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1

Plant Light Box Construction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These instructions describe how to construct a plant light box from two stackable plastic file crates that are cut, lined with aluminum foil and lit with a 40/42-watt CFL bulb. This 3-page document includes a complete materials list and 12-step assembly instructions with photographs that illustrate each step. This light box works well for growing Fast Plants.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

2

Effects of single and multiple applications of glyphosate or aminopyralid on simple constructed plant communities.  

PubMed

To determine effects of multiple applications of herbicides on small constructed plant communities, Prunella vulgaris L.var. lanceolata Fern, Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) Alexeev, Clarkia amoena (Lehm.) Nels., and Cynosurus echinatus L. were grown together in small field plots. Plants were treated with glyphosate at target concentrations of 0?×?, 0.01?×?, 0.1?×?, and 0.2× a field application rate (FAR) of 1122?g?ha(-1) active ingredient (a.i.) for 3 yr in 1 location, and for 2 yr in a second location. Plants also were treated with aminopyralid at 0?×?, 0.037?×?, 0.136?×?, and 0.5× FAR of 123?g?ha(-1) a.i. for 2 yr in 2 locations. Plants received 1, 2, or 3 applications of each herbicide each year. Species and community responses depended on herbicide concentration and number of applications. With glyphosate, plant volume (modified formula for a cone) tended to decrease for all species (especially?C. echinatus), and the decreases generally became larger with more applications. Plant communities exposed to the 2 greatest concentrations initially differed from controls but then appeared to recover. With aminopyralid, C. amoena was essentially eliminated from the communities, especially at the 2 greatest FARs, whereas the other 3 species tended to have significant increases in volume, especially at the 2 smallest FARs. With aminopyralid, increasing numbers of applications produced variable results, and the plant community volume never tended to recover. PMID:25043825

Pfleeger, Thomas; Blakeley-Smith, Matthew; Lee, E Henry; King, George; Plocher, Milton; Olszyk, David

2014-10-01

3

Effects of plants and microorganisms in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands are a natural alternative to technical methods of wastewater treatment. However, our understanding of the complex processes caused by the plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater, and how they all interact with each other, is still rather incomplete.In this article, a closer look will be taken at the mechanisms of both plants in constructed wetlands

U. Stottmeister; A. Wießner; P. Kuschk; U. Kappelmeyer; M. Kästner; O. Bederski; R. A. Müller; H. Moormann

2003-01-01

4

Toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater and effects on constructed wetland plants.  

PubMed

The toxicity of high salinity tannery wastewater produced after an activated sludge secondary treatment on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium pratense, a species used as indicator in toxicity tests, was evaluated. Growth was inhibited by wastewater concentrations >25% and undiluted effluent caused a complete germination inhibition. Constructed wetlands (CWs) with Arundo donax or Sarcocornia fruticosa were envisaged to further polish this wastewater. Selection of plant species to use in CWs for industrial wastewater treatment is an important issue, since for a successful establishment they have to tolerate the often harsh wastewater composition. For that, the effects of this wastewater on the growth of Arundo and Sarcocornia were assessed in pot assays. Plants were subject to different wastewater contents (0/50/100%), and both were resilient to the imposed conditions. Arundo had higher growth rates and biomass than Sarcocornia and may therefore be the preferred species for use in CWs treating tannery wastewater. CWs planted with the above mentioned plants significantly decreased the toxicity of the wastewater, as effluent from the CWs outlet stimulated the growth of Trifolium at concentrations <50%, and seed germination and growth even occurred in undiluted effluent. PMID:22908635

Calheiros, Cristina S C; Silva, Gabriela; Quitério, Paula V B; Crispim, Luís F C; Brix, Hans; Moura, Sandra C; Castro, Paula M L

2012-08-01

5

Construct design for efficient, effective and high-throughput gene silencing in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Post-transcriptional silencing of plant genes using anti-sense or co-suppression constructs usually results in only a modest proportion of silenced individuals. Recent work has demonstrated the potential for constructs encoding self-complementary 'hairpin' RNA (hpRNA) to efficiently silence genes. In this study we examine design rules for efficient gene silencing, in terms of both the proportion of independent transgenic plants showing

S. Varsha Wesley; Christopher A. Helliwell; Neil A. Smith; MingBo Wang; Dean T. Rouse; Qing Liu; Paul S. Gooding; Surinder P. Singh; David Abbott; Peter A. Stoutjesdijk; Simon P. Robinson; Andrew P. Gleave; Allan G. Green; Peter M. Waterhouse

2001-01-01

6

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Hg,Pb,Mg,Mn,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants and aquatic insects of three acidified (pH [approximately] 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH [approximately] 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than

Peter H. Albers; Michael B. Camardese

1993-01-01

7

Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

1993-01-01

8

EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

9

COMPOST EFFECT ON WATER RETENTION AND NATIVE PLANT ESTABLISHMENT ON A CONSTRUCTION EMBANKMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Compost amendment of soil provides multiple benefits. Studies have documented the effect of compost on soil properties, but information reporting benefits to soil and plant establishment on non-agricultural soils are lacking. Our objective was to determine if yard-waste compost application at diff...

10

Effects of single and multiple applications of glyphosate and aminopyralid on simple constructed plant communities  

EPA Science Inventory

Plant tests required for the registration of pesticides are generally performed under controlled laboratory/greenhouse conditions using single exposures, and the results may or may not be relevant to protecting plant communities or ecosystems. We report results from a field test ...

11

A review of plant-pharmaceutical interactions: from uptake and effects in crop plants to phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Pharmaceuticals are commonly found both in the aquatic and the agricultural environments as a consequence of the human activities and associated discharge of wastewater effluents to the environment. The utilization of treated effluent for crop irrigation, along with land application of manure and biosolids, accelerates the introduction of these compounds into arable lands and crops. Despite the low concentrations of pharmaceuticals usually found, the continuous introduction into the environment from different pathways makes them 'pseudo-persistent'. Several reviews have been published regarding the potential impact of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals on arable land. However, plant uptake as well as phytotoxicity data are scarcely studied. Simultaneously, phytoremediation as a tool for pharmaceutical removal from soils, sediments and water is starting to be researched, with promising results. This review gives an in-depth overview of the phytotoxicity of pharmaceuticals, their uptake and their removal by plants. The aim of the current work was to map the present knowledge concerning pharmaceutical interactions with plants in terms of uptake and the use of plant-based systems for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:24481515

Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Brix, Hans

2014-10-01

12

Facilities Engineering & Construction PHYSICAL PLANT DEPARTMENT  

E-print Network

Facilities Engineering & Construction SHEET PHYSICAL PLANT DEPARTMENT APPROVED SCALE DATE CHECKED 9A 45 44 43 42 42A 41 40 39 38 27 28 26 14 23C 23 23A 23A1 23B 24 18 22 WOMEN MEN 20 2119 17 UP 11 Engineering & Construction SHEET PHYSICAL PLANT DEPARTMENT APPROVED SCALE DATE CHECKED DWG.FILE No. GEODETIC

Lennard, William N.

13

Construction poses highest power plant fire threat  

SciTech Connect

Power plants are more vulnerable to fire during the construction period than at any other time. Data gathered from fires at plant construction sites show that 65% result from cutting and welding activities and that the Control of combustible materials and work processes is the key factor. Contractors need to cooperate on cleanup and to upgrade the quality of temporary buildings on the site. Among the steps which could reduce fire risks are the early installation of water for fire hydrants and automatic sprinklers, testing of tarpaulins for flame retardency, the use of metal or fire retardant scaffolding and forms, approved temporary heating equipment, flushing turbine oil systems before startup, and the use of non-flammable water pipe tubing. Seven safety rules are outlined for welding and cutting procedures. (DCK)

Not Available

1980-03-01

14

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

15

Effects of sulphur cycle processes on ammonia removal in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland planted with Juncus effusus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of detoxification by sulphide reoxidation in the rhizosphere of treatment wetlands and responses of microorganisms and plants is insufficient.In a laboratory-scale wetland (Juncus effusus) with long-term, highly efficient sulphate reduction inside the rhizosphere, a short-term interruption of C\\/S-supply was carried out to study S-dynamics and responses of microorganisms and plants.Interruption of C\\/S-supply immediately caused reoxidation of the reduced

A. Wiessner; A. E. Gonzalias; M. Kästner; P. Kuschk

2008-01-01

16

Fast Construction of Plant Architectural Models Based on Substructure Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant structure, representing the physical link among different organs, includes many similar substructures. In this paper, a new method is presented to construct plant architectural models of most plant species. The plant structure is decomposed into a stem, a set of lateral substructures and a terminal substructure, which is called substructure decomposition; then based on substructure decomposition, the plant structures

Hongping Yan; Philippe De Reffye; Chunhong Pan; Bao-gang Hu

2003-01-01

17

Constructing and Planting Fast Plants in a Deli-containter Growing System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrated instructions for constructing and planting in the Fast Plants deli-container growing system. This is a stable growing system that is easy to construct for all age learners, and works well for growing Wisconsin Fast Plants. Made from recycled deli-containers, these growing systems can be cleaned and reused for multiple years.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

18

47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32.2003 Section 32.2003 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER...

2010-10-01

19

9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING PIPELINE FORMS, April 24, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

20

Construction costs for some aquatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation reflects a plant's response to its environment and affects its overall growth and performance in a particular habitat. We measured ash, C, N, and caloric content for various parts of Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle, Potamogeton nodosus Poir., P. gramineus L., and P. pectinatus L. Mean ash content of vegetative propagules ranged from 2.96 to 5.46%, lower than values

David F. Spencer; Frederick J. Ryan; Greg G. Ksander

1997-01-01

21

TECHNICAL ARTICLES PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL ARTICLES #12;2 PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Hans Brix Risskov, Denmark ABSTRACT Vegetation plays an important role in wastewater treatment wetlands. Plants treatment systems aesthetically pleasing. Wetland species of all growth forms have been used in treatment

Brix, Hans

22

The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

2015-02-01

23

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—II. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20 month period. Hydraulic

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

24

Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—I. Removal of oxygen demand, suspended solids and faecal coliforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of influent loading rate on mass removal of BOD, SS and faecal coliforms (FC) from dairy parlour wastewaters was compared in four pairs of planted (Schoenoplectus validus) and unplanted gravel-bed wetlands (each 19 m2). The wetlands were operated at nominal retention times of 7, 5.5, 3 and 2 days, with in and outflows sampled fortnightly over a 20

Chris C. Tanner; John S. Clayton; Martin P. Upsdell

1995-01-01

25

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS  

E-print Network

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS FY-2009 ANNUAL REPORT Savannah River Ecology ................................................................................................. 4 Chapter II Amphibian and Reptile Use of the H-02 Wetland .................................... 5 ............................................................................................... 27 Chapter III Vegetation Community of the H-02 Wetlands: Importance to Amphibians

Georgia, University of

26

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS  

E-print Network

H-02 CONSTRUCTED WETLAND STUDIES AMPHIBIANS AND PLANTS FY-2008 ANNUAL REPORT Savannah River Ecology ................................................................................................. 4 CHAPTER II -- AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE USE OF THE H-02 WETLAND .................................... 5 ............................................................................................... 17 CHAPTER III: VEGETATION COMMUNITY OF THE H-02 WETLANDS -- IMPORTANCE TO AMPHIBIANS

Georgia, University of

27

Signalling Network Construction for Modelling Plant Defence Response  

PubMed Central

Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for modelling other biological systems, given that an adequate vocabulary is provided. PMID:23272172

Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjaša; Mozeti?, Igor; Podpe?an, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavra?, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

2012-01-01

28

[Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].  

PubMed

Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers. PMID:23745437

He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

2013-03-01

29

Construction of Simulation Model for OTEC Plant Using Uehara Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) converts heat energy into electricity using 20-27[°C] temperature difference between warm seawater at surface and cold seawater in depth. In this paper, a simulation model for an OTEC plant, which uses the Uehara cycle with an ammonia-water mixture as working fluid, is constructed based on the mass balance and the heat balance. Moreover, a method of the initial value determination for numerical simulation is developed. Accuracy of the simulation model was evaluated by comparing with the experimental results of a pilot OTEC plant.

Goto, Satoru; Motoshima, Yoshiki; Sugi, Takenao; Yasunaga, Takeshi; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Masatoshi

30

Integrated carbonizer/CPFBC pilot plant construction and testing  

SciTech Connect

The key components of second-generation or advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (APFBC) plants have been successfully tested separately at the pilot plant scale. The tests involved a 254-mm (10-in.)-diameter bubbling bed carbonizer, a 203-mm (8-in.)-diameter circulating bed carbonizer, and a 203-mm (8-in.)-diameter circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor operating at 1.42-MPa (14-atm) pressure. In these tests particle-capturing ceramic barrier filters were incorporated to investigate gas compatibility issues. The next step in the development of APFBC plant technology is to integrate a carbonizer and a CPFBC, together with their ceramic barrier filters, and then operate the subsystem to investigate integration characteristics. These tests will involve load following and transfer of the char from the reducing atmosphere of the carbonizer to the oxidizing atmosphere of the CPFBC at steady and controlled rates. This paper describes the integrated carbonizer/CPFBC pilot plant that is being constructed to perform these tests at Foster Wheeler Development Corporation`s John Blizard Research Center in Livingston, New Jersey. Construction and commissioning progress are presented, along with an overview of test data collected to date.

Robertson, A.; Van Hook, J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

31

Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

2004-10-06

32

Temperature, plants, and oxygen: how does season affect constructed wetland performance?  

PubMed

The influence of temperature and plant-mediated oxygen transfer continues to draw attention from researchers, practitioners and regulators interested in the use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Because the vast majority of research on constructed wetland performance has been conducted during periods of active plant growth, the true influence of temperature, season, and plant species selection on constructed wetlands performance has not yet been evaluated adequately. In this article, we briefly summarize changes in the understanding of these influences on wetland performance, and suggest that effects of temperature and oxygen transfer are not readily separable because both factors respond to seasonal cycles and because effects of one can offset the other. We further speculate that the net effect of seasonal variation in these factors is such that plant-mediated oxygen transfer affects water treatment most in winter. Results of controlled-environment experiments conducted at Montana State University support these perspectives. Different plant species' capacities to oxidize the root zone responded differently to seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy, and species' effects on wastewater treatment were most pronounced in winter. PMID:15921285

Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

2005-01-01

33

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

34

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE AMMONIUM NITRATE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST 24, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

35

Application of RFID to High-Reliability Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear power plant construction, countless variety of parts, products, and jigs more than one million are treated under construction. Furthermore, strict traceability to the history of material, manufacturing, and installation is required for all products from the start to finish of the construction, which enforce much workforce and many costs at every project. In an addition, the operational efficiency improvement is absolutely essential for the effective construction to reduce the initial investment for construction. As one solution, RFID (Radio Frequent Identification) application technology, one of the fundamental technologies to realize a ubiquitous society, currently expands its functionality and general versatility at an accelerating pace in mass-production industry. Hitachi believes RFID technology can be useful of one of the key solutions for the issues in non-mass production industry as well. Under this situation, Hitachi initiated the development of next generation plant concept (ubiquitous plant construction technology) which utilizes information and RFID technologies. In this paper, our application plans of RFID technology to nuclear power is described. (authors)

Kenji Akagi; Masayuki Ishiwata; Kenji Araki; Jun-ichi Kawahata [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan)

2006-07-01

36

The analysis of cracks in high-pressure piping and their effects on strength and lifetime of construction components at the Ignalina nuclear plant  

SciTech Connect

A number of cracks and damages of other sorts have been identified in the high-pressure parts at the Ignalina Nuclear Plant. They are caused by inadequate production- and repair technologies, as well as by thermal, chemical and mechanical processes of their performance. Several techniques are available as predictions of cracks and other defects of pressurized vessels. The choice of an experimental technique should be based on the level of its agreement with the actual processes.

Aleev, A.; Petkevicius, K.; Senkus, V. [and others

1997-04-01

37

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2010-04-01

38

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2011-04-01

39

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2013-04-01

40

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2014-04-01

41

21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food...OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design...construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant you use in...

2012-04-01

42

Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.  

PubMed

The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O?/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH?-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification. PMID:24777322

Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

2014-08-01

43

Arrival order among native plant functional groups does not affect invasibility of constructed dune communities.  

PubMed

Different arrival order scenarios of native functional groups to a site may influence both resource use during development and final community structure. Arrival order may then indirectly influence community resistance to invasion. We present a mesocosm experiment of constructed coastal dune communities that monitored biotic and abiotic responses to different arrival orders of native functional groups. Constructed communities were compared with unplanted mesocosms. We then simulated a single invasion event by bitou (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata), a dominant exotic shrub of coastal communities. We evaluated the hypothesis that plantings with simultaneous representation of grass, herb and shrub functional groups at the beginning of the experiment would more completely sequester resources and limit invasion than staggered plantings. Staggered plantings in turn would offer greater resource use and invasion resistance than unplanted mesocosms. Contrary to our expectations, there were few effects of arrival order on abiotic variables for the duration of the experiment and arrival order was unimportant in final community invasibility. All planted mesocosms supported significantly more invader germinants and significantly less invader abundance than unplanted mesocosms. Native functional group plantings may have a nurse effect during the invader germination and establishment phase and a competitive function during the invader juvenile and adult phase. Arrival order per se did not affect resource use and community invasibility in our mesocosm experiment. While grass, herb and shrub functional group plantings will not prevent invasion success in restored communities, they may limit final invader biomass. PMID:23468238

Mason, T J; French, K; Jolley, D

2013-10-01

44

Effects of Plant Closing on Employee Attitudes: The Case of the GE Plant in Columbia, Tennessee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of plant closing on hourly production employees' attitudes and behavior intentions at a General Electric (GE) plant in Columbia, Tennessee. A survey was constructed and used to collect data from 5 percent of the 400 hourly employees in November 1993, shortly after the announcement of the plant closing. The survey…

Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Crofford, Amy Beth

45

RADON MITIGATION EFFECTIVENESS IN NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the radon mitigation methods outlined in the EPA's Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings. Forty seven homes were constructed and monitored. Forty two were located in counties designated as Zone 1 by the EPA's Map of Radon Zones. All homes contained passive vent pipes to

Robert Dewey; Mark Nowak; David Muraine

46

Effectiveness of 4D construction modeling in detecting time-space conflicts of construction sites  

E-print Network

This research investigated whether 4D construction model effectively helps project participants on construction sites in detecting time-space conflicts in the schedule. Previous researchers on construction space management typically modeled space...

Nigudkar, Narendra Shriniwas

2005-11-01

47

Risk Framework for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant Construction  

E-print Network

of waterfront nuclear power plants is one of the essential conditions for nuclear power plant safety (K. Dobasgi, 1997). Since the weather at the waterfront is variable and harsh with storms, tsunamis, and earthquakes, a nuclear plant is always exposed...

Yeon, Jaeheum 1981-

2012-12-11

48

Nitrogen transformations and retention in planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) processing in constructed wetlands (CWs) is often variable, and the contribution to N loss and retention by various pathways (nitrification/denitrification, plant uptake and sediment storage) remains unclear. We studied the seasonal variation of the effects of artificial aeration and three different macrophyte species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia and Phalaris arundinacea) on N processing (removal rates, transformations and export) using experimental CW mesocosms. Removal of total nitrogen (TN) was higher in summer and in planted and aerated units, with the highest mean removal in units planted with T. angustifolia. Export of ammonium (NH(4)(+)), a proxy for nitrification limitation, was higher in winter, and in unplanted and non-aerated units. Planted and aerated units had the highest export of oxidized nitrogen (NO(y)), a proxy for reduced denitrification. Redox potential, evapotranspiration (ETP) rates and hydraulic retention times (HRT) were all predictors of TN, NH(4)(+) and NO(y) export, and significantly affected by plants. Denitrification was the main N sink in most treatments accounting for 47-62% of TN removal, while sediment storage was dominant in unplanted non-aerated units and units planted with P. arundinacea. Plant uptake accounted for less than 20% of the removal. Uncertainties about the long-term fate of the N stored in sediments suggest that the fraction attributed to denitrification losses could be underestimated in this study. PMID:19036399

Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

2009-02-01

49

43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

50

42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

51

Biodiversity Effects on Plant Stoichiometry  

PubMed Central

In the course of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate, the issue of multifunctionality of species communities has recently become a major focus. Elemental stoichiometry is related to a variety of processes reflecting multiple plant responses to the biotic and abiotic environment. It can thus be expected that the diversity of a plant assemblage alters community level plant tissue chemistry. We explored elemental stoichiometry in aboveground plant tissue (ratios of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and its relationship to plant diversity in a 5-year study in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). Species richness and functional group richness affected community stoichiometry, especially by increasing C:P and N:P ratios. The primacy of either species or functional group richness effects depended on the sequence of testing these terms, indicating that both aspects of richness were congruent and complementary to expected strong effects of legume presence and grass presence on plant chemical composition. Legumes and grasses had antagonistic effects on C:N (?27.7% in the presence of legumes, +32.7% in the presence of grasses). In addition to diversity effects on mean ratios, higher species richness consistently decreased the variance of chemical composition for all elemental ratios. The diversity effects on plant stoichiometry has several non-exclusive explanations: The reduction in variance can reflect a statistical averaging effect of species with different chemical composition or a optimization of nutrient uptake at high diversity, leading to converging ratios at high diversity. The shifts in mean ratios potentially reflect higher allocation to stem tissue as plants grew taller at higher richness. By showing a first link between plant diversity and stoichiometry in a multiyear experiment, our results indicate that losing plant species from grassland ecosystems will lead to less reliable chemical composition of forage for herbivorous consumers and belowground litter input. PMID:23483990

Abbas, Maike; Ebeling, Anne; Oelmann, Yvonne; Ptacnik, Robert; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Hillebrand, Helmut

2013-01-01

52

47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...original cost of construction projects (note also § 32.2000(c)) of this part and the cost of software development projects that are not yet ready for their...the cost of any construction project which is estimated to be...

2011-10-01

53

[Ecological risk assessment of dam construction for terrestrial plant species in middle reach of Lancangjiang River, Southwest China].  

PubMed

Taking the surrounding areas of Xiaowan Reservoir in the middle reach of Lancangjiang River as study area, and based on the vegetation investigation at three sites including electricity transmission area (site 1), electricity-transfer substation and roadsides to the substation (site 2), and emigration area (site 3) in 1997 (before dam construction), another investigation was conducted on the vegetation composition, plant coverage, and dominant species at the same sites in 2010 (after dam construction), aimed to evaluate the ecological risk of the dam construction for the terrestrial plant species in middle reach of Lancangjiang River. There was an obvious difference in the summed dominance ratio of dominant species at the three sites before and after the dam construction. According the types of species (dominant and non-dominant species) and the changes of plant dominance, the ecological risk (ER) for the plant species was categorized into 0 to IV, i.e., no or extremely low ecological risk (0), low ecological risk (I), medium ecological risk (II), high ecological risk (III), and extremely high ecological risk (IV). As affected by the dam construction, the majority of the species were at ER III, and a few species were at ER IV. The percentage of the plant species at ER III and ER IV at site 3 was higher than that at sites 1 and 2. The decrease or loss of native plants and the increase of alien or invasive plants were the major ecological risks caused by the dam construction. Effective protection strategies should be adopted to mitigate the ecological risk of the dam construction for the terrestrial plants at species level. PMID:23189705

Li, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Shi-Kui; Liu, Shi-Liang; Peng, Ming-Chun; Li, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Qing-He; Zhang, Zhao-Ling

2012-08-01

54

The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics  

E-print Network

Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth u...

Bel, Golan

2013-01-01

55

Treatment of domestic wastewater in tropical, subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with Canna and Heliconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands have a good potential for wastewater treatment in developing countries due to the simple operation and low implementation costs. Ornamental plants like Canna and Heliconia are used in the wetlands to increase their aesthetic value and these two species were compared in this study. Six pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland units were constructed at the Asian

Dennis Konnerup; Thammarat Koottatep; Hans Brix

2009-01-01

56

Audit of construction of an environmental, safety, and health analytical laboratory at the Pantex Plant  

SciTech Connect

This document is a report from the Office of the Inspector General, US DOE. The report evaluates the need for the construction of an Environmental, Safety, and Health Laboratory at the Pantex Plant and if this project is the most cost effective manner in which to meet mission needs. It was found that: (1) mission needs were being met with existing facilities, (2) required evaluations of alternatives were not performed, (3) decisions were made based on out-dated justifications, and (4) the expenditure of $8.4M was unnecessary. As a result, it was recommended that funded be suspended until the need is clearly established.

NONE

1995-10-01

57

Treatment of Domestic Wastewater by Three Plant Species in Constructed Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three common Appalachian plant species (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus validus L., and Typha latifolia L.) were planted into small-scale constructed wetlands receivingprimary treated wastewater. The experimental design includedtwo wetland gravel depths (45 and 60 cm) and five plantingtreatments (each species in monoculture, an equal mixture of the three species, and controls without vegetation), with two replicates per depth × planting

Jerry Coleman; Keith Hench; Keith Garbutt; Alan Sexstone; Gary Bissonnette; Jeff Skousen

2001-01-01

58

Construction and Deployment of a Plant Ontology Riichiro Mizoguchi, Kouji Kozaki, Toshinobu Sano and Yoshinobu Kitamura  

E-print Network

in an interface system for an oil-refinery plant operation which has been done under the umbrella of Human. This paper presents an activity of ontology construction and its deployment in Oil-refinery plant which has" running as a subproject of Human Media project. The interface for oil-refinery plant operation has been

Mizoguchi, Riichiro

59

Technical WOrk Plan for: Construction Effects Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This document is the technical work plan (TWP) for performing the Construction Effects Monitoring (CEM) activity, which is one of 20 testing and monitoring activities included in Performance Confirmation Plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172452]). Collectively, the 20 activities make up the Performance Confirmation Program described in the plan. Each of the other 19 activities will have a separate TWP. This plan, though titled Construction Effects Monitoring, in accordance with the Performance Confirmation Plan, also includes testing that may be performed in addition to monitoring, if required. Performance confirmation is required by regulation 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173273], and was started during site characterization (consistent with the regulation) and will continue until permanent closure of the repository (10 CFR 63.13 1 (b) [DIRS 173273]). This CEM activity has two primary goals: (1) to collect, analyze, and report on repository rock properties data for the purpose of confirming geotechnical and design parameters used in repository design, and (2) to provide information intended to confirm that the ability to retrieve waste from the repository has been preserved. It will be necessary for information from this CEM activity to be evaluated in combination with that obtained from other Performance Confirmation Program activities to achieve these goals. These relationships with other Performance Confirmation Program activities (e.g., drift inspection, subsurface mapping, and seismicity monitoring) will be discussed in later sections of this TWP.

S. Goodin

2006-09-14

60

Construction and startup of a wood gasification pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Georgia Tech embarked on the development of a pilot plant for wood gasification research in March 1979. The pilot plant gasifier was designed for a wide range of research. This includes modeling and testing of gasifier feed systems, ash extraction systems, air and steam injection systems, burners, gas cleanup equipment, waste disposal systems, and safety equipment. Potential application to be

A. D. Jape; T. F. McGowan

1982-01-01

61

Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH(4) was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH(4) fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH(4) fluxes but favoured CO(2) production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP<15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. PMID:19110349

Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

2009-03-01

62

Fossil fuel power plant constructibility research: needs and priorities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Investment costs for new power plants have increased dramatically in recent years. One means of lowering plant investment costs would be to reduce construction costs. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is exploring the feasibility of conducting a 5-year program to research methods for improving fossil-fueled power plant constructibility. To help identify areas in the life cycle of a power plant construction project having potential for improvement through research and development, the scoping study outlined in this report was undertaken. The objective was to identify and prioritize areas of constructibility having potential for improvement through research and development. The results seem to indicate that improving power plant constructibility begins in the design office and manufacturing facilities. Areas such as power plant configuration, modularization, signal transmission, and instrumentation, which were consistently rated as having high impact on constructibility are greatly influenced by the design and manufacturing segments of the industry. Based on the enthusiastic support shown by participants during the course of this study, the need for constructibility improvement, and the potential benefits available, it is concluded that the proposed constructibility research program currently under consideration by EPRI be developed and implemented.

Yesensky, M.; Freeman, J.E.

