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two experiments conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking format on achievement. Students constructed and studied different types of notes: partial (framework and partial notes), skeletal (framework with no notes), and control (no framework and no notes). Found that, based on an application test, students who completed and…

Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

2001-01-01

276

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF LATIN SQUARES COUNTERBALANCED FOR IMMEDIATE SEQUENTIAL EFFECTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESCRIBING NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. IT DEALS WITH LATIN SQUARES AS A CONTROL FOR PROGRESSIVE AND ADJACENCY EFFECTS IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS. THE HISTORY OF LATIN SQUARES IS ALSO REVIEWED, AND SEVERAL ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF LATIN AND GRECO-LATIN SQUARES ARE PROPOSED. THE REPORT…

HOUSTON, TOM R., JR.

277

Investigating the Effectiveness of Equating Designs for Constructed-Response Tests in Large-Scale Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a large-scale exam, in this study we compared various designs for equating constructed-response (CR) tests to determine which design was most effective in producing equivalent scores across the two tests to be equated. In the context of classical equating methods, four linking designs were examined: (a) an anchor set containing…

Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.; McHale, Frederick

2010-01-01

278

Investigation of Insulating Effect of Material on Subgrade. Construction and Instrumentation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes in detail the construction and instrumentation of an experimental roadway section of U. S. Route 1A in Hampton, Maine. The purpose of the experiment is to evaluate the effectiveness of styrofoam in insulating the subgrade. Three pavem...

J. R. Sallberg

1965-01-01

279

Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable alternative for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in areas with landscape limitations, poor soil conditions, and high water tables, which limit installation of full-scale adsorption fields. Existing information on the effects of macrophytes on treatment performance is contradictory and mostly derived from greenhouse mesocosm experiments. This study investigated the removal efficiency of fecal

A. D. Karathanasis; C. L. Potter; M. S. Coyne

2003-01-01

280

Field-enhanced conductivity in polyacetylene-construction of a field-effect transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have fabricated field-effect transistors (FET) using 'Durham' route polyacetylene as the active semiconductor. The devices are constructed as MIS structures, with silicon dioxide as the insulator layer between the gate and the polyacetylene. The device behaves as a p-channel enhancement (normally off) FET. For the device geometry presented, the channel conductivity may be modulated by a factor of

J. H. Burroughes; R. H. Friend; P. C. Allen

1989-01-01

281

Multivariate Effect Size Estimation: Confidence Interval Construction via Latent Variable Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latent variable modeling method is outlined for constructing a confidence interval (CI) of a popular multivariate effect size measure. The procedure uses the conventional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) setup and is applicable with large samples. The approach provides a population range of plausible values for the proportion of generalized variance associated with group membership and permits at the

Tenko Raykov; George A. Marcoulides

2010-01-01

282

Effectivity of Risk Management for Design & Construct Projects of Large Contractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation on the risk analysis and risk management of a contractor for large Design and Construct projects. Risk management and risk analysis are vital tools to secure project profitability. The evaluation of individual projects brings to surface some discrepancies that obstruct the learning-cycle for today's projects. Therefore recommendations are made to increase effectiveness of risk management

J. G. Vastert

283

EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON CONTROL FEATURES IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION - SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new homes built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over high radon potential soil...

284

Transition to Work: Effects of Preparedness and Goal Construction on Employment and Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the mediating role of employment preparedness in improving employment, mental health, and construction of work-life goals among young vocational school graduates who participated in the School-to-Work effectiveness trial. The trial included a 1-week intervention program that focused on enhancing employment preparedness. In this…

Koivisto, Petri; Vuori, Jukka; Vinokur, Amiram D.

2010-01-01

285

Construction of glass waveguide refractive index profiles by the effective-index finite-difference method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method is applied to construct the refractive index profiles of optical waveguides from the measured effective indices (EI). The method is based on choosing a proper analytical function for the refractive index profile and searching its unknown parameters using the simplex search algorithm. Simultaneously, the finite-difference method (FDM) is used to solve the semi-vectorial Helmholtz equation for the

F. Gonella; A. Quaranta; A. Sambo; F. Caccavale; I. Mansour

1996-01-01

286

Seasonal effect on ammonia nitrogen removal by constructed wetlands treating polluted river water in southern Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) system, combining a free water surface wetland and a subsurface wetland in series, was used to purify highly polluted river water. The concentrations of constituents varied seasonally. The effects of season-dependent parameters, such as temperature, mass loading rate and inflow salinity, on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in the wetland system were examined at

Shuh-Ren Jing; Ying-Feng Lin

2004-01-01

287

Construction Safety Training via e-Learning: Learning Effectiveness and User Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Taiwan, promoting knowledge of "Labor Safety" which relates to life and work right is very important. Safety training and learning effectiveness become essential issues of adult learning. To reduce the costs of educational training, enterprises have also started to aggressively introduce e-learning education training. Unlike the construction

Ho, Chun-Ling; Dzeng, Ren-Jye

2010-01-01

288

Effects of plant gross morphology on predator consumption rates.  

PubMed

We find that spatial structure, and in particular, differences in gross plant morphology, can alter the consumption rates of generalist insect predators. We compared Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and green lacewing larvae, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens, consumption rates of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, in homogeneous environments (petri dishes) and heterogeneous environments (whole plants). Spatial complexity is often described as reducing predator success, and we did find that predators consumed significantly more aphids on leaf tissue in petri dishes than on whole plants with the same surface area. However, subtle differences in plant morphology may have more unexpected effects. A comparison of consumption rates on four different isogenic pea morphs (Pisum sativum L.) controlled for surface area indicated that both lady beetles and lacewings were more successful on morphologies that were highly branched. We speculate that predators move more easily over highly branched plants because there are more edges to grasp. PMID:22732608

Reynolds, Paula G; Cuddington, Kim

2012-06-01

289

Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L  

SciTech Connect

Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India))

1990-06-01

290

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

291

The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs  

PubMed Central

In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been shown to yield engineered cartilaginous tissue with native Young's modulus (EY) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. By day 42 in culture the incorporation of a bony base significantly reduced these properties (EY = 87 ± 12 kPa, GAG = 1.9 ± 0.8%ww) compared to the gel-alone group (EY = 642 ± 97 kPa, GAG = 4.6 ± 1.4%ww). Similarly, the mechanical and biochemical properties of chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs were inhibited when co-cultured adjacent to bone (unattached), suggesting that soluble factors rather than direct cell–bone interactions mediate the chondro-inhibitory bone effects. Altering the method of bone preparation, including demineralization, or the timing of bone introduction in co-culture did not ameliorate the effects. In contrast, osteochondral constructs with native cartilage properties (EY = 730 ± 65 kPa, GAG = 5.2 ± 0.9%ww) were achieved when a porous tantalum metal base material was adopted instead of bone. This work suggests that devitalized bone may not be a suitable substrate for long-term cultivation of osteochondral grafts.

Lima, Eric G.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Bal, B. Sonny; Cook, James L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T.

2008-01-01

292

Cost effective analysis of recycled products for use in highway construction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over 4.5 billion of non-hazardous wastes are generated in the United States each year. Out of these wastes over 200 million tons of post consumer waste is generated. The disposal of post consumer waste is the responsibility of municipality and society. Four waste materials glass, plastic, rubber tires and paper and paperboard were selected for the detail study. A questionnaire survey was conducted for obtaining input from all state Department of Transportation (DOT) Recyclers and solid waste management facilities in the state of Ohio. Responses received from state DOT stated that they use various recycled materials in highway construction but do not conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of recycle waste materials. The cost of disposal of post consumer waste is increasing, which requires an alternate use for these waste materials. One possible use of these post consumer waste materials is in highway construction. An economic analysis is needed for their cost-effectiveness before using these materials in highway construction. Though these recycled waste materials are expensive compared to virgin material, consideration of the savings in terms of societal cost make these materials cost-effective and attractive to use in highway construction.

Gupta, J.D.

1998-04-01

293

Thermal effects of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is made of the biological effects of water temperature ; increases, as a consequence of the reduced oxygen content in water, and of the ; increased metabolic rate in living beings. Indeed some phenomena, such as ; cultural eutrophization and selection of some species against others, foreshadow ; strong modification in the natural environment. Then the effects induced

Antonelli

1972-01-01

294

Effects of Heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals in some\\u000a parts of China. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible\\u000a to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The research results on the

Shuiping Cheng

2003-01-01

295

Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the

S. C. Morris; J. O. Jackson; M. A. Haxhiu

1987-01-01

296

Comparative evaluation of pilot scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands and plant root mats for treating groundwater contaminated with benzene and MTBE.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate technology options for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with benzene and MTBE in constructed wetlands (CWs), a scarcely applied plant root mat system and two horizontal subsurface-flow (HSSF) CWs were investigated. The inflow load of benzene and MTBE were 188-522 and 31-90 mg d(-1)m(-2), respectively. Higher removal efficiencies were obtained during summer in all systems. The benzene removal efficiencies were 0-33%, 24-100% and 22-100% in the unplanted HSSF-CW, planted HSSF-CW and the plant root mat, respectively; the MTBE removal efficiencies amounted to 0-33%, 16-93% and 8-93% in the unplanted HSSF-CW, planted HSSF-CW and the plant root mat, respectively. The volatilisation rates in the plant root mat amounted to 7.24 and 2.32 mg d(-1)m(-2) for benzene and MTBE, which is equivalent to 3.0% and 15.2% of the total removal. The volatilisation rates in the HSSF-CW reached 2.59 and 1.07 mg d(-1)m(-2), corresponding to 1.1% and 6.1% of the total removal of benzene and MTBE, respectively. The results indicate that plant root mats are an interesting option for the treatment of waters polluted with benzene and MTBE under moderate temperatures conditions. PMID:22326241

Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Reiche, Nils; Borsdorf, Helko; Kästner, Matthias; Köser, Heinz

2012-03-30

297

Effects of silicone antitranspirant on woody plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Effects of Dow Corning silicone emulsion antitranspirant (XF-4-3561 Fluid) on transpiration of Fraxinus americana, Acer saccharum, and Pinus resinosa seedlings and on chlorophyll content and seedling mortality of these species and Pinus strobus were investigated. The effect of silicone on expansion of new (current year) needles of Pinus resinosa and P. strobus was also studied. Transpiration of Fraxinus seedlings treated

K. J. Lee; T. T. Kozlowski

1974-01-01

298

Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, is the most extensively used herbicide in the history of agriculture. Weed management programs in glyphosate resistant (GR) field crops have provided highly effective weed control, simplified management decisions, and given cleaner harvested products. However, this relatively simple, broad-spectrum, systemic herbicide can have extensive unintended effects on nutrient efficiency and disease severity, thereby threatening its agricultural sustainability. A

G. S. Johal; D. M. Huber

2009-01-01

299

The Comparability of the Standardized Mean Difference Effect Size across Different Measures of the Same Construct: Measurement Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most important effect sizes used in meta-analysis is the standardized mean difference (SMD). In this article, the conditions under which SMD effect sizes based on different measures of the same construct are directly comparable are investigated. The results show that SMD effect sizes from different measures of the same construct are…

Nugent, William R.

2006-01-01

300

Transgenerational effects of plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

In gynodioecious plants, females are predicted to produce more and/or better offspring than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained in the same population. In the field, the roots of both sexes are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Transgenerational effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown, although theoretically expected. We examined the maternal and paternal effects of AM fungal symbiosis and host sex on seed production and posterior seedling performance in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant. We hand-pollinated cloned females and hermaphrodites in symbiosis with AM fungi or in nonmycorrhizal conditions and measured seed number and mass, and seedling survival and growth in a glasshouse experiment. Females produced more seeds than hermaphrodites, but the seeds did not germinate, survive or grow better. Mycorrhizal plants were larger, but did not produce more seeds than nonmycorrhizal plants. Transgenerational parental effects of AM fungi were verified in seedling performance. This is the first study to show transgenerational mycorrhiza-mediated parental effects in a gynodioecious species. Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects plant fitness mainly through female functions with enduring effects on the next generation. PMID:23659431

Varga, Sandra; Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-08-01

301

In vitro effects of ethanol and mouthrinse on permeability in an oral buccal mucosal tissue construct.  

PubMed

The current study investigated the influence of ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinses on model chemical permeability in an in vitro oral buccal mucosal construct (EpiOral, ORL-200, MatTek). Innate ethanol transport and metabolism in the tissue construct was also studied. Caffeine flux in buccal tissue was measured after pre-treatment with < 26.9% ethanol or Listerine(®) products under conditions modeling a typical mouthwash rinsing. Specifically, a 30s exposure to alcohol products followed by a 10h non-treatment phase and then a second 30s exposure prior to addition of caffeine. At 10min specific intervals, media was collected from the basal part of the tissue insert for HPLC analysis of caffeine. The results demonstrated no increase in caffeine flux due to prior exposure to either ethanol or Listerine(®), and the flux and permeability constants were derived from the linear phase. No cytotoxicity or histopathological effects were observed in these tissues. We also studied the transepithelial transport and metabolism of ethanol in these tissues. Transport of ethanol was concentration-dependent with rate of diffusion proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane. The potential metabolism of ethanol in the EpiOral construct was addressed by analyzing the remaining level of ethanol after incubation and de novo accumulation of acetaldehyde or acetic acid in culture media. Incubation for 30min incubation resulted in no change in ethanol level up to 2000mM, the highest concentration tested. No acetaldehyde or acetic acid was detected in culture media. In conclusion, ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinse treatment modeled after a typical daily mouthrinse pattern had no apparent effect on the permeability of the standard model chemical, caffeine. This exposure also had no effect on the viability of the tissue construct or histopathology, and uptake of ethanol was rapid into the tissue construct. PMID:21712062

Koschier, Francis; Kostrubsky, Vsevolod; Toole, Colleen; Gallo, Michael A

2011-10-01

302

Effect of length of the engineered tendon construct on its structure-function relationships in culture.  

