Science.gov

Sample records for plant construction effects

  1. Effects of plant root on hydraulic performance of clogging process in subsurface flow constructed wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Guofen; Zhao, Zhongwei; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands (SFCWs) have proven to be an efficient ecological technology for the treatment of various kinds of wastewaters. The clogging issue is the main operational problem, which limits its wide application. Clogging is a complicated process with physical (such as physical filtration), biogeochemical and plant-related processes. It was generally stated that suspended solids accumulation and biofilm play dominant roles response for clogging. However, the role of plants in SFCWs clogging remains unclear and debatable. In this paper, the performance of plants in the whole clogging process was addressed based on the lab-experiments between planted and unplanted system by measuring effective porosity, coefficient of permeability of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, flow pattern and transport properties of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by hydraulic performance (e.g. mean residence time, short-circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, hydraulic efficiency factor, etc.) with salt tracer experiments. Plants played different roles in different clogging stage. In the earlier clogging stage, there were no obvious different effects on clogging process between planted and unplanted system. The effective porosity and coefficient of permeability slightly decreased within the planted system, which indicated that plant root restricted the flow of water when the pore spaces were lager. In the middle and later clogging stage, especially, in the later stage, the effective porosity and the coefficient of permeability increased considerably in the plant root zone. Furthermore, the longer retention times and higher hydraulic efficiency factors were gained in the planted system compared to that of unplanted, which implied that growing roots might open the new pore spaces in the substrate. The results are expected to be useful in the design of constructed wetland. Key words: clogging; plant root; salt tracers; hydraulic performance; subsurface flow constructed wetlands

  2. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    PubMed

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively. PMID:26564588

  3. Effects of single and multiple applications of glyphosate or aminopyralid on simple constructed plant communities.

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Blakeley-Smith, Matthew; Lee, E Henry; King, George; Plocher, Milton; Olszyk, David

    2014-10-01

    To determine effects of multiple applications of herbicides on small constructed plant communities, Prunella vulgaris L.var. lanceolata Fern, Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) Alexeev, Clarkia amoena (Lehm.) Nels., and Cynosurus echinatus L. were grown together in small field plots. Plants were treated with glyphosate at target concentrations of 0??, 0.01??, 0.1??, and 0.2 a field application rate (FAR) of 1122?g?ha(-1) active ingredient (a.i.) for 3 yr in 1 location, and for 2 yr in a second location. Plants also were treated with aminopyralid at 0??, 0.037??, 0.136??, and 0.5 FAR of 123?g?ha(-1) a.i. for 2 yr in 2 locations. Plants received 1, 2, or 3 applications of each herbicide each year. Species and community responses depended on herbicide concentration and number of applications. With glyphosate, plant volume (modified formula for a cone) tended to decrease for all species (especially?C. echinatus), and the decreases generally became larger with more applications. Plant communities exposed to the 2 greatest concentrations initially differed from controls but then appeared to recover. With aminopyralid, C. amoena was essentially eliminated from the communities, especially at the 2 greatest FARs, whereas the other 3 species tended to have significant increases in volume, especially at the 2 smallest FARs. With aminopyralid, increasing numbers of applications produced variable results, and the plant community volume never tended to recover. PMID:25043825

  4. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center)

    1993-06-01

    Compared were concentrations of Al,Cd,Ca,Cu,Fe,Hg,Pb,Mg,Mn,Ni,P, and Zn in water, plants and aquatic insects of three acidified (pH [approximately] 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH [approximately] 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicated that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threatened egg production and development of young.

  5. Effects and Effectiveness of Two RNAi Constructs for Resistance to Pepper golden mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Hernndez, Diana; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael Francisco; Tenllado, Francisco; Holgun-Pea, Ramn Jaime

    2013-01-01

    ToChLPV and PepGMV are Begomoviruses that have adapted to a wide host range and are able to cause major diseases in agronomic crops. We analyzed the efficacy of induced resistance to PepGMV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with two constructs: one construct with homologous sequences derived from PepGMV, and the other construct with heterologous sequences derived from ToChLPV. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed an efficacy to decrease the severity of symptoms of 45%, while plants protected with the homologous construct showed an efficacy of 80%. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed a reduction of incidence of 42.86%, while the reduction of incidence in plants protected with the homologous construct was 57.15%. The efficacy to decrease viral load was 95.6% in plants protected with the heterologous construct, and 99.56% in plants protected with the homologous construct. We found, in both constructs, up-regulated key components of the RNAi pathway. This demonstrates that the efficacy of the constructs was due to the activation of the gene silencing mechanism, and is reflected in the decrease of viral genome copies, as well as in recovery phenotype. We present evidence that both constructs are functional and can efficiently induce transient resistance against PepGMV infections. This observation guarantees a further exploration as a strategy to control complex Begomovirus diseases in the field. PMID:24287597

  6. Mechanism of the effect caused by highway construction on plant biomass in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Xu, Honglei; Chang, Chunping

    2013-03-01

    Taking Dabao (from Dali City to Baoshan City, Yunnan Province, China) and Sixiao (from Simao City to Xiaomengyang Town, Yunnan Province, China) highways in Longitudinal Range-Gorge Region as examples. Biomass, coverage and photosynthesis rate of different plant types on sampling points (at the distances from road of 5, 20, 40, 80, 120 and 200 m) and their control points were estimated on ground. The relations among biomass, coverage, photosynthesis rate were analyzed with an aim to explore the mechanism of the effect caused by highway construction on plant biomass. The results show, i) the impacts of highway construction on plant biomass are both positive and negative. Arbor is mainly negatively impacted, while shrub and herbage are mainly positively impacted. The effect of highway construction decrease with the increase of distance from the road; ii) highway construction exert obvious influence on plant biomass through altering the physiologic processes (reflected by the plant number) and photosynthesis, iii) highway construction will result in the decrease of arbor number, photosynthesis rate and biomass, and increase of plant number, photosynthesis rate and biomass of shrub and herbage.

  7. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  8. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL OF TCE IN A LABORATORY MODEL OF A PRB CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative ...

  9. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  10. Effects of plant species on soil microbial processes and CH4 emission from constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Ye, Chun; Chen, Xia; Xie, Biao; Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Jixiang; Xu, Meina

    2013-03-01

    Methane (CH(4)) emission from constructed wetland has raised environmental concern. This study evaluated the influence of mono and polyculture constructed wetland and seasonal variation on CH(4) fluxes. Methane emission data showed large temporal variation ranging from 0 to 249.29 mg CH(4) m(-2) h(-1). Results indicated that the highest CH(4) flux was obtained in the polyculture system, planted with Phragmites australis, Zizania latifolia and Typha latifolia, reflecting polyculture system could stimulate CH(4) emission. FISH analysis showed the higher amount of methanotrophs in the profile of Z. latifolia in both mono and polyculture systems. The highest methanogens amount and relatively lower methanotrophs amount in the profile of polyculture system were obtained. The results support the characteristics of CH(4) fluxes. The polyculture constructed wetland has the higher potential of global warming. PMID:23291006

  11. Development of a constructed Willamette Valley plant community to determine non-target effects of herbicide drift on native plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection must consider potential environmental effects, including impacts to nontarget plants. Normally the risk assessment to determine these impacts requires simple, individual species, greenhouse, dose-response e...

  12. Effect of plant harvesting on the performance of constructed wetlands during winter: radial oxygen loss and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xie, Huijun; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Congcong; Li, Hao

    2015-05-01

    The aboveground tissue of plants is important for providing roots with constant photosynthetic resources. However, the aboveground biomass is usually harvested before winter to maintain the permanent removal of nutrients. In this work, the effects of harvest on plants' involvement in oxygen input as well as in microbial abundance and activity were investigated in detail. Three series of constructed wetlands with integrated plants ("unharvested"), harvested plants ("harvested"), and fully cleared plants ("cleared") were set up. Better performance was found in the unharvested units, with the radial oxygen loss (ROL) rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.59 μmol O₂/h/plant, followed by the harvested units that had relatively lower ROL rates (0.01 to 0.52 μmol O₂/h/plant). The cleared units had the lowest removal efficiency, which had no rhizome resources from the plants. The microbial population and activity were highest in the unharvested units, followed by the harvested and cleared units. Results showed that bacterial abundances and enhanced microbial activity were ten times higher on root surfaces compared with sands. These results indicate that late autumn harvesting of the aboveground biomass exhibited negative effects on plant ROL as well as on the microbial population and activity during the following winter. PMID:25520204

  13. Effects of plant roots on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process in mesocosm vertical flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hua, G F; Zhao, Z W; Kong, J; Guo, R; Zeng, Y T; Zhao, L F; Zhu, Q D

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant roots (Typha angustifolia roots) on the hydraulic performance during the clogging process from the perspective of time and space distributions in mesocosm vertical flow-constructed wetlands with coarse sand matrix. For this purpose, a pair of lab-scale experiments was conducted to compare planted and unplanted systems by measuring the effective porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the substrate within different operation periods. Furthermore, the flow pattern of the clogging process in the planted and unplanted wetland systems were evaluated by their hydraulic performance (e.g., mean residence time, short circuiting, volumetric efficiency, number of continuously stirred tank reactors, and hydraulic efficiency factor) in salt tracer experiments. The results showed that the flow conditions would change in different clogging stages, which indicated that plants played different roles related to time and space. In the early clogging stages, plant roots restricted the flow of water, while in the middle and later clogging stages, especially the later stage, growing roots opened new pore spaces in the substrate. The roots played an important role in affecting the hydraulic performance in the upper layer (0-30 cm) where the sand matrix had a larger root volume fraction. Finally, the causes of the controversy over plant roots' effects on clogging were discussed. The results helped further understand the effects of plant roots on hydraulic performance during the clogging process. PMID:24994107

  14. COMPOST EFFECT ON WATER RETENTION AND NATIVE PLANT ESTABLISHMENT ON A CONSTRUCTION EMBANKMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost amendment of soil provides multiple benefits. Studies have documented the effect of compost on soil properties, but information reporting benefits to soil and plant establishment on non-agricultural soils are lacking. Our objective was to determine if yard-waste compost application at diff...

  15. Effects of plant biomass on denitrifying genes in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The effect of Typha latifolia and its litter on density and abundance of three denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) were investigated in six laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms. Results showed that the copy numbers of nirS, nirK and nosZ in wetland microcosms were ranged between 10(8)-10(9), 10(6)-10(7) and 10(7)-10(8) copies g(-1), respectively. The presence of T. latifolia encouraged the growth of nirK containing bacteria. Addition of cattail litter could greatly stimulate the growth of bacteria containing nirS and nosZ gene. Path analysis illustrated that the presence of plants and litters had no significant direct impact on denitrifying genes, while it affected the denitrifying genes via alteration of dissolved oxygen and carbon sources. PMID:24565872

  16. Effect of different plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms distribution in horizontal-flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Meng, Panpan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Hou, Qingjie; Ji, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Three macrophyte species, Phragmites australis, Arundo donax L., and Typha latifolia L. have been separately grown in a horizontal-flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) fed with domestic wastewater to investigate effects of plant species on nutrient removal and rhizospheric microorganisms. All the three mesocosms have been in operation for eight months under the loading rates of 1.14 g Nm(-2) d(-1) and 0.014gP m(-2) d(-1). Appropriately 34-43% phosphorus (P) was removed in HF CWs, and no distinct difference was found among the plants. In the growing season, A. donax L. removed 31.19 gm(-2) of nitrogen (N), followed by P. australis (29.96 g m(-2)), both of which were significantly higher than T. latifolia L. (7.21 g m(-2). Depending on the species, plants absorbed 1.73-7.15% of the overall N, and 0.06-0.56% of the P input. At least 10 common dominant microorganisms were found in the rhizosphere of all the three plants, and 6 of the 10 kinds of bacteria had close relationship with denitrifying bacteria, implying that denitrifiers were dominant microorganism distributed in rhizosphere of wetland plants. PMID:24645463

  17. Effects of single and multiple applications of glyphosate and aminopyralid on simple constructed plant communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant tests required for the registration of pesticides are generally performed under controlled laboratory/greenhouse conditions using single exposures, and the results may or may not be relevant to protecting plant communities or ecosystems. We report results from a field test ...

  18. Effects of plant biomass on nitrogen transformation in subsurface-batch constructed wetlands: a stable isotope and mass balance assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-10-15

    Nitrate is commonly found in the influent of subsurface-batch constructed wetlands (SSB CWs) used for tertiary wastewater treatments. To understand the effects of plants and the litter on nitrate removal, as well as on nitrogen transformation in SSB CWs, six laboratory-scale SSB CW microcosms were set up in duplicate and were operated as batch systems with hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 5d. The presence of Typha latifolia enhanced nitrate removal in SSB CWs, and the N removed by plant uptake was mainly stored in aboveground biomass. Typha litter addition greatly improved nitrate removal in SSB CWs through continuous input of labile organic carbon, and calculated enrichment factors (?) were between -12.1--13.9 from the nitrogen stable isotope analysis, suggesting that denitrification plays a dominant role in the N removal. Most significantly, simultaneous sulfur-based autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification was observed in CWs. Finally, mass balance showed that denitrification, sedimentation burial and plant uptake respectively contributed 54%-94%, 1%-46% and 7.5%-14.3% to the N removal in CWs. PMID:25000198

  19. Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong

    2013-06-01

    The response of nitrification potentials, denitrification potentials, and N removal efficiency to the introduction of earthworms and wetland plants in a vertical flow constructed wetland system was investigated. Addition of earthworms increased nitrification and denitrification potentials of substrate in non-vegetated constructed wetland by 236% and 8%, respectively; it increased nitrification and denitrification potentials in rhizosphere in vegetated constructed wetland (Phragmites austrail, Typha augustifolia and Canna indica), 105% and 5%, 187% and 12%, and 268% and 15% respectively. Denitrification potentials in rhizosphere of three wetland plants were not significantly different, but nitrification potentials in rhizosphere followed the order of C. indica>T. augustifolia>P. australis when addition of earthworms into constructed wetland. Addition of earthworms to the vegetated constructed significantly increased the total number of bacteria and fungi of substrates (P<0.05). The total number of bacteria was significantly correlated with nitrification potentials (r=913, P<0.01) and denitrification potentials (r=840, P<0.01), respectively. The N concentration of stems and leaves of C. indica were significantly higher in the constructed wetland with earthworms (P<0.05). Earthworms had greater impact on nitrification potentials than denitrification potentials. The removal efficiency of N was improved via stimulated nitrification potentials by earthworms and higher N uptake by wetland plants. PMID:23591133

  20. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project: construction schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, W.J.; Martin, E.M.; Shivley, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The construction schedule for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and its evolution are described. The initial schedule basis, changes necessitated by the evaluation of the overall plant design, and constructability improvements that have been effected to assure adherence to the schedule are presented. The schedule structure and hierarchy are discussed, as are tools used to define, develop, and evaluate the schedule.

  1. MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

  2. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Construction poses highest power plant fire threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Power plants are more vulnerable to fire during the construction period than at any other time. Data gathered from fires at plant construction sites show that 65% result from cutting and welding activities and that the Control of combustible materials and work processes is the key factor. Contractors need to cooperate on cleanup and to upgrade the quality of temporary buildings on the site. Among the steps which could reduce fire risks are the early installation of water for fire hydrants and automatic sprinklers, testing of tarpaulins for flame retardency, the use of metal or fire retardant scaffolding and forms, approved temporary heating equipment, flushing turbine oil systems before startup, and the use of non-flammable water pipe tubing. Seven safety rules are outlined for welding and cutting procedures. (DCK)

  4. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  5. 47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32... Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account shall include the original... appropriate plant accounts the cost of any construction project which is estimated to be completed and...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32... Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account shall include the original... appropriate plant accounts the cost of any construction project which is estimated to be completed and...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32... Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account shall include the original... appropriate plant accounts the cost of any construction project which is estimated to be completed and...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telecommunications plant under construction. 32... Accounts § 32.2003 Telecommunications plant under construction. (a) This account shall include the original... appropriate plant accounts the cost of any construction project which is estimated to be completed and...

  9. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes. PMID:25849115

  10. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  11. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 21 CFR 129.20 - Plant construction and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plant construction and design. 129.20 Section 129.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION PROCESSING AND BOTTLING OF BOTTLED DRINKING WATER Buildings and Facilities § 129.20 Plant construction and design. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 129.20 - Plant construction and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plant construction and design. 129.20 Section 129.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 129.20 Plant construction and design. (a) The bottling room shall be separated from other...

  14. ITER Construction--Plant System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

    2009-02-19

    This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

  15. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Joshua S.; Wheaton, Christine N.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  16. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Joshua S; Wheaton, Christine N; Mozdzer, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. PMID:24938305

  17. 6. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION PLANT AND EXCAVATION FOR CUTOFF TRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION PLANT AND EXCAVATION FOR CUTOFF TRENCH FROM EAST SIDE OF APRON EXCAVATION, FACING WEST. October 1926 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  18. 13. WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EXPANSION TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS, SHOWING STRUCTURAL STEEL AND STEAM BOILERS NOS. 1, 2, AND 3 BEING INSTALLED. March 15, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 11. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW FROM SOUTH OF CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EXPANSION TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS, SHOWING ORIGINAL FUEL TANK (FAR LEFT) AND DIESEL COOLING TOWER (CENTER). March 15, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  1. Cogeneration plant to be constructed using CFBC technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-12

    A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will be used in a cogeneration plant to be constructed in western Pennsylvania by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., of Allentown, Pennsylvania. The plant will burn bituminous waste coal in two CFB boilers. A 30-year supply of fuel for the plant will be obtained from a 30-million-ton waste coal pile adjacent to the site and from another smaller pile in the area. Ash resulting from the combustion process will be returned to the acidic waste coal piles to aid in their reclamation, Air Products said.

  2. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments. PMID:26126688

  3. Construction labor assessment for coal gasification plant Murphy Hill, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northern Alabama near Murphy Hill. The project is estimated to require nearly 7000 workers at peak employment in 1985. It is projected that construction will start in early 1981 and be completed in 1988. Nearly 66 percent of all construction craft worker requirements are expected to occur during a 36-month period from 1984 to 1986, and about 25 percent are projected to occur during the 1985 calendar year alone. This construction labor market assessment report is directed toward establishing and analyzing data on construction labor requirements, and labor availability for the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding Murphy Hill, Alabama. The purpose of this report is to examine potential skilled labor shortages and some alternatives for alleviating those shortages, but not to address the array of socioeconomic implications of reducing shortages by training, by attracting workers who move permanently to the job site, or by attracting workers who live temporarily near the site and return home periodically. Parameters and assessments of the Murphy Hill construction labor market have been developed for: the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding the site; the major skilled construction trades involved; the time phase of construction labor demand; and projected craft-specific labor shortfalls. These objectives have been developed within the engineering bounds of the TVA's labor planning memo.

  4. Mass customization in power plant design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.C.; Jarboe, T.B.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how Bechtel`s PowerLine concept brings economies of scale and the fundamentals of mass production to plant design and construction. Privatization, globalization and commoditization will shape the power industry for decades to come. Diverse as these forces are, they are bound together by a common business imperative: the need for low-cost, high-quality energy that provides operators and developers with the great potential for a return on equity. One solution to this challenge is predicated chiefly on the design and construction of reliable, low-cost generating plants--the concept of mass customization. More than simply standardization, mass customization achieves the economies of mass production but also provides the flexibility needed by individual plants and owners. This process reaps the benefits of standardization and, at the same time, permits a degree of customization so the design will meet the differing needs of independents, utilities and other power producers.

  5. Signalling Network Construction for Modelling Plant Defence Response

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, Dragana; Stare, Tjaa; Mozeti?, Igor; Podpe?an, Vid; Petek, Marko; Witek, Kamil; Dermastia, Marina; Lavra?, Nada; Gruden, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2) triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be utilised for modelling other biological systems, given that an adequate vocabulary is provided. PMID:23272172

  6. Effects of dissolved oxygen on extracellular enzymes activities and transformation of carbon sources from plant biomass: implications for denitrification in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Cheng, Jing; Xue, ChongHua; Yang, Dianhai; Zhou, Qi

    2011-02-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations have often been shown to be important to decomposition rates of plant litter and thus may be a key factor in determining the supply of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbon-dependent denitrification in wetlands. During the 2 months operation, DOC accumulation in anaerobic condition was superior to aerobic condition due to higher activities of hydrolase enzymes and lower hydrolysates converted to gaseous C. Also, much higher denitrification rates were observed in wetland when using anaerobic litter leachate as the carbon source, and the available carbon source (ACS) could be used as a good predictor of denitrification rate in wetland. According to the results of this study, extracellular enzymes activities (EEAs) in wetland would change as a short-term consequence of DO. This may alter balance of litter carbon flux and the characteristics of DOC, which may, in turn, have multiple effects on denitrification in wetlands. PMID:21106370

  7. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Zhen; L, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers. PMID:23745437

  8. Real issues governing construction of tidal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bernshtein, I.B.

    1995-12-01

    There have been a number of developments across the globe that have demonstrated the power-generating efficiency of tidal power plants, but in spite of repeated calls for construction, actual development has not commenced. It was found that the specifics of these projects required significant capital expenditures and construction times of 7-10 years. These economic factors have rendered this option unattractive. This article examines the current viability of such projects and concludes that their ecological advantages bring about a significant cost savings and that these savings make tidal power projects economically attractive.

  9. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  10. Design and Construction of an Inexpensive Homemade Plant Growth Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K.; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140250 ?moles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2C0.8C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%7% with short spikes up to 15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber will tremendously increase research opportunities in experimental plant biology. PMID:25965420

  11. 75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... titled ``Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372'' (50 FR 47034), advising...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of... Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY:...

  12. Implementation of Case-Based Reasoning System for Knowledge Management of Power Plant Construction Projects in a Korean Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Gil-Sang

    Recently, plant construction industries are enjoying a favorable business climate centering around developing countries and oil producing countries rich in oil money. This paper proposes a methodology of implementing corporation-wide case-based reasoning (CBR) system for effectively managing lessons learned knowledge like experiences and know-how obtained in performing power plant construction projects. Our methodology is consisted of 10 steps: user requirement analysis, information modeling, case modeling, case base design, similarity function design, user interface design, case base building, CBR module development, user interface development, integration test. Also, to illustrate the usability of proposed methodology, the practical CBR system is implemented for the plant construction business division of H company which has international competitiveness in the field of plant construction industry. At present, our CBR system is successfully utilizing as storing, sharing, and reusing the knowledge which is accumulated in performing power plant construction projects in the target enterprise.

  13. 46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN MILL ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  14. 45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. 44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING S.E. AT THE LIME-NITROGEN OVEN ROOM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  16. 48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING N.E. AT THE AMMONIUM NITRATE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, AUGUST 24, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  17. 47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT THE AUTOCLAVE BUILDING UNDER CONSTRUCTION, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  18. The analysis of cracks in high-pressure piping and their effects on strength and lifetime of construction components at the Ignalina nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aleev, A.; Petkevicius, K.; Senkus, V.

    1997-04-01

    A number of cracks and damages of other sorts have been identified in the high-pressure parts at the Ignalina Nuclear Plant. They are caused by inadequate production- and repair technologies, as well as by thermal, chemical and mechanical processes of their performance. Several techniques are available as predictions of cracks and other defects of pressurized vessels. The choice of an experimental technique should be based on the level of its agreement with the actual processes.