1984-10-01

63

Modelling Plant Compensatory Effects in Plant-Insects dynamics  

E-print Network

Modelling Plant Compensatory Effects in Plant-Insects dynamics Audrey Lebon, Yves Dumont Umr AMAP or even to obtain a better biomass yield. Index Terms--Mathematical modelling, crop protection, plant-insect]. The relationships between insect populations and plants are complex and their dynamics difficult to pre- dict

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

Minimizing environmental risks on constructing marine pipelines: Aguilas desalination plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the building of marine brine discharge pipelines from desalination plants, there are some technical and environmental conditions that require previous numerous studies to guarantee their viability. In the project of Águilas desalination plant with a production capacity of 180.000?m\\/day, in Murcia, Spain, a marine emissary was designed. It was made up of various sections that entail different building complexities.

Beatriz Arconada; Patricia Delgado; Ángel García

2012-01-01

65

A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and of the related construction cost structures of those facilities becomes essential for dealing with an effective regional water pollution control program. But deviations between the observed values and the estimated values are supposed to be due to measurement errors only in the conventional regression models. The inherent uncertainties of the underlying cost structure, where the human estimation is influential, are rarely explored. This paper is designed to recast a well-known problem of construction cost estimation for both domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants via a comparative framework. Comparisons were made for three technologies of regression analyses, including the conventional least squares regression method, the fuzzy linear regression method, and the newly derived fuzzy goal regression method. The case study, incorporating a complete database with 48 domestic wastewater treatment plants and 29 industrial wastewater treatment plants being collected in Taiwan, implements such a cost estimation procedure in an uncertain environment. Given that the fuzzy structure in regression estimation may account for the inherent human complexity in cost estimation, the fuzzy goal regression method does exhibit more robust results in terms of some criteria. Moderate economy of scale exists in constructing both the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Findings indicate that the optimal size of a domestic wastewater treatment plant is approximately equivalent to 15,000 m3/day (CMD) and higher in Taiwan. Yet the optimal size of an industrial wastewater treatment plant could fall in between 6000 CMD and 20,000 CMD. PMID:12369402

Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin

2002-08-01

66

Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.  

PubMed

Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-11-01

67

Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

2014-01-01

68

The effect of gravity on plant germination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20 degC under an average light condition of 110 mumol/m^2/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but was maintained above 90%. Since the tube containers were not large enough for long cultivation, shoot and root growth were observed every 12 hours until the sixth day from seeding. The lengths of shoots and roots for each individual plant were measured on the last day. The stem lengths were increased by microgravity but the root lengths were not. Under the negative gravity, negative orthogeotropism and under micro gravity, diageotropism was observed. No significant effect of increased gravity was observed on shoot and root growth.

Takakura, T.; Goto, E.; Tanaka, M.

1996-01-01

69

A fuzzy regression analysis for the construction cost estimation of wastewater treatment plants (I) theoretical development  

Microsoft Academic Search

To achieve the water pollution control policy at both the national and local levels, engineering projects regarding the construction of sewer system and wastewater treatment plants have been launched in many regions. But the fuzzy structure of construction cost, where human estimation is influential, may result in an impediment of economic feasibility in decision making. Therefore, an understanding of the

Y. L. Chen; H. W. Chen

1997-01-01

70

Colonization of a Newly Constructed Commercial Chicken Further Processing Plant with Listeria monocytogenes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a pr...

71

Design and construction of a modular pilot plant for the treatment of oil-containing wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular pilot size plant involving coagulation\\/flocculation, centrifugation, ultrafiltration and sorption processes has been designed and constructed. The pilot plant can be used for the treatment of different water-based coolants and oily wastewaters, generated in metalworking processes and steel cold rolling operations. Different treatments are considered depending on the nature of the oily waste emulsion. The main advantage of the

JoséManuel Benito; Guillermo Ríos; Enrique Ortea; Eva Fernández; Angel Cambiella; Carmen Pazos; José Coca

2002-01-01

72

Construction of short tandem target mimic (STTM) to block the functions of plant and animal microRNAs.  

PubMed

Small RNAs are widespread in plants and animals. They largely include microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and they play key roles in gene and chromatin regulations. Here we describe in detail the method for an effective construction of the recently developed short tandem target mimic (STTM) technology to block small RNA functions in plants and animals. STTM is a powerful technology complementing the previous target mimic (TM) in plants and the miRNA sponge, as well as the recently defined endogenous competing RNA (CeRNA) in animals. We expect STTM will not only be effective in blocking small RNA functions in plants but will also become a popular approach in animals. PMID:23098881

Tang, Guiliang; Yan, Jun; Gu, Yiyou; Qiao, Mengmeng; Fan, Ruiwen; Mao, Yiping; Tang, Xiaoqing

2012-10-01

73

Opportunities to expedite the construction of new coal-based power plants  

SciTech Connect

US Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the National Coal Council prepare a study identifying 'which opportunities could expedite the construction of new coal-fired electricity generation.' He also requested that the Council 'examine opportunities and incentives for additional emissions reduction including evaluating and replacing the oldest portion of our coal-fired power plant fleet with more efficient and lower emitting coal-fired plants.' A study group of experts who conducted the work can be found in Appendix D. The National Coal Council found the following: Coal is the fuel of choice now, and will remain so into the future; Natural gas has been the dominant fuel for new power plants in the last decade; Coal provides a pathway for greater energy independence; There is renewed interest in using coal to fuel new power plants; Generators are expected to remain credit worthy; Permitting delays have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Environmental regulatory approaches have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Uncertainty about CO{sub 2} emission reductions has been an impediment to the construction of new coalbased power plants; Incentives are still needed to facilitate the construction of advanced coal-based power plants; Lack of a regional planning approach has been an impediment to the construction of new coal-based power plants; and Infrastructure hurdles are impediments to the construction of new coal-based power plants. The Council's recommendations include: Streamline the permitting process; Recognize the strategic importance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology; Recognize the importance of other coal-based technologies; Encourage regional planning; Continue with meaningful R&D and with technology demonstration; Provide meaningful incentives for the commercialization and deployment of new advanced coal-based technologies. 7 apps.

Thomas G. Kraemer; Georgia Nelson; Robert Card; E. Linn Draper, Jr.; Michael J. Mudd [Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway Co. (United States)

2004-07-01

74

Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland.  

PubMed

Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1) was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%. Generally, there were tens differences among the 19 plant species in the concentrations and quantity accumulations of the heavy metals in aboveground part, underground part and whole plants. The distribution ratios into aboveground parts for the metals absorbed by plants varied also largely from about 30% to about 90%. All the plants accumulated, in one harvest, 19.85% of Cd, 22.55% of Pb and 23.75% of Zn that were added into the wastewater. Four plant species, e.g. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Zizania latifolia, Echinochloa crus-galli and Polygonum hydropiper, accumulated high amounts of Cd, Pb and Zn. Monochoria vaginalis was capable for accumulating Cd and Pb, Isachne globosa for Cd and Zn, and Digitaria sanguinalis and Fimbristylis miliacea for Zn. The results indicated that the plants, in constructed wetland for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals, can play important roles for removal of heavy metals through phytoextraction. Selection of plant species for use in constructed wetland will influence considerably removal efficiency and the function duration of the wetland. PMID:17353090

Liu, Jianguo; Dong, Yuan; Xu, Hai; Wang, Deke; Xu, Jiakuan

2007-08-25

75

A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant  

SciTech Connect

Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President’s Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project.

Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

2004-06-01

76

Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

1997-03-01

77

Effects of plants and plant products on the testis  

PubMed Central

For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

2010-01-01

78

Satellite observations of recent power plant construction in Inner Mongolia, China - article no. L15809  

SciTech Connect

About 50% of the increase in China's NOx emissions since 2000 can be attributed to the construction of new power plants. We show that the newly added NOx emissions from new power plants in Inner Mongolia, China, were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. Increase rates of NO{sub 2} columns from OMI and NOx emissions from inventories are even in quantitative agreement in cases where new facilities are added to already-developed regions. This study confirms that the OMI products are quite capable of identifying the construction of large new emitting facilities through detection of their NOx emissions.

Zhang, Q.; Streets, D.G.; He, K.B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

2009-08-15

79

Causes and effects of delays in Malaysian construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of delays in the construction industry is a global phenomenon and the construction industry in Malaysia is no exception. The main purpose of this study is to identify the delay factors and their impact (effect) on project completion. Earlier studies either considered the causes or the effects of project delays, separately. This study takes an integrated approach and

Murali Sambasivan; Yau Wen Soon

2007-01-01

80

Phytoremediation of explosives contaminated ground waters by plant enzyme systems in constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

A plant enzyme system has successfully degraded the explosives TNT, RDX, and HMX to environmentally acceptable products during laboratory studies. The process has been further studied in the field in batch systems. The field results have been consistent with the laboratory findings. An artificial wetlands will be constructed to remediate explosives contaminated ground water at an Army ammunition plant. An overview of the phytoremediation program will be presented.

Jackson, R.P. Jr. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

81

[Growth vitality and pollutants-removal ability of plants in constructed wetland in Beijing region].  

PubMed

Nine aquatic plant species commonly found in northern China were transplanted in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland in Beijing region to study their growth vitality in the wetland and their removal ability to the pollutants in domestic sewage. The results showed that the wetland's front unit had greater contribution to the COD, TN and TP removal than the rear ones, and all test plant species could grow well in the wetland. After growing for 112 days, different plant species had significant differences in their N and P contents and total biomass (P <0.05). For most species, the N and P contents were higher in underground than in aboveground part, and the biomass ratio of under-/aboveground part (U/A) was close to or exceeded 1. The accumulated N and P in the plants ranged from 1.36 to 7.89 g m(-2) and from 0.19 to 1.07 g m(-2), respectively, and the N and P accumulation in plants were more affected by plant biomass than by its N and P contents. Among the test plant species, Iris pseudacorus ranked the first in setting up the constructed wetland, followed by Typha angustifolia, Acorus calamus, and Triarrhena sacchariflora, whereas Alisma plantago-aquatica and Arundo donax were not recommended due to their sensitivity in cold winter in northern China. PMID:18655604

Wang, Qing-Hai; Duan, Liu-Sheng; Wu, Ju-Ying; Yang, Juan

2008-05-01

82

Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.  

PubMed

Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile. PMID:15627565

Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

2005-05-01

83

Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata  

PubMed Central

The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

2014-01-01

84

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

Not Available

1988-02-26

85

Trends in power plant construction lead times: Survey of project analysis and results  

SciTech Connect

This study focused on the problem of excessively long construction lead times and unexpected delays encountered by many nuclear power plant constructors in the recent past. The topics investigated are: current industry status; implications for planning and policy; long term planning; regulations; lead time; and cost growth. (FI)

Bauman, D.; Morris, P.; Radlouer, M.; Rice, T.

1987-01-01

86

Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands

Beverly S. Collins; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Daniel P. Coughlin

2005-01-01

87

Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland  

SciTech Connect

In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15

88

The Effect of Structured Divergent Prompts on Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion forums are a widely used activity in online courses. However, knowledge construction within online discussion rarely reaches higher levels. Therefore, it is important to understand which aspects of online discussion encourage learning and increase knowledge construction. This paper investigates the effect three Structured Divergent…

Howell, Ginger S.; Akpanudo, Usenime; Chen, Mengyi; Sutherlin, Autumn L.; James, Laura E.

2014-01-01

89

H-coal pilot plant. Phase II. Construction. Phase III. Operation. Annual report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

At the request of DOE Oak Ridge, ASFI agreed to assume responsibility for completion of Plant construction in December, 1979, at which time Badger Plants' on-site work was ended. This construction effort consisted of electric heat tracing and insulation of piping and instrumentation. At the close of the reporting period the work was completed, or was projected to be completed, within the ASFI budgeted amounts and by dates that will not impact Plant operations. Engineering design solutions were completed for problems encountered with such equipment as the High Pressure Letdown Valves; Slurry Block Valves; Slurry Pumps; the Bowl Mill System; the Dowtherm System; and the Ebullating Pump. A Corrosion Monitoring Program was established. With the exception of Area 500, the Antisolvent Deashing Unit, all operating units were commissioned and operated during the reporting period. Coal was first introduced into the Plant on May 29, 1980, with coal operations continuing periodically through September 30, 1980. The longest continuous coal run was 119 hours. A total of 677 tons of Kentucky No. 11 Coal were processed during the reporting period. The problems encountered were mechanical, not process, in nature. Various Environmental and Health programs were implemented to assure worker safety and protection and to obtain data from Plant operations for scientific analysis. These comprehensive programs will contribute greatly in determining the acceptability of long term H-Coal Plant operations.

Not Available

1981-02-04

90

Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

1998-01-01

91

Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity  

E-print Network

LETTER Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity Cameron productivity and plant coexistence. Using additive partitioning of biodiversity effects developed in plant that stimulated plant productivity the most in another soil type. Selection and complementarity effects among

Bruns, Tom

92

Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

NONE

1995-10-01

93

Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates. PMID:24056433

Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

2013-01-01

94

The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics  

E-print Network

Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. We show that psammophilous plants enrich the sand dune dynamics. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or three steady dune states. The activity of the dunes can be associated with the surface cover--bare dunes are active, and dunes with significant cover of vegetation, biogenic soil crust, or psammophilous plants are fixed. Our model shows that under suitable precipitation rates and wind power, the dynamics of the different cover types is in accordance with the common view that dunes are initially stabilized by psammophilous plants that reduce sand activity, thus enhancing the growth of regular vegetation that eventually dominates the cover of the dunes and determines their activity.

Golan Bel; Yosef Ashkenazy

2013-08-30

95

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion in wet lime\\/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The\\u000a frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious\\u000a threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their\\u000a life expectancy. The present

N. Rajendran; S. Rajeswari

1996-01-01

96

Accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species in constructed wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and distribution of Cd, Pb and Zn by 19 wetland plant species were investigated with experiments in small-scale plot constructed wetlands, into which artificial wastewater dosed with Cd, Pb and Zn at concentrations of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0mgl?1 was irrigated. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from the wastewater were more than 90%.

Jianguo Liu; Yuan Dong; Hai Xu; Deke Wang; Jiakuan Xu

2007-01-01

97

A novel approach to the generation of seamless constructs for plant transformation  

PubMed Central

Background When creating plant transformation vectors, full control of nucleotides flanking the insert in the final construct may be desirable. Modern ligase-independent methods for DNA-recombination are based on linearization by classical type II restriction endonucleases (REs) alone or in combination with nicking enzymes leaving residual nucleotides behind in the final construct. We here explore the use of type IIS and type IIB REs for vector linearization that combined with sequence and ligase-independent cloning (SLIC) overcomes this problem and promotes seamless gene-insertion in vectors. Providing the basis for a collection of biolistic plant transformation vectors ready to be cloned with different genes-of-interest, we present two vectors, where promoter and terminator are joined by a spacer. During spacer-removal linearization (SRL), type IIS and type IIB REs remove their own recognition sequences from the vector leaving no undesired, short sequences behind. Results We designed two plant transformation vectors prepared for SRL in combination with SLIC, pAUrumII and pAUrumIII, harboring a spacer with recognition sites for a type IIS and IIB RE, respectively. The gene for a green fluorescent protein, gfp, was successfully cloned into both vectors; traces of pAUrumIII, however, contaminated the transformation due to incomplete linearization, an issue not encountered with the type IIS linearized pAUrumII. Both constructs, pAUrumII-gfp and pAUrumIII-gfp, were functional, when tested in vitro on wheat and barley endosperm cells for transient gfp expression. Conclusions All nucleotides flanking an insert in a biolistic plant transformation vector can be customized by means of SRL in combination with SLIC. Especially type IIS REs promote an efficient cloning result. Based on our findings, we believe that the SRL system can be useful in a series of plant transformation vectors, favoring the presence of functional sequences for optimal expression over redundant cloning-site remnants. PMID:24855486

2014-01-01

98

Effect of feeding strategies on pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

This study presents findings on an assessment of the effect of continuous and batch feeding strategies on the removal of selected pharmaceuticals from synthetic wastewater. Six mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands, including three horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands and three sand filters, were set up at the campus of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The findings showed that ibuprofen and diclofenac removal in the wetlands was significantly ( < 0.05) enhanced in the batch versus continuous mode. In contrast, naproxen and carbamazepine showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in elimination under either feeding strategy. Our results also clearly showed that the presence of plants exerts a stimulatory effect on pharmaceutical removal for ibuprofen, diclofenac, and naproxen in batch and continuous mode. Estimation of the quantitative role of this stimulatory effect on pharmaceutical elimination of batch operation as compared with the effect of the presence of the higher plant alone showed that batch operation may account for 40 to 87% of the contribution conferred by the aquatic plant. The findings of this study imply that where maximal removal of pharmaceutical compounds is desired, periodic draining and filling might be the preferred operational strategy for full-scale, subsurface flow constructed wetlands. PMID:23099959

Zhang, Dong Qing; Gersberg, Richard M; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Junfei; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Law, Wing-Keung; Ng, Wun Jern; Tan, Soon Keat

2012-01-01

99

Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.  

PubMed

Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

2009-01-01

100

Frequency and quality of radiation monitoring of construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants.  

PubMed

Construction workers were and are considered temporary workers at many construction sites. Since World War II, large numbers of construction workers were employed at U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons sites for periods ranging from a few days to over 30 years. These workers performed tasks during new construction and maintenance, repair, renovation, and demolition of existing facilities. Such tasks may involve emergency situations, and may entail opportunities for significant radiation exposures. This paper provides data from interviews with more than 750 construction workers at two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio regarding radiation monitoring practices. The aim was to determine the extent to which workers believed they were monitored during tasks involving potential radiation exposures. The adequacy of monitoring practices is important for two reasons: (a) Protecting workers from exposures: Construction workers were employed by sub-contractors, and may frequently been excluded from safety and health programs provided to permanent employees; and (b) Supporting claims for compensation: The Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA) requires dose reconstruction of radiation exposures for most workers who file a claim regarding cancer. The use of monitoring data for radiation to qualify a worker means that there should be valid and complete monitoring during the work time at the various nuclear plants or workers may be unfairly denied compensation. The worker interviews from Paducah and Portsmouth were considered especially useful because these sites were designated as Special Exposure Cohorts (SECs) and the workers did not have to have a dose reconstruction to qualify for compensation for most cancers. Therefore, their responses were less likely to be affected by compensation concerns. Interview questions included asking for information regarding whether monitoring was performed, how often, and the maintenance (calibration) of monitoring equipment (devices). PMID:17119219

Bingham, Eula; Ringen, Knut; Dement, John; Cameron, Wilfrid; McGowan, William; Welch, Laura; Quinn, Patricia

2006-09-01

101

Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.  

PubMed

This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

2012-01-01

102

Effect of Environment on Plant Growth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this plant biotechnology activity is to demonstrate the effect of changes in the environment on the growth and fertility of landscape grasses and crop grasses such as wheat and rice. Plants are placed in environments such as high salinity, cold, heat, or drought and learners observe the different reactions of the plants to these conditions. Learners compare the growth of treated plants to that of the control plants, which are grown under optimal conditions. Learners then discuss the desirability of breeding new types of plants that are better able to withstand these changes if they occur in the general environment. In the original description of the activity, the planting is prepared by the instructor as a demonstration, but learners could be involved in this process. This resource contains background information and questions for learners.

Janice Stephens

2011-01-01

103

Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.  

PubMed

Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate polluted water. PMID:23673920

He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

2013-10-01

104

Effect of microgravity on plant growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

Lewis, Norman G.

1994-01-01

105

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems K. A. Garrett, S. P. Dendy, E. E. Frank, M. N. Rouse, and S. E. Travers Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan@ksu.edu Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2006. 44:489­509 First published online as a Review in Advance on May 23, 2006

Garrett, Karen A.

106

Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions.  

PubMed

A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance. PMID:15620752

Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai

2005-02-01

107

Effects of managed impoundments and herbivory on wetland plant production and stand structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managed impoundments, a form of structural marsh management, have been used to enhance plant production in the rapidly-eroding\\u000a marshes of coastal Louisiana, USA, yet few studies have quantified their effects by measuring plant production before and\\u000a after impoundment construction. We tested the effects of structural marsh management on the annual aboveground production\\u000a and plant stand structure (stem density and stem

Lori A. Johnson Randall; A. Lee Foote

2005-01-01

108

Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.  

PubMed

Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 ?g kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 ?g kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended. PMID:24969425

Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

2014-11-01

109

Semantics of the Transitive Construction: Prototype Effects and Developmental Comparisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates whether an abstract linguistic construction shows the kind of prototype effects characteristic of non-linguistic categories, in both adults and young children. Adapting the prototype-plus-distortion methodology of Franks and Bransford (1971), we found that whereas adults were lured toward false-positive recognition of…

Ibbotson, Paul; Theakston, Anna L.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

110

RADON MITIGATION EFFECTS OF PASSIVE STACKS IN RESIDENTIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the effects of passive stacks in mitigating radon levels in residential new construction. Although passive stacks have been installed as a radon resistant measure in new houses, little quantitative data on their performance has been collected. This study invol...

111

The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

2008-01-01

112

A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

Hopkins, A. [Fluor Hanford, Inc, Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01

113

THE USE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TO PHYTOREMEDIATE EXPLOSIVES-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE MILAN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT, MILAN, TENNESSEE  

EPA Science Inventory

The groundwaters beneath many Army ammunition plants in the United States are contaminated with explosives. To help address this problem, the USAEC and TVA initiated a field demonstration program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using constructed wetlands for remediating ...

114

Worldwide construction  

SciTech Connect

The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant.

Williamson, M.

1994-10-17

115

EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Air pollutants modify the productivity of agrisystems. Any effect of air pollution on growth or quality of a plant is an effect of productivity. Early efforts to estimate the effects of air pollutants on crop productivity were often based only on observation. Of the different met...

116

Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.  

PubMed

Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60?gL(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. PMID:25461066

Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

2015-02-01

117

A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and

Ho-Wen Chen; Ni-Bin Chang

2002-01-01

118

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01...constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...644.486 National Defense Department of Defense...on part or all of his defense production. (b...structures, as well as other plant equipment...

2011-07-01

119

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01...constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...644.486 National Defense Department of Defense...on part or all of his defense production. (b...structures, as well as other plant equipment...

2013-07-01

120

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01...constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...644.486 National Defense Department of Defense...on part or all of his defense production. (b...structures, as well as other plant equipment...

2010-07-01

121

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01...constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...644.486 National Defense Department of Defense...on part or all of his defense production. (b...structures, as well as other plant equipment...

2014-07-01

122

32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01...constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...644.486 National Defense Department of Defense...on part or all of his defense production. (b...structures, as well as other plant equipment...

2012-07-01

123

The greenhouse effect: Physiological changes in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide is timely topic of study for all biology students at all levels. The stimulatory effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (700 μl\\/l) on plant growth, flower induction, protein production and the Calvin-Benson cycle can be easily demonstrated in seedlings in student laboratories. In our lab, the shoot growth of rapid cycling brassicas (Wisconsin fast plants) was

R. Beard; M. Harrison

1990-01-01

124

Effects of herbivore identity on plant fecundity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores are pervasive, yet their effects on plant fecundity are often variable. One potential source of variation in herbivore impacts results from differing feeding modes of herbivores. We examined the relative importance of inflorescence-feeding insects versus large ungulates in affecting the fecundity of Balsamorhiza sagittata (Asteraceae), a dominant native perennial forb in western Montana, USA. We quantified these effects across

Lindsay K. Amsberry; John L. Maron

2006-01-01

125

Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (? ? < 0). High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that intracellular magnetophoresis of statoliths is the only significant effect of the magnetic field on plant cells and organs in the tested magnetic systems.

Kuznetsov, O.

126

Temperature effects on wastewater nitrate removal in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands  

SciTech Connect

Constructed wetlands may be used for removal of high nutrient loads in greenhouse wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Temperature affects both the physical and biological activities in wetland systems. Since nitrification and denitrification are temperature-dependent processes, effluent nitrate concentrations will fluctuate due to changes in air and wetland temperature. In a cold climate, constructed wetlands can function in a temperature-controlled, greenhouse environment year-round. This work evaluates four temperature treatments on nitrate removal rates in five planted and five unplanted laboratory-scale wetlands. Wetlands were supplied with a nutrient solution similar to the fertigation runoff solution (100 PPM nitrate-N) used in greenhouse crop production. A first-order kinetic model was used to describe experimental nitrate depletion data and to predict nitrate removal rate constants (k) in the wetlands planted with Iris pseudocoras. The negligible removal in unplanted wetlands was thought to be due to lack of carbon source in the fertigation solution. Between 19 and 23 C is planted systems, k increased from 0.062 to 0.077 h{sup {minus}1}, appeared to peak around 30 C (k = 0.184 h{sup {minus}1}), but decreased at 38 C (k = 0.099h{sup {minus}1}). Based on the Arrhenius equation, k was a first-order exponential function of temperature between 18 and 30 C in planted systems. Quantification of temperature effects on planted and unplanted laboratory-scale constructed wetlands can be sued to enhance the design and management of wastewater treatment wetlands.

Wood, S.L.; Wheeler, E.F.; Berghage, R.D.; Graves, R.E.

1999-02-01

127

RESPONSE OF CRACKS TO CONSTRUCTION VIBRATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes micro-inch response of cosmetic cracks in a typical slab-on- grade ranch style house to both construction equipment-induced vibration and environmental (weather) effects. This structure was instrumented, and its response studied as part of the development of an Autonomous Crack Measurement (ACM) system. ACM systems are intended to record -- with a single sensor -- micro-inch crack displacements

Charles H. Dowding; Mickey L. Snider

128

Effect of cadmium on symbiotic soybean plants  

SciTech Connect

The potential for environmental contamination by cadmium (Cd) has increased significantly in recent years. Since Cd may be hazardous to living systems, a study was conducted to investigate: (1) the existence of Rhizobium japonicum strains tolerant to Cd, (2) the Cd effect on the symbiosis between host soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and R. japonicum strains with different Cd tolerances, and (3) interactions and distribution of Cd and other elements in the host when biomass is decreased by Cd. The existence of R. japonicum strains tolerant to Cd was assessed by comparing growth curves of 10 different strains growing in a basal medium with gluconate, yeast extract, L-arabinose, and Cd (0, 3.5, 7, 14, and 28 ..mu..g/ml). Strain 3Ilb110 (110) exhibited a tolerance to Cd after an initial lag in growth, while strain 3Ilb123 (123) was susceptible. Strains 110 and 123 were used to inoculate plants growing in nutrient solution with Perlite as a support medium to evaluate the plant-rhizobial interactions in the presence of 0, 2.2, 6.7, 10.1, and 20.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, respectively. Plants were harvested and tops, roots, and nodules were analyzed 23 days after starting Cd application. Cadmium decreased dry matter production of tops, roots, and nodules. Plants inoculated with strain 123 accumulated significantly more dry matter in nodules than those with strain 110. However, in the presence of 0 and 2.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, plants innoculated with strain 110 accumulated significantly more N than plants innoculated with strain 123. Nutrient imbalances were observed in the presence of Cd. It is suggested that the interactions of Cd with some nutrients may contribute to Cd toxicity in soybean plants. In this study the most pronounced Cd effect was on Fe and Mn nutrition, rather than Zn as had been previously reported.

Borges, A.C.; Wollum, A.G. II

1981-04-01

129

TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK  

SciTech Connect

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

2010-01-14

130

Federal district court holds that geothermal power plants may be constructed on patented federal lands  

SciTech Connect

A lawsuit brought against the owners of surface interests in the Geysers area of Lake and Sonoma Counties, California by Occidental Geothermal, Inc. is discussed. The arguments presented by both sides in Occidental Geothermal, Inc. vs Simmons, et al., July 15, 1982, are described. Results of the decision by the United States District Court for the Northern District of California establish that the Federal government will be able to lease the right to drill geothermal wells and to construct geothermal power plants on lands patented to homesteaders without securing the consent of the surface owner. The court used the results of United States vs Union Oil Company of California, 1977 and the Stock-Raising Homestead Act of 1916 in its decision. That analysis is described. (MCW)

Tanke, T.J.

1983-01-01

131

Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

1996-02-01

132

Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.  

PubMed

This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus × giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth. PMID:24743957

Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

2015-02-01

133

Effect of loading rate on performance of constructed wetlands treating an anaerobic supernatant.  