PubMed

Constructs containing autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in collagen gels have been used by our group to repair rabbit central patellar tendon defect injuries. Although these cell-gel composites exhibit improved repair biomechanics compared to natural healing, they can be difficult to handle at surgery and lack the necessary stiffness to resist peak in vivo forces early thereafter. MSCs are typically suspended in collagen gels around two posts in the base of a well in a specially designed silicone dish. The distance between posts is approximately the length of the tendon wound site. MSCs contract the gel around the posts prior to removal of the construct for implantation at surgery. We hypothesized that in vitro construct alignment and stiffness might be enhanced in the midregion of the longer construct where the end effects of the posts on the bulk material (St. Venant effects) could be minimized. Rabbit MSCs were seeded in purified bovine collagen gel at 0.04 M cells/mg collagen. The cell-gel mixture was pipetted into silicone dishes having two post-to-post lengths (short: 11 mm and long: 51 mm) but equivalent well widths and depths and post diameters. After 14 days of incubation, tensile stiffness and modulus of the constructs were measured using equivalent grip-to-grip lengths. Collagen fiber orientation index or OI (which measures angular dispersion of fibers) was quantified using small angle light scattering (SALS). Long constructs showed significantly lower angular dispersion vs. short constructs (OI of 41.24 degrees +/-1.57 degrees vs. 48.43 degrees +/-1.27 degrees , mean+/-SEM, p<0.001) with significantly higher linear modulus (0.064+/-0.009 MPa vs. 0.024+/-0.004 MPa, p=0.0022) and linear stiffness (0.031+/-0.005 MPa vs. 0.018+/-0.004 N/mm, mean+/-SEM, respectively, p=0.0404). We now plan to use principles of functional tissue engineering to determine if repairs containing central regions of longer MSC-collagen constructs improve defect repair biomechanics after implantation at surgery. PMID:17258749

Nirmalanandhan, Victor S; Rao, Marepalli; Sacks, Michael S; Haridas, Balakrishna; Butler, David L

2007-01-01

303

Effects of air current speed on gas exchange in plant leaves and plant canopies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To obtain basic data on adequate air circulation to enhance plant growth in a closed plant culture system in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS), an investigation was made of the effects of the air current speed ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 m s-1 on photosynthesis and transpiration in sweetpotato leaves and photosynthesis in tomato seedlings canopies. The gas exchange rates in leaves and canopies were determined by using a chamber method with an infrared gas analyzer. The net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate increased significantly as the air current speeds increased from 0.01 to 0.2 m s-1. The transpiration rate increased gradually at air current speeds ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 m s-1 while the net photosynthetic rate was almost constant at air current speeds ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 m s-1. The increase in the net photosynthetic and transpiration rates were strongly dependent on decreased boundary-layer resistances against gas diffusion. The net photosynthetic rate of the plant canopy was doubled by an increased air current speed from 0.1 to 1.0 m s-1 above the plant canopy. The results demonstrate the importance of air movement around plants for enhancing the gas exchange in the leaf, especially in plant canopies in the CELSS.

Kitaya, Y.; Tsuruyama, J.; Shibuya, T.; Yoshida, M.; Kiyota, M.

304

Environments for Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

1970-01-01

305

Ultrastructural Effects of Salinity in Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity leads to structural and ultrastructural effects, particularly in salt-sensitive species. Some of them are indicative\\u000a of the onset of injury, for example the aggregation of chloroplasts accompanied by a swelling in the granal and fret compartments\\u000a or the complete distortion of chloroplastic grana and thylakoid structures. Others are associated with metabolic acclimation\\u000a to salinity stress. For instance increased density

Hans-Werner Koyro

306

Integrating Wetlands into Watershed Management: Effectiveness of Constructed Wetlands to Reduce Impacts from Urban Stormwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Water detention and water storage during storm events, and water release during dry periods, are some of the main functions\\u000a wetlands can provide in order to help reduce peak flow and increase low flow runoff into streams. However, wetlands can also\\u000a be effective in retaining and remediating contaminants. Results of the case study on a constructed wetland that mitigates\\u000a urban

J. Brydon; M. C. Roa; S. J. Brown; H. Schreier

307

Effects of gravity on temporary spiral construction by Leucauge mariana (Araneae: Araneidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary spirals (TSP) in non-horizontal webs ofLeucauge mariana (Key-serling) showed consistent up-down asymmetries in initiation sites and spacing between loops that were not present in\\u000a horizontal webs, even when possible effects of other web asymmetries were controlled for by changing the web's orientation\\u000a just as TSP construction began. Cues from the web itself also affect spacing, since patterns of TSP

William G. Eberhard; Smithsonian Tropical

1987-01-01

308

CFD study on hydraulic performance of subsurface flow constructed wetland: Effect of distribution and catchment area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subsurface flow constructed wetland (SSFW) was simulated by using a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code (Fluent\\u000a 6.22, Fluent Inc.). The liquid residence time distribution in the SSFW was obtained by the particle trajectory model. The\\u000a simulation confirmed that the effect of the distribution and\\/or catchment area on the hydraulic efficiency is significant.\\u000a An inappropriate horizontal distribution and\\/or catchment

Liwei Fan; Reti Hai; Zexiang Lu

2009-01-01

309

Effect of key design parameters on the efficiency of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effect of hydraulic loading rate (HLR), aspect ratio, granular medium size and water depth on the removal of selected contaminants in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SSF) over a period of 3 years. Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale SSF system comprising four pairs of lined beds of almost equal surface area (54–56m2 each), with

Joan García; Paula Aguirre; Jesús Barragán; Rafael Mujeriego; Victor Matamoros; Josep M. Bayona

2005-01-01

310

Development and application of dynamic air chambers for measurement of volatilization fluxes of benzene and MTBE from constructed wetlands planted with common reed.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation of industrially contaminated groundwater has been a proven technique for several decades. However, mass balances of contaminants are often focused in laboratory investigations. The evaluation of the transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under field conditions from the saturated and vadose soil zone into the atmosphere, directly or via plants, is rarely part of the research scope. This can provoke problems--particularly with regard to legal issues--if large-scale phytoremediation sites are situated near residential areas. In this study volatilization of VOCs was quantified in a horizontal-flow constructed wetland planted with reed grass. For this purpose, a specially designed air chamber was constructed, validated, and routine sampling campaigns were performed over the course of one year. Results indicate that the overall volatilization of the observed contaminants benzene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) depended on seasonal variations with the highest volatilization fluxes measured in summer, when the detected volatilization fluxes of 846+/-116 and 252+/-11 microg m(-2) h(-1) for MTBE and benzene, respectively, accounted for 2.4% and 5.6% of the respective overall contaminant mass loss in the planted wetland. Furthermore, chamber data give strong evidence for the increased volatilization of VOCs through vegetation by direct comparison of planted and unplanted wetlands. PMID:20132961

Reiche, Nils; Lorenz, Wilhelm; Borsdorf, Helko

2010-03-01

311

Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats.  

PubMed

The effect of 6 indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats was tested by a screening procedure standardized in this laboratory. Pe troleum ether, alcoholic, and aqueous extracts of each plant were tested for antifertilizing, antizygotic, blastocystotoxic, antiimplantation, and early abortifacient activity. The aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves and alcoholic extract of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. roots showed encouraging results while the extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. roots, Calotropis gigantea Linn. flowers and leaves, Michaelia champaka Linn. unripe fruit, and Plumbago rosea Linn. roots did not show any antiimplantation activity. None of the rats delivered to experimental rats showed evidence of teratogenicity up to the age of 1 month. PMID:5820437

Vohora, S B; Garg, S K; Chaudhury, R R

1969-05-01

312

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

313

Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

314

Effects of an exotic plant invasion on native understory plants in a tropical dry forest.  

PubMed

The dry forests of southern India, which are endangered tropical ecosystems and among the world's most important tiger (Panthera tigris) habitats, are extensively invaded by exotic plants. Yet, experimental studies exploring the impacts of these invasions on native plants in these forests are scarce. Consequently, little is known about associated implications for the long-term conservation of tigers and other biodiversity in these habitats. I studied the impacts of the exotic plant Lantana camara on understory vegetation in a dry-forest tiger habitat in southern India. I compared the richness, composition, and abundance of tree seedlings, herbs, and shrubs and the abundance of grass among plots in which Lantana was cleared or left standing. These plots were distributed across two blocks-livestock free and livestock grazed. Removal of Lantana had an immediate positive effect on herb-shrub richness in the livestock-free block, but had no effect on that of tree seedlings in either livestock block. Tree-seedling and herb-shrub composition differed significantly between Lantana treatment and livestock block, and Lantana removal significantly decreased survival of tree seedlings. Nevertheless, the absence of trees, in any stage between seedling and adult, indicates that Lantana may stall tree regeneration. Lantana removal decreased the abundance of all understory strata, probably because forage plants beneath Lantana are less accessible to herbivores, and plants in Lantana-free open plots experienced greater herbivory. Reduced access to forage in invaded habitats could negatively affect ungulate populations and ultimately compromise the ability of these forests to sustain prey-dependent large carnivores. Additional research focused on understanding and mitigating threats posed by exotic plants may be crucial to the long-term protection of these forests as viable tiger habitats. PMID:20067493

Prasad, Ayesha E

2010-06-01

315

Genetic Effect on Carbon-Isotope Composition of a Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopes of organic sediments are potential tools in investigating a wide spectrum of geological problems. These include paleoclimate, paleoecology, and the origin of life. The quality of the information the tools provides depends largely on our knowledge on the factors determining the isotopic composition of a plant. This is because most biogenic organic sediments are derived from plants. The factors can be grouped into internal and external. The internal factors are ultimately attributable to the genetic make-up of a plant. The most well known internal factor is the photosynthetic pathway. Others include structure of the leave tissue and metabolic characteristics of a plant. External factors are concentration and the isotopic composition of the source CO2 and the physical and chemical conditions of the plant's growth environments. This study addresses primarily the genetic effect, the internal factors. Based on the results of two suites of natural plant samples, it is concluded that the difference in photosynthetic pathway entails about 20.0 % of spread in terms of ä13CPDB values. Genetic effect is also accountable for up to 7.0 to 8.0 % spread in ä13CPDB values within a single category of photosynthetic pathway (i.e. the Calvin cycle). With constrains from the relevant known knowledge, it is concluded that the ä13CPDB values of terrestrial plants are probably ranging from - 8.0 to equal or less than -44.9 %. This range of ä13CPDB values may also be considered the bio-signature of organic sediments of great antiquity.

Yeh, H.

2005-05-01

316

Effects of plant canopy structure on light interception and photosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of different plant canopies with vertically different and horizontally clumped leaf areal density was generated on a mainframe computer. Three-dimensional transfer of direct light in these canopies was numerically calculated and the irradiance of light on inclined leaf surfaces was predicted. Using this information the daily gross photosynthesis of the canopy was estimated. The effects of spatial distribution

S. G. Chen; B. Y. Shao; I. Impens; R. Ceulemans

1994-01-01

317

Effect of dietary plant extracts mixture on pork meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a plant extracts mixture including carvacrol (oregano), cinnamaldehyde (cinnamom), and capsicum oleoresin (Mexican pepper) on the meat quality of pigs. The study was carried out on 60 pigs, divided into two groups (control and experimental), 30 pigs each. The control group was given a basal diet and the experimental

A. Ko?odziej-Skalska; A. Rybarczyk; B. Matysiak; E. Jacyno; A. Pietruszka; M. Kaw?cka

2011-01-01

318

Cadmium Effects in Sunflower: Nutritional Imbalances in Plants and Calluses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) nutrient accumulation remain unclear. However, studies concerning crop improvement for Cd tolerance suggest the use of biotechnology techniques such as tissue culture. It is still unknown whether in vitro cells respond to Cd exposure in a way similar to plants. In this paper, the objectives were (1) to characterize

Helena Azevedo; Clara Gomes Glória Pinto; Conceição Santos

2005-01-01

319

Effects of Graphite Flakes in Soil on Terrestrial Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Graphite flakes were tested for their toxicity to corn and cucumber. The flakes were tested at 0 (control), 0.05, 0.10, 0.50% concentration by weight. No lethal or sublethal effects on corn plants were produced. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) fo...