  19. Relationships between Spatial Metrics and Plant Diversity in Constructed Freshwater Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Jake J.; Allen, George A.; Benzing, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of plant species and their distribution in space are both thought to have important effects on the function of wetland ecosystems. However, knowledge of the relationships between plant species and spatial diversity remains incomplete. In this study, we investigated relationships between spatial pattern and plant species diversity over a five year period following the initial restoration of experimental wetland ecosystems. In 2003, six identical and hydrologically-isolated 0.18 ha wetland “cells” were constructed in former farmland in northeast Ohio. The systems were subjected to planting treatments that resulted in different levels of vascular plant species diversity among cells. Plant species diversity was assessed through annual inventories. Plant spatial pattern was assessed by digitizing low-altitude aerial photographs taken at the same time as the inventories. Diversity metrics derived from the inventories were significantly related to certain spatial metrics derived from the photographs, including cover type diversity and contagion. We found that wetlands with high cover type diversity harbor higher plant species diversity than wetlands with fewer types of patches. We also found significant relationships between plant species diversity and spatial patterning of patch types, but the direction of the effect differed depending on the diversity metric used. Links between diversity and spatial pattern observed in this study suggest that high-resolution aerial imagery may provide wetland scientists with a useful tool for assessing plant diversity. PMID:26296205

  20. Application of RFID to High-Reliability Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kenji Akagi; Masayuki Ishiwata; Kenji Araki; Jun-ichi Kawahata

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear power plant construction, countless variety of parts, products, and jigs more than one million are treated under construction. Furthermore, strict traceability to the history of material, manufacturing, and installation is required for all products from the start to finish of the construction, which enforce much workforce and many costs at every project. In an addition, the operational efficiency improvement is absolutely essential for the effective construction to reduce the initial investment for construction. As one solution, RFID (Radio Frequent Identification) application technology, one of the fundamental technologies to realize a ubiquitous society, currently expands its functionality and general versatility at an accelerating pace in mass-production industry. Hitachi believes RFID technology can be useful of one of the key solutions for the issues in non-mass production industry as well. Under this situation, Hitachi initiated the development of next generation plant concept (ubiquitous plant construction technology) which utilizes information and RFID technologies. In this paper, our application plans of RFID technology to nuclear power is described. (authors)

  1. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber will tremendously increase research opportunities in experimental plant biology. PMID:25965420

  2. Examination of oxygen release from plants in constructed wetlands in different stages of wetland plant life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wu, Haiming; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of oxygen release by plants in different stages of wetland plant life cycle was made in this study. Results obtained from 1 year measurement in subsurface wetland microcosms demonstrated that oxygen release from Phragmites australis varied from 108.89 to 404.44 mg O?/m(2)/d during the different periods from budding to dormancy. Plant species, substrate types, and culture solutions had a significant effect on the capacity of oxygen release of wetland plants. Oxygen supply by wetland plants was estimated to potentially support a removal of 300.37 mg COD/m(2)/d or 55.87 mg NH?-N/m(2)/d. According to oxygen balance analysis, oxygen release by plants could provide 0.43-1.12% of biochemical oxygen demand in typical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs). This demonstrates that oxygen release of plants may be a potential source for pollutants removal especially in low-loaded CWs. The results make it possible to quantify the role of plants in wastewater purification. PMID:24777322

  3. Metal and metalloid removal in constructed wetlands, with emphasis on the importance of plants and standardized measurements: A review.

    PubMed

    Marchand, L; Mench, M; Jacob, D L; Otte, M L

    2010-12-01

    This review integrates knowledge on the removal of metals and metalloids from contaminated waters in constructed wetlands and offers insight into future R&D priorities. Metal removal processes in wetlands are described. Based on 21 papers, the roles and impacts on efficiency of plants in constructed wetlands are discussed. The effects of plant ecotypes and class (monocots, dicots) and of system size on metal removal are addressed. Metal removal rates in wetlands depend on the type of element (Hg>Mn>Fe=Cd>Pb=Cr>Zn=Cu>Al>Ni>As), their ionic forms, substrate conditions, season, and plant species. Standardized procedures and data are lacking for efficiently comparing properties of plants and substrates. We propose a new index, the relative treatment efficiency index (RTEI), to quantify treatment impacts on metal removal in constructed wetlands. Further research is needed on key components, such as effects of differences in plant ecotypes and microbial communities, in order to enhance metal removal efficiency. PMID:20869144

  4. The use of fly ash the thermal power plants in the construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.; Yushin, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    The problems of ecological and radiation safety of the construction of man-made waste like fly ash thermal power plants were researched. The chemical composition of TPPs ashes of Primorsky Territory was studied, defined their specific effective activity of natural radionuclides. The most modern research methods were used - differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, X-ray analysis. It was revealed that the ash of the Primorskaya TPP and Partizanskaya TPP has exceed the permissible parameters of radioactivity, so not suitable for use in construction. Ashes of Vladivostok TPP-2 and Artem TPP of Primorsky Region on parameters radioactivity and chemical composition have suitable for use as a filler in the concrete.

  5. 75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Executive Order 12372'' (50 FR 47034), advising that USDA Rural Development Utilities Programs loans and... Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant... Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a). The revised specification will include new construction...

  6. IMPACT OF PLANT DENSITY AND MICROBIAL COMPOSITION ON WATER QUALITY FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine the effects of plant density and microbial community composition associated with wetland plants from different wetland pond on water quality of a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland. Methods & Results: Water chemistry was monitored weekly for nitrate, orthophosphate and s...

  7. Effects of Plant Closing on Employee Attitudes: The Case of the GE Plant in Columbia, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Crofford, Amy Beth

    A study examined the effects of plant closing on hourly production employees' attitudes and behavior intentions at a General Electric (GE) plant in Columbia, Tennessee. A survey was constructed and used to collect data from 5 percent of the 400 hourly employees in November 1993, shortly after the announcement of the plant closing. The survey

  8. Plant and Invertebrate Community Changes Caused by Flood-Pulsing in a Constructed Riparian Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazza, M. K.; Nieset, J. E.; Romito, A.; de Szalay, F. A.

    2005-05-01

    In 2002, Kent State University constructed a research facility that includes ten independently flooded wetland basins (10 m X 20 m) along a second order creek. We tested the effects of flood-pulsing on the wetland biota by allowing 5 basins (flood-pulse wetlands) to fluctuate with creek water levels to simulate floodplain marshes, and maintaining 5 basins (static wetlands) at constant water levels. We sampled emergent plants and aquatic invertebrates in 2003 and 2004. Abiotic conditions were different between treatments. We collected 83 plant species, and flood pulsing had strong effects on plant communities. Mean species richness and plant cover were higher in static wetlands, and Sorensen's similarity indices between habitat types decreased over time. Plant biomass increased in all wetlands from 2003 to 2004, but mean biomass was not different between treatments. Many dominant plant species were affected by the flood pulsing treatment. Wetland invertebrate communities were diverse (47 taxa), but we detected few responses. Total abundance, species richness, and numbers of most dominant species were not different between treatments. These results indicate that flood-pulsing acted as a stressor on emergent plant communities, but did not strongly impact aquatic macroinvertebrates.

  9. Phased construction of Gasification-Combined-Cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Heaven, D.L.; McCleary, G.J.; Sandler, H.S. )

    1990-11-01

    As utility planners consider their options for adding power generation capacity, it is important to be aware of the technical status, economic benefit, and environmental impact of the candidate technologies. One power generation option that offers particular advantages for incremental capacity addition is the phased Gasification Combined Cycle (GCC). The inherent flexibility of the phased GCC approach accommodates changing fuel prices and availabilities and allows utilities to match load growth requirements as they arise. Phased GCC construction reduces financial and regulatory risk by providing a strategy for dealing with external variables -- including fuel prices, government regulation, and load demand -- and by allowing the deferral of capital expenditures until they are warranted by rising prices of premium fuels. These economic benefits parallel the environmental benefits that accrue from the ability of GCC plants to easily meet stringent emissions criteria. Further, adopting the phased GCC approach does not commit the utility to full implementation; should conditions make it undesirable to proceed, the process may be discontinued at any stage without penalizing plant performance. The purpose of this book is to provide an introduction to the comparative advantages, risks, and unique planning issues involved with passed GCC operation. It addresses the value of the phased GCC approach as a strategic planning option, its financial and economic benefits, and its suitability as a viable response to acid rain legislation. For utility executives, planners, and engineers, the book presents an overview of the technologies and key issues involved in applying the phasing concept. Attention is also given to equipment and site selection considerations. 51 refs., 11 tabs.

  10. 43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. 42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  12. Feral biofuel crop effects in constructed wet prairie and oak savannah communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the potential effects of feral biofuel crop escapes on constructed plant communities growing in outdoor mesocosms. Mesocosms containing wet prairie or oak savannah communities were exposed to two temperature levels (ambient and elevated) and two moisture levels (cont...

  13. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING OVERALL BLOCK EXTERIOR WALLS; CONSTRUCTION 65 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-4976. Holmes, Photographer, 9/26/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FORMING FOR NORTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 4 AND 5; CONSTRUCTION 21 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-1874. Holmes, Photographer, 4/21/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) OVERALL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) OVERALL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST; CONSTRUCTION 34 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3034. Holmes, Photographer, 6/23/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DECK FORMING FOR SOUTH SECTION OF OPERATING CORRIDOR; CONSTRUCTION 44 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-3624. Holmes, Photographer, 7/25/1960 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP640) LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CPP-640) LOOKING EAST SHOWING EXCAVATION AND FORMING; CONSTRUCTION 6 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-59-4935. J. Anderson, Photographer, 9/21/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Reducing roadway costs and roadway construction costs at a coking plant

    SciTech Connect

    Leshchenko, A.F.; Negoda, V.A.; Fomil, L.Sh.; Boiko, N.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The plan of construction for both temporary and permanent roads at different coking plants in Russia is discussed. It is pointed out that efforts are made to locate roads during construction at places and in such a way that they can serve for permanent roads after plant completion; however, this is often not possible. Several ways that have been devised to reduce the costs of road construction and the corresponding savings in rubles are discussed.

  19. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

  20. Technical WOrk Plan for: Construction Effects Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    2006-09-14

    This document is the technical work plan (TWP) for performing the Construction Effects Monitoring (CEM) activity, which is one of 20 testing and monitoring activities included in Performance Confirmation Plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172452]). Collectively, the 20 activities make up the Performance Confirmation Program described in the plan. Each of the other 19 activities will have a separate TWP. This plan, though titled Construction Effects Monitoring, in accordance with the Performance Confirmation Plan, also includes testing that may be performed in addition to monitoring, if required. Performance confirmation is required by regulation 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173273], and was started during site characterization (consistent with the regulation) and will continue until permanent closure of the repository (10 CFR 63.13 1 (b) [DIRS 173273]). This CEM activity has two primary goals: (1) to collect, analyze, and report on repository rock properties data for the purpose of confirming geotechnical and design parameters used in repository design, and (2) to provide information intended to confirm that the ability to retrieve waste from the repository has been preserved. It will be necessary for information from this CEM activity to be evaluated in combination with that obtained from other Performance Confirmation Program activities to achieve these goals. These relationships with other Performance Confirmation Program activities (e.g., drift inspection, subsurface mapping, and seismicity monitoring) will be discussed in later sections of this TWP.

  1. 47 CFR 32.2003 - Telecommunications plant under construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost of construction projects (note also 32.2000(c)) of this part and the cost of software development projects that are not yet ready for their intended use. (b) There may be charged directly to...

  2. Mass customization of WARP{trademark} wind power plant design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Rainey, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    Steady development of wind power technology and the accumulation of extensive operating experience with large clusters of electric utility connected turbines and have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a viable and attractive source of electricity for utilities, particularly in developing nations. A highly effective modular wind power technology, the Wind Amplified rotor Platforms (WARP{trademark}) System, which utilizes many identical vertically integrated Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark} building block modules with standard micro-turbines, forms the basis for mass customization (capacity and configuration) in power plant design and construction. WARP wind power brings the fundamentals of mass production as well as economies of scale to power plant design and construction. It can blend well with progressive engineering and construction (E and C) firm approaches which are predicated on a family of standardized designs to reduce cost, improve schedule and quality of units deployed. Since electricity has become the new world commodity with an imperative of low-cost, high-quality and environmentally responsible energy, WARP Systems designs have been proposed to meet these objectives through its inherent efficiency, mass customization and mass production features. WARP system`s ability to integrally operate with photovoltaics, gas turbines or gas diesels, provides also the opportunity to generate baseload power in an environmentally responsible manner.

  3. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP640) LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO OF HOT PILOT PLANT (CP-640) LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING FORMING AND PLACEMENT OF REINFORCING STEEL FOR SOUTH WALLS OF CELLS 1, 3, 4 AND 5 AND WEST WALL FOR CELLS 1 AND 2; CONSTRUCTION 13 PERCENT COMPLETE. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS 59-6436. J. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Herbicide Effects on Plant Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of herbicides on plant disease is an important, but generally overlooked, aspect of integrated pest management. Furthermore, these interactions can be crucial contributors to the success or failure of the biocontrol of weeds with microbes. Indirectly, through their strong effects on pla...

  5. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating... regulation requires applicants for a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs... Staff Guidance-022 on Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants...

  6. Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

    1981-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

  7. Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-11-01

    Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

  8. EPA construction grants: Information on the North River Wastewater Treatment Plant contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    New York City's North River Wastewater Treatment Plant is under construction and about 75 percent of its estimated $1.1 billion cost is to be Federally funded through the Environmental Protection Agency. Neither EPA regulations, the EPA delegation agreement with the State, the grant to the City, nor the solicitations contain limits on the maximum amount of wages that might be earned on construction contracts, EPA relies on the competitive process to obtain reasonable prices for constructing wastewater treatment plants rather than establishing maximum limits on wages.

  9. Opportunities to expedite the construction of new coal-based power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas G. Kraemer; Georgia Nelson; Robert Card; E. Linn Draper, Jr.; Michael J. Mudd

    2004-07-01

    US Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the National Coal Council prepare a study identifying 'which opportunities could expedite the construction of new coal-fired electricity generation.' He also requested that the Council 'examine opportunities and incentives for additional emissions reduction including evaluating and replacing the oldest portion of our coal-fired power plant fleet with more efficient and lower emitting coal-fired plants.' A study group of experts who conducted the work can be found in Appendix D. The National Coal Council found the following: Coal is the fuel of choice now, and will remain so into the future; Natural gas has been the dominant fuel for new power plants in the last decade; Coal provides a pathway for greater energy independence; There is renewed interest in using coal to fuel new power plants; Generators are expected to remain credit worthy; Permitting delays have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Environmental regulatory approaches have been an impediment to building new coal plants; Uncertainty about CO{sub 2} emission reductions has been an impediment to the construction of new coalbased power plants; Incentives are still needed to facilitate the construction of advanced coal-based power plants; Lack of a regional planning approach has been an impediment to the construction of new coal-based power plants; and Infrastructure hurdles are impediments to the construction of new coal-based power plants. The Council's recommendations include: Streamline the permitting process; Recognize the strategic importance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology; Recognize the importance of other coal-based technologies; Encourage regional planning; Continue with meaningful R&D and with technology demonstration; Provide meaningful incentives for the commercialization and deployment of new advanced coal-based technologies. 7 apps.

  10. The effect of gravity on plant germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakura, T.; Goto, E.; Tanaka, M.

    1996-01-01

    An axis clinostat was constructed to create micro and negative gravity also a rotated flat disk was constructed with different rotation rates to give increased gravity, by centrifugal force up to 48g. Rice seeds were grown on agar in tubes at the constant air temperature of 20 degC under an average light condition of 110 mumol/m^2/sec(PPF). Humidity was not controlled but was maintained above 90%. Since the tube containers were not large enough for long cultivation, shoot and root growth were observed every 12 hours until the sixth day from seeding. The lengths of shoots and roots for each individual plant were measured on the last day. The stem lengths were increased by microgravity but the root lengths were not. Under the negative gravity, negative orthogeotropism and under micro gravity, diageotropism was observed. No significant effect of increased gravity was observed on shoot and root growth.

  11. Antiartherosclerotic Effects of Plant Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the process of hardening and narrowing the arteries. Atherosclerosis is generally associated with cardiovascular diseases such as strokes, heart attacks, and peripheral vascular diseases. Since the usage of the synthetic drug, statins, leads to various side effects, the plants flavonoids with antiartherosclerotic activity gained much attention and were proven to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis in vitro and in vivo based on different animal models. The flavonoids compounds also exhibit lipid lowering effects and anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The future development of flavonoids-based drugs is believed to provide significant effects on atherosclerosis and its related diseases. This paper discusses the antiatherosclerotic effects of selected plant flavonoids such as quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, rutin, naringenin, catechin, fisetin, and gossypetin. PMID:24971331

  12. Improved Construction and Project Management for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Westinghouse Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2002-07-01

    The economic competitiveness of future nuclear power plants is the key issue to the expansion of this vital technology. The challenge is greater today than it has been because of the worldwide trend of deregulation of the power market. Deregulation favors smaller investments with shorter payback times. However, the key economic parameter is the power generation cost and its competitiveness to other sources of electric generation, principally natural gas and coal. The relative competitiveness of these three fuel types today is largely dictated by the availability of domestic sources of both fuel and technology infrastructure. The competitiveness of new nuclear power plants can be improved in any power market environment first by the features of the design itself, second by the approach to construction, and finally by the project structure used to implement the plant, or more importantly, a series of plants. These three aspects form the cornerstone to a successful resurgence of new nuclear power plant construction. (author)

  13. The Comparative Effect of Individually-Constructed vs. Collaboratively-Constructed Computer-Based Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, So Young; Cifuentes, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    The researchers investigated the comparative effects of individually-constructed and collaboratively-constructed computer-based concept mapping on middle school science concept learning. One hundred and sixty one students completed the entire study. Using prior science performance scores to assure equivalence of student achievement across groups,

  14. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  15. Microstructure of Concrete with Aggregates from Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling Plants.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Miguel; Santos Silva, António; de Brito, Jorge; Evangelista, Luís

    2016-02-01

    This paper intends to analyze the microstructure of concrete with recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste from various Portuguese recycling plants. To that effect, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed. Various concrete mixes were evaluated in order to analyze the influence of the RA's collection point and consequently of their composition on the mixes' characteristics. Afterward all the mixes were subjected to the capillary water absorption test in order to quantitatively evaluate their porosity. Results from the SEM/EDS analysis were compared with those from capillary water absorption test. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that the bond capacity of aggregates to the new cement paste is greatly influenced by the RA's nature. On the other hand, there was an increase in porosity with the incorporation of RA. PMID:26700727

  16. Removal mechanisms and plant species selection by bioaccumulative factors in surface flow constructed wetlands (CWs): In the case of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Hao, Jingcheng; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2016-03-15

    Plants can bioaccumulate triclosan and bond with microbes and sediments in constructed wetlands (CWs) as well. However, little is known regarding the species-specific removal mechanism of CWs components and the selection of suitable wetland plant species for triclosan disposal. In this work, the use of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for choosing the best triclosan removal plant species was studied in laboratory-scale CWs. By the end of the experiment, over 80% of triclosan was removed and a specie-effect distribution was revealed in CWs with emergent, submerged and floating plants. By mass balance calculation, negative correlation between triclosan concentration in plants and degradation process was observed. The significant correlations between Log BSAFs values and triclosan concentration in plants or degradation contribution made it possible and reasonable in wetland plants selection. Introductions on plant species were provided considering the target removal process or regulation method. This work provided new information on plant species selection in CWs for triclosan removal or its emergency remediation by using bioaccumulative factors. PMID:26780127

  17. Seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in a constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Maniquiz, M C; Choi, J Y; Jeong, S M; Kim, L H

    2013-01-01

    The surface-flow constructed wetland (CW) located in Nonsan City, South Korea, and constructed as the final stage of a piggery wastewater treatment plant that aims to treat high nutrient content effluent during dry days and stormwater runoff during wet days was monitored from October 2008 to November 2011. This research investigated the seasonal nutrient uptake of plant biomass in the CW and nutrient concentration changes in each treatment region under monsoon and temperate climate conditions. Results showed that the mean total nitrogen removal during summer (June to August) was higher by 13% than in spring (March to May), while total phosphorus removal was higher by 22% in fall (September to November) than in winter (December to February). All plants in the CW reached their maximum biomass coverage and weight in summer and minimum growth in winter. The highest N and P content in plants occurred in September with 583.2 g/m(2) and August with 62.0 g/m(2), respectively. Based on the results, it is recommended that the harvesting of plants should be conducted during the time of the peak nutrient uptake and before the plants release the nutrient content back to the CW. The dependence of nutrient removal efficiency on plants is not so significant. In order to increase the nutrient removal rate by plant uptake, it is suggested that the treatment regions in the CW be covered by plants. PMID:23508157

  18. Satellite observations of recent power plant construction in Inner Mongolia, China - article no. L15809

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Streets, D.G.; He, K.B.

    2009-08-15

    About 50% of the increase in China's NOx emissions since 2000 can be attributed to the construction of new power plants. We show that the newly added NOx emissions from new power plants in Inner Mongolia, China, were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. Increase rates of NO{sub 2} columns from OMI and NOx emissions from inventories are even in quantitative agreement in cases where new facilities are added to already-developed regions. This study confirms that the OMI products are quite capable of identifying the construction of large new emitting facilities through detection of their NOx emissions.

  19. 49 CFR 240.5 - Preemptive effect and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 240.5 Preemptive effect and construction. (a) Under 49 U.S.C. 20106, issuance of the regulations in... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preemptive effect and construction. 240.5 Section 240.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL...

  20. 49 CFR 240.5 - Preemptive effect and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect and construction. 240.5 Section 240.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS General 240.5 Preemptive effect and construction....

  1. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  2. Native Plants for Effective Coastal Wetland Restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual coastal land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems. Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for coastal wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of coastal marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences. These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration sites. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to coastal Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus robustus). Plants connected by roots were collected from public lands across the coastal zone, and then allowed to grow several months and produce new stems and plants from underground stems called ?rhizomes.? These procedures maintained the genetic identity of the clones and allowed the plants to adjust to greenhouse conditions before experimental treatments began.

  3. 75 FR 38042 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., at 75 FR 32313 regarding the request for comments on revising RUS Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications... document FR Doc. 2010-12830 beginning on page 32313 in the issue of June 8, 2010, make the following... Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed Rule;...

  4. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  5. Elemental composition of native wetland plants in constructed mesocosm treatment wetlands.