PubMed

The effect of organic loading, season and plant species on the treatment of fish farm effluent was tested using three-year old mesocosm wetland systems. During one year, nine 1 m2 mesocosms (horizontal subsurface flow), located in a controlled greenhouse environment, were fed with a reconstituted fish farm effluent containing a high fraction of soluble components (1,600 microS/cm and in mg/L: 230 +/- 80 COD, 179 +/- 60 sCOD, 100 +/- 40 TSS, 37 +/- 7 TKN, 14 +/- 2 TP). Combinations of three hydraulic loading rates (30, 60 and 90 L.m(-2) d(-1)) and two plant species (Phragmites australis, Typha angustifolia) and an unplanted control were tested for treatment performance and hydraulic behaviour. Loadings higher than 15 g COD m(-2) d(-1) resulted in a net decrease of hydraulic performances (generation of short circuiting) coupled with low TKN removal. Maximal TKN removal rates (summer: 1.2, winter: 0.6 g.m(-2) d(-1)) were reached in planted units. In all mesocosms, phosphorus was removed during summer (maximal removal rate: 0.3 g TP m(-2) d(-1)) and was released in winter (release rate = approximately half of summer removal rate). This study confirmed that constructed wetlands are susceptible to clogging when treating anaerobic storage tank supernatant rich in highly biodegradable compounds. Contributions of plants to hydraulic efficiency were mainly observed in summer, associated with high evapotranspiration rates. Both plant species gave a similar removal efficiency for all pollutants. PMID:17802834

Chazarenc, F; Maltais-Landry, G; Troesch, S; Comeau, Y; Brisson, J

2007-01-01

134

Effects of umbrella palms and wastewater depth on wastewater treatment in a subsurface flow constructed wetland.  

PubMed

On-site subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to provide secondary quality effluent. Plants and wetland volume are considered in their design. There have been no studies, however, comparing wastewater treatment at different wastewater depths, and plant effects in wetlands are not completely understood. Investigations were conducted on these variables using four wetland cells 228 m wide by 4.75 m long containing 1 to 5 cm diameter river rock. Cyperus alternifolius (umbrella palms) were planted in one cell, and side-by-side comparisons were made between the planted and a control cell. Side-by-side comparisons were also made between cells with equal surface areas and different depths. At best umbrella palms improved effluent 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) by 8%, suspended solids by 6%, and did not improve fecal coliform or P wastewater quality in July. When ambient air temperatures were < or = 12 degrees C during December, plants did not improve most treatment parameters. They did, however, significantly improve NH4+ treatment even when ambient air temperatures were as low as 8 degrees C. Increasing wastewater depth enhanced fecal coliform die-off but did not reduce effluent considered when maximum NH4+ reduction is a BOD5, suspended solids, NH4+, or P in effluent. Umbrella palms should be treatment goal and it is not necessary to reduce other parameters. Surface area was more important to wastewater treatment than depth. PMID:12755448

Stecher, M C; Weaver, R W

2003-04-01

135

The design and construction of a hot dry rock pilot plant  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal energy program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is directed toward demonstrating the potential of the hot dry rock (HDR) technology as an alternate energy source. Since the inception of the program, scientists and engineers have perfected drilling and fracturing techniques to create underground reservoirs for the purpose of tapping the potential heat energy from the hot rock in the earth. One of the achievements to date has been the creation of a reservoir at the Laboratory's test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. This reservoir, located at a depth of 12,000 feet below the surface of the earth, has an estimated fluid capacity of one million gallons within the large volume of fractured rock. To evaluate the thermal power potential of this reservoir, preparations are currently underway to conduct a test which will entail the circulation of fluid through the reservoir by the injection of water at high pressures. A major part of the preparations involves the building of a demonstration pilot plant. The process concept poses a number of unique technical challenges with regard to the design and construction of the equipment and facilities. This paper reviews the system design and operating features of this plant. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Ponden, R.F.

1991-01-01

136

Construction of genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

An integrated genetic linkage map of the medicinal and ornamental plant Catharanthus roseus, based on different types of molecular and morphological markers was constructed, using a F(2) population of 144 plants. The map defines 14 linkage groups (LGs) and consists of 131 marker loci, including 125 molecular DNA markers (76 RAPD, 3 RAPD combinations; 7 ISSR; 2 EST-SSR from Medicago truncatula and 37 other PCR based DNA markers), selected from a total of 472 primers or primer pairs, and six morphological markers (stem pigmentation, leaf lamina pigmentation and shape, leaf petiole and pod size, and petal colour). The total map length is 1131.9 cM (centiMorgans), giving an average map length and distance between two markers equal to 80.9 cM and 8.6 cM, respectively. The morphological markers/genes were found linked with nearest molecular or morphological markers at distances varying from 0.7 to 11.4 cM. Linkage was observed between the morphological markers concerned with lamina shape and petiole size of leaf on LG1 and leaf, stem and petiole pigmentation and pod size on LG8. This is the first genetic linkage map of C. roseus. PMID:18305345

Gupta, Sarika; Pandey-Rai, Sashi; Srivastava, Suchi; Naithani, Subhas Chandra; Prasad, Manoj; Kumar, Sushil

2007-12-01

137

UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential impacts of an increase in solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion have been investigated by several research groups during the last 15 years. uch of this research has centered on the effects of plant growth and physiolo...

138

Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

139

Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements  

SciTech Connect

A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

2009-09-01

140

Treatment of high-strength wastewater in tropical vertical flow constructed wetlands planted with Typha angustifolia and Cyperus involucratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of vertical flow (VF) constructed wetland systems to treat high-strength (ca. 300mgL?1 of COD and ca. 300mgL?1 total-nitrogen) wastewater under tropical climatic conditions was studied during a 5-month period. Nine 0.8-m diameter experimental VF units (depth 0.6m) were used: three units were planted with Typha angustifolia L., another three units were planted with Cyperus involucratus Rottb and three

Suwasa Kantawanichkul; Supreeya Kladprasert; Hans Brix

2009-01-01

141

Wetlands and Aquatic Processes Temperature and Wetland Plant Species Effects on Wastewater Treatment and Root Zone Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of operational data for full-scale systems in- dicate that SSWs can meet effluent criteria in cold cli- Constructed wetlands are widely used for wastewater treatment, mates, and that temperature effects on removal of or- but there is little information on processes affecting their performance in cold climates, effects of plants on seasonal performance, or plant ganic matter (OM) may

Winthrop C. Allen; Paul B. Hook; Joel A. Biederman; Otto R. Stein

142

Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others] [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

1997-02-01

143

Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.  

PubMed

A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

2014-09-01

144

TRICHLOROETHYLENE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER IN FLOW-THROUGH COLUMNS SIMULATING A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a passive reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative re...

145

Comparative analysis of structural concrete quality assurance practices on three fossil fuel power plant construction projects. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic objective of this research effort was to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality Assurance practices related to the structural concrete phase on three fossil fuel power plant projects which are (or have been) under construction in the United States in the past ten years. This analysis identified the response of each Quality Assurance program to criteria similar

J. H. Willenbrock; H. R. Jr. Thomas; J. L. Jr. Burati

1978-01-01

146

Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton is a world’s leading crop important to the world’s textile and energy industries, and a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction and extensive analysis of a binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BI...

147

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

148

Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

1998-09-30

149

Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission-line construction  

SciTech Connect

At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were significantly reduced on the disturbed area. Diversity increased on the disturbed plot after construction, but density decreased. A slight increase in similarity (H', Clambda) of the arthropod communities of the two plots appears to be related to the modest increase in cover on the disturbed area. Globe-mallow, goosefoot and a four-o'clock were pioneer species and occurred only on the disturbed area. There was a significant reduction in cover of all plant species on the disturbed plot after construction, but there was a steady increase of annual forbs at the end of the study. The results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Construction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements. 35 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

1983-03-01

150

A global meta-analytic contrast of cushion-plant effects on plants and on arthropods  

PubMed Central

Nurse plant facilitation is a commonly reported plant–plant interaction and is an important factor influencing community structure in stressful environments. Cushion plants are an example of alpine nurse plants that modify microclimatic conditions within their canopies to create favourable environments for other plants. In this meta-analysis, the facilitative effects of cushion plants was expanded from previous syntheses of the topic and the relative strength of facilitation for other plants and for arthropods were compared globally.The abundance, diversity, and species presence/absence effect size estimates were tested as plant responses to nurse plants and a composite measure was tested for arthropods. The strength of facilitation was on average three times greater for arthropods relative to all plant responses to cushions. Plant species presence, i.e., frequency of occurrence, was not enhanced by nurse-plants. Cushion plants nonetheless acted as nurse plants for both plants and arthropods in most alpine contexts globally, and although responses by other plant species currently dominate the facilitation literature, preliminary synthesis of the evidence suggests that the potential impacts of nurses may be even greater for other trophic levels. PMID:24688848

Liczner, Amanda R.

2014-01-01

151

Preparation of Effective Operating Manuals to Support Waste Management Plant Operator Training  

SciTech Connect

Effective plant operating manuals used in a formal training program can make the difference between a successful operation and a failure. Once the plant process design and control strategies have been fixed, equipment has been ordered, and the plant is constructed, the only major variable affecting success is the capability of plant operating personnel. It is essential that the myriad details concerning plant operation are documented in comprehensive operating manuals suitable for training the non-technical personnel that will operate the plant. These manuals must cover the fundamental principles of each unit operation including how each operates, what process variables are important, and the impact of each variable on the overall process. In addition, operators must know the process control strategies, process interlocks, how to respond to alarms, each of the detailed procedures required to start up and optimize the plant, and every control loop-including when it is appropriate to take manual control. More than anything else, operating mistakes during the start-up phase can lead to substantial delays in achieving design processing rates as well as to problems with government authorities if environmental permit limits are exceeded. The only way to assure return on plant investment is to ensure plant operators have the knowledge to properly run the plant from the outset. A comprehensive set of operating manuals specifically targeted toward plant operators and supervisors written by experienced operating personnel is the only effective way to provide the necessary information for formal start-up training.

Brown, S. R.

2003-02-25

152

Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

153

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

154

INDIAN PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS WITH ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT*  

PubMed Central

In this article the author reviews research studies on Indian plants with antifertility activity conducted by different Institutes and independent investigators. The available clinical data is also present here. PMID:22557405

Satyavati, G. V.

1984-01-01

155

Monitoring of the effect of biological activity on the pedogenesis of a constructed Technosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pedogenesis is the set of steps, which lead to the formation and evolution of soils under pedogenetic factors and processes. They may be described quantitatively for a modeling end. For this purpose, constructed Technosols are candidates to be studied, because their initial composition is well described. Furthermore, among pedogenetic factors, living organisms are known to play a major role in soil formation. The most challenging objective of our work is then to monitor in situ the effect of biological agents on soil evolution. However, soil pedogenesis is known to be dynamic, therefore visualizing in situ plant roots or soil fauna in contact with soil, will help understand better how pedogenesis occurs realistically. The aim of this work is to study in situ, visually and quantitatively, the evolution of a constructed Technosol pedogenesis using an innovative dispositive of observation on cosmes. The Technosol is constructed in three horizons, from bottom to top we have: gravels, treated industrial soil and paper mill sludge (2/3, 1/3 masse ratio) and green waste compost. The soil is put into a cosme equipped with image acquisition devices. Factors are organized into two modalities each repeated three times. "Plant", where five seeds of white lupin are sown in each cosme. "Plant and Fauna" where six epigeic adult earthworms and five seeds of white lupin are inoculated, and a "control". A moisture of 60 - 80 % field capacity is maintained in all modalities. Results show that roots grow at 10 mm.day-1 speed during the first three weeks. Roots increase porosity and aggregation with time. Earthworms explore the soil randomly by creating and filling burrows. At a second time, they create their burrows preferentially along plant roots. Roots and earthworms contribute to the rapid increase of porosity (9.81 times control at 268 days) and aggregation (10.15 times control at 268 days) during time, in the early stages of pedogenesis. In situ and non-destructive observation of soil profiles is therefore an innovative way of monitoring and quantifying the impact of pedogenetic factors on the evolution of Technosols.

Salifou Jangorzo, Nouhou; Watteau, Françoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2014-05-01

156

Strategies for effective mosquito control in constructed treatment wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands hold considerable promise for providing water quality and wildlife habitat benefits. At the same time, constructed wetlands have been described as “mosquito-friendly habitats” and may raise potential conflicts with neighboring human populations. Conflicts arise because some design features, such as shallow water and emergent vegetation that are essential for optimizing water quality polishing, can result in undesirable increases

Robert L. Knight; William E. Walton; George F O’Meara; William K. Reisen; Roland Wass

2003-01-01

157

Worldwide construction  

SciTech Connect

Tables list major construction projects for refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur plants, natural gas processing plants, and gas and oil pipelines. Data are compiled by country, company name, project type, added capacity, status of the project, expected completion date, contractor and contract type. Gas processes include LPG recovery, cryogenic separation, turboexpanders, LNG, liquefaction, desulfurization, NGL recovery, dehydration, hydrogen plants, and fractionators.

Radler, M.

1998-04-13

158

Species-specific positive effects in an annual plant community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant facilitation studies commonly test the nurse-plant hypothesis wherein an adult shrub species enhances the establishment of associated herbaceous species under its canopy. Using field and glasshouse experiments, this hypothesis is extended by testing the following four predictions: (1) nurse-plant effects can occur between species with similar life- forms and phenologies (2) positive effects are species specific, (3) the outcome

Christopher J. Lortie; Roy Turkington

2008-01-01

159

Herbivore Effects on Plant and Nitrogen Dynamics in Oak Savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores can often control plant dynamics by mediating positive feedbacks in plant species' influence on nutrient cycling. In a 7-yr field experiment in a nitrogen- limited Minnesota oak savanna, we tested whether herbivores accelerated or decelerated nitrogen (N) cycling through their effects on plants. We measured effects of excluding insect (primarily Orthoptera and Homoptera) and mammalian herbivores (primarily white- tailed

Mark E. Ritchie; David Tilman; Johannes M. H. Knops

1998-01-01

160

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance  

E-print Network

Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance Erika S. Zavaleta* , Brian D. Thomas the relatively brief time when plants are exposed. For the snow-free majority of ecosystems in which vegetation in mediating water balance. In particular, warming effects on plant production or phenology could influence

Zavaleta, Erika

161

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

162

Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.  

PubMed

It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change. PMID:20528987

Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

2010-08-01

163

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-08-01

164

Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

2005-01-01

165

Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra\\u000a methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact,\\u000a plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested\\u000a the efficacy of plant

Suhad S. AbuMweis; Peter J. H. Jones

2008-01-01

166

Comparative analysis of United States and French nuclear power plant siting and construction regulatory policies and their economic consequences  

E-print Network

Despite the substantial commitments of time and money which are devoted to the nuclear power plant siting process, the effectiveness of the system in providing a balanced evaluation of the technical, environmental and ...

Golay, Michael Warren.

1977-01-01

167

Are Animals "More Alive" than Plants? Animistic-Anthropocentric Construction of Life Concept  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the characteristics students use in attributing value to and classifying the living things; the relational construction of the life concepts and the living things and the place of human in this construction. Participants were first-year high school students from seven schools in Izmir (a large western city in Turkey). An…

Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Aydin, Halil

2009-01-01

168

[Selection of winter plant species for wetlands constructed as sewage treatment systems and evaluation of their wastewater purification potentials].  

PubMed

In order to establish an evaluation system for selection of winter wetland plants possessing high wastewater purification potentials in subtropics areas, designed sewage treatment experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 25 species of winter wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including harmful environment-resistant enzyme and substrate enzyme activities into the commonly applied plant screening and assessment indexes system. The obtained results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested winter plants in their root length and vigor, leaf malonaldehyde (MDA), biomass, average nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and uptake, and urease and phosphoric acid enzyme activities in the root areas. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Oenanthe javanica, Brassicacapestris, Juncus effusu, Saxifragaceae, Iris pseudoacorus, Osmanthus fragrans and Iris ensata; those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calendula officinalis, Aucuba japonica, Ligustrum lucidu, Beta vulgaris, Rhododendron simsii and Ilex latifolia; and those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Brassica oleracea var acephala, Calistephus chinensis, Rosa chinensis, Antirrhinums, Liriope palatyphylla, Zephyranthes candida, Fatshedera lizei, Petunia hybrida, Ilex quihoui, Dianthus caryophyllus and Loropetalum chinensis. PMID:21090294

Chen, Yong-hua; Wu, Xiao-fu; Chen, Ming-li; Jiang, Li-juan; Li, Ke-lin; Lei, Dian; Wang, Hai-bin

2010-08-01

169

[Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].  

PubMed

In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

2014-02-01

170

The effective use of the computer for construction management  

E-print Network

. George Stukhart The project management information system is a tool used by management to evaluate project progress and the status of operations dur ing construction. Current project data are analyzed to optimize the tradeoffs encountered during... construction. Due to the vast amount of project information accumulated and processed by the project management information system (PMIS), management has turned increasingly to computerized systems. Many comp ani es currently using computerized project...

Kostelny, Robert John

2012-06-07

171

Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission line construction  

SciTech Connect

At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were signficantly reduced on the disturbed area. Our results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Cosntruction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements.

Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

1983-03-01

172

Prevailing Wage Rates: The Effects on School Construction Costs, Levels of Taxation, and State Reimbursements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of study of impact of Pennsylvania Prevailing Wage Act on 25 school-construction project costs from 1992-97 and effect thereof on local school districts' taxes. All districts had higher construction costs and property taxes. Projects increased construction costs for the Commonwealth and recommends revisions in prevailing wage-rate law.…

Keller, Edward C.; Hartman, William T.

2001-01-01

173

The Employment Effects of Road Construction in Rural PRELIMINARY -PLEASE DO NOT CITE WITHOUT PERMISSION  

E-print Network

The Employment Effects of Road Construction in Rural India PRELIMINARY - PLEASE DO NOT CITE strategies that take advantage of the allocation rules of a large-scale rural road construction program provide OLS esti- mates that are based on the time when rural roads were constructed. Second, we use

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

174

Supply strategy and network effects — purchasing behaviour in the construction industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partnering with suppliers and networking are increasingly used as means to improve company performance. This paper explores the occurrence of network effects in the construction industry. Benefits from network effects arise when firms adapt to one another in terms of technical solutions, logistics or administrative routines. The study finds such effects to be unusual in the construction industry. The main

Anna Dubois; Lars-Erik Gadde

2000-01-01

175

75 FR 68821 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI...have received an application from Kaheawa Wind Power II, LLC (KWP II) (Applicant...owned subsidiary of the Boston-based wind energy company, First Wind, and...

2010-11-09

176

Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  

PubMed

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

2013-12-01

177

[Analysis of microorganism species diversity in plant intercropping models in a wetland system constructed for treatment of municipal sewage].  

PubMed

The selective culture method and PCR-DGGE technology were applied to analyze the number and the biodiversity of microorganism species in cells with plant intercropping models and without plants in different seasons in a wetland system constructed for treatment of municipal sewage. The results showed that the numbers of microorganisms were considerably larger in the cells with plant intercropping models than those without plants, while the number of microorganisms was apparently larger in summer than that in winter in all treatments. Along the three-sequenced treatment cells with plant intercropping models a "low-high-low" changing trend in the numbers of microorganisms in summer. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the treatments in the same season were clustered in the same branch except for a few samples in winter and the biodiversity index was consistently higher in summer than that in winter. Five different sequences (DF1-DF5) were obtained through BLAST analysis and retrieval. The closest known origin groups were located as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Burkholderia sp. respectively. The BLASTX comparison test showed that DF1 closely related to the activities of the Mycobacterium bacillus and the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, DF2 functioned as a conservative potential ATP binding protein, DF3 related to the activities of the Bacillus cereus spore, DF4 was involved in catabolism metabolism of microorganism and DF5 played an important role in decomposition of organic matters. PMID:22619969

Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhang, Zhen-Ni; Li, Ke-Lin; Wang, Zhong-Cheng; Lei, Dian

2011-08-01

178

The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland  

SciTech Connect

The effect of low temperatures on ammonia removal in constructed wetlands was studied by running a synthetic wastewater through a model, laboratory-scale gravel-filled constructed wetland (in which no plants were grown). The wetland was operated at temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C in an environmentally controlled chamber. An influent ammonia concentration of 45 mg/L as nitrogen was used to simulate typical domestic wastewater. For temperatures of 5, 11.5, 15, and 23 C, the wetland model achieved ammonia removal and nitrification of 45, 44, 56, and 65%, respectively. Thus, over the 18 C temperature range ammonia-nitrogen removal and nitrification rates varied only 20%. There was a net decrease in nitrogen as water passed through the wetland; this could be the result of cell growth or denitrification. Measurements were taken at the inlet, outlet, and four additional locations along the length of the reactor. Measurements were also taken at three different depths. Along the length of the reactor, nearly all nitrification was achieved in the first half of the reactor, then stopped because of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Nitrification occurred slightly faster at the top of the reactor than at the bottom.

Lee, M.A.; Stansbury, J.S.; Zhang, T.C.

1999-05-01

179

[Treatment effect of constructed wetlands on organic matter in wastewater from pig farm].  

PubMed

Using plant species Vetiveria zizanioides and Cyperus alternifolius respectively, two constructed wetlands (CWS) with size of 1.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.8 m were established. The purifying function and its change pattern with season, influent concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the constructed wetlands on the organic matters in wastewater from a pig farm were studied throughout four seasons in the year. The results showed that the two CWS had very stable effects on the removal of COD and BOD, while the organic matters in wastewater changed. The removal rate of COD and BOD was 70% and 80% respectively by HRT 1-2 d in spring. The removal rate of COD reached 90% with the influent of COD 1000-1400 mg.L-1 in summer. The removal rate of COD and BOD was 50-60% and 50% respectively by HRT 1-2 d in autumn. The removal rate of COD reached 70% with the influent of COD 1003 mg.L-1 in winter. There was no significant difference between two CWS in the removal of COD, BOD and SS. The rule of contaminants decreased with the HRT in CWS followed exponential function: Yt = Y0.exp(-kt). The relation between the concentration of contaminants in influent (x) and outflow (y) at the same HRT followed linear relation: y = a + bx. PMID:11962308

Liao, Xindi; Luo, Shiming

2002-01-01

180

Responses of a constructed plant community to combinations of herbicides, a model for field tests?  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection Agency considers environmental risks, including impacts to nontarget plants exposed to pesticide drift. Normally these risk assessments consider impacts to individual species, using greenhouse, exposure-res...

181

GENE FLOW STUDIES BETWEEN BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. RAPA IN CONSTRUCTED PLANT COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The commercial production of genetically modified crops has led to a growing awareness of the difficulties of transgene confinement and of the potential environmental risks associated with the escape of transgenes into naturalized or native plant populations. A potential conseque...

182

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

183

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

184

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use  

SciTech Connect

Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

2013-09-30

185

The cost effectiveness of geotechnical investigations in commercial building construction  

E-print Network

design and safe construction of a project Since the foundation is arguably the most important structural element of a building (17), such information is vital if safe, functional building support is to be provided. Without a thorough site investigation... subsurface conditions. Insufficient geotechnical investigations are now the number one source of the aforementioned problems (17, 51, 100, 114 131) ~ The style and format guidel ines of the Committee on Professional Publ i cat ions of the American Society...

Temple, Merdith Wyndham Bolling

2012-06-07

186

[Construction of phylogenetic tree of plant tubulins basing on the homology of their protein sequences].  

PubMed

We have built phylogenetic tree of alpha-, beta- and gamma-tubulins of plant kingdom, alpha- and beta-tubulins of pig, and all epsilon- and delta-tubulins with known primary sequences and analyzed the levels of homology of tubulin sequences for repersentatives of different groups of organisms. It has been established low heterogeneity of alpha-, gamma-tubulin families and more than two fold higher heterogeneity of beta-tubulins, based on the sequence speciality of alga tubulins. We have showed that sequences of animal tubulins do not fit any cluster formed by on the plant tubulins. Presence in primary tubulin sequences of three major families of insignificant specific differences which are specific for such phylogenetic items of plant kingdom as alga and angiosperms has been also demostrated. The cladogramm shows clear clasterization of investigated sequences according to their belonging to the tubulin families. PMID:16161406

Demchuk, O N; Blium, Ia B

2005-01-01

187

Andrew Ford 1 CEC Report Simulating Patterns of Power Plant Construction  

E-print Network

generators' profitability depends largely on the prices in the summer quarter. The short-term analysis has). When profitable levels are reached, staff specified construction based on a specific scenario for power the average attributes of the CCs. The base case assumptions match the CEC's scenario analysis (Grix 2000

Ford, Andrew

188

SINTER PLANT WINDBOX RECIRCULATION AND GRAVEL BED FILTER DEMONSTRATION. PHASE 2. CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of phase 2 of a program to demonstrate new technology for reducing exhaust gas volume and controlling emissions from the steel industry sintering process. Phase 2 entailed construction, operation, and evaluation of the system and, in addition, the constru...

189

Herbivory enhances positive effects of plant genotypic diversity.  

PubMed

Both plant diversity and vertebrate herbivores can impact plant fitness and ecosystem functioning, however their interactions have not been explicitly tested. We manipulated plant genotypic diversity of the native plant Oenothera biennis and monitored its survivorship and lifetime fitness with and without one of its major vertebrate consumers, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Intense but unmanipulated herbivory by meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus killed over 70% of nearly 4000 experimental plants. However, plants grown in genotypically diverse patches suffered fewer vole attacks and had higher survival and reproductive output than plants in monoculture. Moreover, positive effects of genotypic diversity were enhanced by the presence of deer, indicating a non-additive interaction between diversity and trophic-level complexity. Genetic selection analyses showed that the selective value of ecologically important traits depended on plant diversity and exposure to deer, demonstrating that community complexity can promote fitness through multiple ecologically and evolutionarily important feedbacks. PMID:20298460

Parker, John D; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Agrawal, Anurag A

2010-05-01

190

Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE& S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

2002-11-30

191

SERVICE PROBLEMS OF FRESH AIR FAN OF FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANT - PART II CONSTRUCTION DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to improper bearing mounting on the a fresh air fan shaft in fosilfuel power plant, loss of operational reliability of immobile spherical roller bearing took place. That caused total failure of the fresh air fan installation. The consequence of this failure was a damage of the impeller with blades, and a total fracture of the shaft at the bearing

R. MITROVIC; M. RISTIVOJEVIC; N. STEFANOVIC; Z. STAMENIC; T. LAZOVIC

192

Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

193

Validation of generic cost estimates for construction-related activities at nuclear power plants: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report represents a validation study of the cost methodologies and quantitative factors derived in Labor Productivity Adjustment Factors and Generic Methodology for Estimating the Labor Cost Associated with the Removal of Hardware, Materials, and Structures From Nuclear Power Plants. This cost methodology was developed to support NRC analysts in determining generic estimates of removal, installation, and total labor costs

G. Simion; F. Sciacca; E. Claiborne; B. Watlington; B. Riordan; M. McLaughlin

1988-01-01

194

Database construction for PromoterCAD: synthetic promoter design for mammals and plants.  

PubMed

Synthetic promoters can control a gene's timing, location, and expression level. The PromoterCAD web server ( http://promotercad.org ) allows the design of synthetic promoters to control plant gene expression, by novel arrangement of cis-regulatory elements. Recently, we have expanded PromoterCAD's scope with additional plant and animal data: (1) PLACE (Plant Cis-acting Regulatory DNA Elements), including various sized sequence motifs; (2) PEDB (Mammalian Promoter/Enhancer Database), including gene expression data for mammalian tissues. The plant PromoterCAD data now contains 22?000 Arabidopsis thaliana genes, 2?200?000 microarray measurements in 20 growth conditions and 79 tissue organs and developmental stages, while the new mammalian PromoterCAD data contains 679 Mus musculus genes and 65?000 microarray measurements in 96 tissue organs and cell types ( http://promotercad.org/mammal/ ). This work presents step-by-step instructions for adding both regulatory motif and gene expression data to PromoterCAD, to illustrate how users can expand PromoterCAD functionality for their own applications and organisms. PMID:24364365

Nishikata, Koro; Cox, Robert Sidney; Shimoyama, Sayoko; Yoshida, Yuko; Matsui, Minami; Makita, Yuko; Toyoda, Tetsuro

2014-03-21

195

Antagonistic effects of seed dispersal and herbivory on plant migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two factors that determine plant migration rates - seed dispersal and population growth - are generally treated independently, despite the fact that many animals simultaneously enhance plant migration rate via seed dispersal, and decrease it via negative effects of herbivory on population growth. Using extensive empirical data, we modelled the antagonistic effects of seed dispersal and herbivory by white-tailed

Mark Vellend; Tiffany M. Knight; John M. Drake

2006-01-01

196

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on crop plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since relatively little is known about the effects of acid precipitation on growth and productivity of crop plants, a crop survey was initiated to study effects of HâSOâ rain simulants on growth, yield, and quality of selected crops which were chosen to represent diverse taxonomic groups and crop products. Plants were grown in pots in field-exposure chambers and subjected to

C. J. Cohen; L. C. Grothaus; S. C. Perrigan

1981-01-01

197

Oxygen effects on photosynthesis and C metabolism in desert plants.  