C. T. Phillips R. S. Wentsel

1990-01-01

320

Construction and operation of a prototype RESOX plant in conjunction with Bergbau-Forschung FGD system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done on an EPRI sponsored program intended to evaluate a dry FGD system. The program combined an existing Bergbau-Forschung activated coke SO/sub 2/ regenerative adsorption plant with the Foster Wheeler RESOX process. This process reduces concentrated SO/sub 2/ from the adsorption plant regenerator to elemental sulfur using coal as a reactant. The front end adsorption plant operates with a 43MW slip stream from the Kellerman Power Station located in Luenen, Germany. The EPRI funded program designed, built and tested the RESOX system in conjunction with operation of the Bergbau-Forschung FGD plant. Throughout the report mechanical performance aspects of the program are emphasized. The RESOX system processed SO/sub 2/ rich gas for an accumulated total of 1000 hours. Experience gained during this operation is discussed.

Pickering, H.C. Jr.; Raskin, N.

1982-07-01

321

Inhibitory effects of Thai plants ?-glycosides on Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomoniasis is now an important health problem in developing countries. Although metronidazole has so far been widely used\\u000a to treat this disease, the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant protozoa and unpleasant adverse effects have been found.\\u000a In this study, natural products purified from Thai plants were, therefore, investigated for their effectiveness against Trichomonas vaginalis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for all ?-glycosides against

Dumrongkiet Arthan; Somphong Sithiprom; Kanthinich Thima; Chutima Limmatvatirat; Porntip Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr; Jisnuson Svasti

2008-01-01

322

Collaborative encoding and memory accuracy: examining the effects of interactive components of co-construction processes.  

PubMed

In 2 experiments, the effect of collaborative encoding on memory was examined by testing 2 interactive components of co-construction processes. One component focused on the nature of the interactive exchange between collaborators: As the partners worked together to create descriptions about ways to interact with familiar objects, constraints were imposed on the interactions by requiring them to take turns (Experiment 1) or to interact without constraints (Experiment 2). The nature of the relationship between partners was manipulated as well by including 2 pair types, friends or unfamiliar peers (Experiments 1 and 2). Interactive component effects were found to influence spontaneous activations through content analyses of participants' descriptions, the patterns of false recognition errors, and the relationship between content and errors. The findings highlight the value of examining the content of participants' collaborative efforts when assessing the effects of collaborative encoding on memory and point to mechanisms mediating collaboration's effects. Because the interactions occurred within the context of an imagery generation task, the findings are also intriguing because of their implications for the use of guided imagery techniques that incorporate co-construction processes. PMID:24016139

Foley, Mary Ann; Fried, Adina Rachel; Cowan, Emily; Bays, Rebecca Brooke

2014-01-01

323

DOE/EA-1517: Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana (April 2005)  

SciTech Connect

Based on action by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funding available to support a proposal by the Iroquois Bio-energy Company (IBEC), an Indiana limited liability company, to construct a fuel ethanol plant in Jasper County, Indiana (the proposed plant). Congress has acknowledged the merit of this project by providing specific funding through DOE. Consequently, DOE proposes to provide partial funding to IBEC to subsidize the design and construction of the proposed plant (the Proposed Action). In accordance with DOE and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing regulations, DOE is required to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE facilities, operations, and related funding decisions. The proposal to use Federal funds to support the project requires DOE to address NEPA requirements and related environmental documentation and permitting requirements. In compliance with NEPA (42 U.S.C. {section} 4321 et seq.) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR section 1021.330) and procedures, this environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Action and a No Action Alternative.

N /A

2005-04-29

324

Use of filler limestone and construction and demolition residues for remediating soils contaminated with heavy metals: an assessment by means of plant uptake.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greenhouse trial was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (lettuce, broccoli and alfalfa), different parts of which are destined for human and animal consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). The plants were cultivated in four types of soil, one uncontaminated (T1), one soil collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera (T2), the third being remediated with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (T3) and the four remediated with filler limestone (T4). To determine the metal content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. The DTPA-extractable content was also determined to calculate the bioavailable amount of metal. Finally, the translocation factor (TF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were calculated. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer and Cd, Pb and Zn was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Samples of the leached water were also obtained and analyzed. According to our results, the retention of the studied elements varies with the type of plant and is strongly decreased by the incorporation of filler limestone and/or construction and demolition residues to the soils. This practice represents a suitable way to reduce the risk posed to the biota by the presence of high levels of heavy metal in soil.

Banegas, Ascension; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen

2010-05-01

325

Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats.  

PubMed

Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P < 0.01) which was 79 and 74%, respectively, of the effect of an equivalent dose of hydrochlorothiazide. Both plant extracts gave similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of the hydrochlorothiazide. The analyses of the urinary osmolality and electrolyte excretion per unit time suggest the observed effect of A. comosus was intrinsic, whereas that of C. papaya may have resulted from a high salt content of this extract. However, our experimental evidence on the diuretic activities of the other three plants did not parallel their local utilization for dysuria. It was found that the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica apparently inhibited the urination of rats whereas the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus and the stem of Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria. PMID:11297849

Sripanidkulchai, B; Wongpanich, V; Laupattarakasem, P; Suwansaksri, J; Jirakulsomchok, D

2001-05-01

326

Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance.  

PubMed

Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and fruit quality parameters and their ability to diminish the impact of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae were investigated. While shoot biomass of young plants was enhanced between 10% and 20% by the endophytes DSE48 and L. orchidicola in one of two experiments and by DSE49 in both experiments, vegetative growth parameters of 24-week-old plants were not affected except a reproducible increase of root diameter by the isolate DSE49. Concerning fruit yield and quality, L. orchidicola could double the biomass of tomatoes and increased glucose content by 17%, but this was dependent on date of harvest and on root colonisation density. Additionally, the endophytes DSE49 and L. orchidicola decreased the negative effect of V. dahliae on tomato, but only at a low dosage of the pathogen. This indicates that the three dark septate endophytes can have a significant impact on tomato characters, but that the effects are only obvious at early stages of vegetative and generative development and currently too inconsistent to recommend the application of these DSEs in horticultural practice. PMID:21184117

Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Restrepo, Silvia; Krumbein, Angelika; Franken, Philipp

2011-07-01

327

Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime because of the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation, and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Construction at Locations B or C would not result in direct impacts to wetlands. However, the hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. The impacts at Location A may potentially be avoided by an alternative routing of the entrance road, or mitigation may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the State of Ohio. Unavoidable impacts to isolated wetlands may require an Isolated Wetlands Permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor for the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found in this part of Ohio, which in many cases involve previously disturbed habitats.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2005-09-09

328

Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a Mid-Atlantic Highlands watershed, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Chen, Y.; Viadero, Jr. , R. C.; Wei, X.; Fortney, R.; Hedrick, L. B.; Welsh, S. A.; Anderson, J. T.; Lin, L. -S.

2009-01-01

329

Matrix effects on plant-frugivore and plant-predator interactions in forest fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural features of both habitat remnants and surrounding matrix can be important for explaining plant population dynamics\\u000a and ecosystem functions in human-impacted landscapes. However, little is known about how the structural features of the adjacent\\u000a matrix affect biotic interactions and whether such context effects are subject to temporal variations. Using the hawthorn\\u000a Crataegus monogyna in northern Spain, we studied matrix

José M. Herrera; Daniel García; Juan M. Morales

2011-01-01

330

Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

Belyavskaya, N.

331

Effect of lead and cadmium on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata.  

PubMed

Absorption of different concentrations of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) by aquatic plant Hydrilla vertcillato was measured during winter season for two different durations i.e. 3 days and 7 days. Effect of Pb and Cd was evaluated by analyzing various parameters such as biomass, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, nitrate reductase activity, SOD (super oxide dismutase) and heavy metal uptake. Increase in biomass, total chlorophyll, protein and nitrate reductase activity was noticed at lower concentration of both metals whereas at higher metal concentrations of Pb and Cd, decrease in these parameters was observed i.e. it was concentration and duration dependent. Increase in carotenoid and SOD levels at high concentration of Pb and Cd indicated its ability of stress tolerance. Accumulation of Pb by test plant was found to be more than Cd at low concentration. Higher concentration of Cd and Pb caused toxicity which resulted in reduced plant growth and physiological activities. PMID:24555332

Singh, Alka; Kumar, Chandra Shekhar; Agarwal, Abha

2013-11-01

332

Interactive Effects of Nutrient and Mechanical Stresses on Plant Morphology  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. Methods An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Key Results Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. Conclusions These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species.

Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

2007-01-01

333

Ribosomal Binding Site Switching: An Effective Strategy for High-Throughput Cloning Constructions  

PubMed Central

Direct cloning of PCR fragments by TA cloning or blunt end ligation are two simple methods which would greatly benefit high-throughput (HTP) cloning constructions if the efficiency can be improved. In this study, we have developed a ribosomal binding site (RBS) switching strategy for direct cloning of PCR fragments. RBS is an A/G rich region upstream of the translational start codon and is essential for gene expression. Change from A/G to T/C in the RBS blocks its activity and thereby abolishes gene expression. Based on this property, we introduced an inactive RBS upstream of a selectable marker gene, and designed a fragment insertion site within this inactive RBS. Forward and reverse insertions of specifically tailed fragments will respectively form an active and inactive RBS, thus all background from vector self-ligation and fragment reverse insertions will be eliminated due to the non-expression of the marker gene. The effectiveness of our strategy for TA cloning and blunt end ligation are confirmed. Application of this strategy to gene over-expression, a bacterial two-hybrid system, a bacterial one-hybrid system, and promoter bank construction are also verified. The advantages of this simple procedure, together with its low cost and high efficiency, makes our strategy extremely useful in HTP cloning constructions.

Li, Yunlong; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Pei; Rayner, Simon; Chen, Shiyun

2012-01-01

334

Effect of diffusional mass transfer on the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in tropical climate conditions.  

PubMed

The effect of mass transfer on the removal rate constants of BOD5, NH3, NO3 and TKN has been investigated in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) planted with Phragmites mauritianus. The plug flow model was assumed and the inlet and outlet concentrations were used to determine the observed removal rate constants. Mass transfer effects were studied by assessing the influence of interstitial velocity on pollutant removal rates in CW cells of different widths. The flow velocities varied between 3-46 m/d. Results indicate that the observed removal rate constants are highly influenced by the flow velocity. Correlation of dimensionless groups namely Reynolds Number (Re), Sherwood Number (Sh) and Schmidt Number (Sc) were applied and log-log plots of rate constants against velocity yielded straight lines with values beta = 0.87 for BOD5, 1.88 for NH3, 1.20 for NO3 and 0.94 for TKN. The correlation matched the expected for packed beds although the constant beta was higher than expected for low Reynolds numbers. These results indicate that the design values of rate constants used to size wetlands are influenced by flow velocity. This paper suggests the incorporation of mass transfer into CW design procedures in order to improve the performance of CW systems and reduce land requirements. PMID:22049736

Njau, K N; Gastory, L; Eshton, B; Katima, J H Y; Minja, R J A; Kimwaga, R; Shaaban, M

2011-01-01

335

Effects of Invasive Alien Plants on Fire Regimes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience investigates the relationship between plant invasive alien species and fire regimes. Plant invasions are widely recognized as significant threats to biodiversity conservation worldwide. One way invasions can affect native ecosystems is by changing fuel properties, which can in turn affect fire behavior and, ultimately, alter fire regime characteristics such as frequency, intensity, extent, type, and seasonality of fire. If the regime changes subsequently promote the dominance of the invaders, then an invasive plant-fire regime cycle can be established. As more ecosystem components and interactions are altered, restoration of preinvasion conditions becomes more difficult. Restoration may require managing fuel conditions, fire regimes, native plant communities, and other ecosystem properties in addition to the invaders that caused the changes in the first place. We present a multiphase model describing the interrelationships between plant invaders and fire regimes, provide a system for evaluating the relative effects of invaders and prioritizing them for control, and recommend ways to restore pre-invasion fire regime properties.

MATTHEW L. BROOKS, CARLA M. D'ANTONIO, DAVID M. RICHARDSON, JAMES B. GRACE, JON E. KEELEY, JOSEPH M. DiTOMASO, RICHARD J. HOBBS, MIKE PELLANT, and DAVID PYKE (;)

2004-07-01

336

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

337

Effect of recirculation on organic matter removal in a hybrid constructed wetland system.  