    PubMed

    Collins, Beverly S; Sharitz, Rebecca R; Coughlin, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Plants that accumulate a small percentage of metals in constructed treatment wetlands can contribute to remediation of acidic, metal contaminated runoff waters from coal mines or processing areas. We examined root and shoot concentrations of elements in four perennial wetland species over two seasons in mesocosm wetland systems designed to remediate water from a coal pile runoff basin. Deep wetlands in each system contained Myriophyllum aquaticum and Nymphaea odorata; shallow wetlands contained Juncus effusus and Pontederia cordata. Shoot elemental concentrations differed between plants of deep and shallow wetlands, with higher Zn, Al, and Fe concentrations in plants in shallow wetlands and higher Na, Mn, and P concentrations in plants in deep wetlands. Root and shoot concentrations of most elements differed between species in each wetland type. Over two seasons, these four common wetland plants did help remediate acidic, metal-contaminated runoff from a coal storage pile. PMID:15627565

  6. Colonization of a newly constructed commercial chicken further processing plant with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Berrang, Mark E; Meinersmann, Richard J; Frank, Joseph F; Ladely, Scott R

    2010-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a production shift and again after a cleanup shift on roughly a monthly basis for 21 months. Potential sources of L. monocytogenes to the plant included incoming raw meat, incoming fresh air, and personnel. Nearby environment and community samples were also examined. All L. monocytogenes detected were subjected to DNA sequence-based subtyping. L. monocytogenes was not detected in the plant before the commencement of processing operations. Within 4 months, several subtypes of L. monocytogenes were detected in floor drains, both before and after cleaning and sanitizing operations. No L. monocytogenes was detected on filters for incoming air, samples associated with plant employees, or a nearby discount shopping center. One subtype of L. monocytogenes was detected in a natural stream near the plant; however, this subtype was never detected inside the plant. Eight subtypes of L. monocytogenes were detected in raw meat staged for further processing; one of the raw meat subtypes was indistinguishable from a persistent drain subtype recovered after cleaning on eight occasions in four different drains. Poultry further processing plants are likely to become colonized with L. monocytogenes; raw product is an important source of the organism to the plant. PMID:20132673

  7. Studies on the Effects of Gaseous Ions on Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Albert P.; Beckett, J. C.; Andriese, Paul C.; Kotaka, Sadao

    1962-01-01

    Air pollutants seriously interfere with the maintenance of unipolar ionized atmospheres required in experimenting with the biological effects of gaseous ions. The construction and operation of an air purification unit designed to reduce air pollution to tolerable levels are described; it has functioned satisfactorily in conducting experiments with plants and animals. PMID:14459882

  8. The Effect of Structured Divergent Prompts on Knowledge Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Ginger S.; Akpanudo, Usenime; Chen, Mengyi; Sutherlin, Autumn L.; James, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion forums are a widely used activity in online courses. However, knowledge construction within online discussion rarely reaches higher levels. Therefore, it is important to understand which aspects of online discussion encourage learning and increase knowledge construction. This paper investigates the effect three Structured Divergent…

  9. H-coal pilot plant. Phase II. Construction. Phase III. Operation. Annual report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-04

    At the request of DOE Oak Ridge, ASFI agreed to assume responsibility for completion of Plant construction in December, 1979, at which time Badger Plants' on-site work was ended. This construction effort consisted of electric heat tracing and insulation of piping and instrumentation. At the close of the reporting period the work was completed, or was projected to be completed, within the ASFI budgeted amounts and by dates that will not impact Plant operations. Engineering design solutions were completed for problems encountered with such equipment as the High Pressure Letdown Valves; Slurry Block Valves; Slurry Pumps; the Bowl Mill System; the Dowtherm System; and the Ebullating Pump. A Corrosion Monitoring Program was established. With the exception of Area 500, the Antisolvent Deashing Unit, all operating units were commissioned and operated during the reporting period. Coal was first introduced into the Plant on May 29, 1980, with coal operations continuing periodically through September 30, 1980. The longest continuous coal run was 119 hours. A total of 677 tons of Kentucky No. 11 Coal were processed during the reporting period. The problems encountered were mechanical, not process, in nature. Various Environmental and Health programs were implemented to assure worker safety and protection and to obtain data from Plant operations for scientific analysis. These comprehensive programs will contribute greatly in determining the acceptability of long term H-Coal Plant operations.

  10. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This final report describes the coal-fired plant design capable of producing electric power in an environmentally clean manner. The report presents the predicted performance using high sulfur bituminous coal and summarizes the construction activities and changes through completion on November 30, 1983. The construction activities involved: (1) the site excavation and pouring foundations for the PFB process equipment structural tower, control building, dolomite silo, boost compressor, and various equipment footings; (2) the fabrication and erection of the support steel work for the process equipment tower, control building, rail car thaw shed, and particulate scrubber and exhaust stack; (3) the fabrication and erection of the process equipment including the PFB combustor vessel, windbox, in-bed heat exchanger and process piping, the ash recycle system, the gas clean-up system, the ash removal, cooling and storage system, the coal handling, preparation and injection systems, the dolomite receiving, handling, storage and injection systems, the boost air compressor, dryer and receiver systems, the purge instrument and service air systems, the control, instrument and electrical systems, the tower elevator, the cardox, Halon and water fire protection system, etc. In addition, modifications and refurbishment were completed on the existing equipment at the site which was incorporated into the Pilot Plant system. Finally, plans were prepared describing the operating procedures, maintenance requirements, spare parts list, training program and manpower requirements for the proposed Phase IV test evaluation program. 37 figures, 11 tables.

  11. A simple method for construction of artificial microRNA vector in plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Sunping; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Zhaohai; Ding, Bo; Li, Yangsheng

    2014-10-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) is a powerful tool for silencing genes in many plant species. Here we provide an easy method to construct amiRNA vectors that reinvents the Golden Gate cloning approach and features a novel system called top speed amiRNA construction (TAC). This speedy approach accomplishes one restriction-ligation step in only 5 min, allowing easy and high-throughput vector construction. Three primers were annealed to be a specific adaptor, then digested and ligated on our novel vector pTAC. Importantly, this method allows the recombined amiRNA constructs to maintain the precursor of osa-miR528 with exception of the desired amiRNA/amiRNA* sequences. Using this method, our results showed the expected decrease of targeted genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and Oryza sativa. PMID:24930106

  12. Temperature Profile Measurements in a Newly Constructed 30-Stage 5 cm Centrifugal Contactor pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Troy G. Garn; Dave H. Meikrantz; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D. Law

    2008-09-01

    An annular centrifugal contactor pilot plant incorporating 30 stages of commercial 5 cm CINC V-02 units has been built and operated at INL during the past year. The pilot plant includes an automated process control and data acquisitioning system. The primary purpose of the pilot plant is to evaluate the performance of a large number of inter-connected centrifugal contactors and obtain temperature profile measurements within a 30-stage cascade. Additional solvent extraction flowsheet testing using stable surrogates is also being considered. Preliminary hydraulic testing was conducted with all 30 contactors interconnected for continuous counter-current flow. Hydraulic performance and system operational tests were conducted successfully but with higher single-stage rotor speeds found necessary to maintain steady interstage flow at flowrates of 1 L/min and higher. Initial temperature profile measurements were also completed in this configuration studying the performance during single aqueous and two-phase counter-current flow at ambient and elevated inlet solution temperatures. Temperature profile testing of two discreet sections of the cascade required additional feed and discharge connections. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 were the solution feeds for all the testing described in this report. Numerous temperature profiles were completed using a newly constructed 30-stage centrifugal contactor pilot plant. The automated process control and data acquisition system worked very well throughout testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total flowrates (FT) and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems have been collected with selected profiles and comparisons reported. Total flowrates (FT) ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Solution inlet temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 C were tested. Ambient temperature testing shows that a small amount of heat is added to the processed solution by the mechanical energy of the contactors. The temperature profiles match the ambient temperature of the laboratory but are nearly 10 C higher toward the middle of the cascade. Heated input solution testing provides temperature profiles with smaller temperature gradients and are more influenced by the temperature of the inlet solutions than the ambient laboratory temperature. The temperature effects of solution mixing, even at 4000 rpm, were insignificant in any of the studies conducted on lamp oil and water.

  13. Planning a Program of School Plant Construction. Research Report, School Plant Planning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    The importance of long-term planning, and undesirable conditions resulting from failure to plan, are stressed. General procedures named as essential are--(1) the official approval of the Board of Education before the administration proceeds with long-range planning, (2) the design of the school plant around the educational program it is to serve,

  14. Notice of Construction for the Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    1999-12-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 10) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem per year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI), and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also will constitute EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2) will be provided at a later date. This NOC covers the activities associated with the Construction and operation activities involving the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process of plutonium solutions within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  15. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  16. Curvilinear effects of invasive plants on plant diversity: plant community invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  17. Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  18. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.

    PubMed

    AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-12-01

    Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:18937893

  19. Effective Stimuli for Constructing Reliable Neuron Models

    PubMed Central

    Druckmann, Shaul; Berger, Thomas K.; Schrmann, Felix; Hill, Sean; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2011-01-01

    The rich dynamical nature of neurons poses major conceptual and technical challenges for unraveling their nonlinear membrane properties. Traditionally, various current waveforms have been injected at the soma to probe neuron dynamics, but the rationale for selecting specific stimuli has never been rigorously justified. The present experimental and theoretical study proposes a novel framework, inspired by learning theory, for objectively selecting the stimuli that best unravel the neuron's dynamics. The efficacy of stimuli is assessed in terms of their ability to constrain the parameter space of biophysically detailed conductance-based models that faithfully replicate the neuron's dynamics as attested by their ability to generalize well to the neuron's response to novel experimental stimuli. We used this framework to evaluate a variety of stimuli in different types of cortical neurons, ages and animals. Despite their simplicity, a set of stimuli consisting of step and ramp current pulses outperforms synaptic-like noisy stimuli in revealing the dynamics of these neurons. The general framework that we propose paves a new way for defining, evaluating and standardizing effective electrical probing of neurons and will thus lay the foundation for a much deeper understanding of the electrical nature of these highly sophisticated and non-linear devices and of the neuronal networks that they compose. PMID:21876663

  20. Satellite observations of the recent power plant construction in Inner Mongolia, China.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; He, K.

    2009-08-05

    About 50% of the increase in China's NO{sub x} emissions since 2000 can be attributed to the construction of new power plants. We show that the newly added NO{sub x} emissions from new power plants in Inner Mongolia, China, were detected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. Increase rates of NO{sub 2} columns from OMI and NO{sub x} emissions from inventories are even in quantitative agreement in cases where new facilities are added to already-developed regions. This study confirms that the OMI products are quite capable of identifying the construction of large new emitting facilities through detection of their NO{sub x} emissions.

  1. Modular shipbuilding and its relevance to construction of nuclear power plants. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, T.W.

    1988-05-01

    The modern techniques of modular shipbuilding based on the Product Work Breakdown Structure as developed at the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. of Japan are examined and compared to conventional shipbuilding methods. The application of the Product Work Breakdown Structure in the building of the U.S. Navy's DDG-51 class ship at Bath Iron Works is described and compared to Japanese shipbuilding practices. Implementation of the Product Work Breakdown Structure at Avondale Shipyards, Incorporated is discussed and compared to Bath Iron Works shipbuilding practices. A proposed generic implementation of the Product Work Breakdown Structure to the modular construction of nuclear power plants is described. Specific conclusions for the application of Product Work Breakdown Structure to the construction of a light water reactor nuclear power plant are discussed.

  2. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendix 2 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, Laboratory permeability, and compaction characteristics representative of Kaolin clays from the aiken, South Carolina vicinity. Included in this report are daily field reports Nos. 1 to 54. (KJD)

  3. Design solutions for water treatment plants constructed on the basis of membrane technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, A. A.; Ryabchikov, B. E.; Zhadan, A. V.; Khoruzhii, O. V.

    2012-07-01

    Two process circuits for demineralizing makeup water for power units at thermal power stations are considered. One of them is constructed on the basis of a combined plant comprising reverse-osmosis and ion-exchange apparatuses and the other comprises reverse-osmosis and electric deionization apparatuses. The considered circuits are analyzed by way of comparing them with the traditional chemical water demineralization system. Advantages and drawbacks of the new technologies for treating natural water are pointed out.

  4. A novel approach to the generation of seamless constructs for plant transformation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When creating plant transformation vectors, full control of nucleotides flanking the insert in the final construct may be desirable. Modern ligase-independent methods for DNA-recombination are based on linearization by classical type II restriction endonucleases (REs) alone or in combination with nicking enzymes leaving residual nucleotides behind in the final construct. We here explore the use of type IIS and type IIB REs for vector linearization that combined with sequence and ligase-independent cloning (SLIC) overcomes this problem and promotes seamless gene-insertion in vectors. Providing the basis for a collection of biolistic plant transformation vectors ready to be cloned with different genes-of-interest, we present two vectors, where promoter and terminator are joined by a spacer. During spacer-removal linearization (SRL), type IIS and type IIB REs remove their own recognition sequences from the vector leaving no undesired, short sequences behind. Results We designed two plant transformation vectors prepared for SRL in combination with SLIC, pAUrumII and pAUrumIII, harboring a spacer with recognition sites for a type IIS and IIB RE, respectively. The gene for a green fluorescent protein, gfp, was successfully cloned into both vectors; traces of pAUrumIII, however, contaminated the transformation due to incomplete linearization, an issue not encountered with the type IIS linearized pAUrumII. Both constructs, pAUrumII-gfp and pAUrumIII-gfp, were functional, when tested in vitro on wheat and barley endosperm cells for transient gfp expression. Conclusions All nucleotides flanking an insert in a biolistic plant transformation vector can be customized by means of SRL in combination with SLIC. Especially type IIS REs promote an efficient cloning result. Based on our findings, we believe that the SRL system can be useful in a series of plant transformation vectors, favoring the presence of functional sequences for optimal expression over redundant cloning-site remnants. PMID:24855486

  5. Vegetation effects on anammox spatial distribution and nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands treated with domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Li, Tian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) (planted and unplanted) were constructed and compared to investigate the effects of vegetation on nitrogen removal and anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) spatial distribution and enrichment. Calamus (Acorus calamus L.), which has a large root system, was selected as the vegetation. Removal of total nitrogen from the planted wetland was much higher than that from the unplanted one. Radial oxygen loss from calamus provided the planted wetland with better oxygen restoration ability, benefitting ammonium removal in the CW, especially when anammox was inhibited under winter temperatures. Enrichment of anammox bacteria in planted wetlands was much greater than that in unplanted ones. The greatest enrichment of anammox bacteria occurred in the middle layer, which had a better anaerobic environment and moderate root system. The reduced rate of metabolism in plants during winter led to a sharp decrease in anammox bacteria copy numbers in the planted wetland. Under cold temperature, the degree of enrichment with anammox bacteria in the planted wetland was similar to or slightly superior to that in the unplanted wetland. PMID:25353942

  6. Construction of effective inverted repeat silencing constructs using sodium bisulfite treatment coupled with strand-specific PCR.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sarah H; Harmse, Johan; Arbuthnot, Patrick; Van Den Berg, Fiona; Weinberg, Marco S; Rey, Marie E C

    2012-04-01

    RNA silencing has been exploited to produce transgenic plants with resistance to viral pathogens via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). In some cases, this technology is difficult to apply due to the instability of inverted repeat (IR) constructs during cloning and plant transformation. Although such constructs have been shown to be stabilized with introns and efficiently induce RNA silencing, we found that the Pdk intron did not stabilize South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) silencing constructs. Therefore, we developed a method for producing long SACMV IR constructs through bisulfite-induced base pair mismatches on the sense arm prior to IR assembly. Expression of SACMV BC1 mismatched IR constructs in the model test plant Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in a reduction in viral BC1 transcript levels, hence viral replication, upon SACMV infection. Mismatched SACMV AC1 IR constructs induced PTGS more efficiently in a N. benthamiana callus system than nonmismatched IR constructs. Our novel method for IR construct generation should be applicable to many sequences where the generation of these constructs has proven difficult in the past. PMID:22482441

  7. Improved method for constructing plant amiRNA vectors with blue-white screening and MAGIC.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Zhong, Xing; Jiang, Sijing; Zhai, Chao; Ma, Lixin

    2011-08-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) technology is a novel tool in reverse genetic research for discovering or validating gene functions in plants. A convenient cloning strategy has been developed to construct plant amiRNA vectors based on lacO reconstruction and mating-assisted, genetically-integrated cloning (MAGIC). The amiRNA precursor fragment was generated by PCR and inserted into a small donor plasmid through reconstruction of integrated lacO sequence. Blue recombinants were selected on plates containing X-gal and the efficiency of successful clones was 100%. The amiRNA expression cassette was transferred from the donor plasmid to the recipient plasmid p1301-gfp through MAGIC and an amiRNA expression plasmid was created. More than 40 plant amiRNA vectors were generated through this method, one of which was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana and the target gene was silenced efficiently. The approach will be useful for amiRNA expression vectors construction in plants. PMID:21479629

  8. Geopolymerisation of silt generated from construction and demolition waste washing plants.

    PubMed

    Lampris, C; Lupo, R; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-01-01

    Recycling plants that size, sort and wash construction and demolition waste can produce high quality aggregate. However, they also produce up to 80ton per hour of filter cake waste containing fine (<63mum) silt particles that is classified as inert waste and normally landfilled. This research investigated the potential to form geopolymers containing silt, which would allow this problematic waste to be beneficially reused as aggregate. This would significantly improve the economic viability of recycling plants that wash wastes. Silt filter cakes have been collected from a number of aggregate washing plants operating in the UK. These were found to contain similar aluminosilicate crystalline phases. Geopolymer samples were produced using silt and silt mixed with either metakaolin or pulverised fuel ash (PFA). Silt geopolymers cured at room temperature had average 7-day compressive strengths of 18.7MPa, while partial substitution of silt by metakaolin or PFA increased average compressive strengths to 30.5 and 21.9MPa, respectively. Curing specimens for 24h at 105 degrees C resulted in a compressive strength of 39.7MPa and microstructural analysis confirmed the formation of dense materials. These strengths are in excess of those required for materials to be used as aggregate, particularly in unbound applications. The implications of this research for the management of waste silt at construction and demolition waste washing plants are discussed. PMID:18579370

  9. Heber geothermal binary demonstration plant: Design, construction, and early startup: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J. R.

    1987-10-01

    Study of the concept for a large commercial size binary-cycle geothermal demonstration plant began in 1974. It was perceived that such a project would fill the need to advance the art of binary-cycle technology to the point that it could be used on a large scale for the development of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The Plant is rated at 45 MWe (net) and is located near Heber in the Imperial Valley of California. Construction began in June 1983 and as completed in June 1985. This report presents the results of design studies and field experiments that provided the data for detailed design. It discusses the plant's final design, highlights the logic behind key design decisions, and gives project costs. It describes the planned three-year test and demonstration program. It also includes a list of reports, studies, project documents, and technical papers related to the project.

  10. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal of locally adapted plant species used in constructed wetlands in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; König, Thomas; Qi, Zhang; Yongsheng, Gao

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency of seven plant species (Schoenoplectus lacustris, Vetiveria zizanioides, Acorus calamus, Canna indica, Zizania latifolia, Phragmites communis, and Iris pseudacorus) commonly used in constructed wetland systems in southern China. The investigation considers two aspects that are relevant to determine nutrient removal efficiency: plants' biomass production and nutrient content in water effluent. Both assessments are correlated with each other. Three different hydraulic retention times with different nutrient loads have been applied in this ex-situ trial. The plants' biomass production correlates positively with the effluent's nutrient removal efficiency. Six out of seven species reviewed produce more biomass above ground than below ground (average: 67% of dried biomass in aerial part); only I. pseudacorus produces more biomass below ground. S. lacustris, V. zizanioides, I. pseudacorus, and C. indica have performed best in terms of nutrient removal efficiency (65.6-90.2% for nitrogen; 67.7-84.6% for phosphorus). PMID:22766855

  11. 49 CFR 242.5 - Effect and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect and construction. 242.5 Section 242.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION QUALIFICATION AND CERTIFICATION OF CONDUCTORS General § 242.5 Effect...

  12. Penstock leakage at the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant - Investigation, design, and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, M.F.; Baker, C.H.; Broderick, W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an investigation of observed penstock leakage and related gallery flooding at the Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant, in Lewiston, New York; engineering design of alternative remediation measures; test grouting of a dewatered penstock in 1991; and the subsequent grouting of the remaining twelve penstocks. The Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant is the lower part of the Niagara Pumped Storage Project, which is owned and operated by the New York Power Authority. Water diverted some 4 miles (6.4 km) upstream of the plant is passed through 13 individual penstocks 28 ft (8.5 m) in diameter to a power plant on the right bank of the Niagara River. The net head at the plant is 300 ft (91.4 m), and the hydraulic capacity is about 91,000 cfs (2,575 m{sup 3}/s). The total installed capacity is about 2,000 MW. Since completion of construction in 1962 there had been recurring problems with flooding of the floors at the upper intake galleries. This was particularly noticeable during periods of heavy rainfall when the existing storm drains were close to their design capacity. The paper presents details of the investigations, including penstock inspection, methods of flow measurement and analysis, design criteria for the grout selected, details of the drilling and grout placement, and the anticipated long-term performance of the grout in service.

  13. A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

  14. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for vertical calciner operation at the plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, C.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) for construction, installation, and operation of a vertical calciner to stabilize plutonium at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)Complex, pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060. The PFP Complex activities are focused on the cleanout and stabilization of plutonium residue left from plutonium weapons material processing activities. The prime purpose of the vertical calciner is to convert plutonium acid solutions to a more stable plutonium oxide. A test calciner has been developed and put in place in the 234-5Z Building. Development testing of this vertical calciner is ongoing. A new vertical calciner will be assembled for actual stabilization operation in Room 230C of the 234-5Z Building. The test calciner may be upgraded or replaced as an alternative to building a new calciner in Room 230C.

  15. A proportional mortality ratio study of workers in a construction equipment and diesel engine manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Mallin, K; Berkeley, L; Young, Q

    1986-01-01

    The mortality of 461 workers who were employed 10 or more years in a Midwest engine and construction equipment plant was examined, using the method of proportional mortality ratios. Both state and national deaths were used as the standard population. Major exposures in this plant included solvents, cutting oils, and metal fumes and dusts. However, precise exposure data were not available. Among white males, no significant deviations from expected deaths were found. Among black males, significant excess deaths were found for all malignant neoplasms combined, for cancer of the pancreas, and for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Proportional cancer mortality ratios produced similar results, although the excess of pancreatic cancer in blacks was only significant among those with 20 or more years of service. Although complete occupational histories were not available, these results may provide hypotheses for future studies of workers in heavy machinery production. PMID:3489411

  16. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 6080% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  17. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tushar K; Papolu, Pradeep K; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  18. RADON MITIGATION EFFECTS OF PASSIVE STACKS IN RESIDENTIAL NEW CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of passive stacks in mitigating radon levels in residential new construction. Although passive stacks have been installed as a radon resistant measure in new houses, little quantitative data on their performance has been collected. This study invol...

  19. Semantics of the Transitive Construction: Prototype Effects and Developmental Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibbotson, Paul; Theakston, Anna L.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether an abstract linguistic construction shows the kind of prototype effects characteristic of non-linguistic categories, in both adults and young children. Adapting the prototype-plus-distortion methodology of Franks and Bransford (1971), we found that whereas adults were lured toward false-positive recognition of…

  20. Semantics of the Transitive Construction: Prototype Effects and Developmental Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibbotson, Paul; Theakston, Anna L.; Lieven, Elena V. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether an abstract linguistic construction shows the kind of prototype effects characteristic of non-linguistic categories, in both adults and young children. Adapting the prototype-plus-distortion methodology of Franks and Bransford (1971), we found that whereas adults were lured toward false-positive recognition of

  1. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  2. Effects of perchlorate on growth of four wetland plants and its accumulation in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Gao, Haishuo; Chen, Guikui; Li, Huashou; Lin, Hai; Shu, Zhenzhen

    2013-10-01

    Perchlorate contamination in water is of concern because of uncertainties about toxicity and health effects, impact on ecosystems, and possible indirect exposure pathways to humans. Therefore, it is very important to investigate the ecotoxicology of perchlorate and to screen plant species for phytoremediation. Effects of perchlorate (20, 200, and 500 mg/L) on the growth of four wetland plants (Eichhornia crassipes, Acorus calamus L., Thalia dealbata, and Canna indica) as well as its accumulation in different plant tissues were investigated through water culture experiments. Twenty milligrams per liter of perchlorate had no significant effects on height, root length, aboveground part weight, root weight, and oxidizing power of roots of four plants, except A. calamus, and increasing concentrations of perchlorate showed that out of the four wetland plants, only A. calamus had a significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent decrease in these parameters. When treated with 500 mg/L perchlorate, these parameters and chlorophyll content in the leaf of plants showed significant decline contrasted to control groups, except the root length of E. crassipes and C. indica. The order of inhibition rates of perchlorate on root length, aboveground part weight and root weight, and oxidizing power of roots was: A. calamus > C. indica > T. dealbata > E. crassipes and on chlorophyll content in the leaf it was: A. calamus > T. dealbata > C. indica > E. crassipes. The higher the concentration of perchlorate used, the higher the amount of perchlorate accumulation in plants. Perchlorate accumulation in aboveground tissues was much higher than that in underground tissues and leaf was the main tissue for perchlorate accumulation. The order of perchlorate accumulation content and the bioconcentration factor in leaf of four plants was: E. crassipes > C. indica > T. dealbata > A. calamus. Therefore, E. crassipes might be an ideal plant with high tolerance ability and accumulation ability for constructing wetland to remediate high levels of perchlorate polluted water. PMID:23673920

  3. THE USE OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TO PHYTOREMEDIATE EXPLOSIVES-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER AT THE MILAN ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT, MILAN, TENNESSEE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The groundwaters beneath many Army ammunition plants in the United States are contaminated with explosives. To help address this problem, the USAEC and TVA initiated a field demonstration program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using constructed wetlands for remediating ...