PubMed

The effect of 1% and 21% O(2) upon (14)CO(2) assimilation by desert plants exposed for 10 to 90 seconds has been studied. The plants studied can be divided into three groups with respect to O(2). The C(3) plants display the usual Warburg effect. No changes could be observed in the intensity of photosynthesis as a function of O(2) content in another group of plants (showing signs of Crassulacean acid metabolism). In still another group of plants (C(4) plants) the stimulating effect of O(2) on photosynthesis could be detected. In C(3) plants, O(2) inhibits the processing of carbon through the Calvin cycle intermediates. The involvement of carbon in the glycolate pathway fails to explain completely the inhibiting effect of O(2) on photosynthesis. It is assumed that O(2) inhibits the enzymes of the Calvin cycle. In C(4) plants O(2) stimulates the incorporation of (14)C into malate and aspartate. The incorporation of (14)C into the intermediates of the Calvin cycle in C(4) plants is inhibited much like that in typical C(3) plants. PMID:16660486

Glacoleva, T A; Zalensky, O V

1978-08-01

198

Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

Not Available

1988-02-26

199

Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population.  

PubMed

Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed production neutralized the decreasing effect of pre-planting irrigation and two-row planting of maize on weed seed bank population. PMID:22696965

Hemmati, E; Vazan, S; Oveisi, M

2011-01-01

200

Investigating the Effectiveness of Response Strategies for Vulnerabilities to Corruption in the Chinese Public Construction Sector.  

PubMed

Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries. PMID:24894336

Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

2014-06-01

201

Short-Term Effectiveness of Constructed Barriers at Protecting Apache Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Placement of fish migration barriers (primarily of gabion construction) on select streams is one of the major recovery actions used to isolate and protect upstream populations of Apache trout Oncorhynchus gilae apache from downstream populations of nonnative salmonids. However, the effectiveness of the recovery action has not been evaluated. We evaluated the success of constructed barriers at preventing upstream movement

Lorraine D. Avenetti; Anthony T. Robinson; Christopher J. Cantrell

2006-01-01

202

Herbivory: effects on plant abundance, distribution and population growth  

PubMed Central

Plants are attacked by many different consumers. A critical question is how often, and under what conditions, common reductions in growth, fecundity or even survival that occur due to herbivory translate to meaningful impacts on abundance, distribution or dynamics of plant populations. Here, we review population-level studies of the effects of consumers on plant dynamics and evaluate: (i) whether particular consumers have predictably more or less influence on plant abundance, (ii) whether particular plant life-history types are predictably more vulnerable to herbivory at the population level, (iii) whether the strength of plant–consumer interactions shifts predictably across environmental gradients and (iv) the role of consumers in influencing plant distributional limits. Existing studies demonstrate numerous examples of consumers limiting local plant abundance and distribution. We found larger effects of consumers on grassland than woodland forbs, stronger effects of herbivory in areas with high versus low disturbance, but no systematic or unambiguous differences in the impact of consumers based on plant life-history or herbivore feeding mode. However, our ability to evaluate these and other patterns is limited by the small (but growing) number of studies in this area. As an impetus for further study, we review strengths and challenges of population-level studies, such as interpreting net impacts of consumers in the presence of density dependence and seed bank dynamics. PMID:17002942

Maron, John L; Crone, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

203

The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant Populations and  

E-print Network

The University of Notre Dame Effects of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) on Plants, Plant 78712 ABSTRACT.-Largeeffects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) upon individual plants, plant, Indiana Vol. 146 July, 2001 No. 1 Am. Midi. Nat. 146:1-26 Effects of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

204

Current status of design and construction of ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The ENCOAL project is demonstrating for the first time the integrated operation of several process steps: a. Coal drying on a rotary grate using convective heatin; b. Coal devolatilization on a rotary grate using convective heating; c. Hot particulate removal with cyclones integral solids cooling; and deactivation-passivation; e. Combustors operating on low-Btu gas from internal streams; f. Solids stabilization for storage and shipment; g. Computer control and optimization of a mild coal gasification process. The product fuels are expected to be used economically in commercial boilers and furnaces and to significantly reduce sulfur emissions at industrial and utility facilities currently burning high sulfur bituminous fuels or fuel oils thereby reducing acid rain-causing pollutants. The design and construction of the ENCOAL demonstration plan was done on a fast track basis, that is, these activities were extensively overlapped.

Frederick, J.P.; Siddoway, M.A.; Coolidge, D.W.

1992-01-01

205

Current status of design and construction of ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant  

SciTech Connect

The ENCOAL project is demonstrating for the first time the integrated operation of several process steps: a. Coal drying on a rotary grate using convective heatin; b. Coal devolatilization on a rotary grate using convective heating; c. Hot particulate removal with cyclones integral solids cooling; and deactivation-passivation; e. Combustors operating on low-Btu gas from internal streams; f. Solids stabilization for storage and shipment; g. Computer control and optimization of a mild coal gasification process. The product fuels are expected to be used economically in commercial boilers and furnaces and to significantly reduce sulfur emissions at industrial and utility facilities currently burning high sulfur bituminous fuels or fuel oils thereby reducing acid rain-causing pollutants. The design and construction of the ENCOAL demonstration plan was done on a fast track basis, that is, these activities were extensively overlapped.

Frederick, J.P.; Siddoway, M.A.; Coolidge, D.W.

1992-11-01

206

Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n?=?2x?=?30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

2014-01-01

207

Browsing Effects on Wyoming Big Sagebrush Plants and Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of likely yearlong browsing by several wild ungulate species on individual Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) plants and communities was studied. The investigation was conducted near Gardiner, MT, in the ungu- late-rich boundary line area of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Plant level responses were measured in this study and related to reported community responses. Individual

Carl L. Wambolt; Trista Hoffman

208

Effects of environment and construction procedures on concrete pavement surfaces  

E-print Network

URE oE U co c 0 l, "- O. B cL 0. 7 (7 N Og -0. 5 0 t~ 04 pV 0. 5 ~02? O oc TO USE THIS CHART I. ENTER WITH AIR TEMPERATURE, MOVE gP TO RELATIVE HUMIDITY. 2. MOVE RLGHI TO COINCRETE TEMPERATURE. 3. MOVE DQEbl TO WOUND VELOCITY, 4. MOVE.... ? Evaporation Rate 40 49 IV RESULTS AND D1SCUSSION 51 4. 1 Results 51 4. 1. 1 General. 4. 1. 2 Control Tests. 51 51 4. 2 Effect of Vibration on Concrete Properties. 4. 3 Effect of Subbase Type on the Concrete Properties oi the Slab. 4. 4 L...

Wrbas, Ronald Otto

2012-06-07

209

Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities and plant fitness  

E-print Network

LETTER Additive and interactive effects of plant genotypic diversity on arthropod communities with monocultures. The effects of genotypic diversity on arthropod communities were due to a combination diversity can have similar qualitative and quantitative effects on arthropod communities. Our findings also

Agrawal, Anurag

210

[Effects of constructed wetlands on treating with nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater from hoggery].  

PubMed

Using plant species Vetiveria zizanioides (VCWS) and Cyperus alternifolius (CCWS) respectively, two constructed wetlands (CWS) with size of 1.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.8 m were established. The purifying function and its change pattern among different seasons, influent concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of CWS on nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater from a hoggery was studied throughout four seasons in the year. The results showed that the effects of HRT and wastewater concentration on the removal rate of NH3-N and S-PO4(3-) were obvious in both VCWS and CCWS. High removal rates of NH3-N and S-PO4(3-) were obtained in CCWS and VCWS in spring. Significant removal of TN in wastewater existed in CCWS and VCWS in autumn, while significant removal of TP in wastewater existed only in VCWS. The removal of TP or S-PO4(3-) against the HRT in CWS followed exponential function. The rates of P removal in winter and summer changed with the influent concentrations. Under the same HRT, the change of S-PO4(3-) concentrations in outflow against the influent concentration followed a linear relationship. PMID:12216401

Liao, Xind; Luo, Shiming

2002-06-01

211

EFFECTS OF RAINFALL ACIDIFICATION ON PLANT PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The chemical nature of the aqueous microenvironment at the infection court is a potentially significant factor in the successful dissemination, establishment,...

212

Effects of Water Pollution on Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an inquiry activity that, while based on a local area (the San Francisco Bay), could be adapted to the teacher's/student's local area. Students perform an experiment in which they observe how water pollution is absorbed into plants. The site contains a teacher's guide and printable student worksheet.

213

Effects of Livestock Grazing and Well Construction on Prairie Vegetation Structure Surrounding Shallow Natural Gas Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms.

Koper, N.; Molloy, K.; Leston, L.; Yoo, J.

2014-11-01

214

Effects of livestock grazing and well construction on prairie vegetation structure surrounding shallow natural gas wells.  

PubMed

Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms. PMID:25078539

Koper, N; Molloy, K; Leston, L; Yoo, J

2014-11-01

215

Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

Downs, R. J.; And Others

216

Theoretical Population Biology 70 (2006) 387400 Spatial effects favour the evolution of niche construction  

E-print Network

Theoretical Population Biology 70 (2006) 387­400 Spatial effects favour the evolution of niche behaviours of many spiders depend on their inheriting the genes for web construction, whereas earthworms

217

Leadership behaviors of effective project managers in construction project organizations in Texas  

E-print Network

A study involving twenty-six construction firms, which practice project management in Texas, examined whether thirteen leadership behaviors could be associated with effective project managers. The data indicated that supervisors and subordinates...

Haney, Harvey Joe

2012-06-07

218

The Effects of Risk Attitude on Competitive Sucess in the Construction Industry  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the latent but critical effects of risk attitude on competitive success in construction applying an evolutionary approach. The approach considers contractors as individual entities competing with each other for common...

Kim, Hyung Jin

2010-10-12

219

Construction and expression of a dual vector for chemo-enzymatic synthesis of plant indole alkaloids in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

A dual vector (pQE-70-STR1-SG) containing coding regions of strictosidine synthase (STR1, EC 4.3.3.2) and strictosidine glucosidase (SG, EC 3.2.1.105) from the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina was constructed. Functional expression of the vector in Escherichia coli cells (M15 strain) was proven by isolation of prepurified enzyme extracts, which show both STR1 and SG activities. Incubation of the enzyme in the presence of tryptamine and secologanin delivered the indole alkaloid cathenamine, demonstrating functional co-expression of both STR1- and SG-cDNAs. Cathenamine reduction by sodium borohydride leading to tetrahydroalstonine revealed the chemo-enzymatic indole alkaloid synthesis. PMID:20432158

Stockigt, Joachim; Hammes, Bodo; Ruppert, Martin

2010-05-01

220

Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta  

PubMed Central

The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of ?T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20?m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing ?-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20?m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

2014-01-01

221

Ecological effects of roads on the plant diversity of coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta.  

PubMed

The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of ? T and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0-20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing ?-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

Li, Yunzhao; Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

2014-01-01

222

Effect of water level fluctuation on nitrogen removal from constructed wetland mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen removal processes were investigated at three frequencies of water level fluctuation, static, low and high (0, 2 and 6 d?1), in duplicate gravel-bed constructed wetland mesocosms (0.145 m3) with and without plants (Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani). Fluctuation was achieved by temporarily pumping wastewater into a separate tank (total drain time ?35 min). Intensive sampling of the mesocosms, batch-fed weekly with ammonium-rich

Chris C. Tanner; Joachim D'Eugenio; Graham B. McBride; James P. S. Sukias; Keith Thompson

1999-01-01

223

The effects of plant diversity on nitrous oxide emissions in hydroponic microcosms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that plant diversity can improve the wastewater purification efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs), but its effect on the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in CWs has been unknown. To investigate the effect of plant diversity on the N2O emission, we established four plant species richness levels (each level containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 species, respectively) by using 96 hydroponic microcosms. Results showed that plant species richness enhanced the N2O emission, ranging from 27.1 to 115.4 ?g N2O m-2 d-1, and improved nitrate removal (P < 0.001). The presence of Phalaris arundinacea within a given plant community increased the N2O emission (P < 0.001). The presence of Rumex japonicas had no influence on the N2O emissions (P > 0.05), but improved nitrogen removal (P < 0.001). Hence, our study highlights the importance of both plant species richness and species identity in mediating the N2O emission and nitrogen removal in CWs.

Sun, Hongying; Zhang, Chongbang; Song, Changchun; Chang, Scott X.; Gu, Baojing; Chen, Zhengxin; Peng, Changhui; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

2013-10-01

224

Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

1983-01-01

225

General practitioners' perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions: an exploration of underlying constructs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many interventions shown to be effective through clinical trials are not readily implemented in clinical practice. Unfortunately, little is known regarding how clinicians construct their perceptions of the effectiveness of medical interventions. This study aims to explore general practitioners' perceptions of the nature of 'effectiveness'. METHODS: The design was qualitative in nature using the repertory grid technique to elicit

Florian Vogt; David Armstrong; Theresa M Marteau

2010-01-01

226

Effect of plants on sunspace passive solar heating  

SciTech Connect

The effect of plants on sunspace thermal performance is investigated, based on experiments done in Los Alamos using two test rooms with attached sunspaces, which were essentially identical except for the presence of plants in one. Performance is related to plant transpiration, evaporation from the soil, condensation on the glazing and the absorbtance of solar energy by the lightweight leaves. Performance effects have been quantified by measurements of auxiliary heat consumption in the test rooms and analyzed by means of energy balance calculations. A method for estimating the transpiration rate is presented.

Best, E.D.; McFarland, R.D.

1985-01-01

227

Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

2013-01-01

228

Floral transcriptome sequencing for SSR marker development and linkage map construction in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis).  

PubMed

Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

Tan, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Yuan; Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

2013-01-01

229

EFFECTS OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ON SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested soil, the effect of appl...

230

BIO-INTRUSION BARRIER MADE OF PLANTS WITH ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS TO IMPROVE LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF COVERS  

E-print Network

(C) by Foxit Software Company,2005-2007 For Evaluation Only. #12;2 INTRODUCTION Problem The Canadian mining1 BIO-INTRUSION BARRIER MADE OF PLANTS WITH ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS TO IMPROVE LONG TERM PERFORMANCE and are constructed to reclaim acid generating mine sites. Trees represent a particular threat for covers' performance

Aubertin, Michel

231

Invasive plant suppresses charismatic seabird – the construction of attitudes towards biodiversity management options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public attitudes towards biodiversity issues and the value judgments underlying biodiversity management and conservation are still poorly understood. This has raised serious concerns regarding the effective use of public participation in biodiversity policy making. We conducted quantitative face-to-face interviews with members of the general public in southeast Scotland to assess attitudes towards biodiversity management and examine attitude formation. For this,

Anke Fischer; René van der Wal

2007-01-01

232

The Effect of Political Unrest on Construction Time for Food Grain Warehouses in Bangladesh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that effect actual construction time in the context of food sector projects in Bangladesh. One of the factors of particular interest is political unrest. The data for the study was obtained from a leading design and construction management company in Bangladesh. The sample size consisted of data for 104 food grain warehouse projects scattered all over the country. The effect of political unrest on construction time was analyzed in conjunction with other known variables of time overrun, such as increase in project cost and delay in procurement of construction materials. The results indicated that the effect local political unrest on construction time was statistically significant even in the presence project cost and procurement of materials variables. It was concluded that political unrest could be included in prediction models used for finding out actual construction time of food grain warehouse projects in Bangladesh. Based on these findings, a prediction model for construction time for such projects was developed.

Choudhury, Ifte

2009-08-17

233

Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland.  

PubMed

The rate at which a plant species is attacked by invertebrate herbivores has been hypothesized to depend on plant species richness, yet empirical evidence is scarce. Current theory predicts higher herbivore damage in monocultures than in species-rich mixtures. We quantified herbivore damage by insects and molluscs to plants in experimental plots established in 2002 from a species pool of 60 species of Central European Arrhenatherum grasslands. Plots differed in plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 60 species), number of functional groups (1, 2, 3, 4), functional group and species composition. We estimated herbivore damage by insects and molluscs at the level of transplanted plant individuals ("phytometer" species Plantago lanceolata, Trifolium pratense, Rumex acetosa) and of the entire plant community during 2003 and 2004. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows specific predictions about the relative contributions of functional diversity, plant functional identity, and species richness in relation to herbivory. Additionally, the phytometer approach is new to biodiversity-herbivory studies, allowing estimates of species-specific herbivory rates within the larger biodiversity-ecosystem functioning context. Herbivory in phytometers and experimental communities tended to increase with plant species richness and the number of plant functional groups, but the effects were rarely significant. Herbivory in phytometers was in some cases positively correlated with community biomass or leaf area index. The most important factor influencing invertebrate herbivory was the presence of particular plant functional groups. Legume (grass) presence strongly increased (decreased) herbivory at the community level. The opposite pattern was found for herbivory in T. pratense phytometers. We conclude that (1) plant species richness is much less important than previously thought and (2) plant functional identity is a much better predictor of invertebrate herbivory in temperate grassland ecosystems. PMID:16231192

Scherber, Christoph; Mwangi, Peter N; Temperton, Vicky M; Roscher, Christiane; Schumacher, Jens; Schmid, Bernhard; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2006-03-01

234

Cyclotron-based effects on plant gravitropism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary roots exhibit positive gravitropism and grow in the direction of the gravitational vector, while shoots respond negatively and grow opposite to the gravitational vector. We first demonstrated that the use of a weak combined magnetic field (CMF), which is comprised of a permanent magnetic field and an alternating magnetic field with the frequency resonance of the cyclotron frequency of calcium ions, can change root gravitropism from a positive direction to negative direction. Two-day-old cress seedlings were gravistimulated in a chamber that was placed into a ?-metal shield where this CMF was created. Using this "new model" of a root gravitropic response, we have studied some of its components including the movement of amyloplasts-statoliths in root cap statocytes and the distribution of Ca 2+ ions in the distal elongation zone during gravistimulation. Unlike results from the control, amyloplasts did not sediment in the distal part of a statocyte, and more Ca 2+ accumulation was observed in the upper side of a gravistimulated root for seedlings treated with the CMF. For plants treated with the CMF, it appears that a root gravitropic reaction occurs by a normal physiological process resulting in root bending although in the opposite direction. These results support the hypothesis that both the amyloplasts in the root cap statocytes and calcium are important signaling components in plant gravitropism.

Kordyum, E.; Sobol, M.; Kalinina, Ia.; Bogatina, N.; Kondrachuk, A.

235

Temperature and wetland plant species effects on wastewater treatment and root zone oxidation.  

PubMed

Constructed wetlands are widely used for wastewater treatment, but there is little information on processes affecting their performance in cold climates, effects of plants on seasonal performance, or plant selection for cold regions. We evaluated the effects of three plant species on seasonal removal of dissolved organic matter (OM) (measured by chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon) and root zone oxidation status (measured by redox potential [Eh] and sulfate [SO4(2-)]) in subsurface-flow wetland (SSW) microcosms. A series of 20-d incubations of simulated wastewater was conducted during a 28-mo greenhouse study at temperatures from 4 to 24 degrees C. Presence and species of plants strongly affected seasonal differences in OM removal and root zone oxidation. All plants enhanced OM removal compared with unplanted controls, but plant effects and differences among species were much greater at 4 degrees C, during dormancy, than at 24 degrees C, during the growing season. Low temperatures were associated with decreased OM removal in unplanted controls and broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia L.) microcosms and with increased removal in beaked sedge (Carex rostrata Stokes) and hardstem bulrush [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. & D. Löve var. acutus] microcosms. Differences in OM removal corresponded to species' apparent abilities to increase root zone oxygen supply. Sedge and bulrush significantly raised Eh values and SO4(2-) concentrations, particularly at 4 degrees C. These results add to evidence that SSWs can be effective in cold climates and suggest that plant species selection may be especially important to optimizing SSW performance in cold climates. PMID:12026068

Allen, Winthrop C; Hook, Paul B; Biederman, Joel A; Stein, Otto R

2002-01-01

236

Familiarity effects in the construction of facial-composite images using modern software systems.  

PubMed

We investigate the effect of target familiarity on the construction of facial composites, as used by law enforcement to locate criminal suspects. Two popular software construction methods were investigated. Participants were shown a target face that was either familiar or unfamiliar to them and constructed a composite of it from memory using a typical 'feature' system, involving selection of individual facial features, or one of the newer 'holistic' types, involving repeated selection and breeding from arrays of whole faces. This study found that composites constructed of a familiar face were named more successfully than composites of an unfamiliar face; also, naming of composites of internal and external features was equivalent for construction of unfamiliar targets, but internal features were better named than the external features for familiar targets. These findings applied to both systems, although benefit emerged for the holistic type due to more accurate construction of internal features and evidence for a whole-face advantage. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work is of relevance to practitioners who construct facial composites with witnesses to and victims of crime, as well as for software designers to help them improve the effectiveness of their composite systems. PMID:22103723

Frowd, Charlie D; Skelton, Faye C; Butt, Neelam; Hassan, Amal; Fields, Stephen; Hancock, Peter J B

2011-12-01

237

The construction of spatial mental models - a new view on the continuity effect.  

PubMed

Abstract Many studies show that spatial reasoning with information that describe relations between two or more objects relies on the construction and inspection of mental models. This article mainly focuses on the phenomenon that humans have more difficulties to process spatial information that is not directly related to each other e.g. presented discontinuously, what is also known as the continuity effect. The article investigates how humans integrate such information into one unified mental model. In four experiments, we investigated the question whether (1) reasoners construct more than one (preliminary) model, with the first two premises presented in a discontinuous description, and integrate the models afterwards, or alternatively (2) construct one preliminary model that is later modified in the light of the last parts of problem description. The results support the second assumption and offer a new view on the continuity effect and the fundamental principles of model construction and variation in human spatial reasoning. PMID:25427989

Nejasmic, Jelica; Bucher, Leandra; Knauff, Markus

2014-11-27

238

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

2010-01-01

239

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

2014-01-01

240

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

2011-01-01

241

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

2012-01-01

242

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple...to construct and operate nuclear power reactors of identical design...

2013-01-01

243

Anthropogenic Effects of Reservoir Construction on the Parasite Fauna of Aquatic Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of large freshwater reservoirs is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic impacts on the natural environment.\\u000a With worldwide rising demand for water, the construction of more reservoirs is inevitable. Although the effects of reservoir\\u000a construction on many medically important parasites are well known and appreciated, changes to aquatic wildlife host–parasite\\u000a interactions have been largely undervalued even though a

Neil J. Morley

2007-01-01

244

Political Skill and Work Attitudes: A Comparison of Multiple Social Effectiveness Constructs.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the realm of social effectiveness constructs, political skill has seen increased attention as a predictor of work performance and attitudes. However, the extent that political skill is distinct from related variables in this area remains an important question. The current study examined the proportion of variance explained by political skill in job satisfaction and turnover intentions above and beyond other social effectiveness variables (i.e., social intelligence, emotional intelligence, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results indicated that political skill was the strongest predictor of these outcomes, and explained a significant proportion of variance in them, beyond the other four social effectiveness constructs. PMID:25425484

Banister, Christina M; Meriac, John P

2014-11-25

245

Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants.  

PubMed

The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal. PMID:23579843

Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W

2013-01-01

246

Plant Rhizosphere Effects on Metal Mobilization and Transport  

SciTech Connect

A mechanistic understanding of mobilization or immobilization of nutrient and pollutant metal ions by plants is largely lacking. It begins with a lack of knowledge on the chemical nature of rhizosphere components that are reactive with metal ions. This fundamental knowledge is critical to the design and implementation of phytoremediation for metal-contaminated DOE sites. Therefore, the objectives of this project include (1) To obtain a comprehensive composition of major organic components in plant root exudates as a function of different metal ions and plant species; (2) To examine plant metabolic response(s) to these metal ion treatments, with emphasis on production of metal reactive compounds; (3) To investigate the effect(s) of soil microbial (e.g. mycorrhizae) association on (1) and (2).

Fan, Teresa W.-M; Crowley, David; Higashi, Richard M.

1999-06-01

247

Effects of Heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals in some\\u000a parts of China. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible\\u000a to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The research results on the

Shuiping Cheng

2003-01-01

248

Comparison of Approaches to Constructing Confidence Intervals for Mediating Effects Using Structural Equation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mediators are variables that explain the association between an independent variable and a dependent variable. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used to test models with mediating effects. This article illustrates how to construct confidence intervals (CIs) of the mediating effects for a variety of models in SEM. Specifically, mediating…

Cheung, Mike W. L.

2007-01-01

249

Ecological effects of feral biofuel crops in constructed oak savannah communities - June 2012  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of elevated temperatures and drought on constructed oak savannahs were studied to determine the interactive effects of potentially invasive feral biofuel species and climate change on native grassland communities. A total of 12 sunlit mesocosm were used. Each mesoco...

250

The Distributed Learning Effect for Children's Acquisition of an Abstract Syntactic Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many cognitive domains, learning is more effective when exemplars are distributed over a number of sessions than when they are all presented within one session. The present study investigated this "distributed learning effect" with respect to English-speaking children's acquisition of a complex grammatical construction. Forty-eight children…

Ambridge, Ben; Theakston, Anna L.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

2006-01-01

251

The Effects of Personal Construct Group Therapy on Breast Cancer Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of a brief personal construct group therapy on breast cancer survivors (N = 42) randomly assigned to either the treatment or wait-list control condition. The Gottschalk Gleser Content Analysis Scales were used to measure the effects for group across time (preand posttreatment, pretreatment, and…

Lane, Lisbeth G.; Viney, Linda L.

2005-01-01

252

Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a set of effective indexes, a continuous effective-index function is defined, which is then used to construct a refractive-index profile by numerically solving a WKB equation. The method applies to synthesis of profiles from prescribed propagation constants. Profiles for spatial image transmission are presented as an example. The method can also be applied to recovery of Smooth profiles from

K. Chiang

1985-01-01

253

Pipeline gas demonstration plant. Phase 1. Abbreviated version of demonstration plant design analysis. Section 1. Executive summary. Section 2. Demonstration plant descriptions. Section 3. Demonstration plant site acquisition, construction and operation. Section 4. Demonstration plant disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ICGG Demonstration Plant Design utilizes the COGAS Process for converting coal into gas and oil products. It is the end result of over two and one half years of engineering and development effort. The Process design, together with supporting analysis and studies, have confirmed that: the COGAS Process is ready for demonstration; there is a direct relationship between the

Eby

1980-01-01

254

Indirect positive effects ameliorate strong negative effects of Euphorbia esula on a native plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plant species can have strong direct negative effects on native plants. Depending on the nature of interactions among\\u000a competitors and consumers within a community, strong indirect interactions may either augment or offset direct effects. We\\u000a used path analysis to estimate the relative importance of direct and indirect effects of Euphorbia esula, an unpalatable invasive plant, on Balsamorhiza sagittata, a

Daniel Z. AtwaterCarolyn; Carolyn M. Bauer; Ragan M. Callaway

255

Effect of some medicinal plant preparations of adipose tissue metabolism.  

PubMed

Powder in fine suspension, water and alcoholic extract preparations of Cyperus Rotundus (Mustak), Iris versicolor (Haimavati) and Holoptelai integrifolia (Chirubilva) were used in adipose cell suspension and also administered orally to evaluate the effect of these plant preparations on adipose tissue metabolism in rats. The result, showed that the preparations from these medicinal plants exhibited lipolytic action to mobilize fat from adipose tissues in rats and consequently helped in the reduction of obesity. PMID:22557642

Bambhole, V D

1988-10-01

256

The Effects of 60Hz Magnetic Fields on Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) on living organisms have been explored in many studies, but few of them investigate how different waveform MFs act upon their growth. In this study, the biological effects of both a 60Hz sinusoidal MF and a 60Hz pulsed MF on the early growth of plants are presented using mung

Hsin-Hsiung Huang; Show-Ran Wang

257

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action.  