PubMed

This research project aimed to determine the technologically feasible and applicable wastewater treatment systems which will be constructed to solve environmental problems caused by small communities in Turkey. Pilot-scale treatment of a small community's wastewater was performed over a period of more than 2 years in order to show applicability of these systems. The present study involves removal of organic matter and suspended solids in serially operated horizontal (HFCW) and vertical (VFCW) sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. The pilot-scale wetland was constructed downstream of anaerobic reactors at the campus of TUBITAK-MRC. Anaerobically pretreated wastewater was introduced into this hybrid two-stage sub-surface flow wetland system (TSCW). Wastewater was first introduced into the horizontal sub-surface flow system and then the vertical flow system before being discharged. Recirculation of the effluent was tested in the system. When the recirculation ratio was 100%, average removal efficiencies for TSCW were 91 +/- 4% for COD, 83 +/- 10% for BOD and 96 +/- 3% for suspended solids with average effluent concentrations of 9 +/- 5 mg/L COD, 6 +/- 3 mg/L BOD and 1 mg/L for suspended solids. Comparing non-recirculation and recirculation periods, the lowest effluent concentrations were obtained with a 100% recirculation ratio. The effluent concentrations met the Turkish regulations for discharge limits of COD, BOD and TSS in each case. The study showed that a hybrid constructed wetland system with recirculation is a very effective method of obtaining very low effluent organic matter and suspended solids concentrations downstream of anaerobic pretreatment of domestic wastewaters in small communities. PMID:21977661

Ayaz, S C; Findik, N; Akça, L; Erdo?an, N; Kinaci, C

2011-01-01

338

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

339

Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

2014-05-01

340

Determination of diffusivities in the Rustler Formation from exploratory-shaft construction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The construction of an exploratory shaft 12 feet in diameter into the Salado Formation (repository horizon for transuranic waste material) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico affected water-levels in water-bearing zones above the repository horizon. By reading the construction history of the exploratory shaft, an approximation of construction-generated hydraulic stresses at the shaft was made. The magnitude of the construction-generated stresses was calibrated using the hydrographs from one hydrologic test pad. Whereas flow rates from the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members in the Rustler Formation into the exploratory shaft were unknown, the ratio of transmissivity to storage (diffusivity) was determined by mathematically simulating the aquifers and the hydrologic stresses with flood-wave-response digital model. These results indicate that the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation can be modeled as homogeneous, isotropic, and confined water-bearing zones. One simple and consistent explanation, but by no means the only explanation, of the lack of a single diffusivity value in the Culebra aquifer is that the open-hole observation wells at the hydrologic test pads dampen the amplitude of water-level changes. (USGS)

Stevens, Ken; Beyeler, Walt

1985-01-01

341

General patterns of niche construction and the management of 'wild' plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene.

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

342

Construction of Effective Electromagnetic Currents for Two-Body Quasipotential Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic algebraic approach for the construction of effective electromagnetic currents consistent with relativistic two-body quasipotential equations is presented. This approach produces Ward-Takahashi identities for the effective currents that guaranty conservation of current matrix elements involving any combination of bound and scattering states. This approach is shown to reproduce previous results for current matrix elements for the particular cases of the Gross(F. Gross and D. O. Riska, Phys. Rev. C36), 1928 (1987). and Blankenbecler-Sugar(F. Coester and D. O. Riska, Annals Phys., 234), 141 (1994). equations. A generic method of truncation of the effective current with respect to the number of boson exchanges is introduced.

Krioukov, Dmitri; van Orden, J. W.

1998-04-01

343

Watershed-Scale Effects of Cropland Abandonment and Woody Plant Encroachment: Implications for Water Resources (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-running abandonment of marginal croplands and woody plant encroachment have been observed in many landscapes around world, often in association with one another. However, there is great uncertainty about the consequences of these trends, and very few studies have examined impacts at the watershed scale. In watersheds totaling 230km2 in Texas, we used an integrated approach of sediment chronosequencing, historical imagery analysis, and streamflow analysis to describe landscape dynamics and investigate the large-scale effects of changing land use and land cover. The picture is quite complex. Instead of uniform woody plant encroachment, shrubs have undergone marked decrease in some areas through management efforts. As a result, woody plants have experienced up to a 100% increase in one watershed compared with a 65% decline in another. This accompanies a nearly 85% abandonment of cropland across the area over the last 75 years. While streamflow appears primarily to remain driven by rainfall events, erosion and sedimentation of downstream reservoirs have great implications for water resources. Radioisotope sediment tracers indicate a doubling in sediment yield in certain watersheds while others have displayed a near halt in sediment production. These are largely tied to the dynamic relationship between herbaceous, bare ground, and woody plant cover in different watersheds as well as the proliferation of constructed small ponds, which have increased in number up to 700%. Understanding the dynamics of water and sediment yield through this approach may play a major role in informing rangeland and water resource management at large scales.

Berg, M.; Wilcox, B. P.; Angerer, J.; Marcantonio, F.; Fox, W.; Popescu, S. C.

2013-12-01

344

Experimental study of the hypoglycemic effect of some antidiabetic plants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to look for the hypoglycemic effect of 12 plants most used in Mexico for controlling diabetes mellitus. The studies were realized in 27 rabbits submitted weekly to glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a preparation of the plant. The results showed that tolbutamide and studied plants (except Aloe barbadensis) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) the area under glucose tolerance curve, in relation with the water control. The strongest effect was yielded by Psacalium peltatum (27.9%), followed by Curcubita ficifolia (26.4%), Lepechinia caulescens (26.0%), Opuntia streptacantha (21.4%), Slanum verbascifolum (21.1%), Teucrium cubense (19.4%), Cecropia obtusifolia (18.9%), Phaseolus vulgaris (18.5%), Tecoma stans (17.5%), Eriobotrya japonica (17.2%), Salpianthus macrodonthus (15.0%), tolbutamide (14.3%), and Aloe barbadensis (1.4%). Our results point out that the majority of the plants most used by the Mexican population to control diabetes mellitus have an evident hypoglycemic action. PMID:1819981

Román-Ramos, R; Flores-Sáenz, J L; Partida-Hernández, G; Lara-Lemus, A; Alarcón-Aguilar, F

1991-01-01

345

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978

Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

2011-01-01

346

Comparison between polishing (maturation) ponds and subsurface flow constructed wetlands (planted and unplanted) for the post-treatment of the effluent from UASB reactors.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a comparison of the performance of two treatment systems operating in parallel, with the same influent wastewater. The investigated systems are (i) UASB + three polishing ponds in series + coarse filter (200 population equivalents) and (ii) UASB + subsurface flow constructed wetlands (50 population equivalents). Two wetland units, operating in parallel, were analysed, being one planted (Typha latifolia) and the other unplanted. The systems were located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The wetland systems showed to be more efficient in the removal of organic matter and suspended solids, leading to good effluent BOD and COD concentrations and excellent SS concentrations. The planted wetland performed better than the unplanted unit, but the latter was also able to provide a good effluent quality. The polishing pond system was more efficient in the removal of nitrogen (ammonia) and coliforms (E. coli). Land requirements and cost considerations are presented. PMID:20220242

von Sperling, M; Dornelas, F L; Assunção, F A L; de Paoli, A C; Mabub, M O A

2010-01-01

347

A construction and circuitry realization of the combined pressure-temperature sensor based on the shear piezoresistive effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction and circuitry realization of the combined pressure-temperature sensor based on the shear piezoresistive effect (SPE) are developed and presented in this paper. The four-terminal silicon transducer (FTT) is used as main sensitive element. The construction of the sensor allows making the adequate measuring of the blood pressure, body temperature and pulse. The circuit of this sensor allows measuring

Artem V. Limorev; Alexander V. Gridchin

2002-01-01

348

Construction and Operation of a Prototype RESOX Plant in Conjunction with Bergbau-Forschung FGD System. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work done on an EPRI sponsored program intended to evaluate a dry FGD system. The program combined an existing Bergbau-Forschung activated coke SO sub 2 regenerative adsorption plant with the Foster Wheeler RESOX process. This proces...

H. C. Pickering N. Raskin

1982-01-01

349

Estudo das influencias da implantacao da usina nuclear em Angra dos Reis (Angra-1). (Study of the influences of Angra-1 nuclear power plant construction in Angra dos Reis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a comprehensive evaluation of the influence caused by Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plants (Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto) construction on the Angra dos Reis City - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. The analysis performed adopts a multi-dime...

L. Ferreira Netto

1982-01-01

350

Effects of mechanical signaling on plant cell cytosolic calcium.  

PubMed Central

Mechanical signals are important influences on the development and morphology of higher plants. Using tobacco transformed with the Ca(2+)-sensitive luminescent protein aequorin, we recently reported the effects of mechanical signals of touch and wind on the luminescence and thus intracellular calcium of young seedlings. When mesophyll protoplasts are isolated from these transgenic tobacco plants and mechanically stimulated by swirling them in solution, cytoplasmic Ca2+ increases immediately and transiently up to 10 microM, and these transients are unaffected by an excess of EGTA in the medium. The size of the transient effect is related to the strength of swirling. Epidermal strips isolated from transgenic tobacco leaves and containing only viable guard cells and trichomes also respond to the strength of swirling in solution and can increase their cytoplasmic Ca2+ transiently up to 10 microM. Finally, the moss Physcomitrella patens containing recombinant aequorin exhibits transient increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ up to 5 microM when swirled in solution. This effect is strongly inhibited by ruthenium red. Our data indicate that the effect of mechanical stimulation can be found in a number of different cell types and in a lower plant as well as tobacco and suggest that mechanoperception and the resulting increase in cytoplasmic Ca2+ may be widespread.

Haley, A; Russell, A J; Wood, N; Allan, A C; Knight, M; Campbell, A K; Trewavas, A J

1995-01-01

351

Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

1994-01-01

352

Effects of foot placement on postural stability of construction workers on stilts.  

PubMed

Stilts are elevated tools that are frequently used by construction workers to raise workers 18-40 inches above the ground. The objective of this laboratory study was to evaluate the potential loss of postural stability associated with the use of stilts in various foot placements. Twenty construction workers with at least 1 year of experience in the use of stilts participated in this study. One Kistler force platform was used to collect kinetic data. Participants were tested under six-foot-placement conditions. These 6 experimental conditions were statically tested under all combinations of 3 levels of elevation: 0'' (no stilts), 24'' stilt height and 40'' stilt height. SAS mixed procedure was used to evaluate the effect of different experimental conditions. The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and repeated measures of univariate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) demonstrated that stilt height, foot-placement direction, and foot-placement width all had significant effects on the whole-body postural stability. This study found that the higher the stilts were elevated, the greater the postural instability. A stance position with one foot placed forward of the other foot produced greater postural instability than a position with the feet parallel and directly beneath the body. This study found that placement of the feet parallel and directly beneath the body, with the feet positioned a half shoulder width apart, caused a greater amount of postural sway and instability than one and one-and-half shoulder width. This study also found that construction workers using the stilts could perceive the likely postural instability due to the change in foot placements. PMID:18952203

Pan, Christopher S; Chiou, Sharon; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Bhattacharya, Amit; Ammons, Doug

2009-07-01

353

Effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants on herbivore assemblages on congeneric Acer species.  

PubMed

Historical, niche-based, and stochastic processes have been proposed as the mechanisms that drive community assembly. In plant-herbivore systems, these processes can correspond to phylogeny, leaf traits, and the distribution of host plants, respectively. Although patterns of herbivore assemblages among plant species have been repeatedly examined, the effects of these factors among co-occurring congeneric host plant species have rarely been studied. Our aim was to reveal the process of community assembly for herbivores by investigating the effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of closely related host plants of the genus Acer. We sampled leaf functional traits for 30 Acer species in Japan. Using a newly constructed phylogeny, we determined that three of the six measured leaf traits (leaf thickness, C/N ratio, and condensed tannin content) showed a phylogenetic signal. In a field study, we sampled herbivore communities on 14 Acer species within an elevation gradient and examined relationships between herbivore assemblages and host plants. We found that herbivore assemblages were significantly correlated with phylogeny, leaf traits, phylogenetic signals, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants. Our results indicate that the interaction between historical and current ecological processes shapes herbivore community assemblages. PMID:24879058

Nakadai, Ryosuke; Murakami, Masashi; Hirao, Toshihide

2014-08-01

354

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400mgkg?1 methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5–61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis

A. H. Atta; K. Abo EL-Sooud

2004-01-01

355

Effects of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main purposes leading botanists to investigate the effects of ionizing radiations is to understand plant behaviour\\u000a in space, where vegetal systems play an important role for nourishment, psychological support and functioning of life support\\u000a systems. Ground-based experiments have been performed with particles of different charge and energy. Samples exposed to X-\\u000a or ?-rays are often used as

Veronica De Micco; Carmen Arena; Diana Pignalosa; Marco Durante

2011-01-01

356

Using project performance to measure effectiveness of quality management system maintenance and practices in construction industry.  

PubMed

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Zakuan, Norhayati; Mat Saman, Muhamad Zameri; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Tan, Choy Soon

2014-01-01

357

Watershed Ecology and the Effects of Construction on Erosion and Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lab is to allow middle and high school students to begin to understand their place in their watershed, explore erosion, water quality assessment and the impact of construction sites through both field work and inquiry-based experiments. Students should have prior knowledge of the water cycle. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to describe the impact that erosion has on water quality, including the effects of soil types and potential effects of the watershed. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Norman Leonard (Pike High School)

2007-08-01

358

Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry  

PubMed Central

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings.

Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

2014-01-01

359

Construction of glass waveguide refractive index profiles by the effective-index finite-difference method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical method is applied to construct the refractive index profiles of optical waveguides from the measured effective indices (EI). The method is based on choosing a proper analytical function for the refractive index profile and searching its unknown parameters using the simplex search algorithm. Simultaneously, the finite-difference method (FDM) is used to solve the semi-vectorial Helmholtz equation for the guided modes effective indices. The method is applied successfully to two particular Ag +?Na + ion-exchanged glass slab waveguides. The results are as accurate as those obtained from from commonly used IWKB-based method. The EI-FDM in principle can be applied to both slab and channel waveguides and does not require that the index profiles are monotonically decreasing, like most of IWKB-based methods. The relation between the induced refractive index and silver concentration profile, measured by SIMS, is found to be almost linear.