  4. Microbial abundance and community in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms: role of plant presence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xie, Huijun; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Yang, Zhongchen; Zhao, Congcong

    2016-03-01

    In this research, the role of plants in improving microorganism growth conditions in subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) microcosms was determined. In particular, microbial abundance and community were investigated during summer and winter in Phragmites australis-planted CW microcosms (PA) and unplanted CW microcosms (control, CT). Results revealed that the removal efficiencies of pollutants and microbial community structure varied in winter with variable microbial abundance. During summer, PA comprised more dominant phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), whereas CT contained more Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria. During winter, the abundance of Proteobacteria was >40 % in PA but dramatically decreased in CT. Moreover, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacterial dominance in CT decreased. In both seasons, bacteria were more abundant in root surfaces than in sand. Plant presence positively affected microbial abundance and community. The potential removal ability of CT, in which Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria were abundant during summer, was more significantly affected by temperature reduction than that of PA with plant presence. PMID:25772872

  5. Effect of microgravity on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

  6. Bioremediation of endosulfan in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands: effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Mu, Yang; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Xu, Jingtao; Wang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Bioremediation is widely used in organic pollutants disposal. However, very little has been known on its application in constructed wetlands contaminated with organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan in particular. To evaluate the effect of bioremediation on endosulfan removal and clarify the fate, bioaugmentation and biostimulation were studied in laboratory-scale vertical-flow constructed wetlands. After 20 days' experiment, endosulfan isomers removal efficiencies were increased to 89.24-97.62 % through bioremediation. In bacteria bioaugmentation (E-in) and sucrose biostimulation (E-C), peak concentrations of endosulfan in sediment were reduced by 31.02-76.77 %, and plant absorption were 347.45-576.65 μg kg(-1). By contrast, plant absorption in KH2PO4 biostimulation (E-P) was increased to 811.64 and 1,067.68 μg kg(-1). Degradation process was probably promoted in E-in and E-C, while plant absorption was enhanced in E-P. Consequently, E-in and E-C were effective for endosulfan removal in constructed wetlands, while adding KH2PO4 had potential to cause air pollution. Additionally, combined bioremediation was not recommended. PMID:24969425

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  9. Immunity: plants as effective mediators.

    PubMed

    Sultan, M Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2014-01-01

    In the domain of nutrition, exploring the diet-health linkages is major area of research. The outcomes of such interventions led to widespread acceptance of functional and nutraceutical foods; however, augmenting immunity is a major concern of dietary regimens. Indeed, the immune system is incredible arrangement of specific organs and cells that enabled humans to carry out defense against undesired responses. Its proper functionality is essential to maintain the body homeostasis. Array of plants and their components hold immunomodulating properties. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhanced immunity against diseases. The review intended to highlight the importance of garlic (Allium sativum), green tea (Camellia sinensis), ginger (Zingiber officinale), purple coneflower (Echinacea), black cumin (Nigella sativa), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Astragalus and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) as natural immune boosters. These plants are bestowed with functional ingredients that may provide protection against various menaces. Modes of their actions include boosting and functioning of immune system, activation and suppression of immune specialized cells, interfering in several pathways that eventually led to improvement in immune responses and defense system. In addition, some of these plants carry free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities that are helpful against cancer insurgence. Nevertheless, interaction between drugs and herbs/botanicals should be well investigated before recommended for their safe use, and such information must be disseminated to the allied stakeholders. PMID:24564587

  10. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 ?g L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment. PMID:25461066

  11. Deriving a Planting Medium from Solid Waste Compost and Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajalla, Nadim; Assaf, Eleni; Bashour, Issam; Talhouk, Salma

    2014-05-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which were locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been followed by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste problem. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Matiolla, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays, which is commonly known used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. The leachate from the irrigation of the pots is also monitored and assessed to ensure that if selected for field trials, the mix will not pose a threat to water bodies. The presentation at the conference will aim to report the latest results from the on-going experiment.

  12. Perceived heat stress and health effects on construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Priya; Rajiva, Ajit; Andhare, Dileep; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Tiwari, Abhiyant; Sheffield, Perry

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing heat waves-particularly in urban areas where construction is most prevalent, highlight a need for heat exposure assessment of construction workers. This study aims to characterize the effects of heat on construction workers from a site in Gandhinagar. Materials and Methods: This study involved a mixed methods approach consisting of a cross sectional survey with anthropometric measurements (n = 219) and four focus groups with construction workers, as well as environmental measurements of heat stress exposure at a construction site. Survey data was collected in two seasons i.e., summer and winter months, and heat illness and symptoms were compared between the two time periods. Thematic coding of focus group data was used to identify vulnerability factors and coping mechanisms of the workers. Heat stress, recorded using a wet bulb globe temperature monitor, was compared to international safety standards. Results: The survey findings suggest that heat-related symptoms increased in summer; 59% of all reports in summer were positive for symptoms (from Mild to Severe) as compared to 41% in winter. Focus groups revealed four dominant themes: (1) Non-occupational stressors compound work stressors; (2) workers were particularly attuned to the impact of heat on their health; (3) workers were aware of heat-related preventive measures; and (4) few resources were currently available to protect workers from heat stress. Working conditions often exceed international heat stress safety thresholds. Female workers and new employees might be at increased risk of illness or injury. Conclusion: This study suggests significant health impacts on construction workers from heat stress exposure in the workplace, showed that heat stress levels were higher than those prescribed by international standards and highlights the need for revision of work practices, increased protective measures, and possible development of indigenous work safety standards for heat exposure. PMID:26957814

  13. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmer, S.D. ); Rastorfer, J.R. . Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL Van Dyke, G.D. . Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Constructing more informative plantpollinator networks: visitation and pollen deposition networks in a heathland plant community

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, G.; Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Willmer, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction networks are widely used as tools to understand plantpollinator communities, and to examine potential threats to plant diversity and food security if the ecosystem service provided by pollinating animals declines. However, most networks to date are based on recording visits to flowers, rather than recording clearly defined effective pollination events. Here we provide the first networks that explicitly incorporate measures of pollinator effectiveness (PE) from pollen deposition on stigmas per visit, and pollinator importance (PI) as the product of PE and visit frequency. These more informative networks, here produced for a low diversity heathland habitat, reveal that plantpollinator interactions are more specialized than shown in most previous studies. At the studied site, the specialization index was lower for the visitation network than the PE network, which was in turn lower than for the PI network. Our study shows that collecting PE data is feasible for community-level studies in low diversity communities and that including information about PE can change the structure of interaction networks. This could have important consequences for our understanding of threats to pollination systems. PMID:26336181

  15. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON PLANT PRODUCTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants modify the productivity of agrisystems. Any effect of air pollution on growth or quality of a plant is an effect of productivity. Early efforts to estimate the effects of air pollutants on crop productivity were often based only on observation. Of the different met...

  16. Effects of invasive plants on arthropods.

    PubMed

    Litt, Andrea R; Cord, Erin E; Fulbright, Timothy E; Schuster, Greta L

    2014-12-01

    Non-native plants have invaded nearly all ecosystems and represent a major component of global ecological change. Plant invasions frequently change the composition and structure of vegetation communities, which can alter animal communities and ecosystem processes. We reviewed 87 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature to evaluate responses of arthropod communities and functional groups to non-native invasive plants. Total abundance of arthropods decreased in 62% of studies and increased in 15%. Taxonomic richness decreased in 48% of studies and increased in 13%. Herbivorous arthropods decreased in response to plant invasions in 48% of studies and increased in 17%, likely due to direct effects of decreased plant diversity. Predaceous arthropods decreased in response to invasive plants in 44% of studies, which may reflect indirect effects due to reductions in prey. Twenty-two percent of studies documented increases in predators, which may reflect changes in vegetation structure that improved mobility, survival, or web-building for these species. Detritivores increased in 67% of studies, likely in response to increased litter and decaying vegetation; no studies documented decreased abundance in this functional group. Although many researchers have examined effects of plant invasions on arthropods, sizeable information gaps remain, specifically regarding how invasive plants influence habitat and dietary requirements. Beyond this, the ability to predict changes in arthropod populations and communities associated with plant invasions could be improved by adopting a more functional and mechanistic approach. Understanding responses of arthropods to invasive plants will critically inform conservation of virtually all biodiversity and ecological processes because so many organisms depend on arthropods as prey or for their functional roles, including pollination, seed dispersal, and decomposition. Given their short generation times and ability to respond rapidly to ecological change, arthropods may be ideal targets for restoration and conservation activities. PMID:25065640

  17. Temperature effects on wastewater nitrate removal in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, S.L.; Wheeler, E.F.; Berghage, R.D.; Graves, R.E.

    1999-02-01

    Constructed wetlands may be used for removal of high nutrient loads in greenhouse wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Temperature affects both the physical and biological activities in wetland systems. Since nitrification and denitrification are temperature-dependent processes, effluent nitrate concentrations will fluctuate due to changes in air and wetland temperature. In a cold climate, constructed wetlands can function in a temperature-controlled, greenhouse environment year-round. This work evaluates four temperature treatments on nitrate removal rates in five planted and five unplanted laboratory-scale wetlands. Wetlands were supplied with a nutrient solution similar to the fertigation runoff solution (100 PPM nitrate-N) used in greenhouse crop production. A first-order kinetic model was used to describe experimental nitrate depletion data and to predict nitrate removal rate constants (k) in the wetlands planted with Iris pseudocoras. The negligible removal in unplanted wetlands was thought to be due to lack of carbon source in the fertigation solution. Between 19 and 23 C is planted systems, k increased from 0.062 to 0.077 h{sup {minus}1}, appeared to peak around 30 C (k = 0.184 h{sup {minus}1}), but decreased at 38 C (k = 0.099h{sup {minus}1}). Based on the Arrhenius equation, k was a first-order exponential function of temperature between 18 and 30 C in planted systems. Quantification of temperature effects on planted and unplanted laboratory-scale constructed wetlands can be sued to enhance the design and management of wastewater treatment wetlands.

  18. Appraisal of plant diversity effect of the rebuilding and extension project of National Highway 209 Duchuan to Chunshu section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Youhui; Zhang, Qipeng; Li, Haiyan; Dai, Yan

    2011-02-01

    Plant diversity evaluation of highway construction of nature reserve is one important task in a construction project. I analyze and appraisal the plant diversity problems caused by the rebuilding and extension project of No.209 national highway Duchuan to Chunshuya section from plant species diversity, plant composition characteristics, vegetation type's diversity and national rare and endangered plants in the construction region. The highway reconstruction through the Savage Valley Nature Reserve basically causes no destructive effects on plant diversity, but there are still some negative effects. In this paper, I put forward scientific, reasonable and feasible measures and methods to the plant diversity protection by combining with the natural environment characteristics of the highway construction region.

  19. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    SciTech Connect

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small contractor is mentored and supported utilizing the principles of the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Partnering process. Some of the key mentoring and partnering areas that are explored in this paper are, internal and external safety professional support, subcontractor safety teams and the interface with project and site safety teams, quality assurance program support to facilitate compliance with NQA-1, construction, team roles and responsibilities, work definition for successful fixed price contracts, scheduling and interface with project schedules and cost projection/accruals. The practical application of the CII Partnering principles, with the Construction Management expertise of URS, has led to a highly successful construction model that also meets small business contracting goals.

  20. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property

  1. Worker/vehicle ratios at major eastern power plant construction sites: a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, W.C.

    1981-07-01

    A 1979 survey of the worker/vehicle ratios at 16 power-plant construction sites averaged 2.3. A trend toward higher ratios in recent years indicates that costs are overcoming single-occupant commuting habits. Five factors influencing how workers commute to the site are parking area and site accessibility, residence location, workforce composition and scheduling, gasoline availability and price, and van or bus availability. A sixth factor, project management involvement to encourage ridesharing, may increase as data for commuting research and monitoring becomes available. Management participation can include the dissemination of information to workers and special parking and lane incentives, but will avoid the liabilities associated with fiscal participation. Government assistance can include research data, public bus routing, and parking lot development. 21 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  2. Evaluation of high Ni-Cr-Mo alloys for the construction of sulfur dioxide scrubber plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S.

    1996-02-01

    Corrosion in wet lime/limestone systems used for flue gas desulfurization in thermal power plants is of great concern. The frequent variations in acidity and in chloride and fluoride ion concentrations experienced by such systems pose a serious threat to the materials of construction. Currently used materials mostly type 316L stainless steel often fail to meet their life expectancy. The present study evaluates the performance of advanced Ni- Cr- Mo alloys 59 and C- 276 in a simulated sulfur dioxide scrubber environment. Accelerated tests showed that high Ni- Cr- Mo alloys have little tendency to leach metal ions such as chromium, nickel, and molybdenum at different impressed potentials. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of pitting attack.

  3. Effects of salinity on treatment of municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2008-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the removal of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients from municipal wastewater by constructed mangrove microcosms planted with Aegiceras corniculatum were investigated. During the four-month wastewater treatment, the treatment efficiency was reduced by high salinity, and the removal percentages of dissolved organic carbon, ammonia-N and inorganic N dropped from 91% to 71%, from 98% to 83% and from 78% to 56%, respectively, with salinity increasing from 0 to 30 parts per thousands (ppt). In spite of such inhibition at high salinity, 100% of the effluents discharge from the constructed mangrove microcosms still complied with the discharge standards set by the Hong Kong Government for Coastal Water Control Zones. These results suggested that constructed mangrove wetland treatment systems were promising to effectively treat municipal wastewater, even those with high salinity. In addition, the denitrification potential in soil was found to be retarded by the high salinity while mangrove plants grew best at 15 ppt salinity condition. PMID:18374366

  4. An Endophyte Constructs Fungicide-Containing Extracellular Barriers for Its Host Plant.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sameh S M; Greenwood, John S; Bombarely, Aureliano; Mueller, Lukas A; Tsao, Rong; Mosser, Dick D; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-10-01

    Surface cracks create sites for pathogen invasion. Yew trees (Taxus) hyperbranch from long-lived buds that lie underneath the bark [1], resulting in persistent bark cracking and deep air pockets, potentially allowing pathogens to enter the nutrient-rich vascular system (vertical phloem and inter-connected radial medullary rays [MR]). Yew is famous as the source of the anti-cancer diterpenoid drug Taxol. A mystery has been why both the tree and its resident non-pathogenic fungi (endophytes) synthesize Taxol, apparently redundantly [2-7]. These endophytes, as well as pure Taxol, suppress fungal pathogens including wood-decaying fungi (WDF) [8-11]. Here we show that a Taxol-producing fungal endophyte, Paraconiothyrium SSM001 [12], migrates to pathogen entry points including branch cracks. The fungus sequesters Taxol in intracellular hydrophobic bodies that are induced by WDF for release by exocytosis, after which the bodies can coalesce to form remarkable extracellular barriers, laced with the fungicide. We propose that microbial construction of fungicide-releasing hydrophobic barriers might be a novel plant defense mechanism. We further propose that the endophyte might be evolutionarily analogous to animal immune cells, in that it might expand plant immunity by acting as an autonomous, anti-pathogen sentinel that monitors the vascular system. PMID:26412131

  5. Constructed wetland systems vegetated with different plants applied to the treatment of tannery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2007-04-01

    Wastewaters from leather processing are very complex and lead to water pollution if discharged untreated, especially due to its high organic loading. In this study the survival of different plant species in subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands receiving tannery wastewater was investigated. Five pilot units were vegetated with Canna indica, Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Stenotaphrum secundatum and Iris pseudacorus, and a sixth unit was left as an unvegetated control. The treatment performance of the systems under two different hydraulic loading rates, 3 and 6 cmd(-1), was assessed. COD was reduced by 41-73% for an inlet organic loading varying between 332 and 1602 kgha(-1)d(-1) and BOD(5) was reduced by 41-58% for an inlet organic loading varying between 218 and 780 kgha(-1)d(-1). Nutrient removal occurred to lower extents. Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia were the only plants that were able to establish successfully. Despite the high removal of organic content from the influent wastewater, during 17 months of operation, no significant differences in performance were observed between units. PMID:17320926

  6. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Antonio C; Borin, Maurizio; Cirelli, Giuseppe L; Toscano, Attilio; Maucieri, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions and carbon (C) budgets in a horizontal subsurface flow pilot-plant constructed wetland (CW) with beds vegetated with Cyperus papyrus L., Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, and Mischantus giganteus Greef et Deu in the Mediterranean basin (Sicily) during the 1st year of plant growing season. At the end of the vegetative season, M. giganteus showed the higher biomass accumulation (7.4 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (5.3 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.8 kg m(-2)). Significantly higher emissions of CO2 were detected in the summer, while CH4 emissions were maximum during spring. Cumulative CO2 emissions by C. papyrus and C. zizanioides during the monitoring period showed similar trends with final values of about 775 and 1,074 g m(-2), respectively, whereas M. giganteus emitted 3,395 g m(-2). Cumulative CH4 bed emission showed different trends for the three C4 plant species in which total gas release during the study period was for C. papyrus 12.0 g m(-2) and ten times higher for M. giganteus, while C. zizanioides bed showed the greatest CH4 cumulative emission with 240.3 g m(-2). The wastewater organic carbon abatement determined different C flux in the atmosphere. Gas fluxes were influenced both by plant species and monitored months with an average C-emitted-to-C-removed ratio for C. zizanioides, C. papyrus, and M. giganteus of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.9, respectively. The growing season C balances were positive for all vegetated beds with the highest C sequestered in the bed with M. giganteus (4.26 kg m(-2)) followed by C. zizanioides (3.78 kg m(-2)) and C. papyrus (1.89 kg m(-2)). To our knowledge, this is the first paper that presents preliminary results on CO2 and CH4 emissions from CWs vegetated with C4 plant species in Mediterranean basin during vegetative growth. PMID:24743957

  7. Construction of a bio-test for infecting red clover plants with Sclerotinia trifoliorum.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, T; Baert, J; Van Bockstaele, E

    2011-01-01

    Sclerotinia trifoliorum causes clover cancer in red clover crops. Clover cancer is difficult to control and completely resistant red clover varieties are not available. Breeding for resistant red clover varieties is being slowed down because little is known about the diversity of European S. trifoliorum populations and because of the lack of bio-tests that are useable in breeding programs. The first objective of this research was to develop a reliable high-throughput bio-test, useable in breeding programs. The second objective was to optimise another bio-test, based on isolated leaves, for more precise studies. First, we optimised a method for ascospore production of S. trifoliorum. Once produced, the ascospores were used to evaluate the effects of climate conditions, ascospore concentration and plant age on the high-throughput bio-test. For the bio-test on isolated leaves, the effects of infection method, incubation conditions, incubation period, ascospore concentration, leaf growth stage and mechanical damage were evaluated. In the high-throughput bio-test, disease levels rose with increasing ascospore concentration up to 20,000 spores/ml. The plant age had a small, yet significant effect on the disease level. For the isolated leaf bio-test, the most effective and most repeatable infection method was spraying of an ascospore suspension. Disease levels continued to increase with rising concentrations and incubation time did not interact with plant susceptibility levels. The youngest completely opened leaf yielded the most repeatable results. Both bio-tests were shown to be correlated and could be valuable instruments for breeding programs and for studying plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:22702177

  8. Use and effectiveness of hearing protection in construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data on noise exposure and hearing protection device (HPD) use among construction workers drawn from several large datasets covering nine construction trades. A unique combination of one-minute dosimetry noise exposure level and simultaneous self-reported HPD use data were evaluated, as were occupational and non-occupational HPD use data collected by questionnaire as part of a longitudinal noise and hearing loss study among apprentices. Direct HPD attenuation measurements were also made on workers at their worksite. Workers reported using HPDs less than one-quarter of the time they were exposed above 85 dBA, the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit. Workers who reported always using HPDs in high noise were found to wear them only one-third of the time their exposures exceeded 85 dBA. Direct attenuation measurements indicated that workers achieved more than 50% of the rated attenuation of their HPD on average, but that the variability in achieved attenuation was large. Lastly, when the measured HPD attenuation level and use time data were combined, the effective protection afforded by HPDs was less than 3 dB on average, though there was substantial variation among the different trades. These results demonstrate the need for better hearing conservation programs in construction.

  9. Impact of plant harvest management on function and community structure of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi S T; Irbis, Chagan; Wang, Pengyun; Inamura, Tatsuya

    2015-02-01

    Plant harvest is one of the most important management practices in constructed wetlands. In this study, we evaluated the impact of harvesting Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel on the activity and community structure of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in a free-water surface constructed wetland. The nitrifiers were targeted using bacterial and archaeal-amoA that encode ammonia monooxygenase, and the denitrifiers were targeted using nirK and nirS that encode the nitrite reductase. The community structures were evaluated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The potential nitrification and nitrate reduction rates were shown to be significantly higher in the harvested plant rhizosphere than in a non-harvested control plot. The potential nitrification rate positively correlated with the potential nitrate reduction rate and influenced the community structure of nirK. In addition, plant canopy developed differently after harvest and simultaneously changed the microclimate beneath the plant community. These results suggest that plant harvest management could change subsequent plant development and associated microenvironments, thereby affecting the function and community structure of nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Our study highlights the importance of plant harvest management within constructed wetlands to regulate the functions of nitrification and denitrification. PMID:25764547

  10. Cross-age effects on forensic face construction.

    PubMed

    Fodarella, Cristina; Brown, Charity; Lewis, Amy; Frowd, Charlie D

    2015-01-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) refers to recognition memory being more accurate for people of our own age than other age groups (e.g., Wright and Stroud, 2002). This paper investigated whether the OAB effect is present during construction of human faces (also known as facial composites, often for forensic/police use). In doing so, it adds to our understanding of factors influencing both facial memory across the life span as well as performance of facial composites. Participant-witnesses were grouped into younger (19-35 years) and older (51-80 years) adults, and constructed a single composite from memory of an own- or cross-age target face using the feature-based composite system PRO-fit. They also completed the shortened version of the glasgow face matching test (GFMT; Burton et al., 2010). A separate group of participants who were familiar with the relevant identities attempted to name the resulting composites. Correct naming of the composites revealed the presence of an OAB for older adults, who constructed more-identifiable composites of own-age than cross-age faces. For younger adults, age of target face did not influence correct naming and their composites were named at the same level as those constructed by older adults for younger targets. Also, there was no reliable correlation between face perception ability and composite quality. Overall, correct naming was fairly good across the experiment, and indicated benefit for older witnesses for older targets. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary theories of OAB, and implications of the work for forensic practice. PMID:26347697

  11. Cross-age effects on forensic face construction

    PubMed Central

    Fodarella, Cristina; Brown, Charity; Lewis, Amy; Frowd, Charlie D.