E-print Network

Plant pathology Effects of adjuvants on herbicidal action. III. Effects of petroleum and rapeseed after 24 h was 20% of the applied herbicide on the adaxial surface (poorly wettable), but only 4 Résumé — Effet d'adjuvants sur l'action herbicide. III. Effets d'huiles minérale et végétale sur l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity  

E-print Network

for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the effects of biodiversity loss and should serve communities. Wide- spread loss of biodiversity has prompted scientists from an increasing numberEvolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity Marc W. Cadottea,b,1

Minnesota, University of

259

Understanding local and regional plant diversity: species pools, species saturation, and the multi-scalar effects of plant productivity  

E-print Network

-scalar effects of plant productivity Joel M. Gramling A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University saturation, and the multi-scalar effects of plant productivity (Under the direction of Robert K. Peet. The generality of the productivity-diversity relationship is assessed across ecologically-distinct plant

Peet, Robert K.

260

Transgenerational effects of plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

In gynodioecious plants, females are predicted to produce more and/or better offspring than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained in the same population. In the field, the roots of both sexes are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Transgenerational effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown, although theoretically expected. We examined the maternal and paternal effects of AM fungal symbiosis and host sex on seed production and posterior seedling performance in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant. We hand-pollinated cloned females and hermaphrodites in symbiosis with AM fungi or in nonmycorrhizal conditions and measured seed number and mass, and seedling survival and growth in a glasshouse experiment. Females produced more seeds than hermaphrodites, but the seeds did not germinate, survive or grow better. Mycorrhizal plants were larger, but did not produce more seeds than nonmycorrhizal plants. Transgenerational parental effects of AM fungi were verified in seedling performance. This is the first study to show transgenerational mycorrhiza-mediated parental effects in a gynodioecious species. Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects plant fitness mainly through female functions with enduring effects on the next generation. PMID:23659431

Varga, Sandra; Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-08-01

261

Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

Škrovánková, So?a; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

2012-01-01

262

Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Solid Waste Treatment Facility (T Plant) Fuel Removal Project  

SciTech Connect

This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI.

JOHNSON, R.E.

2000-11-16

263

Effects of High Nighttime Temperature and Role of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Development and Physiology of Rice Plants  

E-print Network

betaine (GB), and salicylic acid (SA), which play different roles in inducing thermo-tolerance in plants. High nighttime temperature had no effect on plant height, number of tillers and panicles, or rice net leaf photosynthetic rates. However, HNT...

Mohammed, Abdul R.

2010-07-14

264

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

265

Effects of Ozone on Gas Exchange in Invasive Forest Plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluations of invasive plant biology have failed to investigate the relationship between leaf structure and effects of ozone among closely related native and non-native plants. When exposed to toxic pollutants plants with lower stomatal density and lower stomatal conductance might experience reduced exposure and consequently be more competitive. To test for systematic differences between invasive and native species, experiments assessed the stomatal density and stomatal conductance of nine non-native invasive species and thirteen native species. Field sites, used for forest surveys, centered on three urban areas including sites with differing ozone levels (low 0-60 ppb, medium 80-99 ppb, high 111-125+ ppb). Three sites were selected within each of the three urban areas, and surveys were taken at each of the nine sites determining the native and non-native plant composition. The low level sites had greater densities of native plants than the high ozone level sites. Leaf impressions revealed a significantly higher (t = 14.13, p < 0.0001) stomatal density for the natives, and a LI-COR 1600 showed significantly higher (Fndf,ddf = 12.88, p = 0.0004) stomatal conductance for native plants. Dissimilar gas-exchange capacities are likely to be linked to the observed differences in plant composition among study sites. The importance of addressing air and biotic pollution grows every year as human health, agriculture, and ecosystem function are negatively affected in new areas.

Elton, E. E.

2006-12-01

266

Effects of Soil Erosion on Ecohydrology of Constructed Slopes From Opencast Coal Mining in a Mediterranean-Continental Environment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous works have revealed strong links between hydrological processes, soil moisture, and the structure and function of biological communities. Nevertheless, the influence of soil erosion on soil-water-plant interactions has been poorly documented, particularly on constructed slopes, wherein soil erosion has a key role for restoration success. The main objective of this work is to investigate the eco-hydrological implications of soil erosion on constructed slopes from the opencast coal mining in a Mediterranean-Continental environment: the Teruel coalfield (Spain). Water deficit is the main limiting factor for revegetation success in Mediterranean-Continental environments. Soil moisture in these artificial systems is controlled by feedback mechanisms between soil erosion and vegetation. Our hypothesis states that a major effect of soil erosion on plant communities deals with the increase of the climatic water deficit. Thus, the mechanisms involved are as follows: the crust formation, the reduction of soil superficial roughness and the efficient overland flow evacuation by means of rill network. The final result is a net reduction of water availability for plants through the increase of run-off and the decrease of infiltration and re- infiltration processes at slope scale. Moreover, the lack of vegetation development leads to increase run-off and soil erosion. This work has been carried out in five constructed slopes which were reclaimed with similar treatments and substrata, but differ in vegetation cover and erosion (from 0 up to 120 t/ha/year). These differences are mainly triggered by different amounts of run-on coming from external sources as mining tracks and banks. During 2005- 06 hydrological year, we monitored run-off and sediment yield as well as soil moisture and vegetation traits (cover, biomass, water potential) on these slopes. Our results reinforce the general hypothesis. In this way, on the least eroded slopes, biological control of hydrological processes leads to maximize infiltration rates, increasing the net water availability for plant growth. On the other hand, the most eroded slopes, physically controlled by intensive run-off generation, show the lowest water availabilities, increasing the water stress borne by vegetation during the end of spring and summer.

Moreno, M.; Nicolau, J.; Espigares, T.; Merino, L.

2007-12-01

267

Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.  

PubMed

Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both perspectives in plant herbivore interactions and characterize the effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance and their respective feedbacks. PMID:25078980

Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2014-01-01

268

Effects of selenium hyperaccumulation on plant-plant interactions: evidence for elemental allelopathy?  

PubMed

• Few studies have investigated plant-plant interactions involving hyperaccumulator plants. Here, we investigated the effect of selenium (Se) hyperaccumulation on neighboring plants. • Soil and litter Se concentrations were determined around the hyperaccumulators Astragalus bisulcatus and Stanleya pinnata and around the nonhyperaccumulators Medicago sativa and Helianthus pumilus. We also compared surrounding vegetative cover, species composition and Se concentration in two plant species (Artemisia ludoviciana and Symphyotrichum ericoides) growing either close to or far from Se hyperaccumulators. Then, Arabidopsis thaliana germination and growth were compared on soils collected next to the hyperaccumulators and the nonhyperaccumulators. • Soil collected around hyperaccumulators contained more Se (up to 266 mg Se kg(-1) ) than soil collected around nonhyperaccumulators. Vegetative ground cover was 10% lower around Se hyperaccumulators compared with nonhyperaccumulators. The Se concentration was higher in neighboring species A. ludoviciana and S. ericoides when growing close to, compared with far from, Se hyperaccumulators. A. thaliana showed reduced germination and growth, and higher Se accumulation, when grown on soil collected around Se hyperaccumulators compared with soil collected around nonaccumulators. • In conclusion, Se hyperaccumulators may increase the surrounding soil Se concentration (phytoenrichment). The enhanced soil Se contents around hyperaccumulators can impair the growth of Se-sensitive plant species, pointing to a possible role of Se hyperaccumulation in elemental allelopathy. PMID:21371042

El Mehdawi, Ali F; Quinn, Colin F; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

2011-07-01

269

The effect of raft removal and dam construction on the lower Colorado River, Texas  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF RAFT REMOVAL AND DAM CONSTRUCTION ON THE LOWER COLORADO RIVER, TEXAS A Thesis by HARTOPO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Geology TIIE EFFECT OI RAII' REMOVAL AND DAM CONSTRUCTION ON TI-IE LOWER COLORADO RIVER, TEXAS A Thesis by I IARTOPO Approved as to styic and content by: Christ her C. Mathewson (Chair of Committee) John R...

Hartopo

2012-06-07

270

Control effect of lanthanum against plant disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of La on emergence, growth and development of Isatis indigotica Fort. and Festuca arundinacea seedlings was researched by pot experiments of inoculating Rhizoctonia solani and with the mixture of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani in disinfected soil after the seeds were soaked in the solution with different concentrations of La3+. The results indicated that infection rate decreased and there

Yajia LIU; Yan WANG; Fubin WANG; Yuming LIU; Jianyu CUI; Lin HU; Kangguo MU

2008-01-01

271

Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments  

PubMed Central

Background Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids (PtDA) requires evidence that PtDAs improve the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice made, or decision quality. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical evidence for PtDA effectiveness and discuss emerging practical and research issues in the measurement of effectiveness. Methods This updated overview incorporates: a) an examination of the instruments used to measure five key decision-making process constructs (i.e., recognize decision, feel informed about options and outcomes, feel clear about goals and preferences, discuss goals and preferences with health care provider, and be involved in decisions) and decision quality constructs (i.e., knowledge, realistic expectations, values-choice agreement) within the 86 trials in the Cochrane review; and b) a summary of the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of PtDAs for these key constructs. Data on the constructs and instruments used were extracted independently by two authors from the 86 trials and any disagreements were resolved by discussion, with adjudication by a third party where required. Results The 86 studies provide considerable evidence that PtDAs improve the decision-making process and decision quality. A majority of the studies (76/86; 88%) measured at least one of the key decision-making process or decision quality constructs. Seventeen different measurement instruments were used to measure decision-making process constructs, but no single instrument covered all five constructs. The Decisional Conflict Scale was most commonly used (n = 47), followed by the Control Preference Scale (n = 9). Many studies reported one or more constructs of decision quality, including knowledge (n = 59), realistic expectation of risks and benefits (n = 21), and values-choice agreement (n = 13). There was considerable variability in how values-choice agreement was defined and determined. No study reported on all key decision-making process and decision quality constructs. Conclusions Evidence of PtDA effectiveness in improving the quality of the decision-making process and decision quality is strong and growing. There is not, however, consensus or standardization of measurement for either the decision-making process or decision quality. Additional work is needed to develop and evaluate measurement instruments and further explore theoretical issues to advance future research on PtDA effectiveness. PMID:24625035

2013-01-01

272

The Composite Effect of Transgenic Plant Volatiles for Acquired Immunity to Herbivory Caused by Inter-Plant Communications  

PubMed Central

A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos) including (E)-?-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2) that were constitutively overexpressing (E)-?-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai). In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants) placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications. PMID:22022359

Muroi, Atsushi; Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Nishihara, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

2011-01-01

273

Investigating the Effectiveness of Equating Designs for Constructed-Response Tests in Large-Scale Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a large-scale exam, in this study we compared various designs for equating constructed-response (CR) tests to determine which design was most effective in producing equivalent scores across the two tests to be equated. In the context of classical equating methods, four linking designs were examined: (a) an anchor set containing…

Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.; McHale, Frederick

2010-01-01

274

Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The research objective was to investigate the effect of pulsed wastewater flow on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh (m-p-m) constructed wetlands. From June to October of 2004, each of four, m-p-m wetlands in Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, received a different application of swine wast...

275

The effect of scale on the response to reform by Chinese state-owned construction units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using firm-level data on large and medium state-owned construction units, a production function approach evaluates the effect of scale on the response of Chinese state enterprises to reform. Large state units have greater economies of scale, but are less productive and less input price efficient as investment increases in nonproductive fixed assets. Large unit profits are declining fastest, and a

Elliott Parker

1997-01-01

276

Some Effects of Logging and Associated Road Construction on Northern California Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of logging and associated road construction on four California trout and salmon streams were investigated from 1966 through 1969. This study included measurements of stream- bed sedimentation, water quality, fish food abundance, and stream nursery capacity. Logging was found to be compatible with anadromous fish production when adequate attention was given to stream protection and channel clearance. The

JAMES W. BURNS

1972-01-01

277

Effects of Glass Fabric and Laminate Construction on the Fatigue of Resin Infused Blade Materials  

E-print Network

Effects of Glass Fabric and Laminate Construction on the Fatigue of Resin Infused Blade Materials are presented for infusion molded laminates, providing a comparison of several commercial E-glass reinforcing reinforcing fabrics used in blade infusion processes. II. Background The fatigue behavior of laminates based

278

EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON CONTROL FEATURES IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION - SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new homes built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over high radon potential soil...

279

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-print Network

of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have...

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2009-05-15

280

Multivariate Effect Size Estimation: Confidence Interval Construction via Latent Variable Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A latent variable modeling method is outlined for constructing a confidence interval (CI) of a popular multivariate effect size measure. The procedure uses the conventional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) setup and is applicable with large samples. The approach provides a population range of plausible values for the proportion of…

Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

2010-01-01

281

Quantification of the effects of environmental leaching factors on emissions from bottom ash in road construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The re-use of bottom ash in road construction necessitates a tool to predict the impact of trace metals on the surroundings over the lifetime of the road. The aim of this work was to quantify the effect of environmental factors that are supposed to influence leaching, so as to suggest guidelines in developing a leaching procedure for the testing of

Holger Ecke; Annika Åberg

2006-01-01

282

The Relation between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness: Complementary, Antagonistic, or Independent Constructs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following from the Hattie and Marsh (1996) meta-analysis, examined the correlation between research productivity and teaching effectiveness at an Australian university. Found further evidence of no correlation, supporting the hypothesis that teaching and research excellence are independent constructs. (EV)

Marsh, Herbert W.; Hattie, John

2002-01-01

283

Multivariate Effect Size Estimation: Confidence Interval Construction via Latent Variable Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latent variable modeling method is outlined for constructing a confidence interval (CI) of a popular multivariate effect size measure. The procedure uses the conventional multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) setup and is applicable with large samples. The approach provides a population range of plausible values for the proportion of generalized variance associated with group membership and permits at the

Tenko Raykov; George A. Marcoulides

2010-01-01

284

The Effects of Construction Probability on Word Durations during Spontaneous Incremental Sentence Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of seven studies, this paper examines acoustic characteristics of the spontaneous speech production of the English dative alternation ("gave the book to the boy/ the boy the book") as a function of the probability of the choice between alternating constructions. Probabilistic effects on the acoustic duration were observed in the…

Kuperman, Victor; Bresnan, Joan

2012-01-01

285

Developing a model to measure the effectiveness of safety management systems of construction sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Singapore, the construction industry had implemented safety management system (SMS) and SMS auditing for about 10 years now, but the improvement in safety standard is not significant. In response to the need to improve the effectiveness of SMS and SMS audit, the aim of the paper is to propose a method to develop and test the tools that auditors

Evelyn Ai Lin Teo; Florence Yean Yng Ling

2006-01-01

286

Construction Safety Training via e-Learning: Learning Effectiveness and User Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Taiwan, promoting knowledge of "Labor Safety" which relates to life and work right is very important. Safety training and learning effectiveness become essential issues of adult learning. To reduce the costs of educational training, enterprises have also started to aggressively introduce e-learning education training. Unlike the construction

Ho, Chun-Ling; Dzeng, Ren-Jye

2010-01-01

287

American Arachnological Society Behavioral Flexibility in Orb Web Construction: Effects of Supplies in Different Silk Glands  

E-print Network

in Different Silk Glands and Spider Size and Weight Author(s): William G. Eberhard Source: Journal of supplies in different silk glands and spider size and weight. J. Arachnol., 16:295-302. BEHAVIORAL FLEXIBILITY IN ORB WEB CONSTRUCTION: EFFECTS OF SUPPLIES IN DIFFERENT SILK GLANDS AND SPIDER SIZE AND WEIGHT

Bermingham, Eldredge

288

Personal Factors Impacting College Student Success: Constructing College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, a new assessment tool identifying personal variables important to college student success, was constructed using empirical approaches grounded in a conceptual model. The exploratory and confirmatory studies revealed the six-underlying factors: Academic Self-Efficacy, Organization and Attention to…

Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Benton, Stephen L.

2010-01-01

289

Vegetation effects on fecal bacteria, BOD, and suspended solid removal in constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands have emerged as a viable alternative for secondary treatment of domestic wastewater in areas with landscape limitations, poor soil conditions, and high water tables, which limit installation of full-scale adsorption fields. Existing information on the effects of macrophytes on treatment performance is contradictory and mostly derived from greenhouse mesocosm experiments. This study investigated the removal efficiency of fecal

A. D. Karathanasis; C. L. Potter; M. S. Coyne

2003-01-01

290

Inhibitory effects of Korean plants on HIV-1 activities.  

PubMed

In the search for novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) agents from natural sources, 49 MeOH extracts of Korean plants were screened for their inhibitory effects against RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 protease, and anti-HIV-1 activity. Regarding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Cornus kousa (stem and leaf), Limonium tetragonum (root) and Mallotus japonicus (stem) showed significant inhibitory activity on RT activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of 8.9, 6.3, 7.5 and 11.9 microg/mL, respectively, whereas Agrimonia pilosa was also active against RNase H activity (IC(50) = 98.4 microg/mL). Four plants, namely Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Atractylodes japonica (root), Clematis heracleifolia (whole plant) and Syneilesis palmata (whole plant), were appreciably active (<35%) against recombinant HIV-1 protease at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum (root) showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity (ED(50) = 12.5 microg/mL) with a favourable SI value of 16. PMID:11536375

Min, B S; Kim, Y H; Tomiyama, M; Nakamura, N; Miyashiro, H; Otake, T; Hattori, M

2001-09-01

291

Evaluating the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the thermal reduction effect of plant layers on rooftops through experiments performed in a controlled environment. The relevant parameters are coverage ratio (CR) and total leaf thickness (TLT). Both parameters are positively correlated with thermal reduction ratio (TRR). The TRR data of all experiments were plotted on a grid system with CR on the x-axis and TLT

Chih-Fang Fang

2008-01-01

292

Tree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on  

E-print Network

Tree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on Nutrient Dynamics and Solute to determine how trees affect the behavior of these nutrients in soil water, both during growth and after growth, and then for 3 more years after har- vest and removal of aboveground biomass. Con- centrations

Vermont, University of

293

Effect of potassium on moringa plants growth in nutriente solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work was carried out to evaluate the effects of K + rates on the initial growth as well as on the partition and accumulation of this element in roots, stems and leaves of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) plants. A pot (0.5 dm 3) experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions using river sand as substrate irrigated with nutrient solution

Lucia Helena; Ricardo Almeida Viégas; Ana Carolina; Feitosa de Vasconcelos; Hugo Vieira

294

Original article Effect of desiccation during cold storage on planting  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of desiccation during cold storage on planting stock quality and field, 1.4°C, 87% RH). An additional treatment consisted in a cold storage for 4 weeks in sealed polythene exhibited lower survival and RGP (except in pine) than those lifted in January and March. Cold storage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects.  

PubMed

In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant-soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species mixtures rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between species selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net biodiversity and complementarity effects were greater in mixtures of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in agriculture or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection of crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in the longer term. PMID:25317555

Zuppinger-Dingley, Debra; Schmid, Bernhard; Petermann, Jana S; Yadav, Varuna; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Flynn, Dan F B

2014-11-01

296

Contrasting Effects of Different Mammalian Herbivores on Sagebrush Plant Communities  

PubMed Central

Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg’s blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). PMID:25671428

Veblen, Kari E.; Nehring, Kyle C.; McGlone, Christopher M.; Ritchie, Mark E.

2015-01-01

297

TANNINS IN BACCHARIS DRACUNCULIFOLIA (ASTERACEAE): EFFECTS OF SEASONALITY, WATER AVAILABILITY AND PLANT SEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins in Baccharjs dracunculifolja (Asteraceae): effects of seasonality, water availability and plant sex). Several ecological. genetic, and environmental factors are known to influence tannin concentration in plant tissues. In this study, the effects of seasonality, water availability. and sex of the plant on tannin concentration in the dioecious shrub Baccharjs dracunculifolja were assessed. Tbe effects of water availability on plant

Mário M. Espírito-Santo; G. Wilson Femandes; Luciana R. Allainl; Ticiana R. F. Reif

1999-01-01

298

Effects of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Yield, Growth, and Some Physiological Characteristics of Wheat and Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) treatments, applied either alone or in combination, on yield, plant growth, leaf total chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, membrane leakage, and leaf relative water content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Bezostiya) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak) plants. Results showed

Metin Turan; Medine Gulluce; Fikrettin ?ahin

2012-01-01

299

Inhibitory effects of Thai plants ?-glycosides on Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichomoniasis is now an important health problem in developing countries. Although metronidazole has so far been widely used\\u000a to treat this disease, the prevalence of metronidazole-resistant protozoa and unpleasant adverse effects have been found.\\u000a In this study, natural products purified from Thai plants were, therefore, investigated for their effectiveness against Trichomonas vaginalis. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for all ?-glycosides against

Dumrongkiet Arthan; Somphong Sithiprom; Kanthinich Thima; Chutima Limmatvatirat; Porntip Chavalitshewinkoon-Petmitr; Jisnuson Svasti

2008-01-01

300

Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

2012-03-01

301

Effects of trampling limitation on coastal dune plant communities.  

PubMed

Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1–2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities. PMID:22302225

Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

2012-03-01

302

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

303

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will identify the relationship of the structure of plants. Students will also understand the cycle of plants and their role in the food chain. Why are plants important? How do they affect the cycle of life? Think about these questions as you watch this video on plants: Video of plants Now go to this website: Biology of Plants and use your handout to record the information you learn about the parts of a plant. Next, take this ...

barlobe

2009-10-21

304

Rotation axes for analysis of gravity effects on plant organs.  

PubMed

Epinastic curvatures of branches of Coleus blumei Benth. and the growth pattern of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings on clinostats were used for bioassay of rotation methods for preventing growth responses to gravity. Tumbling a plant end over end was found to be just as effective as rotation about its horizontal axis. The results support the reliability of data from experiments in which an entire plant is rotated about a single horizontal line with only part or none of its immature tissues in horizontal orientation to gravity. PMID:16656585

Lyon, C J

1967-06-01

305

A course in constructing effective displays of data for pharmaceutical research personnel.  

PubMed

Interpreting data and communicating effectively through graphs and tables are requisite skills for statisticians and non-statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the quality of visual displays of data in the medical and pharmaceutical literature and at scientific conferences is severely lacking. We describe an interactive, workshop-driven, 2-day short course that we constructed for pharmaceutical research personnel to learn these skills. The examples in the course and the workshop datasets source from our professional experiences, the scientific literature, and the mass media. During the course, the participants are exposed to and gain hands-on experience with the principles of visual and graphical perception, design, and construction of both graphic and tabular displays of quantitative and qualitative information. After completing the course, with a critical eye, the participants are able to construct, revise, critique, and interpret graphic and tabular displays according to an extensive set of guidelines. PMID:23564752

Bradstreet, Thomas E; Nessly, Michael L; Short, Thomas H

2013-01-01

306

Treatment of a sulfate-rich groundwater contaminated with perchloroethene in a hydroponic plant root mat filter and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland at pilot-scale.  

PubMed

A hydroponic plant root mat filter (HPRMF) was compared over 7months with a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW) regarding the removal of perchloroethene (PCE) (about 2 mg L(-1)) from a sulfate- (850 mg L(-1)) and ammonia-rich (50 mg L(-1)) groundwater with a low TOC content. At a mean area specific inflow PCE load of 56 mg m(-2)d(-1), after 4m from inlet, the mean PCE removal during summer time reached 97% in the HPRMF and almost 100% in the HSSF CW. Within the first 2m in the HSSF CW metabolites like dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride and ethene accumulated, their concentrations decreased further along the flow path. Moreover, the tidal operation (a 7-d cycle) in the HSSFCW decreased the accumulation of PCE metabolites within the first 1m of the bed. The carcinogenic degradation metabolite vinyl chloride was not detected in the HPRMF. The smaller accumulation of the degradation metabolites in the HPRMF correlated with its higher redox potential. It can be concluded from this study that HPRMF appears an interesting alternative for special water treatment tasks and that tidal operation will show some positive effects on the removal of the accumulated PCE metabolites in HSSF CW. PMID:25025478

Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Paschke, Heidrun; Kästner, Matthias; Müller, Jochen A; Köser, Heinz

2014-12-01

307

Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.  

PubMed

Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. PMID:24703526

Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

2015-01-01

308

Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling  

SciTech Connect

The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design. For the activities covered under this NOC, the unabated and abated TEDE to the hypothetical MEI is 1.67 E-03 and 8.34 E-01 millirem per year, respectively.

JANSKY, M.T.

2000-05-01

309

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

310

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

311

Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

2014-05-01

312

Effects of Invasive Alien Plants on Fire Regimes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience investigates the relationship between plant invasive alien species and fire regimes. Plant invasions are widely recognized as significant threats to biodiversity conservation worldwide. One way invasions can affect native ecosystems is by changing fuel properties, which can in turn affect fire behavior and, ultimately, alter fire regime characteristics such as frequency, intensity, extent, type, and seasonality of fire. If the regime changes subsequently promote the dominance of the invaders, then an invasive plant-fire regime cycle can be established. As more ecosystem components and interactions are altered, restoration of preinvasion conditions becomes more difficult. Restoration may require managing fuel conditions, fire regimes, native plant communities, and other ecosystem properties in addition to the invaders that caused the changes in the first place. We present a multiphase model describing the interrelationships between plant invaders and fire regimes, provide a system for evaluating the relative effects of invaders and prioritizing them for control, and recommend ways to restore pre-invasion fire regime properties.

MATTHEW L. BROOKS, CARLA M. D'ANTONIO, DAVID M. RICHARDSON, JAMES B. GRACE, JON E. KEELEY, JOSEPH M. DiTOMASO, RICHARD J. HOBBS, MIKE PELLANT, and DAVID PYKE (;)

2004-07-01

313

Construction, Characterization, and Preliminary BAC-End Sequence Analysis of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)  

PubMed Central

We describe the construction and characterization of a publicly available BAC library for the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Using modified methods, the library was constructed with the aim of developing public molecular resources to advance tea plant genomics research. The library consists of a total of 401,280 clones with an average insert size of 135?kb, providing an approximate coverage of 13.5 haploid genome equivalents. No empty vector clones were observed in a random sampling of 576 BAC clones. Further analysis of 182 BAC-end sequences from randomly selected clones revealed a GC content of 40.35% and low chloroplast and mitochondrial contamination. Repetitive sequence analyses indicated that LTR retrotransposons were the most predominant sequence class (86.93%–87.24%), followed by DNA retrotransposons (11.16%–11.69%). Additionally, we found 25 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that could potentially be used as genetic markers. PMID:21234344

Lin, Jinke; Kudrna, Dave; Wing, Rod A.

2011-01-01

314

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Anne Barron

2011-04-21

315

Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

1994-10-01

316

Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

1994-01-01

317

Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants.  

PubMed

Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants. PMID:11539972

Mei, M; Deng, H; Lu, Y; Zhuang, C; Liu, Z; Qiu, Q; Qiu, Y; Yang, T C

1994-10-01

318

Effects of Aflatoxin on Seeding Growth and Ultrastructure in Plants  

PubMed Central

Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 ?g of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 ?g of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B1 exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. Images PMID:4767301

Crisan, Eli V.