Gonella, F.; Quaranta, A.; Sambo, A.; Caccavale, F.; Mansour, I.

1996-05-01

360

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342

Atta, A H; Abo EL-Sooud, K

2004-12-01

361

Dual effects of plant steroidal alkaloids on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Many plant species accumulate sterols and triterpenes as antimicrobial glycosides. These secondary metabolites (saponins) provide built-in chemical protection against pest and pathogen attack and can also influence induced defense responses. In addition, they have a variety of important pharmacological properties, including anticancer activity. The biological mechanisms underpinning the varied and diverse effects of saponins on microbes, plants, and animals are only poorly understood despite the ecological and pharmaceutical importance of this major class of plant secondary metabolites. Here we have exploited budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to investigate the effects of saponins on eukaryotic cells. The tomato steroidal glycoalkaloid alpha-tomatine has antifungal activity towards yeast, and this activity is associated with membrane permeabilization. Removal of a single sugar from the tetrasaccharide chain of alpha-tomatine results in a substantial reduction in antimicrobial activity. Surprisingly, the complete loss of sugars leads to enhanced antifungal activity. Experiments with alpha-tomatine and its aglycone tomatidine indicate that the mode of action of tomatidine towards yeast is distinct from that of alpha-tomatine and does not involve membrane permeabilization. Investigation of the effects of tomatidine on yeast by gene expression and sterol analysis indicate that tomatidine inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Tomatidine-treated cells accumulate zymosterol rather than ergosterol, which is consistent with inhibition of the sterol C(24) methyltransferase Erg6p. However, erg6 and erg3 mutants (but not erg2 mutants) have enhanced resistance to tomatidine, suggesting a complex interaction of erg mutations, sterol content, and tomatidine resistance. PMID:16870766

Simons, Veronika; Morrissey, John P; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Csukai, Michael; Cleaver, Adam; Yarrow, Carol; Osbourn, Anne

2006-08-01

362

Effective Automated Feature Construction and Selection for Classification of Biological Sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Many open problems in bioinformatics involve elucidating underlying functional signals in biological sequences. DNA sequences, in particular, are characterized by rich architectures in which functional signals are increasingly found to combine local and distal interactions at the nucleotide level. Problems of interest include detection of regulatory regions, splice sites, exons, hypersensitive sites, and more. These problems naturally lend themselves to formulation as classification problems in machine learning. When classification is based on features extracted from the sequences under investigation, success is critically dependent on the chosen set of features. Methodology We present an algorithmic framework (EFFECT) for automated detection of functional signals in biological sequences. We focus here on classification problems involving DNA sequences which state-of-the-art work in machine learning shows to be challenging and involve complex combinations of local and distal features. EFFECT uses a two-stage process to first construct a set of candidate sequence-based features and then select a most effective subset for the classification task at hand. Both stages make heavy use of evolutionary algorithms to efficiently guide the search towards informative features capable of discriminating between sequences that contain a particular functional signal and those that do not. Results To demonstrate its generality, EFFECT is applied to three separate problems of importance in DNA research: the recognition of hypersensitive sites, splice sites, and ALU sites. Comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms show that the framework is both general and powerful. In addition, a detailed analysis of the constructed features shows that they contain valuable biological information about DNA architecture, allowing biologists and other researchers to directly inspect the features and potentially use the insights obtained to assist wet-laboratory studies on retainment or modification of a specific signal. Code, documentation, and all data for the applications presented here are provided for the community at http://www.cs.gmu.edu/~ashehu/?q=OurTools.

Kamath, Uday; De Jong, Kenneth; Shehu, Amarda

2014-01-01

363

Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 ?T) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

Belyavskaya, N. A.

2004-01-01

364

Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems — A comparison of the growth and nutrient uptake of eight emergent species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allocation of above and below-ground growth and nutrient uptake, and pollutant removal were compared for Schoenoplectus validus, Phragmites australis, Glyceria maxima, Baumea articulata, Bolboschoenus fluviatilis, Cyperus involucratus, Juncus effusus and Zizania latifolia. Plants were grown in triplicate 0.238 m2 × 0.6 m deep gravel-bed wetland mosocosms fed with dairy farm wastewaters pre-treated in an anaerobic lagoon. After 124 days, mean

Chris C. Tanner

1996-01-01

365

Constructability study on a German reference IGCC power plant with and without CO 2-capture for hard coal and lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several cases of technical design, performance and an economic evaluation for IGCC-power plant concepts with and without CO2 capture and storage (CCS) operated on world market hard coal and German lignite. Evaluations include IGCC concepts based on commercially available and competitive state-of-the-art technologies. In concept pre-assessment pressure concepts for heat recovery steam generation, configuration of air separation

Martin Gräbner; Olaf von Morstein; Dorit Rappold; Werner Günster; Gerhard Beysel; Bernd Meyer

2010-01-01

366

INDAGINE PRELIMINARE SUI RENDIMENTI DEGLI IMPIANTI ITALIANI DI FITODEPURAZIONE PER FONTI DI INQUINAMENTO PUNTUALE \\/ ITALIAN CONSTRUCTED WETLAND BASED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS PERFORMANCES ANALYSES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been adopted by many Italian communities as a cost- effective mean of secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment, in order to meet more stringent standards and to lower operating costs. Some small systems have now been in existence for nearly 15 years, while wetland treatment systems for larger towns and small cities have become a more recent

Fabio Masi

367

Possible Effects of Construction and Operation of a Supertanker Terminal on the Marine Environment in New York Bight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation is given of the environmental impact of construction and operation of a supertanker terminal in the New York Bight area, considering the effects of dredging and spoil disposition, vessel movements, chronic low-level oily discharges, and acci...

J. L. McHugh J. J. Ginter W. E. Knapp A. L. Tsao M. D. Greenfield

1972-01-01

368

Effects of Construction of Liberty State Park on Hydraulic Characteristics of New York Harbor. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An existing comprehensive physical model that correctly reproduced tides, tidal currents, and density currents throughout the entire New York Harbor was used to determine the effects of constructing a proposed State park complex on the Jersey City waterfr...

R. F. Athow R. A. Boland

1976-01-01

369

Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III: pilot-plant construction. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Technical progress during the period June 1 through August 31, 1980 included the following activities: The PSD permit approval was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. The building permit was obtained from the Borough of Wood-Ridge. Installation designs incorporating modifications to the Total Energy System, Gas Turbine, Free Power Turbine and Waste Heat Boiler are in an advanced stage. Procurement has been initiated on all long lead material. The upper and lower PFB Vessel fabrication was started. Quotations for the Substructure Construction (Bid Package No. 1) are under review in preparation for issuing a purchase order in October 1980. Request for quotation on Structural Steelwork have been issued to potential bidders. Groundbreaking ceremonies took place on June 30, 1980 with the Assistant Secretary of the Department of Energy presiding and the Governor of New Jersey, a Congressional delegation and State Commissioner of Energy and Environment, Borough Officials among other dignitaries in attendance.

Not Available

1980-01-01

370

Essential roles and hazardous effects of nickel in plants.  

PubMed

With the world's ever increasing human population, the issues related to environmental degradation of toxicant chemicals are becoming more serious. Humans have accelerated the emission to the environment of many organic and inorganic pollutants such as pesticides, salts, petroleum products, acids, heavy metals, etc. Among different environmental heavy-metal pollutants, Ni has gained considerable attention in recent years, because of its rapidly increasing concentrations in soil, air, and water in different parts of the world. The main mechanisms by which Ni is taken up by plants are passive diffusion and active transport. Soluble Ni compounds are preferably absorbed by plants passively, through a cation transport system; chelated Ni compounds are taken up through secondary, active-transport-mediated means, using transport proteins such as permeases. Insoluble Ni compounds primarily enter plant root cells through endocytosis. Once absorbed by roots, Ni is easily transported to shoots via the xylem through the transpiration stream and can accumulate in neonatal parts such as buds, fruits, and seeds. The Ni transport and retranslocation processes are strongly regulated by metal-ligand complexes (such as nicotianamine, histidine, and organic acids) and by some proteins that specifically bind and transport Ni. Nickel, in low concentrations, fulfills a variety of essential roles in plants, bacteria, and fungi. Therefore, Ni deficiency produces an array of effects on growth and metabolism of plants, including reduced growth, and induction of senescence, leaf and meristem chlorosis, alterations in N metabolism, and reduced Fe uptake. In addition, Ni is a constituent of several metallo-enzymes such as urease, superoxide dismutase, NiFe hydrogenases, methyl coenzyme M reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase, hydrogenases, and RNase-A. Therefore, Ni deficiencies in plants reduce urease activity, disturb N assimilation, and reduce scavenging of superoxide free radical. In bacteria, Ni participates in several important metabolic reactions such as hydrogen metabolism, methane biogenesis, and acetogenesis. Although Ni is metabolically important in plants, it is toxic to most plant species when present at excessive amounts in soil and in nutrient solution. High Ni concentrations in growth media severely retards seed germinability of many crops. This effect of Ni is a direct one on the activities of amylases, proteases, and ribonucleases, thereby affecting the digestion and mobilization of food reserves in germinating seeds. At vegetative stages, high Ni concentrations retard shoot and root growth, affect branching development, deform various plant parts, produce abnormal flower shape, decrease biomass production, induce leaf spotting, disturb mitotic root tips, and produce Fe deficiency that leads to chlorosis and foliar necrosis. Additionally, excess Ni also affects nutrient absorption by roots, impairs plant metabolism, inhibits photosynthesis and transpiration, and causes ultrastructural modifications. Ultimately, all of these altered processes produce reduced yields of agricultural crops when such crops encounter excessive Ni exposures. PMID:21913127

Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad

2011-01-01

371

The effects of pipeline construction disturbance on soil properties and restoration cycle.  

PubMed

Disturbance to the physical-chemical properties of soil caused by pipeline installation was evaluated using two soil quality indices to identify the scale of disturbance and the restoration cycle. The integrated soil quality index (SQI) was used to evaluate soil property changes in different pipeline zones (0, 10, 20, and 50 m from the pipeline) at sites 1 and 2. The soil restoration index (SRI) was used to estimate soil recovery from three pipelines with different recovery periods (2, 6, and 8 years) at site 3. The results showed that the adverse effects of pipeline construction on soil properties mainly occurred in the right-of-way (ROW) areas and the impaired zones were in the order trench?>?piling and working areas?>?20 and 50 m. The soil restoration cycle may be complete within 6 years of construction. At site 3, the SRI in the ROW area of a pipeline after 6 years of restoration was close to 100 %, showing full soil recovery. However, the SRI in the disturbed areas of a pipeline after 2 years of restoration was much lower than that after 6 years of restoration, indicating that the soil was still recovering from the disturbance. The topography may change the intensity of disturbance in different areas due to the movement patterns of heavy machinery and traffic routes. There were local variations in the SQI within the pipeline zones, with flat areas suffering greater disturbance than hilly areas, indicating that topography should be considered in a pipeline's environmental impact assessment. PMID:24141486

Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-03-01

372

Effect of moisture content on nest construction activity of fire ants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large underground nests protect ants from severe weather and predators. Field observations have revealed that the soil wetness affects the nest building activity. In this work we use x-ray computed tomography to study the growth of fire ants nests as a function of soil moisture content. Because capillary cohesion in wet soils leads to the competition between tunnel stability and the labor-intensity of the excavation, we expect to find an optimal soil wetness, which allows the most effective nest construction. We prepared digging containers (3.8 cm diameter by 14.5 cm deep aluminum tubes) with 2 types of simulated soil (50 and 210 um glass particles). The prepared moisture content W varied from 0.01 to 0.18 by mass. Hundred ants were allowed to dig in the containers for 20 hours. Although, the ants were able to construct tunnels in all moisture levels, the maximum tunnel depth, H, was significantly affected by W. At moderate moisture content (W=0.1) H was at least twice greater than at the lowest moisture content (W=0.01) for all tested colonies (n=9) for both particle sizes. The increase in H mirrors the dependence of the soil cohesion on W and we therefore conclude that the tunnel stability is a key factor influencing the digging strategy of fire ants.

Monaenkova, Daria; Gravish, Nickolas; Goldman, Daniel; Goodisman, Michael

2013-03-01

373

Effects of Cosmic Heavy Ion Radiation and Space Microgravity on Plant Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ground and space flight results on space environment effects on plants are reviewed. Experience with biophysical and physiological studies on cosmic heavy ion and microgravity effects in higher plants and comparison with data obtained from ground-based ac...

A. R. Kranz

1987-01-01

374

[Allelopathic effects of Streptomyces sp. 6803 on plants].  