    2015-01-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) refers to recognition memory being more accurate for people of our own age than other age groups (e.g., Wright and Stroud, 2002). This paper investigated whether the OAB effect is present during construction of human faces (also known as facial composites, often for forensic/police use). In doing so, it adds to our understanding of factors influencing both facial memory across the life span as well as performance of facial composites. Participant-witnesses were grouped into younger (1935 years) and older (5180 years) adults, and constructed a single composite from memory of an own- or cross-age target face using the feature-based composite system PRO-fit. They also completed the shortened version of the glasgow face matching test (GFMT; Burton et al., 2010). A separate group of participants who were familiar with the relevant identities attempted to name the resulting composites. Correct naming of the composites revealed the presence of an OAB for older adults, who constructed more-identifiable composites of own-age than cross-age faces. For younger adults, age of target face did not influence correct naming and their composites were named at the same level as those constructed by older adults for younger targets. Also, there was no reliable correlation between face perception ability and composite quality. Overall, correct naming was fairly good across the experiment, and indicated benefit for older witnesses for older targets. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary theories of OAB, and implications of the work for forensic practice. PMID:26347697

  12. Nitrogen transformation in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands II: Effect of biofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigambo, T.; Mayo, A. W.

    In this paper the significance of the biofilm biomass present in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland in removal of nitrogen was demonstrated. The model was developed and optimised using data obtained in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Phragmites mauritianus and filled with 6-25 mm diameter gravel pack. The effects of biofilm biomass activities were studied by removing the effects of plant and gravel bed biofilm in an already calibrated model and re-run the same. Research results indicate that total nitrogen removal was largely influenced by growth of biofilm on plants than on aggregates. When plant biofilm and suspended biomasses were considered total nitrogen removal of 38.1% was observed compared with 25.1% when aggregate-biofilm and suspended biomasses were considered because plants have more surface areas, which are active sites for the effective biofilm activities than aggregates. However, in a natural wetland where the soil grain size is smaller, the effect of biofilm on plants may be smaller than biofilm on soil particles. There was no significant difference in organic-nitrogen effluent concentrations when biofilm biomass was considered or rejected. The averages in organic-nitrogen effluent concentrations were 0.39, 0.41 and 0.53 gN/m 2 for suspended alone, aggregate-biofilm and suspended; and suspended and plant-biofilm, respectively. This indicates that the removal of organic-nitrogen in wastewater is not significantly influenced by biofilm activities. Sedimentation and mineralization processes are the major factors influencing the concentration of organic-nitrogen in the effluent. On the other hand, biofilm activities had significant influence on ammonia-nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen transformation. The developed model output indicates that the effluent ammonia concentration was 2 gN/m 2, but in absence of biofilm the effluent ammonia concentration increases to 3.5 gN/m 2. Statistical analysis indicates that the mean average nitrogen-nitrogen in the effluent was 0.71 gN/m 2 when aggregate-biofilm was considered, but increased to 0.83 gN/m 2 when it was not considered.

  13. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  14. Seasonal effect on N2O formation in nitrification in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Inamori, Ryuhei; Wang, Yanhua; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Zhang, Jixiang; Kong, Hainan; Xu, Kaiqin; Inamori, Yuhei

    2008-10-01

    Constructed wetlands are considered to be important sources of nitrous oxide (N(2)O). In order to investigate the contribution of nitrification in N(2)O formation, some environmental factors, plant species and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in active layers have been compared. Vegetation cells indicated remarkable effect of seasons and different plant species on N(2)O emission and AOB amount. Nitrous oxide data showed large temporal and spatial fluctuations ranging 0-52.8 mg N(2)O m(-2)d(-1). Higher AOB amount and N(2)O flux rate were observed in the Zizania latifolia cell, reflecting high potential of global warming. Roles of plants as ecosystem engineers are summarized with rhizosphere oxygen release and organic matter transportation to affect nitrogen transformation. The Phragmites australis cell contributed to keeping high T-N removal performance and lower N(2)O emission. The distribution of AOB also supported this result. Statistical analysis showed several environmental parameters affecting the strength of observed greenhouse gases emission, such as water temperature, water level, TOC, plant species and plant cover. PMID:18782640

  15. Effect of cadmium on symbiotic soybean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, A.C.; Wollum, A.G. II

    1981-04-01

    The potential for environmental contamination by cadmium (Cd) has increased significantly in recent years. Since Cd may be hazardous to living systems, a study was conducted to investigate: (1) the existence of Rhizobium japonicum strains tolerant to Cd, (2) the Cd effect on the symbiosis between host soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and R. japonicum strains with different Cd tolerances, and (3) interactions and distribution of Cd and other elements in the host when biomass is decreased by Cd. The existence of R. japonicum strains tolerant to Cd was assessed by comparing growth curves of 10 different strains growing in a basal medium with gluconate, yeast extract, L-arabinose, and Cd (0, 3.5, 7, 14, and 28 ..mu..g/ml). Strain 3Ilb110 (110) exhibited a tolerance to Cd after an initial lag in growth, while strain 3Ilb123 (123) was susceptible. Strains 110 and 123 were used to inoculate plants growing in nutrient solution with Perlite as a support medium to evaluate the plant-rhizobial interactions in the presence of 0, 2.2, 6.7, 10.1, and 20.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, respectively. Plants were harvested and tops, roots, and nodules were analyzed 23 days after starting Cd application. Cadmium decreased dry matter production of tops, roots, and nodules. Plants inoculated with strain 123 accumulated significantly more dry matter in nodules than those with strain 110. However, in the presence of 0 and 2.2 ..mu..g Cd/ml, plants innoculated with strain 110 accumulated significantly more N than plants innoculated with strain 123. Nutrient imbalances were observed in the presence of Cd. It is suggested that the interactions of Cd with some nutrients may contribute to Cd toxicity in soybean plants. In this study the most pronounced Cd effect was on Fe and Mn nutrition, rather than Zn as had been previously reported.

  16. [Optimization of the protocol for constructing transgenic plants of the white cabbage brassica oleracea var. capitata].

    PubMed

    Gribova, T N; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2006-01-01

    The strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101, which contains the pBar vector carrying the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene (bar) under the control of the 35SCMoV promoter and NOS 3' terminator, was used for genetic transformation of four white cabbage lines, Ges-3, Drv-2, Zmu 7, and Meg 2. The effect of different concentrations and combinations of phytohormones was studied, which allowed for choosing the cultivation conditions that provided a 63-78% regeneration efficiency. It was demonstrated that concerted action by natural and synthetic cytokinins is necessary for the lines studied. Overall, 26 transgenic plants were obtained using the optimized protocol for agrobacterial transformation. The transgenic nature of these plants was confirmed by PCR and dot-blot hybridization. PMID:17066961

  17. Semantics of the transitive construction: prototype effects and developmental comparisons.

    PubMed

    Ibbotson, Paul; Theakston, Anna L; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether an abstract linguistic construction shows the kind of prototype effects characteristic of non-linguistic categories, in both adults and young children. Adapting the prototype-plus-distortion methodology of Franks and Bransford (1971), we found that whereas adults were lured toward false-positive recognition of sentences with prototypical transitive semantics, young children showed no such effect. We examined two main implications of the results. First, it adds a novel data point to a growing body of research in cognitive linguistics and construction grammar that shows abstract linguistic categories can behave in similar ways to non-linguistic categories, for example, by showing graded membership of a category. Thus, the findings lend psychological validity to the existing cross-linguistic evidence for prototypical transitive semantics. Second, we discuss a possible explanation for the fact that prototypical sentences were processed differently in adults and children, namely, that children's transitive semantic network is not as interconnected or cognitively coherent as adults'. PMID:22591052

  18. Microgravity Effects on Plant Growth and Lignification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, Joe R.; Lemay, Richard; Jahns, Gary

    1988-12-01

    Lignin is a major cellular component of higher plants. One function of lignin is to support vertical plant growth in a gravity environment. Various investigators working in the 1 g environment have concluded that lignification is influenced by gravity. An experiment was designed for flight on Spacelab II to determine the effect of microgravity on lignification in young plant seedlings. A secondary objective of the experiment was to examine the effect of microgravity on overall seedling growth. Mung bean and oat seeds germinated and the seedlings grew during the Spacelab II mission. Growth of flight mung bean and oat seedlings, however, was slower, and the seedlings exhibited stem and root orientation difficulties. Flight pine seedlings were similar in appearance and growth to 1 g controls. The rate of lignin formation in seedlings grown in space was significantly less in all three species in comparison to 1 g controls. The experiment provided direct evidence that lignification is slowed in a microgravity environment.

  19. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  20. Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Quarterly report, March 1-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Phase III of the Engineering Program to design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant was initiated in April 1979. Pilot plant procurement, fabrication, and construction is included within Phase III. Program accomplishments during the period of March 1 through May 31, 1982 and current status are summarized. Major items of activity during the reporting period were: installation of the windbox instrumentation was completed and the windbox was delivered on March 2, 1982; electrical and controls design work including updating of the process and instrument diagrams, loop diagrams, instrument index, and technical specifications is in process; heat exchanger tube fabrication continues on schedule with a total of 150 tubes completed; fabrication of the air exchange housing progresses; and additional material handling equipment has been received at the construction site. Over 97% of the equipment has been received.

  1. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III: pilot plant construction. Annual report, July 1982-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The original Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) Pilot plant contract, which included the Phase III construction of the plant, was superseded by a Cooperative Agreement on July 21, 1982. Construction activities were resumed after that date. The installation of the system for coal and dolomite receiving and storage, coal preparation, coal and dolomite injection, and ash removal, cooling and storage continued during the first annual reporting period under the Cooperative Agreement. The Control Building siding was installed and control and electrical equipment installation into this building proceeded. The in-bed heat exchanger tubes were assembled into the windbox and the assembly was installed into the PFB combustor. The hot gas cleanup devices were fabricated and installed. The process piping was fabricated and installation proceeded during this period. Installation of electrical wiring and instrumentation was initiated. The construction phase is over 90% complete. 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. UV-B EFFECTS ON TERRESTRIAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impacts of an increase in solar UV-B radiation reaching the Earth's surface due to stratospheric ozone depletion have been investigated by several research groups during the last 15 years. uch of this research has centered on the effects of plant growth and physiolo...

  3. Effect of N:P ratio of influent on biomass, nutrient allocation, and recovery of Typha latifolia and Canna 'Bengal Tiger' in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are an effective low-technology approach for treating agricultural, industrial, and municipal wastewater. Recovery of phosphorous by constructed wetland plants may be affected by wastewater nitrogen to phosphorous (N:P) ratios. Varying N:P ratios were supplied to Canna '...

  4. [Construction of a plant expression vector with tomato transcription factor gene Pti5 and studies on transgenic tobaccos].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Gang; Ji, Jing; Du, Juan

    2003-09-01

    The plasmid pBI121UCH1 carrying Pti5-VP16 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter was constructed. Leaf segments of tobacco SRI were infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 with plasmid pBI121UCH1, from which kanamycin resistant plants were obtained. PCR and Southern analysis proved that the Pti5-VP16 gene was integrated into the genomes of the tobacco plants. The disease resistance assay showed that the disease resistance was enhanced in the transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:15639931

  5. Ecological studies related to construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant. FY 1983-84 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pechmann, J.H.K.; Semlitsch, R.D.; Lew, R.M.; Mayack, D.T.

    1984-12-01

    This report details the ecological studies, conducted during Fiscal Years FY- 1983 and 1984 by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL), that relate to the construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina. SREL has been contracted to carry out these studies for the Department of Energy (DOE) in order to provide data needed to show compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, and Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands, 1977). Studies in previous years were directed toward compiling a biological inventory of both the DWPF construction site and alternative sites. This information was then utilized to predict the effects of construction on resident biota in the effected areas. Since the start of this construction of FY-1984, the focus of our efforts has shifted to verification of the predicted impacts, and evaluation of the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Particular emphasis is being placed on monitoring the effects of runoff from the site on peripheral streams in the SRP's Upper Three Runs watershed, and on artificial refuge ponds. These ponds, completed during FY-1983, represent an experimental attempt to mitigate the loss of an important amphibian breeding site, Sun Bay, to DWPF construction. Monitoring of a similar undisturbed wetland, Rainbow Bay, has continued in order to provide a comparable control site for these studies. 70 refs., 17 figs., 20 tabs.

  6. Influence of UV radiation on chlorophyll, and antioxidant enzymes of wetland plants in different types of constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Xu, Defu; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Yingxue; Howard, Alan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Guan, Yidong; Gao, Yongxia

    2014-09-01

    A surface- and vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland were designed to study the response of chlorophyll and antioxidant enzymes to elevated UV radiation in three types of wetland plants (Canna indica, Phragmites austrail, and Typha augustifolia). Results showed that (1) chlorophyll content of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia in the constructed wetland was significantly lower where UV radiation was increased by 10 and 20 % above ambient solar level than in treatment with ambient solar UV radiation (p < 0.05). (2) The malondialdehyde (MDA) content, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities of wetland plants increased with elevated UV radiation intensity. (3) The increased rate of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. australis, and T. angustifolia by elevated UV radiation of 10 % was higher in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. The sensitivity of MDA, SOD, POD, and CAT activities of C. indica, P. austrail, and T. augustifolia to the elevated UV radiation was lower in surface-flow-constructed wetland than in the vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland, which was related to a reduction in UV radiation intensity through the dissolved organic carbon and suspended matter in the water. C. indica had the highest SOD and POD activities, which implied it is more sensitive to enhanced UV radiation. Therefore, different wetland plants had different antioxidant enzymes by elevated UV radiation, which were more sensitive in vertical subsurface-flow-constructed wetland than in surface-flow-constructed wetland. PMID:24788860

  7. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    PubMed

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size <0.045 mm), the content of the Al-Si glass phase and the surface characteristics were the main factors, which could affect the accessibility of PAHs for leaching. The mobility of PAHs from OSA of CFB and PF boilers was 20.2 and 9.9%, respectively. Hardening of OSA-based materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes. PMID:25869435

  8. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

  9. WELL CONSTRUCTION AND PURGING EFFECTS ON GROUND-WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple well installations of selected casing materials (i.e., polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), 304 stainless steel (SS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) were constructed and sampled to determine if well purging and construction procedures would significantly bias chemical constitu...

  10. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar contracts. 644.486 Section 644.486 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Buildings and...

  11. Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a world’s leading crop important to the world’s textile and energy industries, and a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction and extensive analysis of a binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BI...

  12. TRICHLOROETHYLENE REMOVAL FROM GROUNDWATER IN FLOW-THROUGH COLUMNS SIMULATING A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER CONSTRUCTED WITH PLANT MULCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water contaminated with TCE is commonly treated with a passive reactive barrier (PRB) constructed with zero-valence iron. The cost of iron as the reactive matrix has driven a search for less costly alternatives, and composted plant mulch has been used as an alternative re...

  13. Anticarcinogenic effects of some Indian plant products.

    PubMed

    Aruna, K; Sivaramakrishnan, V M

    1992-11-01

    The anticarcinogenic properties of some commonly consumed spices and leafy vegetables were investigated. The effects of feeding the plant products on the induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the stomachs of Swiss mice by feeding benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P) and on the induction of hepatomas in Wistar rats by feeding 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB) were investigated. Among the nine plant products tested, cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum Linn) and basil leaves (Ocimum sanctum Linn) significantly decreased the incidence of both B[a]P-induced neoplasia and 3'MeDAB-induced hepatomas. Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum Linn) significantly inhibited B[a]P-induced neoplasia alone, while the other plant products, asafoetida, kandathipili, turmeric, drumstick leaves, solanum leaves and alternanthera leaves were ineffective. These results suggest that cumin seeds, basil leaves and to a lesser extent poppy seeds, which are all widely used in Indian cooking, may prove to be valuable anticarcinogenic agents. PMID:1473788

  14. Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

    1998-09-30

    A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

  15. Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission-line construction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were significantly reduced on the disturbed area. Diversity increased on the disturbed plot after construction, but density decreased. A slight increase in similarity (H', Clambda) of the arthropod communities of the two plots appears to be related to the modest increase in cover on the disturbed area. Globe-mallow, goosefoot and a four-o'clock were pioneer species and occurred only on the disturbed area. There was a significant reduction in cover of all plant species on the disturbed plot after construction, but there was a steady increase of annual forbs at the end of the study. The results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Construction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements. 35 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of a constructed Arctic stream using multiple biological attributes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicholas E; Scrimgeour, Garry J; Tonn, William M

    2008-12-01

    Objective assessment of habitat compensation is a central yet challenging issue for restoration ecologists. In 1997, a 3.4-km stream channel, designed to divert water around an open pit diamond mine, was excavated in the Barrenlands region of the Canadian Arctic to create productive stream habitat. We evaluated the initial success of this compensation program by comparing multiple biological attributes of the constructed stream during its first three years to those of natural reference streams in the area. The riparian zone of the constructed stream was largely devoid of vegetation throughout the period, in contrast to the densely vegetated zones of reference streams. The constructed stream also contained lower amounts of woody debris, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), and epilithon; had lower coverage by macrophytes and bryophytes; and processed leaf litter at a lower rate than reference streams. Species richness and densities of macroinvertebrates were consistently lower in the constructed stream compared to natural streams. This contributed to differences in macroinvertebrate assemblage structure throughout the period, although assemblages showed some convergence by year 3. The effectiveness of the constructed stream to emulate natural streams varied somewhat depending on the biological attribute being evaluated. Assessments based on individual attributes showed that minimal to moderate levels of similarity between the constructed stream and natural streams were achieved. A collective assessment of all biological and ecosystem attributes suggested that the constructed stream was not a good surrogate for natural streams during these first years. Additional time would be required before many characteristics of the constructed stream would resemble those of reference streams. Because initial efforts to improve fish habitat in the constructed stream focused on physical structures (e.g., weirs, vanes, rock, groins), ecological factors limiting fish growth were not considered and likely constrained success. We suggest that a greater focus on organic characteristics and vegetation within the stream and its riparian zone could have accelerated compensation. The addition of woody debris and CPOM, combined with planting of shrubs and herbs along the stream, should provide a source of allochthonous matter for the biotic community while large cobble and boulders should improve the physical stability of stream system, protecting its organic components. PMID:18839240

  17. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Constructed Arctic Stream Using Multiple Biological Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas E.; Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Tonn, William M.

    2008-12-01

    Objective assessment of habitat compensation is a central yet challenging issue for restoration ecologists. In 1997, a 3.4-km stream channel, designed to divert water around an open pit diamond mine, was excavated in the Barrenlands region of the Canadian Arctic to create productive stream habitat. We evaluated the initial success of this compensation program by comparing multiple biological attributes of the constructed stream during its first three years to those of natural reference streams in the area. The riparian zone of the constructed stream was largely devoid of vegetation throughout the period, in contrast to the densely vegetated zones of reference streams. The constructed stream also contained lower amounts of woody debris, coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), and epilithon; had lower coverage by macrophytes and bryophytes; and processed leaf litter at a lower rate than reference streams. Species richness and densities of macroinvertebrates were consistently lower in the constructed stream compared to natural streams. This contributed to differences in macroinvertebrate assemblage structure throughout the period, although assemblages showed some convergence by year 3. The effectiveness of the constructed stream to emulate natural streams varied somewhat depending on the biological attribute being evaluated. Assessments based on individual attributes showed that minimal to moderate levels of similarity between the constructed stream and natural streams were achieved. A collective assessment of all biological and ecosystem attributes suggested that the constructed stream was not a good surrogate for natural streams during these first years. Additional time would be required before many characteristics of the constructed stream would resemble those of reference streams. Because initial efforts to improve fish habitat in the constructed stream focused on physical structures (e.g., weirs, vanes, rock, groins), ecological factors limiting fish growth were not considered and likely constrained success. We suggest that a greater focus on organic characteristics and vegetation within the stream and its riparian zone could have accelerated compensation. The addition of woody debris and CPOM, combined with planting of shrubs and herbs along the stream, should provide a source of allochthonous matter for the biotic community while large cobble and boulders should improve the physical stability of stream system, protecting its organic components.

  18. Unexpected earthworm effects on forest understory plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Introduced earthworms are widespread in forests of North America creating significant negative impacts on forest understory communities. However, much of the reported evidence for negative earthworm effects comes from field investigations either comparing invaded and non-invaded forests or across invasion fronts. While important, such work is rarely able to capture the true effect of earthworms on individual plant species because most forests in North America simultaneously face multiple stressors which may confound earthworm impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to isolate effects of the anecic introduced earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris L. on seedlings of 14 native plant species representing different life form groups (perennial herb, graminoid, and tree). Results Earthworm presence did not affect survival, fertility or biomass of any of the seedling plant species tested over a 17-week period. However, L. terrestris presence significantly decreased growth of two sedges (Carex retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. and Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small) by decreasing the number of culms. Conclusions Our mesocosm results with seedlings contrast with field reports indicating extensive and significant negative effects of introduced earthworms on many mature native forbs, and positive effects on sedges. We suggest that earthworm impacts are context- and age-specific and that generalizations about their impacts are potentially misleading without considering and manipulating other associated factors. PMID:24314263

  19. Construction of the Plant RT-2 as a way for solving the problem of VVER-1000 spent fuel management in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Lyubtsev, R.I.; Egorov, N.N.; Lebedev, V.A.; Revenko, Y.A.; Fedosov, Y.G.; Dubrovskii, V.M.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear power in the Russian Federation in the future will be based on the VVER-1000 and it`s modifications. To manage the spent fuels from this plant, the Plant RT-2 was designed to process the spent fuel. Plant construction was started in 1984 and stopped in 1989 due to economic difficulties. The necessity of the continuation of the plant is discussed.

  20. Winter study of power plant effects

    SciTech Connect

    Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1980-10-01

    As a part of DOE's Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) program a field study was undertaken at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant (Plant Bowen) in December 1979. The study was a joint endeavor of Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), Pennsylvania State University (PSU), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the main objective of determining the effects of the plant's smokestack effluents on aerosol characteristics and precipitation chemistry. Other objectives included studies of cooling tower temperature and humidity (T/h) plumes and drift drop concentrations. Conducted over a period of three weeks, the study involved an instrumented aircraft, pilot balloons, a tethered balloon system, a dense network of wetfall chemistry collectors and numerous ground- and tower-based meteorological instruments. Rainfall samples collected during the precipitation event of December 13, 1979, revealed some evidence of plume washout. The tethered balloon flights rarely detected the faint presence of the T/h plumes while the airborne measurements program concentrated on the study of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate conversion. A series of plume observations confirmed the suitability of the plant's windset for plume direction determinations.

  1. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear...

  2. Accumulation of Metals and Boron in Phragmites australis Planted in Constructed Wetlands Polishing Real Electroplating Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sochacki, Adam; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier; Surmacz-Grska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of metals (Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn) and B were determined in the above- and belowground biomass of Phragmites australis collected from the microcosm constructed wetland system used for the polishing of real electroplating wastewater. Translocation factor and bioconcentration factor were determined. Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between metal concentration in substrate and above- and belowground parts of Phragmites australis. The obtained results suggested that Phragmites australis did not play a major role as an accumulator of metals. It was observed also that the substrate could have exerted an effect on the translocation of Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn. The analysed concentrations of metals and B in biomass were in the range or even below the concentrations reported in the literature with the exception of Ni. The aboveground biomass was found suitable as a composting input in terms of metals concentrations. PMID:25848916

  3. Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant 'Zinke' effects.