1973-01-01

319

Construction and application of a mass spectral and retention time index database generated from plant GC\\/EI-TOF-MS metabolite profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-supervised construction of a mass spectral and retention time index data base (MS\\/RI library) from a set of plant metabolic profiles covering major organs of potato (Solanum tuberosum), tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum), and Arabidopsis thaliana, was demonstrated. Typically 300–500 mass spectral components with a signal to noise ratio ?75 were obtained from GC\\/EI-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS metabolite profiles of methoxyaminated and trimethylsilylated

Cornelia Wagner; Michael Sefkow; Joachim Kopka

2003-01-01

320

Construction and analytical application of an on-column photo reactor for improved detection of iron-species as plant metabolites in capillary flow injection and capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An on-column photo reactor for CE, which is constructed from UV-transparent capillaries and a small Pen-Ray UV lamp, is applied to the analysis of small, non-covalent iron-species. These iron-species, e.g. phytosiderophores (PS) in grasses and the non-protein amino acid nicotianamine (NA), play an important role in plant metabolism. The photo reactor is placed directly in front of the on-column absorbance

Yue Xuan; Günther Weber; Andreas Manz

2006-01-01

321

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic  

E-print Network

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic O. Gabay plant communities is usually attributed to direct consumption of plants. We hypothesized that goats environmental conditions through modification of woody plant struc- ture. We assessed the effects of goats

322

The interactive effects of plant microbial symbionts: a review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, plants often associate with multiple symbionts concurrently, yet the effects of tripartite symbioses are not well understood. We expected syner- gistic growth responses from plants associating with functionally distinct symbionts. In contrast, symbionts providing similar benefits to a host may reduce host plant growth. We reviewed studies investigating the effect of multiple interactions on host plant performance. Additionally,

Anna L. Larimer; James D. Bever; Keith Clay

2010-01-01

323

Universal construction of controlled-unitary gates using dynamical decoupling and the quantum Zeno effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two new algorithms that universally construct a quantum circuit approximating a controlled-U(t) up to a global phase factor of U(t), denoted by ??U(t), where U(t)= e -iHt is the unitary evolution operator of an unknown Hamiltonian H of the system, and is given as a black box with tunable parameter t. We show that it is possible to approximately construct ??U(t) with arbitrarily high accuracy. This algorithm is based on the dynamical decoupling effect [1]. If another black box consisting of a time-inverted version of U(t), namely U(-t), is also available we can implement ??U(t) exactly with arbitrarily high success probability. This algorithm is based on the quantum Zeno effect.

Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio

2014-12-01

324

Genotoxic effects of heavy metals: comparative investigation with plant bioassays.  

PubMed

The potential use of micronucleus assays in plants for the detection of genotoxic effects of heavy-metal ions was investigated. Three different plant systems were comparatively investigated in micronucleus tests with Tradescantia pollen mother cells (Trad MCN) and micronucleus tests with meristematic root tip cells of Allium cepa and Vicia faba (Allium/ Vicia MCN). As3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+ caused a dose-dependent increase of MCN frequencies in all three test systems. Cu2+ gave consistently negative responses in all three tests; Zn2+ caused only a moderate, statistically not significant increase of MCN frequencies in Vicia. The ranking of genotoxic potencies in all three tests was in the descending order: As3+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+ Cu2+. In experiments with Tradescantia, induction of MCN was observed in a concentration range between 1 and 10 mM, whereas in tests with root tip cells, higher concentrations (10-1,000 mM) were required to show significant effects. Further increase of the exposure levels caused toxic effects (reduction of root growth), cell division delays, and a decrease of MCN frequencies. Comparisons by linear regression analyses indicated that the sensitivity of the three bioassays for heavy metals decreases in the order: Trad MCN > Vicia root MCN > Allium root MCN. In further experimental series, a soil sample which contained high concentrations of the five metals and a control soil were investigated. Aqueous soil extracts induced only weak effects in Trad MCN tests and no effects in the root tip assays, whereas cultivation of the plants in the soils resulted in a pronounced induction of MCN in the Tradescantia system and moderate effects in Vicia and Allium. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate that the Trad MCN assay detects the genotoxic effects of heavy metals and can be used for biomonitoring metal-contaminated soils. PMID:9544197

Steinkellner, H; Mun-Sik, K; Helma, C; Ecker, S; Ma, T H; Horak, O; Kundi, M; Knasmüller, S

1998-01-01

325

Effects of vegetation on surface stability and hydrology of a prototype barrier constructed over nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

Earthen barriers are being developed to prevent water from entering nuclear wastes at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. We constructed a prototype barrier (2700 m{sup 2}) and are conducting a test to determine if it can prevent water from draining at 3 times normal precipitation. Plants will function to minimize erosion and maximize the loss of water from the surface soils. The experiment was initiated in the October 1994. The surface was revegetated with seedlings of Artemisia tridentata and Chrysothamnus nauseosus (2 shrubs m{sup -2}) and seeded with native perennial grasses. Initial soil water observations indicate more water near the surface and considerable spatial variability. The revegetation effort reduced wind erosion.

Link, S.O.; Ward, A.L.; Walters, W.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

326

Labor productivity adjustment factors. A method for estimating labor construction costs associated with physical modifications to nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report develops quantitative labor productivity adjustment factors for the performance of regulatory impact analyses (RIAs). These factors will allow analysts to modify ''new construction'' labor costs to account for changes in labor productivity due to differing work environments at operating reactors and at reactors with construction in progress. The technique developed in this paper relies on the Energy Economic

1986-01-01

327

77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2012-0112] Impact of Construction (Under a Combined...Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY: Nuclear...Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS...multi-unit sites to provide an...resulting from construction activities...Rulemaking Web site: Go to http...Documents Access and Management System...

2012-05-18

328

Effect of Tunisian Aromatic Plant Extracts on Melanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Melanin plays an important role in the prevention of DNA damage and protection of skin tissues from UV irradiation. However,\\u000a excessive accumulation of melanin can also cause freckle and melanoma. Thus, we focused on the melanogenesis regulation effect\\u000a of Tunisian aromatic plants. The melanin synthesis system is known as melanogenesis, and tyrosinase is a key enzyme of melanogenesis\\u000a (Fang and

Kyoko Matsuyama; Mitsuko Kawano; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Hiroshi Shinmoto; Hiroko Isoda

329

Effects of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main purposes leading botanists to investigate the effects of ionizing radiations is to understand plant behaviour\\u000a in space, where vegetal systems play an important role for nourishment, psychological support and functioning of life support\\u000a systems. Ground-based experiments have been performed with particles of different charge and energy. Samples exposed to X-\\u000a or ?-rays are often used as

Veronica De Micco; Carmen Arena; Diana Pignalosa; Marco Durante

2011-01-01

330

Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general understanding of the level of sophistication of analysis models required to properly predict forces and deformations of curved and/or skewed bridges during construction is limited. The development of guidelines regarding the sufficiency of simplified methods of structural analysis is the overall motivation and objective of this dissertation. This research addresses the construction load effects due to skew and due to combined skew and curvature and develops design recommendations and analytical tools for the construction engineering of tub-girder bridges. The effects of skew and curvature are studied by examining the results for different levels of analysis for 18 representative bridges. These bridges reflect the range of bridge curvature and skew used in current practice. By comparing the output from simplified analysis methods to validated refined 3D FEA solutions, general conclusions are developed as to when the simplified methods provide sufficient results. An important original contribution of this research is that the data generated constitutes the first systematic study on a large set of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges using consistent refined 3D FEA models to model construction forces and deformations. As such, the results of this research can serve as a benchmark for current and future improvements in methods of analysis and design for the construction engineering of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges. In the current research, this data has been used in both straight and curved tub-girder bridges to: • Develop a simplified 1D analysis method to account for the effect of skew on girder twist rotations and internal torques, • Evaluate the effect of skew on component forces, and propose improved simplified procedures to capture these effects, • Identify interactions between components and develop improved simplified analysis methods to account for these effects, • Establish limits for when the improved 1D and 2D simplified methods of analysis are sufficient for construction engineering analysis, and • Identify sources of steel erection fit-up proble

Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel

331

CONSTRUCTION OF INFECTIOUS CLONES FOR DOUBLE STRANDED DNA VIRUSES OF PLANTS USING CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC CIRUS AS AN EXAMPLE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses of plants are believed to be plant pararetroviruses. Their genome is replicated by reverse transcription of a larger than unit length terminally redundant RNA transcript of the viral genomic DNA using the virus-encoded replicase. In order to produce a cloned, infe...

332

High-School Students' Reasoning while Constructing Plant Growth Models in a Computer-Supported Educational Environment. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students' reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels ('macro-phenomenological' and 'micro-conceptual' level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their…

Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

2005-01-01

333

Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on stem maintenance and construction respiration in Pinus ponderosa  

SciTech Connect

We measured woody tissue respiration on stems of 4-year-old Pinus ponderosa growing under ambient (350 ppm) and twice ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open top chambers located at the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, CA. Mean daily respiration rate per unit volume of wood was greater in trees growing under the elevated (700 ppm) treatment (46.75 vs 40.45 mol m{sup -3} d{sup -1}). This difference was due to a higher Q{sub 10} of respiration in the elevated (Q{sub 10}=2.20) versus the ambient (Q{sub 10}=1.67) treatment. The higher Q{sub 10} and CO{sub 2} efflux rate were not due to differences in phenology but may reflect a difference in demand for metabolic energy. In contrast to results seen in leaves growing under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} analysis of tissue construction costs suggests no difference in wood composition between treatments. Estimates of growth respiration calculated from construction costs also did not differ. Under future predicted atmospheric conditions, changes in the maintenance respiration of woody tissue may lead to an increase in the respiration component of whole plant carbon budgets of Pinus ponderosa.

Carey, E.V.; Delucia, E.H.; Ball, J.T. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)]|[Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

1995-06-01

334

Effect of cultivated species and retention time on the performance of constructed wetlands.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and cultivated species in vertical-flow constructed wetlands (CW) on the removal of pollutants found in swine wastewater. The applied organic loading per unit area was 20 g m(-2) d(-1) of COD in nine cylindrical CW planted with Cyperus sp., Heliconia rostrata and Hedychium coronarium, and three controls containing only gravel. The HRT tested were 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The following parameters of the CW influent and effluent were analysed: pH, ORP, turbidity, alkalinity, COD, TN, TKN, NH(x), N-NO3(-), TP, K and Na. Statistical analysis was performed at a 1% level of probability according to the Tukey test. It was noted that the greatest reductions were observed when CW were operated at higher HRT. TKN removals were 1.3 times greater than in unplanted CW. The best combination was CW planted with Cyperus sp. operating with a 72 h HRT, presenting the highest average mass removals with values of 69.1% (COD), 56.5% (TKN), 61.7% (NH(x)), 64.3% (TP) and 55.0% (K). PMID:23837347

Sarmento, Antover Panazzolo; Borges, Alisson Carraro; de Matos, Antonio Teixeira

2013-01-01

335

Allelopathic effects of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) on cultivated plants.  

PubMed

During the past years ragweed has been coming to the forefront of interest in Hungary and in other European countries as well because its serious health risk. Results of the 5th National Weed Survey has proven that ragweed is the most important weed species on Hungarian field lands, its coverage shows a rising tendency in cereals moreover it not only occurs in cultivated plants. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts derived from different parts of ragweed plants (air dried leafy stems, seeds) on the germination and growth of other cultivated plants [maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), oat (Avena sativa L.)] were studied. The extracts made for the trials were prepared with distilled water. Petri dishes were used for the germination experiments and distilled water was used as a control treatment. The seven days long experiment was carried out within a Binder-type thermostat under dark conditions. The germination percentage was checked in every two days and the growth of sprouts was evaluated after a week counting the germinated seeds and measuring the length of the radicle and plumule. The measured data were statistically analysed and the effect of extracts on germinating and length of sprouts were assessed. PMID:22696964

Lehoczky, E; Gólya, G; Szabó, R; Szalai, A

2011-01-01

336

Divergent composition but similar function of soil food webs of individual plants: plant species and community effects.  

PubMed

Soils are extremely rich in biodiversity, and soil organisms play pivotal roles in supporting terrestrial life, but the role that individual plants and plant communities play in influencing the diversity and functioning of soil food webs remains highly debated. Plants, as primary producers and providers of resources to the soil food web, are of vital importance for the composition, structure, and functioning of soil communities. However, whether natural soil food webs that are completely open to immigration and emigration differ underneath individual plants remains unknown. In a biodiversity restoration experiment we first compared the soil nematode communities of 228 individual plants belonging to eight herbaceous species. We included grass, leguminous, and non-leguminous species. Each individual plant grew intermingled with other species, but all plant species had a different nematode community. Moreover, nematode communities were more similar when plant individuals were growing in the same as compared to different plant communities, and these effects were most apparent for the groups of bacterivorous, carnivorous, and omnivorous nematodes. Subsequently, we analyzed the composition, structure, and functioning of the complete soil food webs of 58 individual plants, belonging to two of the plant species, Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae) and Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae). We isolated and identified more than 150 taxa/groups of soil organisms. The soil community composition and structure of the entire food webs were influenced both by the species identity of the plant individual and the surrounding plant community. Unexpectedly, plant identity had the strongest effects on decomposing soil organisms, widely believed to be generalist feeders. In contrast, quantitative food web modeling showed that the composition of the plant community influenced nitrogen mineralization under individual plants, but that plant species identity did not affect nitrogen or carbon mineralization or food web stability. Hence, the composition and structure of entire soil food webs vary at the scale of individual plants and are strongly influenced by the species identity of the plant. However, the ecosystem functions these food webs provide are determined by the identity of the entire plant community. PMID:21058562

Bezemer, T M; Fountain, M T; Barea, J M; Christensen, S; Dekker, S C; Duyts, H; van Hal, R; Harvey, J A; Hedlund, K; Maraun, M; Mikola, J; Mladenov, A G; Robin, C; de Ruiter, P C; Scheu, S; Setälä, H; Smilauer, P; van der Putten, W H

2010-10-01

337

Effective field theory and projective construction for Z{sub k} parafermion fractional quantum Hall states  

SciTech Connect

The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the simpler integer quantum Hall states. Here we show how to apply the projective construction to the Z{sub k} parafermion (Laughlin/Moore-Read/Read-Rezayi) FQH states, which occur at filling fraction nu=k/(kM+2). This allows us to derive the bulk low-energy effective field theory for these topological phases, which is found to be a Chern-Simons theory at level 1 with a U(M)xSp(2k) gauge field. This approach also helps us understand the non-Abelian quasiholes in terms of holes of the integer quantum Hall states.

Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15

338

Earthworm-mediated maternal effects on seed germination and seedling growth in three annual plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ecological studies have pointed out maternal effects in plants and shown that plant maternal environment influences germination of their seed and subsequent seedling growth. However, few have tested for maternal effects induced by soil macroorganisms. We tested whether two earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris) trigger such maternal effects on seed germination and seedling growth of three plant

Kam-Rigne Laossi; Diana-Cristina Noguera; Sébastien Barot

2010-01-01

339

Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth.  

PubMed

Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space station. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12-hr-dark may be needed for plant growth. PMID:11537264

Takano, T; Inada, K; Takanashi, J

1987-01-01

340

pH-Dependent surface properties of perlite: Effects of plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perlite is a glassy volcanic rock with a rhyolitic composition, traditionally used in the construction and chemical industries. In the last two decades perlite has become an important soilless growing medium, and is used for potting mixes in the horticultural industry. Plant growth induces significant changes in the medium and, therefore, growing plants in perlite poses an interesting dilemma regarding

A. Silber; B. Bar-Yosef; I. Levkovitch; S. Soryano

2010-01-01

341

The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.  

PubMed

The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

2011-04-01

342

Effect of cold and menthol on membrane potential in plants.  

PubMed

In animals, cooling substances such as menthol are perceived as cold sensation because they bind to the same receptor TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin) that activates upon temperature drops. We investigated the effect of menthol on the plant membrane potential to search for analogies between animal and plant perception systems. The study was conducted on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum- a non-vascular plant generating action potentials (APs) in response to different stimuli including cold. (+)Menthol, (-)menthol and (+/-)menthol induced one or more APs, depending on the concentration. In contrast to animal reactions to menthol, threshold concentrations of these isomers were the same (1 mM). The presence of menthol in medium shortened cold-induced APs, whereas low temperature prolonged the repolarization phase of AP evoked by menthol. Cells of C. conicum with anion and potassium channels blocked by anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl) generate short spike-like voltage transients (VTs) in response to cold and light stimulation. Membrane potential changes evoked by menthol in A9C- and TEACl-treated plants differed significantly from VTs - lasted much longer and frequently occurred in series. 5 mM LaCl(3) , 1 mM EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) (0 Ca(2+) ) but not 0.2 mM verapamil blocked the putative calcium component of AP induced by menthol. Similar inhibitory effect was observed after the application of proton pump inhibitors: 0.05 mM N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), 0.05 mM diethylstilbestrol (DES) or 0.01 mM carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP). Our results indicate that cold and menthol act independently, activating different membrane transporters in C. conicum cells. PMID:21214882

Kupisz, Kamila; Trebacz, Kazimierz

2011-04-01

343

Effect of constructed wetlands receiving agricultural return flows on disinfection byproduct precursors.  

PubMed

The effects of wetland treatment on disinfection byproduct precursors were evaluated for six constructed wetlands receiving agricultural return flows in the Central Valley of California. Wetlands varied in size, age, vegetation, hydrologic residence time (0.9-20 days) and water management (continuous flow vs. flood pulse). The effects of wetland treatment were determined by analyzing input and outflow waters for dissolved organic carbon concentration and quality, bromide concentration, and formation potentials for nine disinfection byproduct species, including trihalomethanes, haloacetronitriles, chloral hydrate, and haloketones. We hypothesized that hydraulic residence time was a key factor governing differences in disinfection byproduct precursors. Small wetlands (<3 ha) with short hydraulic residence times (<2 days) did not produce significant changes in disinfection byproduct precursor concentrations with respect to the agricultural return flows input to the wetlands. In these wetlands hydraulic residence times were not long enough to promote processes that adversely affect dissolved organic carbon and bromide quantity, such as evapoconcentration and leaching from vegetation. Thus, less negative effects were associated with disinfection byproduct formation. In contrast, larger wetlands (>100 ha) with long hydraulic residence times (>10 days) resulted in higher dissolved organic carbon and bromide levels, increasing disinfection byproduct formation by factors ranging between 1.7 and 10.2 compared to agricultural return flows. Results from this study provide important information for optimizing the design and management of constructed wetlands to effectively combine control of disinfection byproduct precursors with other water quality parameters. PMID:19375774

Díaz, Francisco J; Chow, Alex T; O'Geen, Anthony T; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wong, Po-Keung

2009-06-01

344

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

10 Energy 1 2012-01-01...Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...Appendix N to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of...101 of the Atomic Energy Act of...

2012-01-01

345

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

10 Energy 1 2014-01-01...Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...Appendix N to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of...101 of the Atomic Energy Act of...

2014-01-01

346

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 1 2010-01-01...Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...Appendix N to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of...101 of the Atomic Energy Act of...

2010-01-01

347

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

10 Energy 1 2013-01-01...Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...Appendix N to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of...101 of the Atomic Energy Act of...

2013-01-01

348

10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

10 Energy 1 2011-01-01...Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...Appendix N to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of...101 of the Atomic Energy Act of...

2011-01-01

349

Effects of virus on plant fecundity and population dynamics.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are ubiquitous and thought to regulate host populations. Although microorganisms can be pathogenic and affect components of fitness, few studies have examined their effects on wild plant populations. As individual traits might not contribute equally to changes in population growth rate, it is essential to examine the entire life cycle to determine how microorganisms affect host population dynamics. In this study, we used data from common garden experiments with plants from three Cucurbita pepo populations exposed to three virus treatments. These data were used to parameterize a deterministic matrix model, which allowed us to estimate the effect of virus on components of fitness and population growth rate. Virus did not reduce fruit number, but population growth rates varied among virus treatments and wild C. pepo populations. The effect of virus on population growth rate depended on virus species and wild C. pepo population. Contributions of life-history transitions and life-history traits to population growth rates varied among populations and virus treatments. However, this population-virus interaction was not evident when examining individual components of fitness. Thus, caution must be used when interpreting the effects of changes in individual traits, as single traits do not always predict population-level change accurately. PMID:24571200

Prendeville, Holly R; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Pilson, Diana

2014-06-01

350

Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime because of the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation, and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Construction at Locations B or C would not result in direct impacts to wetlands. However, the hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. The impacts at Location A may potentially be avoided by an alternative routing of the entrance road, or mitigation may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the State of Ohio. Unavoidable impacts to isolated wetlands may require an Isolated Wetlands Permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor for the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found in this part of Ohio, which in many cases involve previously disturbed habitats.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2005-09-09

351

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE FACILITATIVE EFFECTS OF TUSSOCK STRUCTURE AMONG WETLAND PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most investigations of clonal plants have focused on negative aspects of interactions with neighbors, some studies have shown positive effects of clonal plants on other species, especially clonal plants with a compact, or phalanx, growth habit. For example, several plant species have been observed to grow directly upon tussocks of the freshwater rush Juncus effusus L., and the phenology

Gary N. Ervin

2007-01-01

352

Metabolomics Unravel Contrasting Effects of Biodiversity on the Performance of Individual Plant Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of evidence for positive diversity-productivity relationships increasing plant diversity has highly variable effects on the performance of individual plant species, but the mechanisms behind these differential responses are far from being understood. To gain deeper insights into the physiological responses of individual plant species to increasing plant diversity we performed systematic untargeted metabolite profiling on a number of

Christian Scherling; Christiane Roscher; Patrick Giavalisco; Ernst-Detlef Schulze; Wolfram Weckwerth; Jerome Chave

2010-01-01

353

Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances and  

E-print Network

Effects of plant species richness on invasion dynamics, disease outbreaks, insect abundances vulnerability to invasions by plant species, enhance the spread of plant fungal diseases, and alter the richness studies have shown that biodiversity loss of basal species, such as autotrophs or plants, affects

Crews, Stephen

354

ORIGINAL PAPER Do priority effects benefit invasive plants more than native  

E-print Network

.V. 2012 Abstract Invasive, non-native plant species often outcompete native species and reduce that invasive plant species would benefit more from priority effects than would compa- rable native species three pairs of invasive and native plant species from three different functional groups/ plant families

Wilsey, Brian J.

355

An experimental test of the effect of plant functional group diversity on arthropod diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics used to categorize plant species into functional groups for their effects on ecosystem functioning may also be relevant to higher trophic levels. In addition, plant and consumer diversity should be positively related because more diverse plant communities offer a greater variety of resources for the consumers. Thus, the functional group composition and richness of a plant community may affect

Amy J. Symstad; Evan Siemann; John Haarstad

2000-01-01

356

The effects of plant diversity and insect herbivory on performance of individual plant species in experimental grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 There is increasing evidence that components of biodiversity affect processes at the ecosystem level; yet, the effects of biodiversity on the performance of individual organisms or particular trophic interactions are largely unexplored. 2 We transplanted 10 individuals of Rumex acetosa into 82 experimental grassland plots differing in plant species and functional group richness. Half of the plants received an

CHRISTOPH SCHERBER; ALEXANDRU MILCU; STEPHAN PARTSCH; STEFAN SCHEU; WOLFGANG W. WEISSER

2006-01-01

357

Contrasting effects of land use intensity and exotic host plants on the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks.  

PubMed

Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones. PMID:25565141

de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Almeida-Neto, Mário

2015-01-01

358

Contrasting Effects of Land Use Intensity and Exotic Host Plants on the Specialization of Interactions in Plant-Herbivore Networks  

PubMed Central

Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones. PMID:25565141

de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Almeida-Neto, Mário

2015-01-01

359

A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

2013-05-01

360

Effects of a home exercise programme on shoulder pain and functional status in construction workers  

PubMed Central

Background: Repetitive or sustained elevated shoulder postures have been identified as a significant risk factor for occupationally related shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. Construction workers exposed to routine overhead work have high rates of shoulder pain that frequently progresses to functional loss and disability. Exercise interventions have potential for slowing this progression. Aims: To evaluate a therapeutic exercise programme intended to reduce pain and improve shoulder function. Methods: Construction worker volunteers were screened by history and clinical examination to test for inclusion/exclusion criteria consistent with shoulder pain and impingement syndrome. Sixty seven male symptomatic workers (mean age 49) were randomised into a treatment intervention group (n = 34) and a control group (n = 33); asymptomatic subjects (n = 25) participated as an additional control group. Subjects in the intervention group were instructed in a standardised eight week home exercise programme of five shoulder stretching and strengthening exercises. Subjects in the control groups received no intervention. Subjects returned after 8–12 weeks for follow up testing. Results: The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements in the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire (SRQ) score and shoulder satisfaction score than the control groups. Average post-test SRQ scores for the exercise group remained below levels for asymptomatic workers. Intervention subjects also reported significantly greater reductions in pain and disability than controls. Conclusions: Results suggest a home exercise programme can be effective in reducing symptoms and improving function in construction workers with shoulder pain. PMID:14573714

Ludewig, P; Borstad, J

2003-01-01

361

A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants  

PubMed Central

Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. PMID:23045708

Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielbörger, Katja

2012-01-01

362

The effects of variable operation on RO plant performance  

E-print Network

Optimizations of reverse osmosis (RO) plants typically consider steady state operation of the plant. RO plants are subject to transient factors that may make it beneficial to produce more water at one time than at another. ...

Williams, Christopher Michael, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

363

Relaxation of selection, niche construction, and the Baldwin effect in language evolution.  

PubMed

Deacon has suggested that one of the key factors of language evolution is not characterized by an increase in genetic contribution, often known as the Baldwin effect, but rather by a decrease. This process effectively increases linguistic learning capability by organizing a novel synergy of multiple lower-order functions previously irrelevant to the process of language acquisition. Deacon posits that this transition is not caused by natural selection. Rather, it is due to the relaxation of natural selection. While there are some cases in which relaxation caused by some external factors indeed induces the transition, we do not know what kind of relaxation has worked in language evolution. In this article, a genetic-algorithm-based computer simulation is used to investigate how the niche-constructing aspect of linguistic behavior may trigger the degradation of genetic predisposition related to language learning. The results show that agents initially increase their genetic predisposition for language learning—the Baldwin effect. They create a highly uniform sociolinguistic environment—a linguistic niche construction. This means that later generations constantly receive very similar inputs from adult agents, and subsequently the selective pressure to retain the genetic predisposition is relaxed. PMID:20662598

Yamauchi, Hajime; Hashimoto, Takashi

2010-01-01

364

Ecological effects of transgene persistence on plant communities in the presence and absence of drift levels of glyphosate herbicide  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2005, plant communities were constructed in outdoor sunlit chambers that contained 3 round tubs having a surface area of 1.2 m2 and a depth of 0.6 m. Six plant types were planted in triplicate using the same spatial arrangement in each tub. Three of the six plant types were se...

365

Energetic cost of web construction and its effect on web relocation in the web-building spider Agelena limbata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although spider webs may be effective in trapping prey, they require energy for construction. The design of webs varies in complexity from species to species. I assume that the energetic cost of web construction is significantly different among web types or species. This cost may constrain foraging tactics, particularly web relocation, because web relocation also requires energy to make a

Koichi Tanaka

1989-01-01

366

General patterns of niche construction and the management of ‘wild’ plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies  

PubMed Central

Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

Smith, Bruce D.

2011-01-01

367

"The Mall" and "the Plant": Choice and the Classed Construction of Possible Futures in Two Specialized Arts Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how conceptions of choice and visions of the future are constructed within the context of specialized arts programs in two Canadian public high schools. The authors consider how discourses of the arts are implicated in the way that possible futures are envisioned differently, delimiting the range of choices available to…

Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén; VanderDussen, Elena; Cairns, Kate

2014-01-01

368

IMPACT OF PLANT SPECIES AND DENSITY ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Prado Wetlands in Chino, CA is a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland consisting of 50 shallow ponds that treats approximately 70% of Santa Ana River water prior to its passage to Orange County, CA where it is used for groundwater recharge. The Santa Ana River is an effluent dominated b...

369

IMPACT OF PLANT DENSITY AND MICROBIAL COMPOSITION ON WATER QUALITY FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Prado Wetlands in Chino, CA is a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland consisting of 50 shallow ponds that treats approximately 50% of Santa Ana River water prior to its passage to Orange County, CA where it is used for groundwater recharge. The main function of Prado Wetlands has been t...

370

27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. 19.723 Section...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Redistillation...19.723 Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. The...

2012-04-01

371

27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. 19.723 Section...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Redistillation...19.723 Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. The...

2011-04-01

372

27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. 19.723 Section...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Redistillation...19.723 Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. The...

2013-04-01

373

27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.  

...2014-04-01 false Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. 19.723 Section...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Redistillation...19.723 Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. The...