PubMed

Streptomyces can produce an overwhelming majority of known antibiotics and several biologically active compounds, but whether Streptomyces can display allelopathic effects on higher plants is largely unknown. In this study, seven actinomyces strains isolated from soils showed inhibitory effect on plant seedlings growth, among which, Streptomyces sp. 6803 had strong capability in inhibiting the seedlings growth of Brassica campestris and Echinochloa crusgalli in both solid and liquid cultures. The dilute solution (x 5) of fermented broth inhibited the seedlings growth of B. campestris and E. crusgalli by 60.7% and 61.3%, respectively. Based on the morphological and physiological-biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequencing, Streptomyces sp. 6803 was identified as Streptomyces arenae, with the 16S rRNA sequence identity being 99.28%. Ultraviolet radiation and diethyl sulfate (DES) were used to produce mutants to enhance the allelopathic potential of this strain. After 80 and 100 seconds of ultraviolet radiation, the dilute solution (x10) of fermented broth of obtained mutants UV8024 and UV100-2 showed 37.5% and 38.1% higher inhibition effect on the root growth of B. campestris seedlings, respectively, compared with the control. The mutant D507 obtained through 1% DES treatment for 50 min showed 29.8% higher inhibition effect on the root growth of B. campestris seedlings. This study showed that Streptomyces sp. 6803 had allelopathic effect on higher plants, and it was possible to enhance the allelopathic potential of the strain via mutation breeding. PMID:23359933

Song, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Ke; Shi, Mu-Biao; Chen, Min; Zeng, Ren-Sen

2012-10-01

375

Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.  

PubMed

During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

2011-01-01

376

Construction Program Management: An Effective Tool for the Delivery of Educational Facilities on the International Scene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All international endeavors of major size and duration have been conducted under the concept of construction program management. Examples in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Brazil, and Guyana illustrate the constancy and coordination that international construction program management provides. (MLF)

Campbell, Robert W.

1992-01-01

377

Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submersed aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects on the hydrological\\u000a regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitat of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, for example\\u000a through the introduction of invasive species, can alter these functions. In the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, California,\\u000a a major invasive submersed plant, Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa,

Maria J. SantosLars; Lars W. Anderson; Susan L. Ustin

2011-01-01

378

Construction of a Sonchus Yellow Net Virus minireplicon: a step toward reverse genetic analysis of plant negative-strand RNA viruses.  

PubMed

Reverse genetic analyses of negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses have provided enormous advances in our understanding of animal viruses over the past 20 years, but technical difficulties have hampered application to plant NSR viruses. To develop a reverse genetic approach for analysis of plant NSR viruses, we have engineered Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus (SYNV) minireplicon (MR) reporter cassettes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Fluorescent reporter genes substituted for the SYNV N and P protein open reading frames (ORFs) exhibited intense single-cell foci throughout regions of infiltrated leaves expressing the SYNV MR derivatives and the SYNV nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), and polymerase (L) proteins. Genomic RNA and mRNA transcription was detected for reporter genes substituted for both the SYNV N and P ORFs. These activities required expression of the N, P, and L core proteins in trans and were enhanced by codelivery of viral suppressor proteins that interfere with host RNA silencing. As is the case with other members of the Mononegavirales, we detected polar expression of fluorescent proteins and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase substitutions for the N and P protein ORFs. We also demonstrated the utility of the SYNV MR system for functional analysis of SYNV core proteins in trans and the cis-acting leader and trailer sequence requirements for transcription and replication. This work provides a platform for construction of more complex SYNV reverse genetic derivatives and presents a general strategy for reverse genetic applications with other plant NSR viruses. PMID:23885070

Ganesan, Uma; Bragg, Jennifer N; Deng, Min; Marr, Sharon; Lee, Mi Yeon; Qian, Shasha; Shi, Manling; Kappel, Justin; Peters, Cole; Lee, Yeon; Goodin, Michael M; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Li, Zhenghe; Jackson, Andrew O

2013-10-01

379

Construction of a Sonchus Yellow Net Virus Minireplicon: a Step toward Reverse Genetic Analysis of Plant Negative-Strand RNA Viruses  

PubMed Central

Reverse genetic analyses of negative-strand RNA (NSR) viruses have provided enormous advances in our understanding of animal viruses over the past 20 years, but technical difficulties have hampered application to plant NSR viruses. To develop a reverse genetic approach for analysis of plant NSR viruses, we have engineered Sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus (SYNV) minireplicon (MR) reporter cassettes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Fluorescent reporter genes substituted for the SYNV N and P protein open reading frames (ORFs) exhibited intense single-cell foci throughout regions of infiltrated leaves expressing the SYNV MR derivatives and the SYNV nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), and polymerase (L) proteins. Genomic RNA and mRNA transcription was detected for reporter genes substituted for both the SYNV N and P ORFs. These activities required expression of the N, P, and L core proteins in trans and were enhanced by codelivery of viral suppressor proteins that interfere with host RNA silencing. As is the case with other members of the Mononegavirales, we detected polar expression of fluorescent proteins and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase substitutions for the N and P protein ORFs. We also demonstrated the utility of the SYNV MR system for functional analysis of SYNV core proteins in trans and the cis-acting leader and trailer sequence requirements for transcription and replication. This work provides a platform for construction of more complex SYNV reverse genetic derivatives and presents a general strategy for reverse genetic applications with other plant NSR viruses.

Ganesan, Uma; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Deng, Min; Marr, Sharon; Lee, Mi Yeon; Qian, ShaSha; Shi, Manling; Kappel, Justin; Peters, Cole; Lee, Yeon; Goodin, Michael M.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.

2013-01-01

380

The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.  

PubMed

The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

381

Plant potassium content modifies the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on root hydraulic properties in maize plants.  

PubMed

It is well known that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis helps the host plant to overcome several abiotic stresses including drought. One of the mechanisms for this drought tolerance enhancement is the higher water uptake capacity of the mycorrhizal plants. However, the effects of the AM symbiosis on processes regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant, such as root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression, and protein abundance, are not well defined. Since it is known that K(+) status is modified by AM and that it regulates root hydraulic properties, it has been tested how plant K(+) status could modify the effects of the symbiosis on root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance, using maize (Zea mays L.) plants and Glomus intraradices as a model. It was observed that the supply of extra K(+) increased root hydraulic conductivity only in AM plants. Also, the different pattern of plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance between AM and non-AM plants changed with the application of extra K(+). Thus, plant K(+) status could be one of the causes of the different observed effects of the AM symbiosis on root hydraulic properties. The present study also highlights the critical importance of AM fungal aquaporins in regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant. PMID:22370879

El-Mesbahi, Mohamed Najib; Azcón, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo

2012-10-01

382

Effect of two solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).  

PubMed

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important tomato pest that also feeds on other host-plants from the Solanceae family. We studied the effect of two cultivated plants, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) and potato Solanum tuberosum L. on the development and populational parameters of T. absoluta related with host-plant suitability. Larval developmental time, pupal weight, mean fecundity and an index of host-plant quality (IPQ = pupal weight / frass weight) were estimated. Age-specific survivorship and fecundity life tables were constructed in the laboratory to evaluate the following populational parameters: net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and generation time (T). Larval developmental time was shorter and pupal weight was higher (P < 0.0001) for larvae reared on tomato (P < 0.0001). Mean fecundity was not significantly different on both plants (P = 0.07) and food quality of host-plant was higher for tomato (P = 0.02). Mean population parameters on tomato were: Ro = 48.92; T = 27.98, r = 0.14; and on potato: Ro = 14.43; T = 32.35, r = 0.08. Although results showed that tomato was a more suitable host-plant and had a better nutritional quality than potato, when T. absoluta fed on potato the potential population increase requires attention. Under appropriate climatic conditions, spatial and temporal coincidence between crop and pest, T. absoluta could become a pest for the potato crop. PMID:17144141

Pereyra, Patricia C; Sánchez, Norma E

2006-01-01

383

Effects of virus on plant fecundity and population dynamics.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are ubiquitous and thought to regulate host populations. Although microorganisms can be pathogenic and affect components of fitness, few studies have examined their effects on wild plant populations. As individual traits might not contribute equally to changes in population growth rate, it is essential to examine the entire life cycle to determine how microorganisms affect host population dynamics. In this study, we used data from common garden experiments with plants from three Cucurbita pepo populations exposed to three virus treatments. These data were used to parameterize a deterministic matrix model, which allowed us to estimate the effect of virus on components of fitness and population growth rate. Virus did not reduce fruit number, but population growth rates varied among virus treatments and wild C. pepo populations. The effect of virus on population growth rate depended on virus species and wild C. pepo population. Contributions of life-history transitions and life-history traits to population growth rates varied among populations and virus treatments. However, this population-virus interaction was not evident when examining individual components of fitness. Thus, caution must be used when interpreting the effects of changes in individual traits, as single traits do not always predict population-level change accurately. PMID:24571200

Prendeville, Holly R; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Pilson, Diana

2014-06-01

384

Abstract Constructions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lesson designed to culminate a year of eighth-grade art classes in which students explore elements of design and space by creating 3-D abstract constructions. Outlines the process of using foam board and markers to create various shapes and optical effects. (DSK)

Pietropola, Anne

1998-01-01

385

A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants  

PubMed Central

Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought.

Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielborger, Katja

2012-01-01

386

EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past ten years, passive reactive barriers (PRBs) have found widespread application to treat chlorinated solvent contamination in ground water. The traditional PRB commonly uses granular zero-valent iron and/or iron alloys as filling materials for treatment of chlorinated ...

387

Arsenic uptake, distribution, and accumulation in bean plants: Effect of Arsenite and salinity on plant growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to different levels of arsenic (As) and salinity was investigated, including the processes of uptake, distribution, and accumulation of As and the effect of arsenite and salinity on plant growth and fruit production. The experiment was performed in soilless culture at two levels of As: 2 and 5 mg As L [added

1997-01-01

388

Effects of cattail biomass on sulfate removal and carbon sources competition in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.  

PubMed

Sulfate is frequently found in the influent of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) used as tertiary treatments. To reveal the effects of plants and litters on sulfate removal, as well as the competition for organic carbon among microorganisms in SSF CWs, five laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms were set up and were operated as a batch system with HRT 5 d. The results showed that the presence of Typha latifolia had little effect on sulfate removal in CWs, with or without additional carbon sources. Cattail litter addition greatly improved sulfate removal in SSF CWs. This improvement was linked to the continuous input of labile organic carbon, which lowers the redox level and supplies a habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of SRB in cattail litter indicated the possibility of sulfate removal around the carbon supplier, but the quantity of microbes in cattail litter was much lower than that in gravel. Stoichiometry calculations showed that the contribution of SRB to COD removal (21-26%) was less than that of methane-producing bacteria (MPB) (47-61%) during the initial stage but dominated COD removal (42-65%) during the terminal stage. The contributions of aerobic bacteria (AB) and denitrification bacteria (DB) to COD removal were always lower than that of SRB. It was also observed that the variations in COD: S ratio had a great influence on the relative abundance of genes between SRB and MPB and both of them could be used as good predictors of carbon competition between SRB and MPB in CWs. PMID:24768761

Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Junwei; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

2014-08-01

389

Grammatical Constructions in Typical Developing Children: Effects of Explicit Reinforcement, Automatic Reinforcement and Parity  

PubMed Central

This study replicated and extended Wright (2006) and Whitehurst, Ironsmith, and Goldfein (1974) by examining whether preschool aged children would increase their use of passive grammatical voice rather than using the more age-appropriate active grammatical construction when the former was modeled by an adult. Results showed that 5 of the 6 participants began using the passive voice after this verbal behavior had been modeled. For 3 of the participants, this change was large. The change occurred even though the adult model explicitly rewarded the participant with praise and stickers for using the active voice, while providing no praise or stickers for using the passive form that was modeled. For 1 participant, the modeling procedure had no effect on use of the passive voice. These results indicate a strong automatic reinforcement effect of achieving parity with the grammatical structures used by adults, compared to the effects of explicit reinforcement by the adult. This might help to explain why children acquire grammatical structures prevalent in their language community apparently without explicit instruction.

?stvik, Leni; Eikeseth, Svein; Klintwall, Lars

2012-01-01

390

Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.  

PubMed

A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors. PMID:24135097

da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

2013-01-01

391

Herbivore effects on plant species density at varying productivity levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificially increasing primary productivity decreases plant species richness in many habitats; herbivory may affect this outcome, but it has rarely been directly addressed in fertilization studies. This experiment was conducted in two Louisiana coastal marshes to examine the effects of nutrient enrichment and sediment addition on herbaceous plant communities with and without vertebrate herbivory. After three growing seasons, fertilization increased community biomass in all plots, but decreased species density (the number of species per unit area) only in plots protected from herbivory. Herbivory alone did not alter species density at either site. At the brackish marsh, herbivory caused a shift in dominance in the fertilized plots from a species that is considered the competitive dominant, but is selectively eaten, to another less palatable species. At the fresh marsh, increased dead biomass in the absence of herbivory and in the fertilized plots probably contributed to the decrease in species density, perhaps by limiting germination of annuals. Our results support those of other fertilization studies in which plant species density decreases with increased biomass, but only in those plots protected from herbivory.

Gough, L.; Grace, J. B.

1998-01-01

392

Effect of a constructed wetland on disinfection byproducts: Removal processes and production of precursors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (TH M), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (THM), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Rostad, C. E.; Martin, B. S.; Barber, L. B.; Leenheer, J. A.; Daniel, S. R.