    PubMed

    Waring, Bonnie G; lvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Barry, Kathryn E; Becklund, Kristen K; Dale, Sarah; Gei, Maria G; Keller, Adrienne B; Lopez, Omar R; Markesteijn, Lars; Mangan, Scott; Riggs, Charlotte E; Rodrguez-Ronderos, Mara Elizabeth; Segnitz, R Max; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Powers, Jennifer S

    2015-08-01

    Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil properties beneath individual plants differ from those of neighbours by an average of 41%. Although the magnitudes of individual plant effects exhibit weak relationships with climate and latitude, they are significantly stronger in deserts and tundra than forests, and weaker in intensively managed ecosystems. The ubiquitous effects of plant individuals and species on local soil properties imply that individual plant effects have a role in plant-soil feedbacks, linking individual plants with biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26224711

  4. Domestic wastewater treatment by a constructed wetland system planted with rice.

    PubMed

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Duangjaisak, Wanida

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in four concrete laboratory scale free water surface constructed wetland units 1 m wide, 1.5 m long and 0.8 m deep. Paddy field soil was added to a depth of 0.4 m and rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) were transplanted into the units at a density of 25 plants/m(2). Domestic wastewater collected from Chiang Mai University was applied into each unit via two different modes to evaluate suitable conditions for wastewater treatment and rice yield. In the first experiment, the wastewater was fed intermittently (7 h/day) with a hydraulic loading rate of 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm/day. The maximum removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were only 49.1, 58.7, 64.0 and 59.4%, respectively, due to the short hydraulic retention time for the biodegradation of organic substances. In the second experiment, the wastewater in each unit was inundated to a depth of 15 cm for 10, 15, 20 and 25 days in each unit and then drained and re-flooded. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total kjedahl nitrogen and suspended solids were greater than in the first experiment especially at the 25 day retention time and except for suspended solids met the Thai national effluent standard. The study revealed that apart from wastewater treatment, wastewater can replace natural water to grow rice in the dry season or throughout the year. Moreover, nutrients in wastewater can be a substitute for chemical fertilizers. Rice grain production was 4,700 kg/ha and only 6% less than the production from the conventional paddy field. PMID:22170830

  5. Design and Construction of Equipment to Make Adsorption at Pilot Plant Scale of Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Pirajn, Juan C.; Rangel, David; Amaya, Bibiana; Vargas, Edgar M.; Giraldo, Liliana

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this paper was to illustrate the procedure to obtain activated carbon from lignocellulosic residues through chemical and physical paths. A general surface characterization was made and aqueous solution isotherms were obtained in order to evaluate the behaviour of each carbon atom in solutions contaminated with selective ions. The other purpose was to show a simple way to perform a scale-up process of an absorber from the laboratory level to an industrial level, using the breaking curves in fixed beds developed through the continuous pursuit of the Pb(II) and Cr(VI) ions concentration in the effluent of the bed. Activated carbon was used to study the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI). Isotherms of aqueous adsorption were determined. This model was developed in order to examine its efficiency and to compare it with an experimental model made in the laboratory, which rendered very similar results. The main characteristic of the feasibility of the application of this design is the fact that neither tedious calculations nor mass transfer coefficients are required in order to construct the above-mentioned curves. The model was developed by applying concepts such as mass transfer zone (MTZ) and length of unused bed (LUB), which are the dynamical basis understanding for the adsorption process in fixed beds. As a complementary item of the experiment, within a pilot plant scale, a filter was developed in order to achieve flexibility when manipulating the most important adsorption parameters and to enable the control of the variables involved in the process that change the operating conditions.

  6. Effects of the substrate depth on purification performance of a hybrid constructed wetland treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Hai; Wang, Chao; Yang, Yong-Zhe; Qin, Zhen; Ma, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The depth of substrate in constructed wetlands (CWs) has a significant effect on the construction investment and the purification performance of CWs. In this study, a pilot scale CW system was operated in a domestic sewage treatment plant in Xi'an, China. The experimental systems included three-series CWs systems with substrate depths of 0.1m, 0.3 m and 0.6 m, respectively. Each series was composed of a hydroponic ditch, a horizontal subsurface flow CW and a vertical flow CW. The effluent from the primary clarifier in the sewage treatment plant was intermittently conducted to the wetlands at a flow rate of 0.3 m(3)/d. The hydraulic loading rate of each CWs system was regulated at 0.1 m(3)/m(2).d and the hydraulic retention time was 3 days. Canna indica L. was planted both in the hydroponic ditches and the CWs systems. Results showed that the highest removal efficiency of NH(+)(4)-N and TP was obtained in the hybrid CW with 0.1 m substrate depth. The average removal efficiency for NH(+)(4)-N and TP were 90.6 % and 80.0 %, respectively. The highest average removal efficiency of COD was obtained in hybrid CWs system with 0.6 m substrate depth. Therefore, a simultaneous removal of COD and nutrients can be achieved through the combination of different wetlands using different substrate depths. In addition, the substrate depth presents significant effects on the concentration of DO and root growth characteristics of canna in the system. As a result, the highest concentration of DO (>2 mg/L) and the highest amount of roots production were achieved in the 0.1 m substrate depth horizontal and vertical flow CWs. PMID:21644156

  7. Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power: Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Quarterly report, March 1-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Progress in Phase III of the Engineering Program to design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant is reported. Phase III includes pilot plant fabrication, construction and initial check out. Fabrication of the upper and lower PFB combustor vessels is being followed by a short interval schedule and delivery is projected for July 15, 1981. Fabrication of component parts of the combustor recycle loop is on schedule. The recycle cyclone, freeboard tee, recycle cyclone tee, trickle valve and upper spool piece have all been received for the installation of refractory lining. The bellows assembly is scheduled for completion on July 15, 1981. Material handling equipment purchase orders were placed for the coal handling equipment, electric elevator, coal preparation, and ash handling equipment. Fire protection specifications were issued. The overall project is 43% complete. (LCL)

  8. Engineer, design, construction, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Phase III of the Engineering Program to design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant was initiated on May 19, 1980. Pilot plant fabrication, construction and limited check-out is included within Phase III. Program accomplishments during the period of June 1 through August 31, 1981 and current status are summarized and include: reviews of specifications and vendor drawings of components; fabrication of windbox hardware; erection of PFB Building structural steel was completed except for steel scheduled to be erected after installation of the recycle loop and material; the PBF combustor upper vessel was set in the PFB Building steel structure on schedule; component installation in the PFB building; the refractory lining of the PFB combustor upper vessel was completed. Bids for installing special equipment are being reviewed. (LCL)

  9. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. PMID:26297173

  10. Effect of Implantation on engineered skeletal muscle constructs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael L; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Arruda, Ellen M.; Larkin, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of engineered skeletal muscle would provide a viable tissue for replacement and repair of muscle damaged by disease or injury. Current tissue engineering methods result in three-dimensional (3-D) muscle constructs that generate tension, but do not advance phenotypically beyond neonatal characteristics (Larkin et al., 2006). To develop to an adult phenotype, innervation and vascularization of the construct must occur. In this study, 3-D muscle constructs were implanted into the hindlimb of a rat along the sciatic nerve with the sural nerve isolated, transected and sutured to the construct to encourage innervation. Aortic ring anchors were sutured to the tendons of the biceps femoris muscle so that the construct would move dynamically with the endogenous muscle. After 1 week in vivo, constructs were explanted, evaluated for force production, and stained for muscle, nerve, and collagen markers. Implanted muscle constructs showed a developing capillary system, an epimysium-like outer layer of connective tissue, and an increase in myofiber content. The beginning of alpha-bungarotoxin clustering suggests that neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) could form on the implanted muscle given more time in vivo. Additionally, the constructs increased maximum isometric force from 19241?N to 549103?N (245% increase) compared to in vitro controls that increased from 27623?N to 32927?N (25% increase). These findings suggest that engineered muscle tissue survives 1 week implantation and begins to develop the necessary interfaces needed to advance the phenotype toward adult muscle. However, in terms of force production, the muscle constructs need longer implantation times to fully develop an adult phenotype. PMID:22328229

  11. Monitoring of the effect of biological activity on the pedogenesis of a constructed Technosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salifou Jangorzo, Nouhou; Watteau, Françoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Pedogenesis is the set of steps, which lead to the formation and evolution of soils under pedogenetic factors and processes. They may be described quantitatively for a modeling end. For this purpose, constructed Technosols are candidates to be studied, because their initial composition is well described. Furthermore, among pedogenetic factors, living organisms are known to play a major role in soil formation. The most challenging objective of our work is then to monitor in situ the effect of biological agents on soil evolution. However, soil pedogenesis is known to be dynamic, therefore visualizing in situ plant roots or soil fauna in contact with soil, will help understand better how pedogenesis occurs realistically. The aim of this work is to study in situ, visually and quantitatively, the evolution of a constructed Technosol pedogenesis using an innovative dispositive of observation on cosmes. The Technosol is constructed in three horizons, from bottom to top we have: gravels, treated industrial soil and paper mill sludge (2/3, 1/3 masse ratio) and green waste compost. The soil is put into a cosme equipped with image acquisition devices. Factors are organized into two modalities each repeated three times. "Plant", where five seeds of white lupin are sown in each cosme. "Plant and Fauna" where six epigeic adult earthworms and five seeds of white lupin are inoculated, and a "control". A moisture of 60 - 80 % field capacity is maintained in all modalities. Results show that roots grow at 10 mm.day-1 speed during the first three weeks. Roots increase porosity and aggregation with time. Earthworms explore the soil randomly by creating and filling burrows. At a second time, they create their burrows preferentially along plant roots. Roots and earthworms contribute to the rapid increase of porosity (9.81 times control at 268 days) and aggregation (10.15 times control at 268 days) during time, in the early stages of pedogenesis. In situ and non-destructive observation of soil profiles is therefore an innovative way of monitoring and quantifying the impact of pedogenetic factors on the evolution of Technosols.

  12. Are Animals "More Alive" than Plants? Animistic-Anthropocentric Construction of Life Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Aydin, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics students use in attributing value to and classifying the living things; the relational construction of the life concepts and the living things and the place of human in this construction. Participants were first-year high school students from seven schools in Izmir (a large western city in Turkey). An

  13. Plant inter-species effects on rhizosphere priming effect and nitrogen acquisition by plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang; Yang, Baijie; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Rhizosphere interactions play a central role linking roots-soil system and regulate various aspects of nutrient cycling. Rhizodeposition inputs are known to change soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition via rhizosphere priming effects (RPEs) through enhancing soil biological activity and altering microbial community structure. The magnitude of RPEs varies widely among plant-species and root biomass possibly due to different quality and quantity of rhizodeposits. However, it is virtually unknown whether the RPEs are influenced by plant inter-species interactions and how these processes affect N mineralization and available N for plants. Monocultures of maize (M) and soybean (S), and mixed cultures of maize/maize (MM), soybean/soybean (SS), maize/soybean (MS) were grown over a 45-day greenhouse experiment. We labeled them with plant litter that was enriched in13C and 15N. The 15N distributions in plants and microbial biomass were measured at 14, 35, and 45days after labeling. The RPEs were positive under all plants, ranging from 11.7% to 138.3% and gradually decreased with plant growth. The RPE in the SS was significantly higher than these in others treatments at 14 days, while at 45 days it was higher in the MS than these from their monocultures, suggesting that the RPE was enhanced by the inter-species effects of maize and soybean. The litter decomposition ratio and 15N recovery of plants and microorganism increased with the root growth across all plants. The 15N recovery of plants in the MS (14.2%) was higher than these in the MM (12.3%) and SS(9.7%) at 45 days. Similarly, the 15N recovery of microorganism in the corresponding treatments was 6.7%, 2.2%, and 6.8%, respectively. The MS showed higher soil organic N mineralization amount than that from all soybean and maize monocultures at 45 days. We conclude that plant inter-species interactions may have significant effect on rhizosphere priming and modify the plant N uptake from litter resource and SOM.

  14. Balance of plant for SOFC experiences with the planning, engineering, construction and testing of a 10 kW planar SOFC pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Klov, K.; Sundal, P.; Monsen, T.; Vik, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Statoil Solide Oxide Fuel Cell Research Program was started in January 1991. Some results from this Program were presented to the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar in San Diego. The final technical milestone for the program was to design, engineer, construct and test a 10 kW pilot plant. From the very beginning, the importance of coordination and integration in the development of components, subsystems and systems, combined with basic research on cell and stack performance, were established as the guidelines for the program. In this way the progress towards the final goal was not a matter of making the best individual cell, the best stack or a superior balance of plant, but to build an efficient, reliable and operative pilot plant system, and thus make a further step towards a verification of commercial SOFC system technology.

  15. Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, Jennifer L; Burr, Mark D; Parker, Albert E; Stein, Otto R; Camper, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands offer an effective means for treatment of wastewater from a variety of sources. An understanding of the microbial ecology controlling nitrogen, carbon and sulfur cycles in constructed wetlands has been identified as the greatest gap for optimizing performance of these promising treatment systems. It is suspected that operational factors such as plant types and hydraulic operation influence the subsurface wetland environment, especially redox, and that the observed variation in effluent quality is due to shifts in the microbial populations and/or their activity. This study investigated the biofilm associated sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (using the dsrB and amoA genes, respectively) by examining a variety of surfaces within a model wetland (gravel, thick roots, fine roots, effluent), and the changes in activity (gene abundance) of these functional groups as influenced by plant species and season. Molecular techniques were used including quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), both with and without propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment. PMA treatment is a method for excluding from further analysis those cells with compromised membranes. Rigorous statistical analysis showed an interaction between the abundance of these two functional groups with the type of plant and season (p < 0.05). The richness of the sulfate reducing bacterial community, as indicated by DGGE profiles, increased in planted vs. unplanted microcosms. For ammonia oxidizing bacteria, season had the greatest impact on gene abundance and diversity (higher in summer than in winter). Overall, the primary influence of plant presence is believed to be related to root oxygen loss and its effect on rhizosphere redox. PMID:22961363

  16. Barium toxicity effects in soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Ryuichi; Jayachandran, Krish; Nguyen, Nguyen Tran; Boulenouar, Abdellah; Fujita, Kounosuke; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2008-10-01

    Barium (Ba)-induced phytotoxicity at 100, 1000, or 5000 microM Ba in soybean plants (Glycine max) was investigated under hydroponic culture conditions. Soybean growth and leaf photosynthetic activity were significantly inhibited by all three levels of Ba treatments. In the case of photosynthetic activity, 5000 microM Ba treatment shutdown stomatal opening and perturbed carbon fixation metabolism and translocation. However, 100 and 1000 microM Ba treatments shut down stomatal opening and inhibited carbon fixation, but without perturbation of leaf carbon fixation-related metabolism. Potassium (K) absorption by soybean roots was also reduced in all three Ba treatments. This decreased K absorption reduced K localization at guard cells. Barium accumulation in guard cells also inhibited K transport from epidermal cells to guard cells. This lack of K in guard cells resulted in stomatal closure. As a result of inhibition of K transport into guard cells and stomatal shutdown, photosynthetic activity and plant productivity were inhibited. Our experiment indicates that Ba has phytotoxic effects on soybean plants by inhibiting photosynthesis. PMID:18259801

  17. Differential metabolic networks unravel the effects of silent plant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Weckwerth, Wolfram; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Wenzel, Kathrin; Fiehn, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    Current efforts aim to functionally characterize each gene in model plants. Frequently, however, no morphological or biochemical phenotype can be ascribed for antisense or knock-out plant genotypes. This is especially the case when gene suppression or knockout is targeted to isoenzymes or gene families. Consequently, pleiotropic effects and gene redundancy are responsible for phenotype resistance. Here, techniques are presented to detect unexpected pleiotropic changes in such instances despite very subtle changes in overall metabolism. The method consists of the relative quantitation of >1,000 compounds by GC/time-of-flight MS, followed by classical statistics and multivariate clustering. Complementary to these tools, metabolic networks are constructed from pair-wise analysis of linear metabolic correlations. The topology of such networks reflects the underlying regulatory pathway structure. A differential analysis of network connectivity was applied for a silent potato plant line suppressed in expression of sucrose synthase isoform II. Metabolic alterations could be assigned to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism even if no difference in average metabolite levels was found. PMID:15136733

  18. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  19. Secondary succession of arthropods and plants in the Arizona Sonoran Desert in response to transmission line construction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.D.; Beley, J.R.; Ditsworth, T.M.; Butt, S.M.

    1983-03-01

    At a site about 16 km south of Black Canyon City, Arizona, density of arthropods on an undisturbed plot after an access road was built for powerline construction was much greater than on a disturbed plot. Mites, springtails, leafhoppers, scale insects, ants and thrips were signficantly reduced on the disturbed area. Our results indicate that restoration of numbers of arthropods on the disturbed area is dependent on the total plant cover on the plot, apparently regardless of the composition of the plant species involved. It is obvious in this area that the plant communities will remain dissimilar, with the pioneering herbaceous plants on the disturbed plot dominating. Cosntruction of a powerline apparently has had little impact on the structure of the arthropod community on the disturbed area, as proportions of three trophic categories of arthropods have not been radically altered. The results of this study, when compared to other studies in the Sonoran Desert and in desert grasslands disturbed by powerline construction, indicate that lengthy secondary succession does occur in the Sonoran Desert. Early arthropod invaders were found to be mainly herbivores, with few parasites or predators, and an equilibrium was eventually reached between colonizers and space requirements.

  20. Effect of Planting Date on Cornstarch Stuctures and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of unexpected weather conditions during planting season, many growers have to plant corn before or after the optimal planting date. A significant delay in planting corn reduces grain yields, but the effect on starch structures and properties is not well understood. We obtained grains of B73 ...

  1. Removal of phenol in a constructed wetland system and the relative contribution of plant roots, microbial activity and porous bed.

    PubMed

    Kurzbaum, E; Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Armon, R

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a low organic load constructed wetland (CW) system was performed in order to understand the relative role of its various components contribution in phenol removal (100?mg/L) under controlled plant biomass/gravel/water experimental ratios (50?g/450?g/100?mL). The results [expressed as phenol50/time (hours) required to remove 50% of the initial phenol concentration] showed that the highest phenol removal occurred by combined biofilms from roots and gravel attached (phenol50=19), followed by gravel biofilm (phenol50=105) and planktonic (suspended in water) bacteria (phenol50=>200). An in depth analysis revealed that plants contribution alone (antibiotics sterilized) was minor (phenol50=>89) while roots supported biofilm resulted in a significant phenol removal (phenol50=15). Therefore in this type of CW, the main phenol removal active fraction could be attributed to plant roots' biofilm bacteria. PMID:20861547

  2. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  3. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  4. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  5. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  6. Preparation of Effective Operating Manuals to Support Waste Management Plant Operator Training

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S. R.

    2003-02-25

    Effective plant operating manuals used in a formal training program can make the difference between a successful operation and a failure. Once the plant process design and control strategies have been fixed, equipment has been ordered, and the plant is constructed, the only major variable affecting success is the capability of plant operating personnel. It is essential that the myriad details concerning plant operation are documented in comprehensive operating manuals suitable for training the non-technical personnel that will operate the plant. These manuals must cover the fundamental principles of each unit operation including how each operates, what process variables are important, and the impact of each variable on the overall process. In addition, operators must know the process control strategies, process interlocks, how to respond to alarms, each of the detailed procedures required to start up and optimize the plant, and every control loop-including when it is appropriate to take manual control. More than anything else, operating mistakes during the start-up phase can lead to substantial delays in achieving design processing rates as well as to problems with government authorities if environmental permit limits are exceeded. The only way to assure return on plant investment is to ensure plant operators have the knowledge to properly run the plant from the outset. A comprehensive set of operating manuals specifically targeted toward plant operators and supervisors written by experienced operating personnel is the only effective way to provide the necessary information for formal start-up training.

  7. An investigation and analysis of safety issues in Polish small construction plants

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is a booming sector of the Polish economy; however, it is stigmatised by a lower classification due to high occupational risks and an unsatisfactory state of occupational safety. Safety on construction sites is compromised by small construction firms which dominate the market and have high accident rates. This article presents the results of studies (using a checklist) conducted in small Polish construction companies in terms of selected aspects of safety, such as co-operation with the general contractor, occupational health and safety documents, occupational risk assessment, organization of work, protective gear and general work equipment. The mentioned studies and analyses provided the grounds to establish the main directions of preventive measures decreasing occupational risk in small construction companies, e.g., an increase in engagement of investors and general contractors, improvement of occupational health and safety (OSH) documents, an increase in efficiency of construction site managers, better stability of employment and removal of opposing objectives between economic strategy and work safety. PMID:26694002

  8. Constructed tropical wetlands with integrated submergent-emergent plants for sustainable water quality management.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Norio; Jinadasa, K B S N; Werellagama, D R I B; Mowjood, M I M; Ng, W J

    2006-01-01

    Improvement of primary effluent quality by using an integrated system of emergent plants (Scirpus grossus in the leading subsurface flow arrangement) and submergent plants (Hydrilla verticillata in a subsequent channel) was investigated. The primary effluent was drawn from a septic tank treating domestic sewage from a student dormitory at the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Influent and effluent samples were collected once every 2 weeks from May 2004 through July 2005 and analyzed to determine water quality parameters. Both the emergent and submergent plants were harvested at predetermined intervals. The results suggested that harvesting prolonged the usefulness of the system and the generation of a renewable biomass with potential economic value. The mean overall pollutant removal efficiencies of the integrated emergent and submergent plant system were biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 65.7%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40.8%; ammonium (NH4+-N), 74.8%; nitrate (NO3--N), 38.8%; phosphate (PO43-), 61.2%; total suspended solids (TSS), 65.8%; and fecal coliforms, 94.8%. The submergent plant subsystem improved removal of nutrients that survived the emergent subsystem operated at low hydraulic retention times. The significant improvement in effluent quality following treatment by the submergent plant system indicates the value of incorporating such plants in wetland systems. PMID:17018409

  9. Accelerating plant DNA barcode reference library construction using herbarium specimens: improved experimental techniques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Dong, Wenpan; Shi, Shuo; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Liu, Yanlei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Hongkun; Gao, Peng; Zhou, Shiliang

    2015-11-01

    A well-covered reference library is crucial for successful identification of species by DNA barcoding. The biggest difficulty in building such a reference library is the lack of materials of organisms. Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource of materials. In this study, we demonstrate that it is likely to build such reference libraries using the reconstructed (self-primed PCR amplified) DNA from the herbarium specimens. We used 179 rosaceous specimens to test the effects of DNA reconstruction, 420 randomly sampled specimens to estimate the usable percentage and another 223 specimens of true cherries (Cerasus, Rosaceae) to test the coverage of usable specimens to the species. The barcode rbcLb (the central four-sevenths of rbcL gene) and matK was each amplified in two halves and sequenced on Roche GS 454 FLX+. DNA from the herbarium specimens was typically shorter than 300 bp. DNA reconstruction enabled amplification fragments of 400-500 bp without bringing or inducing any sequence errors. About one-third of specimens in the national herbarium of China (PE) were proven usable after DNA reconstruction. The specimens in PE cover all Chinese true cherry species and 91.5% of vascular species listed in Flora of China. It is very possible to build well-covered reference libraries for DNA barcoding of vascular species in China. As exemplified in this study, DNA reconstruction and DNA-labelled next-generation sequencing can accelerate the construction of local reference libraries. By putting the local reference libraries together, a global library for DNA barcoding becomes closer to reality. PMID:25865498

  10. Evaluating the economic effectiveness of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korik, L.; Yeaple, D.: Hajosy, M.

    1996-08-01

    Economic considerations constitute the major factor in the decision to build a cogeneration plant and to its eventual design - topics which have been the focus of many studies and papers. These economic concerns continue when the plant is built and on-line, thus plant operation must be geared to provide the customers` demand in the most economically effective manner possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of and high degree of interaction between the disparate components of a cogeneration plant oftentimes, make it difficult to conceptualize the plant configuration required to maximize plant economic performance for a given demand, Indeed, actions taken to increase the thermal performance of individual plant components can actually decrease the overall economic effectiveness of the plant as a whole in the context of converting fuels to sendouts. What is needed, then, is a way to meld the performance of individual plant components into a total plant performance index that accurately measures the economic effectiveness of the plant. This paper details such a method developed by the Cogeneration Management Company to accomplish the performance evaluation of its Medical Area Total Energy Plant which supplies electricity, steam, and chilled water to the Longwood. Medical Area in Boston, This method - which is easily adapted to a variety of cogeneration designs - addresses the aforementioned complexities in the assessing of a cogeneration plant`s effectiveness and results in simple-to-understand plant performance quantifications which have proved to be of great utility in ensuring the economically sound operation of MATEP.