2014-04-01

374

Refuge effects of Juncus effusus in grazed, subtropical wetland plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unpalatable plant species often act as biotic refuges by protecting neighboring plants from herbivores. This positive interaction can increase functional diversity in grazed ecosystems by protecting species sensitive to grazing. While many studies investigate pair-wise interactions between benefactors and beneficiaries, few show that these interactions result in community composition effects. We studied the effect of an unpalatable plant, Juncus effusus

Elizabeth H. Boughton; Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio; Patrick J. Bohlen

2011-01-01

375

Effects of sustainable and conventional fertilizers on plant growth and insect life history traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the effects on plant growth and pest abundance as sustainable fertilizers are becoming more common in greenhouse production. I conducted two studies to test the effects of sustainable production practices on plant growth and insect life history traits.^ In the first study, five species of bedding plants were produced under conventional or sustainable growing practices to

Kathryn McNabb England

2009-01-01

376

A STUDY ON REDUCTION EFFECT OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS IN SPRING BY PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the reduction effect of indoor pollutants by the kinds of plant. The effect of reducing the concentration of air contaminants by three species of plants was studied in a full-scale mock-up model. Aglaonema brevispathum, Pachira aquatica and Ficus benjamiana were used. Their positions and amount were controlled. Field measurements were performed in models where the plants were

Jeong-Eun Song; Yong-Shik Kim; Jang-Yeul Sohn

377

Plant effect on zinc isotope fractionation in soil leachates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zinc isotopes are increasingly used to better understand the biogeochemical cycle of this metal within the Earth's Critical Zone. Here we investigate experimentally the effect of plant growth on the Zn isotope compositions of leachates exported from anthropogenic Zn-contaminated soils. For this purpose, PVC-columns were filled in with 2 kg of a mixture consisting of 1900 g of quartz (500-1000 ?m) and 100 g of Zn-contaminated soils (100-500 ?m) originated from two former industrial sites (hereafter called soil A and soil B). Agrostis tenuis was grown in the columns for seven weeks. A control treatment, i.e. without plants, was also carried out. All columns were continuously irrigated at a slow rate with a macronutrient solution in which nitrogen was supplied as nitrate form and leachates were weekly sampled for analysis. The contaminated soils differ in their Zn isotope composition (?66/64Zn=0.32‰ and 0.09‰ for soils A and B, respectively). In the absence of plants, the difference of isotope composition between leachates from soil A and those from soil B (?66/64Znleachate A-leachate B = +0.19‰) is similar to the difference of isotope composition between the two soils (i.e. ?66/64Znsoil A-soil B = +0.23‰). Although the Zn isotope signatures of roots differ between the two soils (?66/64Zn=0.33‰ and 0.17‰ for soils A and B, respectively), shoots are isotopically similar (?66/64Zn = -0.07‰ and -0.06‰ for sites A and B, respectively), reflecting a potential biologically-controlled transport at the root-shoot interface. The presence of plants increases the total amount of Zn released by leaching (24.7 mg Zn for soil A and 21.7 mg Zn for soil B) compared to the control (19.3 mg Zn for soil A and 5.4 mg Zn for soil B), and this effect is much more pronounced for the soil B which indicates a higher rhizosphere-induced Zn mobilization in this soil. More importantly, leachates from planted systems are enriched in heavy Zn relative to leachates from the control (?66/64Znplanted systems-control = +0.04‰ and +0.14 ‰ for soils A and B, respectively). This enrichment is the highest for soil B, i.e. where the rhizosphere-induced Zn mobilization is the greatest. Using mass balance calculations, it appears that the heavy Zn enrichment in leachates cannot result from plant uptake as the Zn amounts exported by plants (1.1 mg Zn for soil A and 1.2 mg Zn for soil B) were negligible relative to the amounts lost by leaching (4% and 5% for soils A and B, respectively). This suggests an additional process fractionating Zn isotopes in the rhizosphere, likely due to Zn complexation by exudates (e.g. phytosiderophores) and secretions which induces Zn mobilization. This study highlights the potential of Zn isotopes to investigate the contribution from rhizosphere activity on the Zn biogeochemical cycle.

Houben, D.; Sonnet, P.; Mattielli, N. D.; Opfergelt, S.

2012-12-01

378

Differential effects of goat browsing on herbaceous plant community in a two-phase mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of herbivores on herbaceous plant communities is usually attributed to direct consumption of plants. We hypothesized\\u000a that goats affect herbaceous plants both directly (consumption by foraging) and indirectly, by changing environmental conditions\\u000a through modification of woody plant structure. We assessed the effects of goats browsing on environmental conditions, landscape\\u000a structure, and herbaceous plants to link the direct and

O. Gabay; A. Perevolotsky; A. Bar Massada; Y. Carmel; M. Shachak

379

Seasonal effect on ammonia nitrogen removal by constructed wetlands treating polluted river water in southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) system, combining a free water surface wetland and a subsurface wetland in series, was used to purify highly polluted river water. The concentrations of constituents varied seasonally. The effects of season-dependent parameters, such as temperature, mass loading rate and inflow salinity, on the removal of ammonia nitrogen (AN) in the wetland system were examined at a constant hydraulic loading rate, based on data from June 1998 to February 2000. AN removal of the CW varied cyclically with the seasons. The removal efficiency and the first-order volumetric removal rate constant (k(V)) increased exponentially with water temperature, yielding a high temperature coefficient (theta). However, the mass removal rate decreased exponentially as temperature increased. These contradictory results made the actual effect of temperature uncertain. The inhibition of high water salinity on AN removal was also unclear because k(V) (as well as k(V20)) and mass removal rate were inversely proportional to salinity. However, mass loading rate (MLR) predominantly affected both the removal efficiency and the mass removal rate of AN, both of which were factors that explicitly determined seasonality. A power equation, k(V20)' alpha MLR(-n), was proposed to correct the variation of the mass loading rate in estimating k(V) and thus in designing a constructed wetland. PMID:14568728

Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lin, Ying-Feng

2004-01-01

380

The effect of hardhats on head and neck response to vertical impacts from large construction objects.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of hardhats in attenuating head acceleration and neck force in vertical impacts from large construction objects. Two weight-matched objects (lead shot bag and concrete block) weighing 9.1kg were dropped from three heights (0.91m, 1.83m and 2.74m) onto the head of a 50th percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Two headgear conditions were tested: no head protection and an ANSI Type-I, Class-E hardhat. A third headgear condition (snow sport helmet) was tested at 1.83m for comparison with the hardhat. Hardhats significantly reduced the resultant linear acceleration for the concrete block impacts by 70-95% when compared to the unprotected head condition. Upper neck compression was also significantly reduced by 26-60% with the use of a hardhat when compared to the unprotected head condition for the 0.91 and 1.83m drop heights for both lead shot and concrete block drop objects. In this study we found that hardhats can be effective in reducing both head accelerations and compressive neck forces for large construction objects in vertical impacts. PMID:25215927

Suderman, Bethany L; Hoover, Ryan W; Ching, Randal P; Scher, Irving S

2014-12-01

381

Rootstock effects on plant vigor and watermelon fruit quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) plants were grown in Lane, Oklahoma. Fruit weight, dimensions, and quality (SSC, firmness, lycopene content) of seeded and seedless varieties were measured. Watermelons from vigorous plants (determined by plant length, width, and a visual estimate of plant...

382

Watershed Ecology and the Effects of Construction on Erosion and Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the lab is to allow middle and high school students to begin to understand their place in their watershed, explore erosion, water quality assessment and the impact of construction sites through both field work and inquiry-based experiments. Students should have prior knowledge of the water cycle. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to describe the impact that erosion has on water quality, including the effects of soil types and potential effects of the watershed. This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÃÂs 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Norman Leonard (Pike High School)

2007-08-01

383

Using Project Performance to Measure Effectiveness of Quality Management System Maintenance and Practices in Construction Industry  

PubMed Central

This paper proposed seven existing and new performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of quality management system (QMS) maintenance and practices in construction industry. This research is carried out with a questionnaire based on QMS variables which are extracted from literature review and project performance indicators which are established from project management's theory. Data collected was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The findings indicate that client satisfaction and time variance have positive and significant relationship with QMS while other project performance indicators do not show significant results. Further studies can use the same project performance indicators to study the effectiveness of QMS in different sampling area to improve the generalizability of the findings. PMID:24701182

Leong, Tiong Kung; Ariff, Mohd. Shoki Md.

2014-01-01

384

Effects of an industrial effluent on plant colonization and on the germination and post-germinative growth of seeds of terrestrial and aquatic plant species.  

PubMed

Major oil sands industrial companies are located in the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in northeastern Alberta, Canada. During the process used to extract light crude oil (via hot water digestion and flotation), gypsum is usually added to produce consolidated tails (CT) and CT release water. The vast volumes of process-treated waters (effluent) are held within large dyked tailings ponds. Toward testing viable options for reclamation, various hummock-wetlands systems have been constructed; in addition, natural wetlands (inhabited by obligate wetland plant species) have become established as a result of seeping of the effluents held within the large dyked ponds. Vegetation surveys conducted on and around the industrial site revealed that the constructed wetlands associated with the dyke drainage (effluent treated with phosphorous) and consolidated tails (CT; effluent treated with gypsum) had low biodiversity and were not invaded by many aquatic plants. Although the natural wetland was also not invaded by many aquatic species, it was found to be as diverse as the reference wetlands (i.e. off-site wetlands not exposed to the effluents). Exposure to oil sands effluents had an inhibitory effect on the germination (percent and/or rate) of several plant species (tomato, clover, wheat, rye, pea, reed canary grass, loblolly pine); clover and tomato seed germination were most affected. Two treatments in particular (effluents from the natural on-site wetland and the CT constructed wetland), delayed germination, and also led to reduced fresh weight of seedlings of tomato, wheat, clover and loblolly pine. The osmolarities of the effluents associated with the natural on-site wetland and CT constructed wetland were 712 and 728 mOs/kg, respectively; substituting these effluents with solutions of polyethylene glycol of the same osmotic potentials had a greater inhibitory effect on germination rate. The negative effects of the effluents on seed germination may account for the paucity of aquatic species that invaded the oil sands impacted wetlands. This factor will also be critical in determining the long-term feasibility of hummock-wetland systems. PMID:11843534

Crowe, A U; Plant, A L; Kermode, A R

2002-01-01

385

Disentangling direct and indirect effects of experimental grassland management and plant functional-group manipulation on plant and leafhopper diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Plant biodiversity can affect trophic interactions in many ways, including direct bottom-up effects on insects, but is negatively affected by agricultural intensification. Grassland intensification promotes plant productivity, resulting in changes in plant community composition, and impacts on higher trophic levels. Here, we use a novel grassland management experiment combining manipulations of cutting and fertilization with experimental changes in plant functional group composition (independent of management effects) to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of agricultural management on insect herbivore diversity and abundance. We used leafhoppers as model organisms as they are a key insect taxon in grasslands and react rapidly to management changes. Leafhoppers were sampled between May and September 2010 using standardized sweep netting and pan traps. Results Plant diversity, functional group composition and management regime in grasslands affected leafhopper species richness and abundance. Higher cutting frequencies directly led to decreasing leafhopper species richness, presumably due to the higher disturbance frequency and the reduction in food-resource heterogeneity. In contrast, fertilizer application had only a small indirect negative effect via enhanced aboveground plant biomass, reduced plant diversity and changes in functional group composition. The manipulated increase in grass cover had contrasting direct and indirect effects on leafhopper species richness: grass cover directly increased leafhopper species richness, but negatively affected plant diversity, which in turn was positively related to leafhopper species richness. In conclusion, insect diversity is driven in complex direct and indirect ways by grassland management, including changes in functional group composition. Conclusions The availability of preferred food sources and the frequency of disturbance are important direct and indirect drivers of leafhopper species richness, interacting in complex ways with plant diversity and food resource heterogeneity. PMID:24438134

2014-01-01

386

Women in Construction Management: Identification of the Most Effective Factors in Attracting and Retaining Freshmen and Sophomore Level Students  

E-print Network

are most effective in attracting and retaining female students in CM degree programs based on surveys administered to 40 female CM freshmen and sophomore students in five selected universities. Awareness of career opportunities in the construction industry...

Mathew, Minna

2014-08-06

387

Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

2010-05-01

388

Bottom-up effects of host-plant species diversity and top-down effects of ants interactively increase plant performance.  

PubMed

While plant diversity is well known to increase primary productivity, whether these bottom-up effects are enhanced by reciprocal top-down effects from the third trophic level is unknown. We studied whether pine tree species diversity, aphid-tending ants and their interaction determined plant performance and arthropod community structure. Plant diversity had a positive effect on aphids, but only in the presence of mutualistic ants, leading to a threefold greater number of both groups in the tri-specific cultures than in monocultures. Plant diversity increased ant abundance not only by increasing aphid number, but also by increasing ant recruitment per aphid. The positive effect of diversity on ants in turn cascaded down to increase plant performance; diversity increased plant growth (but not biomass), and this effect was stronger in the presence of ants. Consequently, bottom-up effects of diversity within the same genus and guild of plants, and top-down effects from the third trophic level (predatory ants), interactively increased plant performance. PMID:22951745

Moreira, Xoaquín; Mooney, Kailen A; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis

2012-11-01

389

TRANSGENIC PLANTS: ENVIRONMENTAL PERSISTENCE AND EFFECTS ON SOIL AND PLANT ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The genetic engineering of plants has facilitated the production of valuable agricultural and forestry crops. Transgenic plants have been created that have increased resistance to pests, herbicides, pathogens, and environmental stress, enhanced qualitative and quantitative trait...

390

Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998-1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could reestablish, significantly improved the ammonia - nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetland cells, which received an ammonia-dominated municipal wastewater effluent (average loading rate = 9.88 kg/ha per day NH4-N). We determined that interspersing open water with emergent vegetation is critical for maintaining the wetland's treatment capability, particularly for systems high in NH4-N. Burning aboveground plant parts and thinning rhizomes only temporarily curtailed vegetation proliferation in shallow zones, whereas creating hummocks surrounded by deeper water successfully restricted the emergent vegetation to the shallower hummock areas. Since the hummock configuration kept open water areas interspersed throughout the stands of emergent vegetation, the strategy was also effective in reducing mosquito production. Decreasing vegetation biomass reduced mosquito refuge areas while increasing mosquito predator habitat. Therefore, the combined goals of water quality improvement and mosquito management were achieved by managing the spatial pattern of emergent vegetation to mimic an early successional growth stage, i.e. actively growing plants interspersed with open water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Thullen, J.S.; Sartoris, J.J.; Walton, W.E.

2002-01-01

391

The effect of host mycorrhizal status on host plant–parasitic plant interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pot experiments were conducted to examine three-level interactions between host plants, mycorrhizal fungi and parasitic\\u000a plants. In a greenhouse experiment, Poa annua plants were grown in the presence or absence of an AM fungus (either Glomus lamellosum V43a or G. mosseae BEG29) and in the presence or absence of a root hemiparasitic plant (Odontites vulgaris). In a laboratory experiment,

Veikko Salonen; Mauritz Vestberg; Marko Vauhkonen

2001-01-01

392

Demonstration plan for phytoremediation of explosive-contaminated groundwater in constructed wetlands at Milan Army Ammunition Plant Milan Tennessee. Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To demonstrate at Milan AAP in April 1996 through July 1997, the technical and economic feasibility of using phytoremediation in an artificial constructed wetlands for treatment of explosives-contaminated groundwater. Validated data on cost and effectiveness of this demonstration will be used to transfer this technology to the user community.

Behrends, L.; Sikora, F.; Kelly, D.; Coonrod, S.; Rogers, B.

1996-01-01

393

Demonstration plan for phytoremediation of explosive-contaminated groundwater in constructed wetlands at Milan Army Ammunition Plant Milan Tennessee. Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To demonstrate at Milan AAP in April 1996 through July 1997, the technical and economic feasibility of using phytoremediation in an artificial, constructed wetlands for treatment of explosives-contaminated groundwater. Validated data on cost and effectiveness of this demonstration will be used to transfer this technology to the user community.

Behrends, L.; Sikora, F.; Kelly, D.; Coonrod, S.; Rogers, B.

1996-01-01

394

Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity.  

PubMed

Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental grassland communities in a fully factorial design. In addition, single plants of each species in the grassland community were grown with the same treatments to distinguish direct AMF effects from indirect effects via plant competition. We found that AMF changed plant community structure by influencing the plant species differently. At the community level, AMF decreased the productivity by 15-24%, depending on the particular AMF treatment, mainly because two dominant species, Holcus lanatus and Plantago lanceolata, showed a negative mycorrhizal dependency. Concomitantly, plant diversity increased due to AMF inoculation and was highest in the treatment with a combination of two commercial AM strains. AMF had a positive effect on growth of the hemiparasite, and thereby induced a negative impact of the hemiparasite on host plant biomass which was not found in non-inoculated communities. However, the hemiparasite did not increase plant diversity. Our results highlight the importance of interactions with soil microbes for plant community structure and that these indirect effects can vary among AMF treatments. We conclude that mutualistic interactions with AMF, but not antagonistic interactions with a root hemiparasite, promote plant diversity in this grassland community. PMID:18975009

Stein, Claudia; Rissmann, Cornelia; Hempel, Stefan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald

2009-02-01

395

The effect of plant root system on temperature and moisture of road cutting slope in seasonal frozen regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, in the seasonal frozen regions of Northeast China, the construction of highway improved enormously people's journey condition, but also brought a series of environmental question. In order to meet the route requirement, it is inevitable to excavate the mountain slope, which damage the surface vegetation and cut off the runoff passage of groundwater, cause the outcrop of underground water on the cutting slope and affecte the intrinsic ground stress equilibrium of the slope body, lead to the redistribution of ground stress and the heat balance change in near-surface of the cutting slope. Under influence of rainfall in autumn and the cold climate in winter, the moisture transfer to frozen zone of cutting slope and lead to the frost heave in shallow depth of the slope. During the thawing period in spring, with effect of integrated factors including rainfall and increasing temperature, ice kernels both on the surface and near the surface of cut slope thaw quickly. The water melting from frozen soil, will hampered by frozen layer in process of infiltration. As a result, the water content of the intersection between the freezing and melting layer is high enough to be saturation or even over-saturation, and accordingly cause the intrinsic effective stress on the slope body decreased. Under the function of gravity, near-surface slope collapses partially or entirely. As experience of highway construction accumulated, and the consciousness of environmental protection strengthen, the efficiency and the rationality of plant protection slope was realized gradually, slope protection method has transited gradually from masonry body to combined with plant protection, or complete plant protection. Adopted the method combined field test and lab test, this article analyzed the effect of plant system on the temperature and moisture of soil body, especially the root-soil system in freezing process. The results showed that compared with non plant, the soil body protected by plant had lower moisture content and freeze slowly, which indicated the plant could made the condition of moisture and temperature in the slope better, then reduced the destruction of freezing and thawing to the road slope. The study result could provide theory support for the design of plant protection in the slope of seasonal frozen regions. Key words: road slope, season frozen regions, plant protection, temperature, moisture

Shan, W.; Guo, Y.

2009-04-01

396

Host plant species effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in tallgrass prairie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic associations between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous in many herbaceous plant communities\\u000a and can have large effects on these communities and ecosystem processes. The extent of species-specificity between these plant\\u000a and fungal symbionts in nature is poorly known, yet reciprocal effects of the composition of plant and soil microbe communities\\u000a is an important assumption of recent

Ahn-Heum Eom; David C. Hartnett; G. W. T. Wilson

2000-01-01

397

Investigations into the inhibitory effects of microcystins on plant growth, and the toxicity of plant tissues following exposure.  

PubMed

The cyanobacterial toxins microcystins are known to affect a number of processes in plant tissues, and their presence in water used for irrigation may have considerable impact on the growth and development of crop plants. In this study, two plant bioassays were employed to investigate the phytotoxic effects of microcystins. A plant tissue culture assay revealed that the growth and chlorophyll content of Solanum tuberosum L. cultures was inhibited at microcystin-LR concentrations of 0.005 and 0.05 microg x cm(-3), respectively. A previously developed bioassay was also employed to determine the effects of three commonly occurring microcystin variants on the growth of Synapis alba L. seedlings. Microcystins-LR, -RR, and -LF inhibited the growth of seedlings, with GI50 values of 1.9, 1.6 and 7.7 microg x ml(-1), respectively. The growth of Phaseolus vulgaris was also examined in the presence of microcystin-LR. The toxin was found to have little effect on growth for up to 18 days, but impaired the development of the roots of exposed plants, causing them to take up approximately 30% less growth medium than those grown in the absence of toxin. Microcystin was also detected in the tissues of exposed plants using a commercially available ELISA kit, suggesting that the uptake of these toxins by edible plants may have significant implications for human health. PMID:11384731

McElhiney, J; Lawton, L A; Leifert, C

2001-09-01

398

Effects of a constructed wetland and pond system upon shallow groundwater quality.  

PubMed

Constructed wetland (CW) and constructed pond (CP) are commonly utilized for removal of excess nutrients and certain pollutants from stormwater. This study characterized shallow groundwater quality for pre- and post-CW and CP system conditions using data from monitoring wells. Results showed that the average concentrations of groundwater phosphorus (P) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW but increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average concentrations of groundwater total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) increased from pre-CW (or CP) to post-CW (or CP), whereas the average concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As), chromium, nickel, and zinc (Zn) decreased from pre-CW to post-CW regardless of the well locations. Variations of groundwater cadmium, copper, and Zn concentrations were larger in pre-CP than in post-CP and had a tendency to decrease from pre-CP to post-CP. In general, the average concentrations of groundwater aluminum and manganese decreased and of groundwater calcium, iron, magnesium, and sodium increased from pre-CP to post-CP. The average values of water levels (depth from the ground surface), redox potential, and conductance decreased and of chloride and sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) increased after the wetland and pond were constructed regardless of the well locations. Results further revealed that there were significant differences (? = 0.05) between the pre- and post-CW (or CP) for redox potential, water level, and As. This study suggests that the CW-CP system had discernible effects on some of the shallow groundwater quality constituents. This information is very useful for fully estimating overall performance of stormwater treatment with the CW-CP system. PMID:22976119

Ouyang, Ying

2013-05-01

399

Plants for constructed wetland treatment systems — A comparison of the growth and nutrient uptake of eight emergent species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allocation of above and below-ground growth and nutrient uptake, and pollutant removal were compared for Schoenoplectus validus, Phragmites australis, Glyceria maxima, Baumea articulata, Bolboschoenus fluviatilis, Cyperus involucratus, Juncus effusus and Zizania latifolia. Plants were grown in triplicate 0.238 m2 × 0.6 m deep gravel-bed wetland mosocosms fed with dairy farm wastewaters pre-treated in an anaerobic lagoon. After 124 days, mean

Chris C. Tanner

1996-01-01

400

Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions.  

PubMed

This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setúbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard). PMID:23422042

Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

2013-05-01

401

Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: A mesocosm experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the use of flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) by-products from electric power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in

Changwoo Ahn; WILLIAM J. MITSCH; WILLIAM E. WOLFE

2001-01-01

402

Effects of simulated sulfuric acid rain on crop plants  

SciTech Connect

Since relatively little is known about the effects of acid precipitation on growth and productivity of crop plants, a crop survey was initiated to study effects of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain simulants on growth, yield, and quality of selected crops which were chosen to represent diverse taxonomic groups and crop products. Plants were grown in pots in field-exposure chambers and subjected to three H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain simulants (pH levels 4.0, 3.5, and 3.0) and to a control simulant (pH 5.6). Yield of approximately two-thirds of the crops surveyed was not affected by the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain treatments. Equal numbers of the remaining crops exhibited stimulatory and inhibitory yield responses at some H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain simulant pH levels. These results did not suggest that acid rain treatment either generally inhibited or stimulated crop productivity. Crop response depended on crop species and crop product. For example, while forage yield of alfalfa and timothy was stimulated at some acid rain pH levels, yield of the remaining forage legume and grass species was not generally affected by acid rain treatment. However, root and fruit crop species exhibited generalized responses (yield inhibition and stimulation, respectively) which appeared to be more closely associated with crop product than occurred for other crop product groupings. Effects on crop quality were also important. For instance, although yield of some horticultural leaf and fruit crops was either unaffected or stimulated by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain treatment, marketability was adversely affected at low pH because of the presence of discoloration and/or lesions produced by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ rain treatment. This preliminary study demonstrates considerable variability in crop response to acid rain.

Cohen, C.J.; Grothaus, L.C.; Perrigan, S.C.

1981-01-01

403

Amplitudes for spacetime regions and the quantum Zeno effect: pitfalls of standard path integral constructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Path integrals appear to offer natural and intuitively appealing methods for defining quantum-mechanical amplitudes for questions involving spacetime regions. For example, the amplitude for entering a spatial region during a given time interval is typically defined by summing over all paths between given initial and final points but restricting them to pass through the region at any time. We argue that there is, however, under very general conditions, a significant complication in such constructions. This is the fact that the concrete implementation of the restrictions on paths over an interval of time corresponds, in an operator language, to sharp monitoring at every moment of time in the given time interval. Such processes suffer from the quantum Zeno effect - the continual monitoring of a quantum system in a Hilbert subspace prevents its state from leaving that subspace. As a consequence, path integral amplitudes defined in this seemingly obvious way have physically and intuitively unreasonable properties and in particular, no sensible classical limit. In this paper we describe this frequently-occurring but little-appreciated phenomenon in some detail, showing clearly the connection with the quantum Zeno effect. We then show that it may be avoided by implementing the restriction on paths in the path integral in a "softer" way. The resulting amplitudes then involve a new coarse graining parameter, which may be taken to be a timescale epsilon, describing the softening of the restrictions on the paths. We argue that the complications arising from the Zeno effect are then negligible as long as epsilon >> 1/E, where E is the energy scale of the incoming state. Our criticisms of path integral constructions largely apply to approaches to quantum theory such as the decoherent histories approach or quantum measure theory, which do not specifically involve measurements. We address some criticisms of our approach by Sokolovksi, concerning the relevance of our results to measurement-based models.

Halliwell, J. J.; Yearsley, J. M.

2013-06-01

404

Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable candidates for development of alternative post exposure treatment drugs against rabies. PMID:25347556

Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

2014-01-01

405

Can dispersal mode predict corridor effects on plant parasites?  

SciTech Connect

Habitat corridors, a common management strategy for increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes, have experimentally validated positive influences on species movement and diversity. However, long-standing concerns that corridors could negatively impact native species by spreading antagonists, such as disease, remain largely untested. Using a large-scale, replicated experiment, we evaluated whether corridors increase the incidence of plant parasites. We found that corridor impacts varied with parasite dispersal mode. Connectivity provided by corridors increased incidence of biotically dispersed parasites (galls on Solidago odora) but not of abiotically dispersed parasites (foliar fungi on S. odora and three Lespedeza spp.). Both biotically and abiotically dispersed parasites responded to edge effects, but the direction of responses varied across species. Although our results require additional tests for generality to other species and landscapes, they suggest that, when establishing conservation corridors, managers should focus on mitigating two potential negative effects: the indirect effects of narrow corridors in creating edges and direct effects of corridors in enhancing connectivity of biotically dispersed parasites.

Sullivan, Lauren, L.; Johnson, Brenda, L.; Brudvig, Lars, A.; Haddad, Nick, M.

2011-08-01

406

The effects of pipeline construction disturbance on soil properties and restoration cycle.  