2000-01-01

393

Effect of microgravity on sap flow in plant stems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental study was conducted to assess the possibility of plant growth suppression caused by poor movement of air in closed plant growth facilities in space farming. Sap water flow in plant stems, which plays an important role to transport fluid and nutrients from roots to leaves, will be suppressed through suppression of transpiration because of little natural convection of air under microgravity conditions. In this study, the sap flow in tomato stems was examined using a heat flow method at 0.01 and 1.0 g for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights in order to clarify the effect of microgravity on the sap flow in stems. Heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. The internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed with thermal images captured on stems near heated points. In results, the sap flow in stems at 0.01 g was suppressed under a retarded air condition at a wind speed of 0.1 m s-1 compared with that at 1 g. No suppression of the sap flow was observed under a stirred air condition at a wind speed of 0.5 m s-1. Suppressed sap water flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is, therefore, essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under microgravity conditions in space.

Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Hiroaki; Nobol Ikeda, MR..

2012-07-01

394

Kinetics of pollutant removal from domestic wastewater in a tropical horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system: Effects of hydraulic loading rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment capacity of constructed wetlands is expected to be high in tropical areas because of the warm temperatures and the associated higher rates of microbial activity. A pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system filled with river sand and planted with Phragmites vallatoria (L.) Veldkamp was set up in the southern part of Vietnam to assess the treatment

Ngo Thuy Diem Trang; Dennis Konnerup; Hans-Henrik Schierup; Nguyen Huu Chiem; Le Anh Tuan; Hans Brix

2010-01-01

395

The fate and risk of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants and a pilot-scale multistage constructed wetland system.  

PubMed

The removal of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a tertiary treatment system was studied. The ecological risks of effluents from both secondary and tertiary treatment systems as well as excess sludge were evaluated. Primary treatment and ultraviolet light disinfection showed limited ability to remove most selected PPCPs. The combination of an anaerobic process and triple-oxidation ditches can eliminate DEET better than the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process. Adsorption to sludge played a key role in the removal of triclocarban. Multistage constructed wetlands as a tertiary treatment efficiently removed caffeine and ibuprofen from wastewater and could decrease the risk of partial selected PPCPs. Selected PPCPs residues in excess sludge generally produced higher risks to the ecological environment than effluents from WWTPs. PMID:23917740

Zhu, Saichang; Chen, Hong

2014-01-01

396

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

397

Construction of drug network based on side effects and its application for drug repositioning.  

PubMed

Drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share similar therapeutic properties through related mechanisms of action. In this study, a drug-drug network was constructed based on the similarities between their clinical side effects. The indications of a drug may be inferred by the enriched FDA-approved functions of its neighbouring drugs in the network. We systematically screened new indications for 1234 drugs with more than 2 network neighbours, 36.87% of the drugs achieved a performance score of Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain in the top 5 positions (NDCG@5) ? 0.7, which means most of the known FDA-approved indications were well predicted at the top 5 positions. In particular, drugs for diabetes, obesity, laxatives and antimycobacterials had extremely high performance with more than 80% of them achieving NDCG@5 ? 0.7. Additionally, by manually checking the predicted 1858 drug-indication pairs with Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE) score ? 10(-5) (EASE score is a rigorously modified Fisher exact test p value), we found that 80.73% of such pairs could be verified by preclinical/clinical studies or scientific literature. Furthermore, our method could be extended to predict drugs not covered in the network. We took 98 external drugs not covered in the network as the test sample set. Based on our similarity criteria using side effects, we identified 41 drugs with significant similarities to other drugs in the network. Among them, 36.59% of the drugs achieved NDCG@5 ? 0.7. In all of the 106 drug-indication pairs with an EASE score ? 0.05, 50.94% of them are supported by FDA approval or preclinical/clinical studies. In summary, our method which is based on the indications enriched by network neighbors may provide new clues for drug repositioning using side effects. PMID:24505324

Ye, Hao; Liu, Qi; Wei, Jia

2014-01-01

398

Effects of pipeline construction on the vegetation and macrofauna of two South Carolina, USA salt marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the recovery of vegetation and salt marsh macrofauna in a pipeline construction corridor at two locations where\\u000a it intersected intertidal salt marshes near Charleston, SC. The impacts of construction were evaluated prior to construction\\u000a and for subsequent periods of 34 and 46 months at the two sites using aerial photography and three field sampling methods.\\u000a Quadrats were used

David M. Knott; Elizabeth L. Wenner; Priscilla H. Wendt

1997-01-01

399

Separating the chance effect from other diversity effects in the functioning of plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant species diversity on productivity and competitive ability was studied in an experiment carried out simultaneously in five European countries: Czech Republic (CZ), the Netherlands (NL), Sweden (SE), Spain (SP), and United Kingdom (UK). The aim was to separate the 'chance' or 'sampling effect' (increasing the number of sown species increases the probability that a species able

J. Lepš; Valerie K. Brown; Tomas A. Diaz Len; Dagmar Gormsen; Katarina Hedlund; Jana Kailova; Gerard W. Korthals; Simon R. Mortimer; Claudino Rodriguez-Barrueco; Jacques Roy; Regina Santa I; Cornelis van Dijk; Wim H. van der Putten

2001-01-01

400

TRANSGENIC PLANTS: ENVIRONMENTAL PERSISTENCE AND EFFECTS ON SOIL AND PLANT ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The genetic engineering of plants has facilitated the production of valuable agricultural and forestry crops. Transgenic plants have been created that have increased resistance to pests, herbicides, pathogens, and environmental stress, enhanced qualitative and quantitative trait...

401

Project Finance during Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report addresses the issues of financing the construction of transit and bus facilities. It is shown that cash flow management and financing strategies can have a profound effect on the ultimate cost and effectiveness of particular construction projec...

T. Au C. Hendrickson D. Martinelli

1986-01-01

402

Construct Validity Invariance and Discrepancies in Meta-Analytic Effect Sizes Based on Different Measures: A Simulation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical to meta-analysis is the presumption that effect sizes based on different measures are directly comparable. Recent theoretical work has shown that an invariance condition--universe score, or construct, validity invariance--must hold for either observed score or reliability-corrected effect sizes based on different measures to be directly…

Nugent, William R.

2009-01-01

403

Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the betaproteobacterial communities associated with different potato cultivars in two fields.  

PubMed

Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are dynamic and susceptible to changes in plant conditions. Among the bacteria, the betaproteobacteria play key roles in nutrient cycling and plant growth promotion, and hence the dynamics of their community structures in the rhizosphere should be investigated. Here, the effects of plant cultivar, growth stage, and soil type on the communities associated with potato cultivars Aveka, Aventra, Karnico, Modena, Premiere, and Désirée were assessed for two different fields containing sandy soil with either a high or low organic compound content. Thus, bacterial and betaproteobacterial PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses were performed to analyze the effects of plant cultivar and growth on the rhizosphere community structure. The analyses showed that in both fields all cultivars had a rhizosphere effect on the total bacterial and betaproteobacterial communities. In addition, the plant growth stage strongly affected the betaproteobacterial communities in both fields. Moreover, the community structures were affected by cultivar, and cultivars differed in physiology, as reflected in their growth rates, root development, and estimated tuber starch contents. Analyses of betaproteobacterial clone libraries constructed for two selected cultivars (one cultivar that produced low-starch-content tubers and one cultivar that produced high-starch-content tubers), as well as bulk soil, revealed that the rhizospheres of the two cultivars selected for specific bacteria, including plant-growth-promoting bacteria, such as Variovorax and Achromobacter spp. In addition, quantitative PCR-based quantification of the Variovorax paradoxus-specific functional gene asfA (involved in desulfonation) indicated that there were clear potato rhizosphere effects on the abundance of this gene. Interestingly, both cultivar type and plant growth stage affected the community under some circumstances. PMID:20363788

Inceo?lu, Ozgül; Salles, Joana Falcão; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

2010-06-01

404

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance.  

PubMed

Models predict that global warming may increase aridity in water-limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We show that interactions between warming and the dominant biota in a grassland ecosystem produced the reverse effect. In a 2-year field experiment, simulated warming increased spring soil moisture by 5-10% under both ambient and elevated CO2. Warming also accelerated the decline of canopy greenness (normalized difference vegetation index) each spring by 11-17% by inducing earlier plant senescence. Lower transpirational water losses resulting from this earlier senescence provide a mechanism for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism-environment interactions to modify the direction as well as the magnitude of global change effects on ecosystem functioning. PMID:12907704

Zavaleta, Erika S; Thomas, Brian D; Chiariello, Nona R; Asner, Gregory P; Shaw, M Rebecca; Field, Christopher B

2003-08-19

405

Time for a Plant Clinostat: Effects of Light and Gravity on Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plant tropisms--their directional movement in response to stimuli--are a fundamental concept in plant science and excite students because they are the observable signs of life in plants. Unfortunately, the precollege teaching literature is full of tropism misconceptions. An inexpensive clock clinostat is invaluable for student gravitropism and…

Hershey, David R.

2005-01-01

406

Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses.  

PubMed

Brassinosteroids are found in a wide range of organisms from lower to higher plants. They are steroidal plant hormones implicated in the promotion of plant growth and development. Brassinosteroid metabolism has long been known to be altered in plants responding to abiotic stresses and to undergo profound changes in plants interacting with bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. This review describes the role of brassinosteroids in response to various kinds of stresses via activation of different mechanisms. PMID:19010688

Bajguz, Andrzej; Hayat, Shamsul

2009-01-01

407

Live Specimens More Effective than World Wide Web for Learning Plant Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Wide Web and other computer-based media are new teaching resources for plant identification. The purpose of the experiments reported here was to test whether learning plant identification for woody and herbaceous plant material over the web was as effective, more effective, or preferred by undergraduate students when compared with…

Taraban, Roman; McKenney, Cynthia; Peffley, Ellen; Applegarth, Ashley

2004-01-01

408

27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. 19.723 Section...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Redistillation...19.723 Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. The...

2013-04-01

409

Plant Centromere Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and an...

G. Copenhaver H. Zieler J. Mach K. Keith R. G. Jin

2005-01-01

410

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-11-22

411

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-08-02

412

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2006-06-26

413

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, RongGuan (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2007-06-05

414

Insights into the historical construction of species-rich biomes from dated plant phylogenies, neutral ecological theory and phylogenetic community structure.  

PubMed

Analytical methods are now available that can date all nodes in a molecular phylogenetic tree with one calibration, and which correct for variable rates of DNA substitution in different lineages. Although these techniques are approximate, they offer a new tool to investigate the historical construction of species-rich biomes. Dated phylogenies of globally distributed plant families often indicate that dispersal, even across oceans, rather than plate tectonics, has generated their wide distributions. By contrast, there are indications that animal lineages have undergone less long distance dispersal. Dating the origin of biome-specific plant groups offers a means of estimating the age of the biomes they characterize. However, rather than a simple emphasis on biome age, we stress the importance of studies that seek to unravel the processes that have led to the accumulation of large numbers of species in some biomes. The synthesis of biological inventory, systematics and evolutionary biology offered by the frameworks of neutral ecological theory and phylogenetic community structure offers a promising route for future work. PMID:17096788

Pennington, R Toby; Richardson, James E; Lavin, Matt

2006-01-01

415

[Effects of maize plant type and planting width on the early morphological characters and yield of relayplanted soybean].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of different maize plant type and planting width on the early morphological characters and yield of relayplanted soybean under wheat/maize/soybean relayplanting. The results showed that different maize plant type led to different micro-climate in soybean planting strip, which was a direct factor affecting the changes in morphological characters and tissue structure of soybean. Large planting width and relay cropping with erect maize resulted in the short plant, thick main stem, large accumulation of dry matter, higher LAI and SLM, and high yield of soybean, while small planting width and relay cropping with flat maize led to the undergrowth of leaf and stem, overgrowth of plant, thin and lodging-susceptible stem, and low yield of soybean. From the tissue sections of soybean leaf and stem at early blossoming stage under conditions of planted with different maize plant type and 1.17 m/0.83 m (soybean/maize) of planting width, it was found that under more shading, the leaf thickness decreased, epidermis cells became larger, cuticle became thinner, differentiation of palisade tissue and spongy tissue was inconspicuous, space between cells was large, epidermis and secondary xylem of stem all became thinner, parenchyma cells were loose, formulation of vessel delayed, and phloem fibers were less developed. It was concluded that relayplanting soybean with erect maize in a planting width of 1.17 m/0.83 m (soybean/maize) could be the best field combination in ensuring high yield and high efficiency all the year round. PMID:18464638

Wang, Zhu; Yang, Wen-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Qi-Lin

2008-02-01

416

Effects of foot placement on postural stability of construction workers on stilts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stilts are elevated tools that are frequently used by construction workers to raise workers 18–40 inches above the ground. The objective of this laboratory study was to evaluate the potential loss of postural stability associated with the use of stilts in various foot placements. Twenty construction workers with at least 1 year of experience in the use of stilts participated