  11. Prevailing Wage Rates: The Effects on School Construction Costs, Levels of Taxation, and State Reimbursements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Edward C.; Hartman, William T.

    2001-01-01

    Results of study of impact of Pennsylvania Prevailing Wage Act on 25 school-construction project costs from 1992-97 and effect thereof on local school districts' taxes. All districts had higher construction costs and property taxes. Projects increased construction costs for the Commonwealth and recommends revisions in prevailing wage-rate law.

  12. Microgravity Effects on Plant Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary; Monje, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    The goal of these series of experiment was to determine the effects of microgravity conditions on the developmental boundary layers in roots and leaves and to determine the effects of air flow on boundary layer development. It is hypothesized that microgravity induces larger boundary layers around plant organs because of the absence of buoyancy-driven convection. These larger boundary layers may affect normal metabolic function because they may reduce the fluxes of heat and metabolically active gases (e.g., oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. These experiments are to test whether there is a change in boundary layer associated with microgravity, quantify the change if it exists, and determine influence of air velocity on boundary layer thickness under different gravity conditions.

  13. GENE FLOW STUDIES BETWEEN BRASSICA NAPUS AND B. RAPA IN CONSTRUCTED PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The commercial production of genetically modified crops has led to a growing awareness of the difficulties of transgene confinement and of the potential environmental risks associated with the escape of transgenes into naturalized or native plant populations. A potential conseque...

  14. Responses of a constructed plant community to combinations of herbicides, a model for field tests?

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection Agency considers environmental risks, including impacts to nontarget plants exposed to pesticide drift. Normally these risk assessments consider impacts to individual species, using greenhouse, exposure-res...

  15. Responses of a constructed plant community to simulated glyphosate and dicamba drift

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Questions/Methods As part of its regulation of pesticides, the US Environmental Protection Agency must consider environmental risks, including impacts to nontarget plants exposed to pesticide drift. Normally these risk assessments consider impacts to individual spec...

  16. Construction, expression and characterization of a chimaeric mammalian-plant aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Payie, Kenneth G; Tanaka, Takuji; Gal, Susannah; Yada, Rickey Y

    2003-01-01

    Aspartic proteinases are a well-characterized class of proteinases. In plants, all nascent aspartic proteinases possess a 100-amino-acid, plant-specific sequence (PSS) within their C-terminal lobe, presumed to possess a targeting role in vivo. In this study, the PSS domain from the Arabidopsis thaliana aspartic proteinase was inserted into porcine pepsinogen at the identical location found in nascent plant aspartic proteinases, to create a chimaeric mammalian-plant enzyme. Based on enzymic activity, this chimaeric enzyme demonstrated increases in pH stability above 6 and temperature stability above 60 degrees C compared with commercial pepsin. Differential scanning calorimetry of the chimaeric enzyme illustrated an approx. 2 degrees C increase in denaturation temperature ( T (m)), with increases in co-operativity and similar enthalpy values. Kinetic analysis indicated an increase in K (m) and decreased k (cat) compared with pepsin, but with a catalytic efficiency similar to the monomeric plant aspartic proteinase from wheat. Using oxidized insulin B-chain, the chimaeric enzyme demonstrated more restricted substrate specificity in comparison with commercial pepsin. This study highlights the use of a chimaeric enzyme strategy in order to characterize unique protein domains within enzyme families, and, for the first time, a putative structure-function role for the PSS as it pertains to plant aspartic proteinases. PMID:12630913

  17. Preschoolers Effectively Tutor Novice Classmates in a Block Construction Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Nisbet, Valerie S.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether preschool-age experts (with task experience) would spontaneously assist novices (without task experience) when working in pairs on constructing a house with blocks. Found that experts were more likely to provide nonverbal assistance than verbal assistance, with modeling how to combine blocks being most frequent. The most frequent

  18. Witnessing the construction/commissioning of a small hydro plant as the bank's engineer

    SciTech Connect

    Clemen, D.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Many small hydro sites today are constructed as water-to-wire packages with equipment installation {und and} engineering provided by the equipment vendor. In many cases; the client has no immediate knowledge of the design/engineering associated with a hydropower facility; and is enticed by the equipment vendor to believe that the involvement of outside engineering firms is an unnecessary extra cost. Fortunately, most clients employ an outside engineering firm to confirm that the equipment the vendor is furnishing does comply with the client's equipment specifications and will function properly at this specific site. The author discusses how most banks which provide the financing for a hydro project currently hire their own hydro engineering firm to separately review the final equipment specifications, the site construction progress and the quality of construction at site. This separate review is to ensure the bank that the unit has been constructed properly and will be commissioned on time, notify the bank in a very timely manner that there are construction problems/commissioning delays, and confirm that the unit will produce its guaranteed kW output.

  19. The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosie, Thomas W.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)

  20. Construction and Maintenance of the Optimal Photosynthetic Systems of the Leaf, Herbaceous Plant and Tree: an Eco-developmental Treatise

    PubMed Central

    TERASHIMA, ICHIRO; ARAYA, TAKAO; MIYAZAWA, SHIN-ICHI; SONE, KOSEI; YANO, SATOSHI

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims The paper by Monsi and Saeki in 1953 (Japanese Journal of Botany 14: 2252) was pioneering not only in mathematical modelling of canopy photosynthesis but also in eco-developmental studies of seasonal changes in leaf canopies. Scope Construction and maintenance mechanisms of efficient photosynthetic systems at three different scaling levelssingle leaves, herbaceous plants and treesare reviewed mainly based on the nitrogen optimization theory. First, the nitrogen optimization theory with respect to the canopy and the single leaf is briefly introduced. Secondly, significance of leaf thickness in CO2 diffusion in the leaf and in leaf photosynthesis is discussed. Thirdly, mechanisms of adjustment of photosynthetic properties of the leaf within the herbaceous plant individual throughout its life are discussed. In particular, roles of sugar sensing, redox control and of cytokinin are highlighted. Finally, the development of a tree is considered. Conclusions Various mechanisms contribute to construction and maintenance of efficient photosynthetic systems. Molecular backgrounds of these ecologically important mechanisms should be clarified. The construction mechanisms of the tree cannot be explained solely by the nitrogen optimization theory. It is proposed that the pipe model theory in its differential form could be a potential tool in future studies in this research area. PMID:15598701

  1. Discussion about the effect of digital plants library on the plants landscape restoration in Yuanmingyuan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bing, L.; Guxin, S.; Gongli, L.

    2015-08-01

    Chinese classical garden emphasizes not only the construction of building, mountains and rivers, spring and stone landscape but also the selection and configuration mode of the plant species. Yuanmingyuan, a classical work of Chinese garden art, is of both the magnificence of northern royal garden and the delicacy of southern private garden. The plants landscape in Yuanmingyuan also has its own unique style. But it is regretful that after several disasters, it nearly disappears just as other building clusters. The Re- Yuanmingyuan group re-presents the plants landscape of Yuanmingyuan through investigation, restoration and three-dimensional space generation, and makes proposal about the concept of digital plants library for the first time with the expectation to provide basic support for the digital restoration of cultural heritage by establishing the plants library. The paper also introduces the process of digital plants library system construction as well as the significance of the library construction for the landscape restoration in Yuanmingyuan and even the northern royal garden.

  2. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  3. Belowground biodiversity effects of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Cameron; Jansa, Jan; Schmid, Bernhard; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2011-10-01

    Soil microbes play key roles in ecosystems, yet the impact of their diversity on plant communities is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the diversity of belowground plant-associated soil fungi promotes plant productivity and plant coexistence. Using additive partitioning of biodiversity effects developed in plant biodiversity studies, we demonstrate that this positive relationship can be driven by complementarity effects among soil fungi in one soil type and by a selection effect resulting from the fungal species that stimulated plant productivity the most in another soil type. Selection and complementarity effects among fungal species contributed to improving plant productivity up to 82% and 85%, respectively, above the average of the respective fungal species monocultures depending on the soil in which they were grown. These results also indicate that belowground diversity may act as insurance for maintaining plant productivity under differing environmental conditions. PMID:21790936

  4. Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The present NRC guidelines for structural damping to be used in the dynamic stress analyses of nuclear power plant piping systems are generally considered to be overly conservative. As a result, plant designers have in many instances used a considerable number of seismic supports to keep stresses calculated by large scale piping computer codes below the allowable limits. In response to this problem, the NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping system damping, in order to provide more realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects is included, and both short and long range goals of the program are outlined.

  5. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION ON PLANT DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most plant diseases consist of delicate interactions between higher plants and microorganisms. Acidic precipitation represents an environmental stress that has been shown to affect expected development of some diseases and similar phenomena under experimental conditions. From the...

  6. SINTER PLANT WINDBOX RECIRCULATION AND GRAVEL BED FILTER DEMONSTRATION. PHASE 2. CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of phase 2 of a program to demonstrate new technology for reducing exhaust gas volume and controlling emissions from the steel industry sintering process. Phase 2 entailed construction, operation, and evaluation of the system and, in addition, the constru...

  7. Design, construction, operation and costs of a modern small-scale fuel-alcohol plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeper, S. A.; Dawley, L. J.; Wolfram, J. H.; Berglund, G. R.; Richardson, J. G.; McAtee, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design used for the small-scale fuel alcohol plant (SSFAP) is discussed. By incorporating a microprocessor into the plant design, most plant operations were automated and labor requirements were reduced. Continuous processing made energy conservation possible, thus reducing energy requirements. A low-temperature, continuous plug-flow cooker design made high yields possible. Ethanol was consistently produced at the SSFAP from corn at a yield of 2.6 gallons (anhydrous) per bushel and an energy requirement of 30,000 to 35,000 Btu/gallon (190-proof). In addition, barley, grain dust, and potato waste were converted at the SSFAP. The capacity of the SSFAP is 180,000 gallons per year (300 days operation). Competitively priced ethanol is produced at this capacity.

  8. Effect of collagen hydrolysate on chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs.

    PubMed

    Elder, Steven H; Borazjani, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical properties of engineered cartilage are strongly dependent on collagen content, but the collagen to glycosaminoglycan ratio in engineered cartilage is often much lower than that of the native tissue. Therefore culture medium supplements which increase collagen production by chondrocytes are of interest. It had previously been reported that collagen hydrolysate stimulated type II collagen biosynthesis in short-term, high density monolayer chondrocyte cultures. It was hypothesized that collagen hydrolysate added to the culture medium of three dimensional chondrocyte-agarose constructs would enhance their mechanical properties. Porcine articular chondrocytes were embedded in 2% agarose and cultured for up to 6 weeks with and without 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate. The instantaneous compressive modulus and equilibrium compressive modulus were significantly lower in the collagen hydrolysate-treated constructs, consistent with the finding of lower collagen and GAG content. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results indicate that 1 mg/ml collagen hydrolysate may actually inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis and be detrimental to the mechanical properties of long term chondrocyte-agarose constructs. PMID:20231793

  9. Additive effects of exotic plant abundance and land-use intensity on plant-pollinator interactions.

    PubMed

    Grass, Ingo; Berens, Dana Gertrud; Peter, Franziska; Farwig, Nina

    2013-11-01

    The continuing spread of exotic plants and increasing human land-use are two major drivers of global change threatening ecosystems, species and their interactions. Separate effects of these two drivers on plant-pollinator interactions have been thoroughly studied, but we still lack an understanding of combined and potential interactive effects. In a subtropical South African landscape, we studied 17 plant-pollinator networks along two gradients of relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity. In general, pollinator visitation rates were lower on exotic plants than on native ones. Surprisingly, while visitation rates on native plants increased with relative abundance of exotics and land-use intensity, pollinator visitation on exotic plants decreased along the same gradients. There was a decrease in the specialization of plants on pollinators and vice versa with both drivers, regardless of plant origin. Decreases in pollinator specialization thereby seemed to be mediated by a species turnover towards habitat generalists. However, contrary to expectations, we detected no interactive effects between the two drivers. Our results suggest that exotic plants and land-use promote generalist plants and pollinators, while negatively affecting specialized plant-pollinator interactions. Weak integration and high specialization of exotic plants may have prevented interactive effects between exotic plants and land-use. Still, the additive effects of exotic plants and land-use on specialized plant-pollinator interactions would have been overlooked in a single-factor study. We therefore highlight the need to consider multiple drivers of global change in ecological research and conservation management. PMID:23817775

  10. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  11. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., packaging, labeling, and holding of different product types including different types of dietary supplements... holding laboratory supplies and samples; (5) Cleaning and sanitizing contact surfaces; (6) Packaging...

  12. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B

  13. De novo construction of an expanded transcriptome assembly for the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, is a polyphagous pest of many economically important crops. Despite its pest status, little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for much of Lygus biology. Earlier Lygus transcriptome assemblies were either limited by low read depth ...

  14. Construction vascular-specific expression bi-directional promoters in plants.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaomeng; Song, Xiaodan; Rao, Guodong; Pan, Xiang; Guan, Liping; Jiang, Xiangning; Lu, Hai

    2009-05-20

    Promoters that have been widely used for both basic research and biotechnological application in plants are generally unidirectional. Here we describe a strategy to bi-directionalize the vascular-specific expression grp1.8 promoter (here named GRPp) and 4CL1 promoter (here named 4CL1p) so that one promoter can direct the vascular-specific expression of two genes, one on each end of the promoter. The minimal promoter (35Smini or GRP mini), when fused at the 5' end of the specific expression promoter (GRPp or 4CL1p) to form bi-directional promoter (35Smini-GRPp, 35Smini-4CL1p or GRPmini-GRPp), was able to direct expression of the glucuronidase (gus) and green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene in all independent transgenic tobacco lines. Stable expression of gusA and gfp genes in transgenic plants was analyzed by histochemical staining for GUS and fluorescence microscopic observation under UV for GFP in transgenic plants. The remarkable transcript levels of GFP and GUS were detected by real-time PCR in independent transgenic tobacco lines. Their vascular-specific bi-directional promoters should be used to vascular-specific expression several functional genes in transgenic plants simultaneously. PMID:19433212

  15. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Camillo A. DiNunzio Framatome ANP DE&S; Dr. Abhinav Gupta Assistant Professor NCSU; Dr. Michael Golay Professor MIT Dr. Vincent Luk Sandia National Laboratories; Rich Turk Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems; Charles Morrow, Sandia National Laboratories; Geum-Taek Jin, Korea Power Engineering Company Inc.

    2002-11-30

    OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  16. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds... use in the manufacture, packaging, labeling, or holding of dietary supplements must: (a) Be suitable... dietary supplements during manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding; (c) Permit the use of...

  17. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

  19. Psychological Processes Underlying Cultivation Effects: Further Tests of Construct Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a study that tested whether the accessibility of information in memory mediates the cultivation effect (the effect of television viewing on social perceptions), consistent with the availability heuristic. Shows that heavy viewers gave higher frequency estimates (cultivation effect) and responded faster (accessibility effect) than did

  20. PASSIVE RADON CONTROL FEATURE EFFECTIVENESS IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION IN SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses passive radon control feature effectiveness in new house construction in South Central Florida. he State of Florida has a draft radon standard for new construction. his study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in...

  1. Effects of Evaluative vs. Co-Constructive Interactions on Learning in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toczek, Marie-Christine; Morge, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study to assess the effects of two physics-learning situations that differed in the type of teacher-student interactions that took place: evaluative or co-constructive. As found in various studies on physics teaching and social psychology, the results showed that co-constructive interactions generated a more effective

  2. Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T

    2013-12-01

    Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

  3. Effectiveness of mitigation measures with constructed forested wetlands in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive research on six constructed forested wetlands in Central Maryland was conducted in 1993-1996 to determine success of these habitats as functional forested wetlands for wildlife. Areas studied ranged in size from 2 to 35 acres and were constructed by private companies under contract with three mitigation agencies. Adjacent natural forested wetlands were used as reference sites where similar data were collected. Based on data from the first four years of this study it appears that it will take 35-50 years before these areas have forested wetland vegetation and wildlife similar to that found on mature forested wetlands. This long-time period is based on the high mortality and slow growth of nursery-stock trees and shrubs transplanted on the areas. Mortality and slow growth resulted mostly from excessive surface water on the sites. The level of ground water did not appear to be a factor in regard to transplant mortality. Green ash was the woody transplant species that had the least mortality. Sampling of vegetative ground cover with one-meter square quadrats showed the predominance of grasses and herbs. [abridged abstract

  4. Design and construction of a pressurized fluidized bed pilot electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, S.

    1982-08-01

    The U.S. Utility Industry and large industrial energy users are searching for optimal methods both to convert existing oil and gas fired power plants to coal and to facilitate expansion of base and intermediate load capability required by the end of this decade. The Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB) concept is a unique method for direct combustion of coal which has had demonstrable progress toward accomplishing the goal of clean burning of high sulfur coal for efficient and low cost electric power generation. This paper discusses the completed design of a 13 MWe Pilot Plant and some of the research and development work that established the technology or confirmed the selected design criteria.

  5. Microbial community structure accompanied with electricity production in a constructed wetland plant microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    This study reveals the complex structure of bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a Canna indica plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) and its electricity production. The PMFC produced a maximum current of 105 mA/m(2) by utilizing rhizodeposits as the sole electron donor without any external nutrient or buffer supplements, which demonstrates the feasibility of PMFCs in practical oligotrophic conditions with low solution conductivity. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the PMFC than non-plant controls or sediment-only controls, and pyrosequencing and clone library reveal that rhizodeposits conversion to current were carried out by syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineaceae) and electrochemically active bacteria (e.g., Geobacter). Denitrifying bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens play a minor role in organics degradation, but abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and thermophilic archaea are likely main electron donor competitors. PMID:26066972

  6. Design, construction, operation, and costs of a modern small-scale fuel-alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, S.A.; Dawley, L.J.; Wolfram, J.H.; Berglund, G.R.; Richardson, J.G.; McAtee, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The design used for the Small-Scale Fuel Alcohol Plant (SSFAP) has overcome the major drawbacks of small-scale ethanol production, which are high labor requirements, batch operation, inefficient energy use, and low yields. By incorporating a microprocessor into the plant design, most plant operations have been automated and labor requirements have been reduced. Continuous processing has made energy conservation possible, thus reducing energy requirements. A low-temperature, continuous plug-flow cooker design has made high yields possible. Ethanol has been consistently produced at the SSFAP from corn at a yield of 2.6 gallons (anhydrous) per bushel and an energy requirement of 30,000 to 35,000 Btu/gallon (190-proof). In addition, barley, grain dust, and potato waste have been converted at the SSFAP. The capacity of the SSFAP is 180,000 gallons per year (300 days operation). Competitively priced ethanol is produced at this capacity. DOE intends that the SSFAP design be used as the reference design for small-scale ethanol production.

  7. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Massimo E

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  8. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  9. Constructive effects of fluctuations in genetic and biochemical regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Ralf; Zhou, Changsong; Kurths, Jürgen

    2003-12-01

    Biochemical and genetic regulatory systems that involve low concentrations of molecules are inherently noisy. This intrinsic stochasticity has received considerable interest recently, leading to new insights about the sources and consequences of noise in complex systems of genetic regulation. However, most prior work was devoted to the reduction of fluctuation and the robustness of cellular function with respect to intrinsic noise. Here, we focus on several scenarios in which the inherent molecular fluctuations are not merely a nuisance, but act constructively and bring about qualitative changes in the dynamics of the system. It will be demonstrated that in many typical situations biochemical and genetic regulatory systems may utilize intrinsic noise to their advantage. PMID:14643492

  10. 56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  11. 57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING AMMONIA LEACHING PLANT GENERAL, DOUBLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR UNIT - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. Changes in plant biomass and nutrient removal over 3 years in a constructed wetland in Cairns, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M; Woolley, A

    2001-01-01

    The surface flow wetland in Cairns, Australia consists of 3 linear channels each 65 m long. Channels 1 and 2 are 5 m wide and Channel 3 is 15 m wide. The wetland was constructed in 1994 and band planted with emergent macrophyte species and alternating open water sections. The wetland was monitored for plant growth and nutrient removal until 1997. During that period HRT was 16 days in Channel 1 and 10 days in Channels 2 and 3; mass loading rates were 2.4 kg Total N and 2.0 kg Total P ha(-1) d(-1) in Channel 1 and 3.7 kg TN and 3.3 kg TP ha(-1) d(-1) in Channels 2 and 3. The aim of this work was to determine the proportion of nutrient removal that could be attributed to direct uptake by macrophytes and incorporated into plant biomass. Over the 3 year monitoring period reduction in total mass of nutrients was: Channel 1: 26% P, 85% N; Channel 2: 28% P, 87% N; Channel 3: 21% P, 81% N. Percentage reduction of FRP (Filterable Reactive Phosphorus) was similar to TP; NOx removal was 97-98%. Mass removal rates for TN and TP were higher in Channels 2 and 3 despite greater nutrient loading rates and shorter detention times. Total FRP removal was 23 kg P in Channel 1, 33 kg P in Channel 2 and 70 kg P in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 65%, 44% and 47% respectively. Total nitrogen removal was 92 kg in Channel 1,154 kg in Channel 2 and 386 kg in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 47%, 27% and 27% respectively. Thus, in this tropical surface flow wetland supporting a mixture of emergent macrophytes and floating duckweed, vegetation is an important mechanism for direct nutrient removal. PMID:11804111

  13. The effect of disturbance on an ant-plant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah

    2011-06-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms-where plants provide food or shelter to ants and ants protect the plants from herbivores-are a common feature in many ecological communities, but few studies have examined the effect of disturbance on these interactions. Disturbance may affect the relationship between plants and their associated ant mutualists by increasing the plants' susceptibility to herbivores, changing the amount of reward provided for the ants, and altering the abundance of ants and other predators. Pruning was used to simulate the damage to buttonwood mangrove (Conocarpus erectus) caused by hurricanes. Pruned plants grew faster than unpruned plants, produced lower levels of physical anti-herbivore defenses (trichomes, toughness), and higher levels of chemical defenses (tannins) and extrafloral nectaries. Thus, simulated hurricane damage increased plant growth and the amount of reward provided to ant mutualists, but did not have consistent effects on other anti-herbivore defenses. Both herbivores and ants increased in abundance on pruned plants, indicating that the effects of simulated hurricane damage on plant traits were propagated to higher trophic levels. Ant-exclusion led to higher leaf damage on both pruned and upruned plants. The effect of ant-exclusion did not differ between pruned and unpruned plants, despite the fact that pruned plants had higher ant and herbivore densities, produced more extrafloral nectaries, and had fewer physical defenses. Another common predator, clubionid spiders, increased in abundance on pruned plants from which ants had been excluded. I suggest that compensatory predation by these spiders diminished the effect of ant-exclusion on pruned plants. PMID:21113623

  14. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON SUBMARINE PLANT SYNECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synecology of marine plant communities has been studied in areas differing in water quality. Major sources of deterioration of water quality include the Nooksack River, an oil refinery and an alumina reduction plant. A method of analysis involving comparisons of standing crops of...

  15. Current status of design and construction of ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.P.; Siddoway, M.A.; Coolidge, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    The ENCOAL project is demonstrating for the first time the integrated operation of several process steps: a. Coal drying on a rotary grate using convective heatin; b. Coal devolatilization on a rotary grate using convective heating; c. Hot particulate removal with cyclones integral solids cooling; and deactivation-passivation; e. Combustors operating on low-Btu gas from internal streams; f. Solids stabilization for storage and shipment; g. Computer control and optimization of a mild coal gasification process. The product fuels are expected to be used economically in commercial boilers and furnaces and to significantly reduce sulfur emissions at industrial and utility facilities currently burning high sulfur bituminous fuels or fuel oils thereby reducing acid rain-causing pollutants. The design and construction of the ENCOAL demonstration plan was done on a fast track basis, that is, these activities were extensively overlapped.