PubMed

Disturbance to the physical-chemical properties of soil caused by pipeline installation was evaluated using two soil quality indices to identify the scale of disturbance and the restoration cycle. The integrated soil quality index (SQI) was used to evaluate soil property changes in different pipeline zones (0, 10, 20, and 50 m from the pipeline) at sites 1 and 2. The soil restoration index (SRI) was used to estimate soil recovery from three pipelines with different recovery periods (2, 6, and 8 years) at site 3. The results showed that the adverse effects of pipeline construction on soil properties mainly occurred in the right-of-way (ROW) areas and the impaired zones were in the order trench?>?piling and working areas?>?20 and 50 m. The soil restoration cycle may be complete within 6 years of construction. At site 3, the SRI in the ROW area of a pipeline after 6 years of restoration was close to 100 %, showing full soil recovery. However, the SRI in the disturbed areas of a pipeline after 2 years of restoration was much lower than that after 6 years of restoration, indicating that the soil was still recovering from the disturbance. The topography may change the intensity of disturbance in different areas due to the movement patterns of heavy machinery and traffic routes. There were local variations in the SQI within the pipeline zones, with flat areas suffering greater disturbance than hilly areas, indicating that topography should be considered in a pipeline's environmental impact assessment. PMID:24141486

Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-03-01

407

Potent hypoglycemic effect of Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper was to investigate the phytochemistry and hypoglycemic activities of aqueous extracts of Anisopus mannii, Daniella olivieri, Detarium macrocarpum, Leptedenia hastate and Mimosa invisa, traditionally prescribed for diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extracts were tested for phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay. The antidiabetic tests were performed in normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic mice. High intensity of saponins, xanthones, tannins and glycosides were detected in A. mannii, D. macrocarpum and M. invisa, respectively. For the free radical scavenging activity, D. macrocarpum showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 0.027 mg/ml which was 2.1 folds of ascorbic acid. All extracts showed potent hypoglycemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic mice with the highest fasting blood glucose reduction of 70.39 percent in A. mannii which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and human insulin, respectively. A. mannii showed the potent hypoglycemic activity which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and insulin, respectively. This study confirmed the traditional use of these Nigerian medicinal plants in diabetes treatment. These plants showed high potential for further investigation to novel anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:22754948

Manosroi, Jiradej; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Manosroi, Aranya

2011-01-01

408

Evolutionary history and the effect of biodiversity on plant productivity  

PubMed Central

Loss of biological diversity because of extinction is one of the most pronounced changes to the global environment. For several decades, researchers have tried to understand how changes in biodiversity might impact biomass production by examining how biomass correlates with a number of biodiversity metrics (especially the number of species and functional groups). This body of research has focused on species with the implicit assumption that they are independent entities. However, functional and ecological similarities are shaped by patterns of common ancestry, such that distantly related species might contribute more to production than close relatives, perhaps by increasing niche breadth. Here, we analyze 2 decades of experiments performed in grassland ecosystems throughout the world and examine whether the evolutionary relationships among the species comprising a community predict how biodiversity impacts plant biomass production. We show that the amount of phylogenetic diversity within communities explained significantly more variation in plant community biomass than other measures of diversity, such as the number of species or functional groups. Our results reveal how evolutionary history can provide critical information for understanding, predicting, and potentially ameliorating the effects of biodiversity loss and should serve as an impetus for new biodiversity experiments. PMID:18971334

Cadotte, Marc W.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Oakley, Todd H.

2008-01-01

409

Construction Program Management: An Effective Tool for the Delivery of Educational Facilities on the International Scene.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All international endeavors of major size and duration have been conducted under the concept of construction program management. Examples in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Brazil, and Guyana illustrate the constancy and coordination that international construction program management provides. (MLF)

Campbell, Robert W.

1992-01-01

410

The effects of solar radiation on plant growth  

SciTech Connect

This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren No. 855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds No. 0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

Agard, J.

1995-09-01

411

Effective hybrid evolutionary computational algorithms for global optimization and applied to construct prion AGAAAAGA fibril models  

E-print Network

Evolutionary algorithms are parallel computing algorithms and simulated annealing algorithm is a sequential computing algorithm. This paper inserts simulated annealing into evolutionary computations and successful developed a hybrid Self-Adaptive Evolutionary Strategy $\\mu+\\lambda$ method and a hybrid Self-Adaptive Classical Evolutionary Programming method. Numerical results on more than 40 benchmark test problems of global optimization show that the hybrid methods presented in this paper are very effective. Lennard-Jones potential energy minimization is another benchmark for testing new global optimization algorithms. It is studied through the amyloid fibril constructions by this paper. To date, there is little molecular structural data available on the AGAAAAGA palindrome in the hydrophobic region (113-120) of prion proteins.This region belongs to the N-terminal unstructured region (1-123) of prion proteins, the structure of which has proved hard to determine using NMR spectroscopy or X-ray crystallography ...

Zhang, Jiapu

2010-01-01

412

Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.  

PubMed

Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

2014-01-01

413

Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment  

PubMed Central

Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

Wolff, Silje A.; Coelho, Liz H.; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

2014-01-01

414

An economic analysis of the effects of regulatory delay on nuclear power plant construction. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the impact that any government regulation has on society, an accurate measure of the costs imposed by the regulation is essential. Current government estimates of the cost of pollution control legislation have failed to include the costs of project delays that firms may experience when complying with such standards. Clearly, if these delays are the direct

M. T. Maloney; M. D. Walsh

1980-01-01

415

Effect of nitrate on uptake of pertechnetate by tomato plants  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate has been shown to affect the acquisition of the nuclear waste product technetium (Tc) by plants. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is unknown. The uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}},[{sup 35}S] SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and H{sub 2}[{sup 32P}]PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} was studied in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Tiny Tim) with different growth rates due to culture at 0.5, 4.0, or 30 mM NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. In experiments lasting 24 h, net TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} uptake decreased at higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} supplies. The inhibitory effect of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} on TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} uptake also was shown in TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx experiments (K{sub i} = 3.3 mM), although about 30% of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx is suggested to be insensitive to NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. In contrast, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (30 mM) did not inhibit TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx, whereas SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (30 mM) tended to increase TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx, probably due to the ionic strength of the uptake solution. Significant effects of the NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} supply on Tc efflux were not found. Overall, this leads to the conclusion that TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} share at least one transporter.

Krijger, G.C.; Kolloeffel, C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

2000-06-01

416

Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.  

PubMed

To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions. PMID:19426314

Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

2009-04-01

417

Agrobacterium Uses a Unique Ligand-Binding Mode for Trapping Opines and Acquiring A Competitive Advantage in the Niche Construction on Plant Host  

PubMed Central

By modifying the nuclear genome of its host, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces the development of plant tumours in which it proliferates. The transformed plant tissues accumulate uncommon low molecular weight compounds called opines that are growth substrates for A. tumefaciens. In the pathogen-induced niche (the plant tumour), a selective advantage conferred by opine assimilation has been hypothesized, but not experimentally demonstrated. Here, using genetics and structural biology, we deciphered how the pathogen is able to bind opines and use them to efficiently compete in the plant tumour. We report high resolution X-ray structures of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) NocT unliganded and liganded with the opine nopaline (a condensation product of arginine and ?-ketoglurate) and its lactam derivative pyronopaline. NocT exhibited an affinity for pyronopaline (KD of 0.6 µM) greater than that for nopaline (KD of 3.7 µM). Although the binding-mode of the arginine part of nopaline/pyronopaline in NocT resembled that of arginine in other PBPs, affinity measurement by two different techniques showed that NocT did not bind arginine. In contrast, NocT presented specific residues such as M117 to stabilize the bound opines. NocT relatives that exhibit the nopaline/pyronopaline-binding mode were only found in genomes of the genus Agrobacterium. Transcriptomics and reverse genetics revealed that A. tumefaciens uses the same pathway for assimilating nopaline and pyronopaline. Fitness measurements showed that NocT is required for a competitive colonization of the plant tumour by A. tumefaciens. Moreover, even though the Ti-plasmid conjugal transfer was not regulated by nopaline, the competitive advantage gained by the nopaline-assimilating Ti-plasmid donors led to a preferential horizontal propagation of this Ti-plasmid amongst the agrobacteria colonizing the plant-tumour niche. This work provided structural and genetic evidences to support the niche construction paradigm in bacterial pathogens. PMID:25299655

Planamente, Sara; El Sahili, Abbas; Blin, Pauline; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Dessaux, Yves; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

2014-01-01

418

Effects of indirect selection pressure on plant fitness and the movement of transgenes in constructed plant communities  

EPA Science Inventory

Escape and persistence of transgenes from agricultural crops are issues of concern to stakeholders in the environmental safety of transgenic crops. That is, whether transgenes that confer resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses may benefit weedy or native species outside of agr...

419

Factors associated with detrimental effects of rhizobacteria on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the factors interfering with the specific response of young common bean plants to two rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads\\u000a were studied. These two bacterial strains produced symptoms in foliar plant parts and reduced yield in beans and several other\\u000a plant species when inoculated on roots. Sensitivity in the plants subjected to bacterial application was highest at early\\u000a growth stages (up

S. Alström

1987-01-01

420

Effects of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. are dependent on plant P nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have shown potential to enhance nodulation of legumes when coinoculated\\u000a with Rhizobium. To optimize the efficiency of these Rhizobium-PGPR-host plant interactions, unravelling the underlying mechanisms and analyzing the influence of specific environmental\\u000a conditions is crucial. In this work the effect of four PGPR strains on the symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Roseline Remans; Anja Croonenborghs; Roldan Torres Gutierrez; Jan Michiels; Jos Vanderleyden

421

Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine.  

PubMed

People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE) of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava), Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain), Polygonum punctatum (water smartweed), Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry) and Aster squamatus (zé-da-silva) on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents. PMID:8734966

Almeida, C E; Karnikowski, M G; Foleto, R; Baldisserotto, B

1995-12-01

422

Investigating Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Community Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a field study project that explores factors influencing forest community structure and lifts the veil off of "plant blindness." This ecological study consists of three laboratories: (1) preliminary field trip to the study site; (2) plant survey; and (3) analyzing plant community structure with descriptive…

Franklin, Wilfred

2008-01-01

423

Effects of Succinate on Manganese Toxicity in Pea Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea (Pisum sativum cv. Citrine) plants were grown in nutrient solution containing various manganese (Mn) concentrations in the presence or absence of succinate to evaluate the potential role of succinate in the plant tolerance to Mn excess. Supplying pea plants with excess Mn led to a reduction in the relative growth rate (RGR), chlorophyll a and b content, photosynthetic O2

Snejana Doncheva; Katya Georgieva; Valya Vassileva; Zlatimira Stoyanova; Nanko Popov; George Ignatov

2005-01-01

424

Effects of Grizzly Bear Digging on Alpine Plant Community Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

InAlaskan alpinetundra, grizzly bearsexcavate deepholes insearch ofground squirrels, but few studies have tested the importance of grizzlies, or other large mammals, in maintaining plant community structure. We examined 43 bear digs, asking how they affect plant species richness and diversity, recolonization patterns, and plants with different clonal growth strategies. Bears remove most vegetation from digs, and recovering digs had lower

Daniel F. Doak; Michael G. Loso

2003-01-01

425

Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate at which a plant species is attacked by invertebrate herbivores has been hypothesized to depend on plant species richness, yet empirical evidence is scarce. Current theory predicts higher herbivore damage in monocultures than in species-rich mixtures. We quantified herbivore damage by insects and molluscs to plants in experimental plots established in 2002 from a species pool of 60

Christoph Scherber; Peter N. Mwangi; Vicky M. Temperton; Christiane Roscher; Jens Schumacher; Bernhard Schmid; Wolfgang W. Weisser

2006-01-01

426

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-08-02

427

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2011-11-22

428

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2007-06-05

429

Plant centromere compositions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

2006-06-26

430

EFFECTS OF PRESCRIBED FALL BURNING ON A WETLAND PLANT COMMUNITY, WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PLANTS AND HERBIVORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important contemporary challenge for adaptive resource management is assessing both the direct and indirect effects of management activities by designing appropriate monitoring programs and sound analysis meth- ods. Here we evaluate the effects of prescribed fall burning on a wetland plant community that is managed primarily for spring-migrating geese. During late fall in 2 consecutive years, we burned vegetation

Scott R. McWilliams; Todd Sloat; Catherine A. Toft; Daphne Hatch

2007-01-01

431

The sequence coding and search system: An approach for constructing and analyzing event sequences at commercial nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recognized the importance of the collection, assessment, and feedstock of operating experience data from commercial nuclear power plants and has centralized these activities in the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). Such data is essential for performing safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns to identify undesirable changes in plant performance at the earliest opportunity to implement corrective measures to preclude the occurrences of a more serious event. One of NRC's principal tools for collecting and evaluating operating experience data is the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS). The SCSS consists of a methodology for structuring event sequences and the requisite computer system to store and search the data. The source information for SCSS is the Licensee Event Report (LER), which is a legally required document. This paper describes the objective SCSS, the information it contains, and the format and approach for constructuring SCSS event sequences. Examples are presented demonstrating the use SCSS to support the analysis of LER data. The SCSS contains over 30,000 LERs describing events from 1980 through the present. Insights gained from working with a complex data system from the initial developmental stage to the point of a mature operating system are highlighted.

Mays, G.T.

1989-04-01

432

Electrospun fiber constructs for vocal fold tissue engineering: Effects of alignment and elastomeric polypeptide coating.  

PubMed

Vocal fold lamina propria extracellular matrix (ECM) is highly aligned and when injured, becomes disorganized with loss of the tissue's critical biomechanical properties. This study examines the effects of electrospun fiber scaffold architecture and elastin-like polypeptide (ELP4) coating on human vocal fold fibroblast (HVFF) behavior for applications toward tissue engineering the vocal fold lamina propria. Electrospun Tecoflex™ scaffolds were made with aligned and unaligned fibers, and were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and uniaxial tensile testing. ELP4 was successfully adsorbed onto the scaffolds; HVFFs were seeded and their viability, proliferation, morphology and gene expression were characterized. Aligned and unaligned scaffolds had initial elastic moduli of ?14MPa, ?5MPa and ?0.3MPa, ?0.6MPa in the preferred and cross-preferred directions, respectively. Scaffold topography had an effect on the orientation of the cells, with HVFFs seeded on aligned scaffolds having a significantly different (p<0.001) angle of orientation than HVFFs cultured on unaligned scaffolds. This same effect and significant difference (p<0.001) was seen on aligned and unaligned scaffolds coated with ELP4. Scaffold alignment and ELP4 coating impacted ECM gene expression. ELP4 coating, and aligned scaffolds upregulated elastin synthesis when tested on day 7 without a concomitant upregulation of collagen III synthesis. Collectively, results indicate that aligned electrospun scaffolds and ELP4 coating are promising candidates in the development of biodegradeable vocal fold lamina propria constructs. PMID:25462850

Hughes, Lindsay A; Gaston, Joel; McAlindon, Katherine; Woodhouse, Kimberly A; Thibeault, Susan L

2015-02-01

433

Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents among construction painters.  

PubMed Central

A cross sectional study of 101 construction painters was performed to investigate the relation between exposure to mixed organic solvents and changes in central nervous system function. Solvent exposure was estimated using questionnaire data to derive an exposure index (a measure of intensity of exposure) and to estimate the duration and frequency of exposure. Adverse effects on the central nervous system were assessed by self reported questionnaires and eight tests of a computer administered neurobehavioural evaluation system. Factor analysis of both measures of effect yielded factors both biologically plausible and in agreement with other empirical evidence. A consistent positive association was observed between most measures of exposure and the occurrence of neurotoxic symptoms, notably dizziness, nausea, fatigue, problems with arm strength, and feelings of getting "high" from chemicals at work. Associations with exposure were found with the neurobehavioural evaluation system tests of symbol digit substitution and digit span; however, no consistent pattern of effect on neurobehavioural function was observed. This pattern of the occurrence of neurotoxic symptoms without clear evidence of function deficit is consistent with the type 1 toxic central nervous system disorder as classified by the World Health Organisation. PMID:3496112

Fidler, A T; Baker, E L; Letz, R E

1987-01-01

434

Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.  

PubMed

Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris?+?sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality. PMID:25143001

Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

2014-11-01

435

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

436

Effect of Volatiles from Plants on the Selectivity of Tetranychus viennensis for Different Host Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory responses of Tetranychus viennensis to different plant odors were studied with a “Y” olfactometer and petri dishes, and volatiles from leaves of different plants\\u000a were absorbed with solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. The study showed that\\u000a olfaction took place in the response when the Hawthorn Spider Mite looked for host plants, indicating that T. viennensis

Xugen Sun; Luqin Qiao

2006-01-01

437

Effect of planting density on plant growth and camptothecin content of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

C. acuminata seedlings cultivated in greenhouse were transplanted into the fields with 5 designed planting densities (11, 16, 25, 44 and\\u000a 100 plants·m?2) in May of 2004 and were harvested in the middle of September of 2004. The seedling growth indexes including plant height\\u000a and crown width, biomass allocation, camptothecin (CPT) content and CPT yield of different organs (young leaf,

Wei Huan-yong; Wang Yang; Wang Zhen-yue; Yan Xiu-feng

2005-01-01

438

Effect of a constructed wetland on disinfection byproducts: Removal processes and production of precursors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (TH M), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.The fate of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in treatment wetlands and the changes in the DBP formation potential as wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)-derived water moves through the wetlands were investigated. Wetland inlet and outlet samples were analyzed for total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes (THM), haloacetic acids (HAA), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV absorbance. Removal of DBPs by the wetland ranged from 13 to 55% for TOX, from 78 to 97% for THM, and from 67 to 96% for HAA. The 24-h and 7-day nonpurgeable total organic halide (NPTOX), THM, and HAA formation potential yields were determined at the inlet and outlet of these wetlands. The effect of wetlands on the production of DBP precursors and their DBP-formation potential yield from wastewater was dramatic. The wetlands increased DBP yield up to a factor of almost 30. Specific changes in the DOC precursors were identified using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Rostad, C.E.; Martin, B.S.; Barber, L.B.; Leenheer, J.A.; Daniel, S.R.

2000-01-01

439

Effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on a plant–herbivore interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation may have multiple effects on both plants and animals and affect plant–herbivore interactions\\u000a directly and indirectly by inducing changes in host plant quality. In this study, we examined combined effects of UV-B and\\u000a herbivory on the defence of the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) and also the effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on a geometrid

Ulla AnttilaRiitta; Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto; Matti Rousi; Shiyong Yang; Markus J. Rantala; Teija Ruuhola

2010-01-01

440

The Value of Suppressor Effects in Explicating the Construct Validity of Symptom Measures  

PubMed Central

Suppressor effects are operating when the addition of a predictor increases the predictive power of another variable. We argue that suppressor effects can play a valuable role in explicating the construct validity of symptom measures by bringing into clearer focus opposing elements that are inherent—but largely hidden—in the measure’s overall score. We illustrate this point using theoretically grounded, replicated suppressor effects that have emerged in analyses of the original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS; Watson et al., 2007) and its expanded second version (IDAS-II; Watson et al., 2012). In Study 1, we demonstrate that the IDAS-II Appetite Gain and Appetite Loss scales contain both (a) a shared distress component that creates a positive correlation between them and (b) a specific symptom component that produces a natural negative association between them (i.e., people who recently have experienced decreased interest in food/loss of appetite are less likely to report a concomitant increase in appetite/weight). In Study 2, we establish that mania scales also contain two distinct elements—namely, high energy/positive emotionality and general distress/dysfunction—that oppose each another in many instances. In both studies, we obtained evidence of suppression effects that were highly robust across different types of respondents (e.g., clinical outpatients, community adults, college students) and using both self-report and interview-based measures. These replicable suppressor effects establish that many homogeneous, unidimensional symptom scales actually contain distinguishable components with distinct—at times, even antagonistic—properties. PMID:23795886

Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman

2013-01-01

441

Effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant discharges on Chickamauga Lake water temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The near-field effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant thermal discharges on Chickamauga Lake water temperatures is discussed. A description and performance characteristics of the plant's heat dispersal facilities, including the cooling water intake, discharge diffuser and cooling towers, are given. The use of the various facilities is described for open, helper and closed mode cooling of the plant. The expected temperature

C. D. Ungate; K. A. Howerton

1978-01-01

442

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi-cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their  

E-print Network

Effects of competition between alfalfa (Medi- cago sativa L.) hybrid and inbred plants on their seed and forage yield (1) Fabio VERONESI, Francesco DAMIANI Stefania GRANDO Franco LORENZETTI Plant Breeding Institute of University of Perugia, 1 06100 Perugia, Italy (*) Forage Plant Breeding Centre

Boyer, Edmond

443

The effect of established plants on recruitment in the annual forb Sinapis arvensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germination response of Sinapis arvensis to the presence of established plants was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Established conspecific and heterospecific plants were found to inhibit germination and reduce the probability of recruitment of those seeds that germinate. Established plants have no effect on seed mortality in the soil. Using a simple recruitment model, it is demonstrated that the

Mark Rees; Valerie K. Brown

1991-01-01

444

Effects of humic acids from vermicomposts on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between earthworms and microorganisms can produce significant quantities of plant growth hormones and humic acids which act as plant regulators. Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of humic acids extracted from vermicompost and compare them with the action of commercial humic acid in combination with a commercial plant growth hormone, indole acetic acid (IAA) which is a

Norman Q. Arancon; Clive. A. Edwards; Stephen Lee; Robert Byrne

2006-01-01

445

Effects of light quality and quantity on growth of the clonal plant Eichhornia crassipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant canopy shade reduces photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and ratio of red to far-red light (z). Both effects can cause plants to increase potential for light acquisition through vertical growth and leaf area expansion. Clonal plants such as Eichhornia crassipes might alternatively increase light interception via horizontal growth of stolons or rhizomes and placement of new ramets in less

M. Méthy; P. Alpert; J. Roy

1990-01-01

446

The effectiveness of botanic garden collections in supporting plant conservation: a European case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europe has the greatest concentration of botanic gardens in the world, they cultivate extensive collections of plants that include samples of European threatened plant species. This study looks at the effectiveness of these collections in supporting species conservation. A three part study is presented: (1) the results of a survey and assessment of threatened plants in botanic gardens, as defined

Mike Maunder; Sarah Higgens; Alastair Culham

2001-01-01

447

Effect of rice plants on methane production and rhizospheric metabolism in paddy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the effects of rice plants on CH4 production, we conducted experiments with soil slurries and planted rice microcosms. Methane production in anoxic paddy soil slurries was stimulated by the addition of rice straw, of unsterile or autoclaved rice roots, and of the culture fluid in which rice plants had axenically been cultivated. The addition of these

Simone Dannenberg; Ralf Conrad

1999-01-01

448

Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments  

E-print Network

Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments Pratigya J. Polissar Abstract We analyzed the deuterium composition of individual plant-waxes in lake sediments from 28 fractionation (ea) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type

Polissar, Pratigya J.

449

Plant Growth Regulator Effects on Spring Cereal Root and Shoot Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

resulting in more efficient water extraction from the deeper soil layers and thereby higher grain yield. How- Plant growth regulators (PGR) shorten the straw of cereals, but ever, Bragg et al. (1984) and Steen and Wunsche (1990) their effects on other traits of plant stand structure have been inconsis- tent. To arrive at an assessment of whole-plant response, experiments did

A. Rajala; P. Peltonen-Sainio

2001-01-01

450

Effect of Acorn Planting Depth on Depredation, Emergence, and Survival of Valley and Blue Oak1  

E-print Network

Effect of Acorn Planting Depth on Depredation, Emergence, and Survival of Valley and Blue Oak1-central San Luis Obispo County, California, we studied the relationship of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and blue oak (Q. douglasii) acorn planting depth and number of acorns per planting site to acorn

Standiford, Richard B.

451

Constructed Landscaping Combination Constructed Wetlands System Used for Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed a combinant landscape constructed wetland for sewage treatment based on landscape plants in this study. The results are summerized as follows: the system uses model as: A(biological pretreatment pond)-B(biochemistry pond)- C(subsurface flow wetland)-D(surface flow wetland)-E(the third level vertical-flow wetland)-F(second-level vertical-flow wetland) -G(landscape surface flow wetland)-H(biology pond), this combination craft sewage treatment is performed effectively, and the system outcome

Chen Yong-hua; Wu Xiao-fu; Chen Ming-li; Yao Jing; Li Ke-lin; Wang Zhong-cheng; Lei Dian

2010-01-01

452

Air Pollution/Climate Change Effects on Plants: GeneralTopics  

E-print Network

SESSION I Air Pollution/Climate Change Effects on Plants: GeneralTopics William J. Manning has toxic effects on both plants and animals, the mechanisms by which the toxic effects are elicited An abbreviated version of this paper was presented at the International Symposium on Air Pollution and Cli- mate

Standiford, Richard B.

453

Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of the invasive. In fact, in one year fruit set of S. alba was significantly greater in the presence of L. salicaria. The number of invasive pollen grains on native stigmas was extremely low; on average less than one grain per stigma. These fruit set and pollen deposition findings indicate that native plant reproduction was not adversely affected in the short term by these invasive species and that therefore competition between the native and invasive species for pollinators did not occur. Native bee populations monitored in 2004-2005 at sites with and without B. thunbergii and/or F. alnus indicated a greater abundance of native bees at sites with these invasives present. Native bees collected from the native and invasive plants were compared with historical records to assess whether invasive plants favor different bee species than those that formerly predominated on Mount Desert Island. This does not appear to be the case. Several species of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) as well as nine solitary bee species were found that were not documented by the Procter surveys of 1917-1940. Collecting of native bees was limited to the study plants, which may, in part, explain why some bee species documented in the Procter Surveys were not found in the present research. A field guide for identification of native bumble bees has been produced to help Park Natural Resource personnel monitor the status of native bee populations in Acadia. Other educational materials were also developed, aimed at educating Park visitors by exposing them to: 1) the role of native plants and their bee pollinators in terrestrial ecosystems; 2) the effects of invasive plants on native plant-pollinator mutualisms; 3) the need for conserving native bees and other pollinators; and 4) conservation strategies for protecting and enhancing native plant-pollinator mutualisms in the Park. Based on the present findings, Acadia Park Resource Management personnel should continue to closely

Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

2007-01-01

454

An experimental study on the facilitative effects of tussock structure among wetland plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most investigations of clonal plants have focused on negative aspects of interactions with neighbors, some studies\\u000a have shown positive effects of clonal plants on other species, especially clonal plants with a compact, or phalanx, growth\\u000a habit. For example, several plant species have been observed to grow directly upon tussocks of the freshwater rush Juncus effusus L., and the phenology

Gary N. Ervin

2007-01-01

455

Edge effects, not connectivity, determine the incidence and development of a foliar fungal plant disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a model plant-pathogen system in a large-scale habitat corridor experiment, we found that corridors do not facilitate the movement of wind-dispersed plant pathogens, that connectivity of patches does not enhance levels of foliar fungal plant disease, and that edge effects are the key drivers of plant disease dynamics. Increased spread of infectious disease is often cited as a potential

Johnson; L. Brenda; Nick Haddad

2011-01-01

456

Interactive effects of mycorrhizae and a root hemiparasite on plant community productivity and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant communities can be affected both by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and hemiparasitic plants. However, little is\\u000a known about the interactive effects of these two biotic factors on the productivity and diversity of plant communities. To\\u000a address this question, we set up a greenhouse study in which different AMF inocula and a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor) were added to experimental

Claudia Stein; Cornelia Rißmann; Stefan Hempel; Carsten Renker; François Buscot; Daniel Prati; Harald Auge

2009-01-01

457

Using dihydropyridine-release strategies to enhance load effects in engineered human bone constructs.  

PubMed

We report on the development of a novel biodegradable scaffold capable of enhancing mechanical signals for tissue-engineering applications. It has been shown that mechanotransduction enhances bone formation in vitro and in vivo; in tissue-engineering applications, this phenomenon is exploited through the use of mechanical bioreactors to generate bone tissue. The dihydropyridine agonist Bay K8644 (Bay) acts to increase the opening time of mechanosensitive voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs), specifi- cally L-type VOCCs, which are known to play a fundamental role in the early mediation of mechanotransduction. We have produced porous 3-dimensional, Bay-encapsulated biodegradable poly(L-lactide) acid scaffolds using a solvent-casting and salt-leaching technique. The effects of the released Bay on osteoid production and mineralization in human bone cell-seeded constructs following incubation in a perfusion-compression bioreactor in vitro was investigated using Western blotting techniques and a calcium assay protocol developed in our lab. Our newly developed scaffolds act by slowly releasing the calcium channel agonist Bay K8644 as observed using ultraviolet spectroscopy, maintaining the open state of mechanosensitive VOCCs responding to load, which augments the load signal at sites of strain across the scaffold. Our results demonstrate that, in the presence of physiological loading regimes in vitro, release of Bay enhances collagen I protein production and osteoid calcification more than non-Bay control constructs do. Osteopontin and alpha2delta1 VOCC subunit protein levels were also higher as a result of perfusion-compression conditioning. These results indicate that Bay-encapsulated scaffolds can be used in the presence of load to enhance the production of load-bearing engineered tissue. PMID:16995782

Wood, Mairead A; Yang, Ying; Thomas, Peter B M; Haj, Alicia J El

2006-09-01

458

Construction of Drug Network Based on Side Effects and Its Application for Drug Repositioning  

PubMed Central

Drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share similar therapeutic properties through related mechanisms of action. In this study, a drug-drug network was constructed based on