Christopher S. Pan; Sharon Chiou; Tsui-Ying Kau; Amit Bhattacharya; Doug Ammons

2009-01-01

417

The Effects of State Funding on Property Tax Rates and School Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to concerns over funding for school construction, the state of Texas has implemented two programs to assist school districts with construction-related debt. This paper examines whether these programs have accomplished their objectives of reducing property taxes (the Existing Debt Allotment (EDA) program) and increasing capital outlays…

Plummer, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

418

The effect of PEGT\\/PBT scaffold architecture on oxygen gradients in tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repair of articular cartilage defects using tissue engineered constructs composed of a scaffold and cultured autologous cells holds promise for future treatments. However, nutrient limitation (e.g. oxygen) has been suggested as a cause of the onset of chondrogenesis solely within the peripheral boundaries of larger constructs. In the present study, oxygen gradients were evaluated by microelectrode measurements in two porous

J. Malda; T. B. F. Woodfield; Vloodt van der F; F. K. Kooy; D. E. Martens; J. C. Tramper; Blitterswijk van C. A; J. Riesle

2004-01-01

419

Ab initio procedure for constructing effective models of correlated materials with entangled band structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work [Phys. Rev. B 77, 085122 (2008)], a procedure for constructing low-energy models of electrons in solids was proposed. The procedure starts with dividing the Hilbert space into two subspaces: the low-energy part (`` d space'') and the rest of the space (`` r space''). The low-energy model is constructed for the d space by eliminating the

Takashi Miyake; Ferdi Aryasetiawan; Masatoshi Imada

2009-01-01

420

Effects of Web-Based Support for the Construction of Competence Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educationalists experience difficulties with the construction of competence maps that describe final attainment levels of educational programs. Web-based support was developed with three supportive aids: A construction kit, a phenomenarium, and an information bank. Each supportive aid was expected to improve perceived process and product quality…

Stoof, Angela; Martens, Rob L.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2006-01-01

421

The effect of corporate culture and total quality management on construction project performance in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new market expansion in the real estate market has resulted in the flourishing development of construction companies in Taiwan. Thus, the question of how construction companies may establish external alliances, gain tangible and intangible support and deliver satisfactory project outcomes needs to be answered, and is consequently worth exploring. This study aims to examine the relationship between corporate culture

Tsung-Hsien Kuo; Yen-Lin Kuo

2010-01-01

422

The Effect of School Building Renovation/Construction on School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The literature revealed that continuous communication is essential for a smooth process. This research identified bureaucratic issues and school climate to be leading factors of concern during construction projects. Analysis of this study…

Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.; O'Hern, Brenda

2010-01-01

423

Being an Effective, Engaged Owner during a Design and Construction Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explains how a project owner can be an active participant during the design and construction of his/her facility. The author discusses the two levels of participation the project owner needs to actively work with the design and construction team. And he further states that a project owner can enrich his/her personal experience and…

Kalina, David

2007-01-01

424

Input Effects on the Acquisition of a Novel Phrasal Construction in 5 Year Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present experiments demonstrate that children as young as five years old (M = 5:2) generalize beyond their input on the basis of minimal exposure to a novel argument structure construction. The novel construction that was used involved a non-English phrasal pattern: VN[subscript 1]N[subscript 2], paired with a novel abstract meaning:…

Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Boyd, Jeremy K.; Thomson, Jennifer; Goldberg, Adele E.

2012-01-01

425

20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. GENERAL VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION BRIDGE, GANTRY CRANE AND STRUCTURAL PIERS. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

426

Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant  

SciTech Connect

New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and <1-7 CFU/m{sup 3} for fungi at 25 deg. C, fungi at 37 deg. C, total bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively) and VOCs (ranging from 0.9 to 121.2 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) are very low in comparison to reported levels in indoor and outdoor air in composting and MBT plants, as well in urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment.

Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Marti [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Inza, Isabel; Figueras, Maria J. [Unit of Microbiology, School of Medicine, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, Jose L. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, 'Rovira i Virgili' University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)], E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat

2009-09-15

427

Effects of macrophytes and external carbon sources on nitrate removal from groundwater in constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several microcosm wetlands unplanted and planted with five macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Commelina communis, Penniserum purpureum, Ipomoea aquatica, and Pistia stratiotes) were employed to remove nitrate from groundwater at a concentration of 21–47 mg NO3-N\\/l. In the absence of external carbon, nitrate removal rates ranged from 0.63 to 1.26 g NO3-N\\/m2\\/day for planted wetlands. Planted wetlands exhibited significantly greater nitrate removal

Ying-Feng Lin; Shuh-Ren Jing; Tze-Wen Wang; Der-Yuan Lee

2002-01-01

428

Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants interactively increase plant performance  

PubMed Central

While plant diversity is well known to increase primary productivity, whether these bottom-up effects are enhanced by reciprocal top-down effects from the third trophic level is unknown. We studied whether pine tree species diversity, aphid-tending ants and their interaction determined plant performance and arthropod community structure. Plant diversity had a positive effect on aphids, but only in the presence of mutualistic ants, leading to a threefold greater number of both groups in the tri-specific cultures than in monocultures. Plant diversity increased ant abundance not only by increasing aphid number, but also by increasing ant recruitment per aphid. The positive effect of diversity on ants in turn cascaded down to increase plant performance; diversity increased plant growth (but not biomass), and this effect was stronger in the presence of ants. Consequently, bottom-up effects of diversity within the same genus and guild of plants, and top-down effects from the third trophic level (predatory ants), interactively increased plant performance.

Moreira, Xoaquin; Mooney, Kailen A.; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis

2012-01-01

429

Preliminary research study for the construction of a pilot cogeneration desalination plant in southern California. Water treatment technology program report No. 7 (Final)  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual plant design and a slightly conservative cost estimate were developed to evaluate the economic desirability and the overall system efficiency impact. The conceptual design includes a gas turbine-generator set with a heat recovery steam generator to produce electricity and steam. The steam is utilized in the desalination processes. For this study, two desalination technologies were considered: multi-effect distillation and multi-stage flash evaporation.

Tadros, S.K.

1995-05-01

430

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

431

Partial MHC class II constructs inhibit MIF/CD74 binding and downstream effects  

PubMed Central

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its receptor, CD74, are pivotal regulators of the immune system. Here we demonstrate for the first time that partial MHC class II constructs comprised of linked ?1?1 domains with covalently attached antigenic peptides (also referred to as recombinant T-cell receptor ligands - RTLs) can inhibit MIF activity by not only blocking the binding of rhMIF to immunopurified CD74, but also down-regulating CD74 cell-surface expression. This bi-functional inhibition of MIF/CD74 interactions blocked downstream MIF effects, including enhanced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, anti-apoptotic activity and inhibition of random migration that all contribute to the reversal of clinical and histological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Moreover, we demonstrate that enhanced CD74 cell surface expression on monocytes in mice with EAE and subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be down-regulated by humanized RTLs, resulting in reduced MIF binding to the cells. Thus, binding of partial MHC complexes to CD74 blocks both the accessibility and availability of CD74 for MIF binding and downstream inflammatory activity.

Benedek, Gil; Meza-Romero, Roberto; Andrew, Shayne; Leng, Lin; Burrows, Gregory G.; Bourdette, Dennis; Offner, Halina; Bucala, Richard; Vandenbark, Arthur A.

2013-01-01

432

Model analysis of effects on water levels at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by construction dewatering  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The computer models were developed to investigate possible hydrologic effects within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore caused by planned dewatering at the adjacent Bailly Nuclear Generator construction site. The model analysis indicated that the planned dewatering would cause a drawdown of about 4 ft under the westernmost pond of the Lakeshore and that this drawdown would cause the pond to go almost dry--less than 0.5 ft of water remaining in about 1 percent of the pond--under average conditions during the 18-month dewatering period. When water levels are below average, as during late July and early August 1974, the pond would go dry in about 5.5 months. However, the pond may not have to go completely dry to damage the ecosystem. If the National Park Service 's independent study determines the minimum pond level at which ecosystem damage would be minimized, the models developed in this study could be used to predict the hydrologic conditions necessary to maintain that level. (Woodard-USGS)

Marie, James R.

1976-01-01

433

Mitigation of chlorpyrifos runoff using constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate effects of pesticide-associated agricultural runoff. Wetland mesocosms (14m×59–73m) were amended with chlorpyrifos to simulate a storm runoff event at concentrations of 73, 147 and 733 ?g\\/l. Water, sediment and plant samples collected weekly for 12 weeks indicated that chlorpyrifos rapidly sorbed to sediment and plant material,

M. T. Moore; R. Schulz; C. M. Cooper; S. Smith Jr; J. H. Rodgers Jr

2002-01-01

434

Host plant species effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in tallgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous in many herbaceous plant communities\\u000a and can have large effects on these communities and ecosystem processes. The extent of species-specificity between these plant\\u000a and fungal symbionts in nature is poorly known, yet reciprocal effects of the composition of plant and soil microbe communities\\u000a is an important assumption of recent

Ahn-Heum Eom; David C. Hartnett; G. W. T. Wilson

2000-01-01

435

The modulating effect of bacterial volatiles on plant growth  

PubMed Central

Bacteria interact with plants in many different ways. In recent years, bacterial production of volatiles has emerged as a novel process by which bacteria modulate plant growth. Exposure to the volatiles produced by certain bacterial strains has been shown to lead to up to 5-fold increased plant biomass or to plant death. Despite these drastic growth alterations, the elucidation of the molecules responsible, of the mechanisms of perception by the plant and of the specific metabolic changes induced in planta is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the current knowledge and highlights future lines of research that should increase our knowledge of the volatile-mediated dialog between bacteria and plants.

Bailly, Aurelien; Weisskopf, Laure

2012-01-01

436

Can dispersal mode predict corridor effects on plant parasites?  

SciTech Connect

Habitat corridors, a common management strategy for increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes, have experimentally validated positive influences on species movement and diversity. However, long-standing concerns that corridors could negatively impact native species by spreading antagonists, such as disease, remain largely untested. Using a large-scale, replicated experiment, we evaluated whether corridors increase the incidence of plant parasites. We found that corridor impacts varied with parasite dispersal mode. Connectivity provided by corridors increased incidence of biotically dispersed parasites (galls on Solidago odora) but not of abiotically dispersed parasites (foliar fungi on S. odora and three Lespedeza spp.). Both biotically and abiotically dispersed parasites responded to edge effects, but the direction of responses varied across species. Although our results require additional tests for generality to other species and landscapes, they suggest that, when establishing conservation corridors, managers should focus on mitigating two potential negative effects: the indirect effects of narrow corridors in creating edges and direct effects of corridors in enhancing connectivity of biotically dispersed parasites.

Sullivan, Lauren, L.; Johnson, Brenda, L.; Brudvig, Lars, A.; Haddad, Nick, M.

2011-08-01

437

Ecological Effectiveness of Vetiver Constructed Wetlands in Treating Oil-Refined Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater produced from the oil refinery of the Maoming Petro-Chemical Company, China Petro-Chemical Corporation contains high concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants, therefore it cannot be discharged directly into river or sea unless being treated first. Four plant species, Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Lepironia articutala we re planted in large containers as a ver tical flow wetland

Hanping Xia; Honghua Ke; Zhaoping Deng; Peng Tan; Shizhong Liu

438

Effect of Special Features of Nuclear Power Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special features of nuclear power plants are reported with the Muelheim-Kaerlich pressurized water reactor as the reference plant. This nuclear reactor uses 'Once Through Steam Generators (OTSG)' with 'Integrated Economizer' to provide the turbine with su...

H. Scharf

1986-01-01

439

Effects of local control station design variation on plant risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A human factors analysis was performed to assess how selected modifications to local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants affect both human performance and plant risk. Modifications in the design of individual control panels and changes in func...

J. O'Hara C. Ruger J. Higgins W. Luckas D. Crouch

1989-01-01

440

Physiological Effects of Water Stress on Young Corn Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the mechanism of plant response to water stress by determining the sensitivity of leaf elongation, photosynthesis and transpiration in young corn plants to a decrease in leaf water potential. The sensitivity...

E. W. R. Barlow

1974-01-01

441

[The chiral mutagens: cytogenetic effects on higher plants].  

PubMed

The paper covers investigation of cytogenetic activity of chiral mutagens and their specific effects on the plant cells chromosomes of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Comparative analysis of cytogenetic activity of chiral NEU: S(+)1-N-nitroso- 1-N-methyl-3-N-sec-buthylureas (S(+)NMsBU) and R(-)1-N-nitroso- 1N-methyl-3-Nsec-buthylureas (R(-)NMsBU) on winter wheat was performed. As it was shown by the frequency of chromosomal aberrations the S(+) stereoisomer was twice more active than R(-). In addition to typical anaphase aberrations (fragments, bridges, lagging chromosomes) the numerous mitosis pathologies were revealed - K-mitoses, hyperspiralization and despiralization of chromosomes, unequal allocation of chromosomes between the daughter nuclei, mass fragmentation, nondisjunction and chromosome adhesion, three-pole mitoses, etc. Neither of the mentioned pathologies was observed under the action of NEU and gamma-rays. PMID:21950141

Morgun, V V; Larchenko, E A; Kostianovski?, R G; Keterinchuk, A M

2011-01-01