  16. Current status of design and construction of ENCOAL Mild Gasification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.P.; Siddoway, M.A.; Coolidge, D.W.

    1992-11-01

    The ENCOAL project is demonstrating for the first time the integrated operation of several process steps: a. Coal drying on a rotary grate using convective heatin; b. Coal devolatilization on a rotary grate using convective heating; c. Hot particulate removal with cyclones integral solids cooling; and deactivation-passivation; e. Combustors operating on low-Btu gas from internal streams; f. Solids stabilization for storage and shipment; g. Computer control and optimization of a mild coal gasification process. The product fuels are expected to be used economically in commercial boilers and furnaces and to significantly reduce sulfur emissions at industrial and utility facilities currently burning high sulfur bituminous fuels or fuel oils thereby reducing acid rain-causing pollutants. The design and construction of the ENCOAL demonstration plan was done on a fast track basis, that is, these activities were extensively overlapped.

  17. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Quarterly report for the period September 1-November 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant is reported. The initial layout of the main control panel arrangement was completed. Refinements to the front panel equipment arrangement and designation of cable penetration locations are in progress. Parts and materials have been specified and are being procured. Engineering design of the process piping has been completed and fabrication is awaiting FY 82 funding. The replacement ASTM A105 material flanges for the air exchange housing have been successfully welded to the stainless steel 409 housings. Fabrication of the air exchange housing is continuing on schedule. Heat exchange tube fabrication at Curtiss-Wright continues on schedule. A significant quantity of the material handling equipment has been received at site with the remainder scheduled for delivery in December/January. Initial review of the hot gas cleanup collector design drawings has been completed.

  18. Investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for vulnerabilities to corruption in the chinese public construction sector.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Chan, Albert P C; Le, Yun; Hu, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Response strategy is a key for preventing widespread corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector. Although several studies have been devoted to this area, the effectiveness of response strategies has seldom been evaluated in China. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities through a survey in the Chinese public construction sector. Survey data obtained from selected experts involved in the Chinese public construction sector were analyzed by factor analysis and partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Analysis results showed that four response strategies of leadership, rules and regulations, training, and sanctions, only achieved an acceptable level in preventing corruption vulnerabilities in the Chinese public construction sector. This study contributes to knowledge by improving the understanding of the effectiveness of response strategies for corruption vulnerabilities in the public construction sector of developing countries. PMID:24894336

  19. Integrated solar desalination/agriculture pilot plant in egypt design and construction update

    SciTech Connect

    EIDifrawi, A.; Yudow, B.

    1983-06-01

    A program to build a solar desalination pilot plant coupled with a Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) system in Egypt, is underway. The desalination cycle is based on three stages: two humidification processes and one dehumidification process. Updated work progress on the preliminary process flow diagrams--daytime and nighttime operations and the sensitivity analysis relative to given parameters for a base case--is presented. The base case constitutes a set of parameters representing the average conditions expected at the project site on the Red Sea at the city of Hurghada. The thermal energy requirement for the process will be supplied by solar energy. The source for electricity which is required to operate pumps and blowers is discussed. There are two options available, solar energy and wind energy.

  20. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rastorfer, J.R.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  1. The inhibition and adaptability of four wetland plant species to high concentration of ammonia wastewater and nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Song, Xinshan; Gong, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Four plant species, Typha orientalis, Scirpus validus, Canna indica and Iris tectorum were selected to assess their physiological response and effects on nitrogen and COD removal to high total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) in constructed wetlands. Results showed that high TAN caused decreased relative growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, and leaf transpiration. C. indica and T. orientalis showed higher TAN adaptability than S. validus and I. tectorum. Below TAN of 200mgL(-)(1), growth of C. indica and T. orientalis was less affected or even stimulated at TAN range 100-200mgL(-)(1). However, S. validus and I. tectorum was obviously suppressed when TAN was above 100mgL(-)(1). High TAN generated obvious oxidative stress showing increased proline and malondialdehyde contents, and superoxide dismutase was inhibited. It indicated that the threshold for plant self-bioremediation against high TAN was 200mgL(-)(1). What's more, planted CWs showed higher nitrogen and COD removal. Removal rate of C. indica and T. orientalis was higher than S. validus and I. tectorum. PMID:26708488

  2. Effects of Evaluative vs. Co-Constructive Interactions on Learning in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toczek, Marie-Christine; Morge, Ludovic

    2009-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study to assess the effects of two physics-learning situations that differed in the type of teacher-student interactions that took place: evaluative or co-constructive. As found in various studies on physics teaching and social psychology, the results showed that co-constructive interactions generated a more effective…

  3. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bn, Zoltn; Gy?ri, Erzsbet; Jnos Katona, Tams; Tth, Lszl

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic-tree procedure. Earlier studies have shown that the potentially liquefiable layer at Paks Nuclear Power Plant is situated in relatively large depth. Therefore the applicability and adequacy of the methods at high overburden pressure is important. In case of existing facilities, the geotechnical data gained before construction aren't sufficient for the comprehensive liquefaction analysis. Performance of new geotechnical survey is limited. Consequently, the availability of the data has to be accounted while selection the analysis methods. Considerations have to be made for dealing with aleatory uncertainty related to the knowledge of the soil conditions. It is shown in the paper, a careful comparison and analysis of the results obtained by different methodologies provides the basis of the selection of practicable methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant for beyond design basis liquefaction hazard.

  4. Construction of a SSR-Based Genetic Map and Identification of QTLs for Catechins Content in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Wang, Xin-Chao; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Wang, Xue-Min; Chen, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins are the most important bioactive compounds in tea, and have been demonstrated to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for catechins content in the tender shoots of tea plant, we constructed a moderately saturated genetic map using 406 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, based on a pseudo-testcross population of 183 individuals derived from an intraspecific cross of two Camellia sinensis varieties with diverse catechins composition. The map consisted of fifteen linkage groups (LGs), corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of tea plant (2n?=?2x?=?30). The total map length was 1,143.5 cM, with an average locus spacing of 2.9 cM. A total of 25 QTLs associated with catechins content were identified over two measurement years. Of these, nine stable QTLs were validated across years, and clustered into four main chromosome regions on LG03, LG11, LG12 and LG15. The population variability explained by each QTL was predominantly at moderate-to-high levels and ranged from 2.4% to 71.0%, with an average of 17.7%. The total number of QTL for each trait varied from four to eight, while the total population variability explained by all QTLs for a trait ranged between 38.4% and 79.7%. This is the first report on the identification of QTL for catechins content in tea plant. The results of this study provide a foundation for further cloning and functional characterization of catechin QTLs for utilization in improvement of tea plant. PMID:24676054

  5. [Construction of linkage localization lines containing genes with maternal effects].

    PubMed

    Dai, Fang-yin; Tan, Duan; Tong, Xiao-ling; Hu, Hai; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-huai

    2007-11-01

    Since the phenotypes of hybrid progenies involving genes with maternal effects are affected by the genotype of female parent, they cannot reflect the genotypes of individuals. This makes it difficult to develop test cross parents (triple or double recessive lines) for linkage localization and, consequently, hinders the progress in localization researches for these types of genes. In this study, we designed a set of hybridization schemes, the key of which was to make the "maternal-effect" genes homozygous at first, and then the non-maternal-effect genes. Using this scheme, we successfully produced a triple recessive line for genes ch (chocolate), nlw (non-lepis wing) and b-t (maternal brown egg of Tsujitan) on the 13th linkage group and a double recessive line for genes nb (narrow breast) and ki-2 (kidney-shaped egg 2) on the 19th linkage group of Bombyx mori. PMID:17989051

  6. Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, E; Vazan, S; Oveisi, M

    2011-01-01

    Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed production neutralized the decreasing effect of pre-planting irrigation and two-row planting of maize on weed seed bank population. PMID:22696965

  7. Effects of recycled FGD liner material on water quality and macrophytes of constructed wetlands: a mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Ahn, C; Mitsch, W J; Wolfe, W E

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the use of flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) by-products from electric power plant wet scrubbers as liners in wetlands constructed to improve water quality. Mesocosm experiments were conducted over two consecutive growing seasons with different phosphorus loadings. Wetland mesocosms using FGD liners retained more total and soluble reactive phosphorus, with lower concentrations in the leachate (first year) and higher concentrations in the surface water (second year). Leachate was higher in conductivity (second year) and pH (both years) in lined mesocosms. Surface outflow did not reveal any significant difference in physicochemical characteristics between lined and unlined mesocosms. There was no significant difference in total biomass production of wetland plants between lined and unlined mesocosms although lower average stem lengths and fewer stems bearing flowers were observed in mesocosms with FGD liners. Potentially phytotoxic boron was significantly higher in the belowground biomass of plants grown in lined mesocosms with low phosphorus loading. A larger-scale, long-term wetland experiment close to full scale is recommended from this two-year mesocosm study to better predict the potentially positive and negative effects of using FGD by-products in constructed wetlands. PMID:11228959

  8. Shell and Sabic (Saudi Basic Industries Corp. ) to construct Jubail petrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-14

    Shell Oil Co.'s Pecten Arabian Ltd. affiliate and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. have agreed to build a $3 billion petrochemical complex at Jubail, Saudi Arabia; the final documents will be signed in late Sept. 1980. The partners will invest about $400 million each in the joint venture, with Saudi public investment funds and commercial banks providing the balance of the funding. Shell will have the right to purchase Saudi crude oil on a long-term basis, as well as some chemical raw materials; the volume of crude made available will be determined by a formula that the Saudis are now developing. One plan under discussion would offer firms options to buy 500 bbl/day of Saudi crude for each $1 million of their investment. The feed for the new plant will be methane and ethane from associated gas now being flared. Product exports are scheduled to begin in late 1985. Product capacities will include (in thousands of metric tons/yr): ethane, 656; chlorine, 333; caustic soda, 377; ethylene dichloride, 454; ethyl benzene, 327; styrene, 295; and crude industrial ethanol, 281. Ships, terminals, and other infrastructure facilities are included in the agreement.

  9. The effects of highway construction on sediment discharge into Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hainly, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1972 through September 1977, the effects of highway construction in the 38 square mile Blockhouse Creek basin were studied. Water discharge, suspended-sediment discharge, and stream-temperature data were collected at four stations in the basin. The 5-year period included 1 year before construction, 2 years during construction, and 2 years after construction. The effects of stream relocation and sediment-control methods used in the highway construction were also investigated. During the period of data collection, about 35,500 tons of suspended sediment was transported by Blockhouse Creek and Steam Valley Run. The data indicate that 9,100 tons was introduced to the stream from construction areas. The normal sediment yield for the two basins was determined to be 80 tons per square mile per year. Most of the sediment was transported by the streams during high flows and probably passed through Blockhouse Creek, as little deposition was observed below the construction area. Stream temperature seemed to be relatively unaffected by the stream relocations and diversions. Stream relocation and diversion methods were successful in limiting the amount of sediment discharged by the new channels. Physical sediment-control methods limited sediment discharge during baseflow periods and small storms. Coarse sediments especially were controlled by these methods. The most effective method of sediment control was limiting the amount of time that the construction-area soils were exposed. (USGS)

  10. Effect of spray aeration on organics and nitrogen removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Wei; Song, Xin-Shan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Hui

    2014-12-01

    The objective of present study was to assess the simultaneous removal of organics and nitrogen by four lab-scale vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands (V-SFCWs). The emergent plants employed were Canna indica. Five-month experiments showed that the planted and aerated system largely reduced the COD by 95%, NH4 by 88% and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) by 83%. It outperformed the unplanted or simple aerated system and was much better than non-aerated system. The study provided a strong evidence to support widespread research and application of spray aeration as a low-cost and energy-efficient aeration technology in V-SFCWs. PMID:25259785

  11. Effect of aging on phosphorus speciation in surface deposit of a vertical flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boram; Gautier, Mathieu; Rivard, Camille; Sanglar, Corinne; Michel, Philippe; Gourdon, Rmy

    2015-04-21

    This study was conducted to determine phosphorus (P) species captured in a vertical-flow constructed wetland (VFCW) system combining a trickling filter followed by FeCl3 injection for phosphate coagulation. Suspended solids (SS) thus formed accumulated over time at the VFCW surface and transformed into a sludge deposit layer, which was shown to concentrate most of the P captured in the system. In order to investigate the effect of aging on P species, representative SS and sludge samples were taken from a wastewater treatment plant that had been in operation for 8 years and analyzed using P fractionation, solution (31)P NMR spectroscopy, and P and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy. A partial mineralization of organic matter was shown by comparing organic carbon contents of SS and sludge materials. Chemical fractionations combined with P and Fe K-edge XANES spectroscopy showed that P was predominantly bound to iron within both samples in the form of ferric phosphate, rather than adsorbed onto ferric oxyhydroxide. Calcium-bound P was more significantly observed in sludge than in SS, suggesting that aging induced the recombination of part of the organic and iron-bound P species into calcium-bound forms, as a possible consequence of the partial mineralization of organic matter. PMID:25710195

  12. Effects of livestock grazing and well construction on prairie vegetation structure surrounding shallow natural gas wells.

    PubMed

    Koper, N; Molloy, K; Leston, L; Yoo, J

    2014-11-01

    Short and sparse vegetation near shallow gas wells has generally been attributed to residual effects from well construction, but other mechanisms might also explain these trends. We evaluated effects of distance to shallow gas wells on vegetation and bare ground in mixed-grass prairies in southern Alberta, Canada, from 2010 to 2011. We then tested three hypotheses to explain why we found shorter vegetation and more bare ground near wells, using cattle fecal pat transects from 2012, and our vegetation quadrats. We evaluated whether empirical evidence suggested that observed patterns were driven by (1) higher abundance of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) near wells, (2) residual effects of well construction, or (3) attraction of livestock to wells. Crested wheatgrass occurrence was higher near wells, but this did not explain effects of wells on vegetation structure. Correlations between distance to wells and litter depth were the highest near newer wells, providing support for the construction hypothesis. However, effects of distance to wells on other vegetation metrics did not decline as time since well construction increased, suggesting that other mechanisms explained observed edge effects. Cattle abundance was substantially higher near wells, and this effect corresponded with changes in habitat structure. Our results suggest that both residual effects of well construction and cattle behavior may explain effects of shallow gas wells on habitat structure in mixed-grass prairies, and thus, to be effective, mitigation strategies must address both mechanisms. PMID:25078539

  13. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  14. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Janik, D; Macler, B; Thorstenson, Y; Sauer, R; MacElroy, R D

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodide was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems. PMID:11537380

  15. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.; MacElroy, R. D.

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodide was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  16. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in constructed wetland compartments: Influent, effluent, pore water, substrate and plant roots.

    PubMed

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Domínguez, Carmen; Bécares, Eloy; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-02-01

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different design configurations, dealing with primary-treated urban wastewater, were assessed for the concentration, distribution and fate of ten pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) [ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, salicylic acid, caffeine, carbamazepine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide] and eight of their transformation products (TPs). Apart from influent and effluent, various CW compartments were analysed, namely, substrate, plant roots and pore water. PPCP content in pore water depended on the specific CW configuration. Macrophytes can take up PPCPs through their roots. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide were present on the root surface with a predominance of galaxolide and caffeine in all the planted systems. Naproxen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide were uptaken by the roots. In order to better understand the removal processes, biomass measurement and biodegradability studies through the characterization of internal-external isomeric linear alkylbenzenes present on the gravel bed were performed. Three TPs namely, ibuprofen-amide, 3-ethylbenzophenone and 4-hydroxy-diclofenac were identified for the first time in wetland pore water and effluent water, which suggests de novo formation (they were not present in the influent). Conversely, O-desmethyl-naproxen was degraded through the wetland passage since it was detected in the influent but not in the subsequent treatment stages. Biodegradation pathways are therefore suggested for most of the studied PPCPs in the assessed CWs. PMID:26702554

  17. Floral Transcriptome Sequencing for SSR Marker Development and Linkage Map Construction in the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Wu, Li-Yun; Qi, Gui-Nian; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Cui, Qing-Mei; Liang, Jin-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis) is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2%) unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR) database and 10,290 (16.67%) were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs). From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9%) novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species. PMID:24303059

  18. Construction of a plant-transformation-competent BIBAC library and genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cotton, one of the worlds leading crops, is important to the worlds textile and energy industries, and is a model species for studies of plant polyploidization, cellulose biosynthesis and cell wall biogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plant-transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library and comparative genome sequence analysis of polyploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with one of its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii Ulbr. Results We constructed the cotton BIBAC library in a vector competent for high-molecular-weight DNA transformation in different plant species through either Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. The library contains 76,800 clones with an average insert size of 135kb, providing an approximate 99% probability of obtaining at least one positive clone from the library using a single-copy probe. The quality and utility of the library were verified by identifying BIBACs containing genes important for fiber development, fiber cellulose biosynthesis, seed fatty acid metabolism, cotton-nematode interaction, and bacterial blight resistance. In order to gain an insight into the Upland cotton genome and its relationship with G. raimondii, we sequenced nearly 10,000 BIBAC ends (BESs) randomly selected from the library, generating approximately one BES for every 250kb along the Upland cotton genome. The retroelement Gypsy/DIRS1 family predominates in the Upland cotton genome, accounting for over 77% of all transposable elements. From the BESs, we identified 1,269 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), of which 1,006 were new, thus providing additional markers for cotton genome research. Surprisingly, comparative sequence analysis showed that Upland cotton is much more diverged from G. raimondii at the genomic sequence level than expected. There seems to be no significant difference between the relationships of the Upland cotton D- and A-subgenomes with the G. raimondii genome, even though G. raimondii contains a D genome (D5). Conclusions The library represents the first BIBAC library in cotton and related species, thus providing tools useful for integrative physical mapping, large-scale genome sequencing and large-scale functional analysis of the Upland cotton genome. Comparative sequence analysis provides insights into the Upland cotton genome, and a possible mechanism underlying the divergence and evolution of polyploid Upland cotton from its diploid putative progenitor species, G. raimondii. PMID:23537070

  19. Improving cogeneration plant performance through effective maintenance strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    Gas-fired cogeneration plants supplying power and thermal energy make up an increasing percentage of new fossil generation capacity additions, both in the US and overseas. These plants are popular, not only because they cost less to build, but also because they are highly efficient and their operation and maintenance costs are lower than plants using the traditional coal-based Rankine cycle. One of the methods being used to contain the initial cost of building cogeneration plants is to minimize redundancy both in the quantity of spare equipment specified for the various systems in the plants and in the design capacity of individual components. The overall effect of such a strategy may lead to reduced reliability and availability of the cogeneration plant in the long term. Operating cogeneration plants present a variety of technologies, equipment, and operating practices. While newer cogeneration plants routinely operate at a reliability of 90% or higher, older plants may not be able to achieve such performance due to excessive equipment breakdowns or inadequate maintenance strategies. By not having the appropriate maintenance programs in place, even newer cogeneration plants are vulnerable to deteriorating reliability and availability in the long term. This paper describes mechanisms for directing maintenance resources toward reducing current maintenance costs while maintaining high availability without sacrificing long-term reliability. The maintenance strategies discussed are those that can provide the maximum benefits for improving cogeneration plant reliability, availability, capacity, cost control, and safety.

  20. Plant canopy characteristics effect on spray deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While it is common for applicators to standardize their application parameters to minimize changes in settings during a season, this practice does not necessarily provide the best delivery when targeting different types of plant canopies and different zones within the canopy. The objective of this w...

  1. EFFECTS OF RAINFALL ACIDIFICATION ON PLANT PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The chemical nature of the aqueous microenvironment at the infection court is a potentially significant factor in the successful dissemination, establishment,...

  2. Herbivory: effects on plant abundance, distribution and population growth

    PubMed Central

    Maron, John L; Crone, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Plants are attacked by many different consumers. A critical question is how often, and under what conditions, common reductions in growth, fecundity or even survival that occur due to herbivory translate to meaningful impacts on abundance, distribution or dynamics of plant populations. Here, we review population-level studies of the effects of consumers on plant dynamics and evaluate: (i) whether particular consumers have predictably more or less influence on plant abundance, (ii) whether particular plant life-history types are predictably more vulnerable to herbivory at the population level, (iii) whether the strength of plantconsumer interactions shifts predictably across environmental gradients and (iv) the role of consumers in influencing plant distributional limits. Existing studies demonstrate numerous examples of consumers limiting local plant abundance and distribution. We found larger effects of consumers on grassland than woodland forbs, stronger effects of herbivory in areas with high versus low disturbance, but no systematic or unambiguous differences in the impact of consumers based on plant life-history or herbivore feeding mode. However, our ability to evaluate these and other patterns is limited by the small (but growing) number of studies in this area. As an impetus for further study, we review strengths and challenges of population-level studies, such as interpreting net impacts of consumers in the presence of density dependence and seed bank dynamics. PMID:17002942

  3. Effect of treatment in a constructed wetland on toxicity of textile wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baughman, G.L.; Perkins, W.S.; Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands for treating wastewater have proliferated in recent years and their characteristics have been studied extensively. In most cases, constructed wetlands have been used primarily for removal of nutrients and heavy metals. Extensive literature is available concerning construction and use of wetlands for treatment of wastewater. Even so, quantitative descriptions of wetland function and processes are highly empirical and difficult to extrapolate. The processes involved in removal of pollutants by wetlands are poorly understood, especially for waste streams as complex as textile effluents. The few studies conducted on treatment of textile wastewater in constructed wetlands were cited in earlier publications. Results of a two-year study of a full-scale wetland treating textile effluent are presented here. The paper describes the effects of the wetland on aquatic toxicity of the wastewater and draws conclusions about the utility and limitations of constructed wetlands for treatment of textile effluents.

  4. Treatment of reactive azo dye from textile wastewater by burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) in constructed wetland: Effect of molecular size.

    PubMed

    Noonpui, Sirikan; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2011-01-01

    The potential of burhead (Echinodorus cordifolius L.) for the treatment of textile wastewater has been investigated. Reactive red 2; RR2 [MW=615], reactive red 120; RR120 [MW=1469] and reactive red 141; RR141 [MW=1775] were studied in order to determine the effect of molecular size on the efficiency of dye removal by plants in batch systems of constructed wetlands under soil and soil-free conditions. Dye concentrations, total dissolve solids (TDS), conductivity and pH in the effluents, and the relative growth rates (RGR) of plants were measured. The highest efficiency of dye removal during 7 days under soil-free conditions was RR2 (33.09 ?mol(RR2)kg(-1)(FW)), followed by RR120 (13.35 ?mol(RR120)kg(-1)(FW)) and RR141 (10.57 ?mol(RR141)kg(-1)(FW)), respectively. This suggests that the structure and size of dye molecule strongly affects the efficiency of dye removal by plant. The results from a synthetic wetland experiment found that dye removal was 96 % at 4 days and 6 days under soil and soil-free conditions, respectively. Furthermore, plants were able to decrease TDS (42 %), conductivity (50 %) and pH (from 9.5 to 7.4) within 2 days in the synthetic reactive red(141) dye wastewater (SRRW141) under soil-free conditions, thus demonstrating the potential of burhead for textile wastewater treatment. PMID:21644146

  5. Effectiveness of sediment-control techniques used during highway construction in central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Lloyd A.

    1978-01-01

    A different method for controlling erosion and sediment transport during highway construction was used in each of four adjacent drainage basins in central Pennsylvania. The basins ranged in size from 240 to 490 acres (97 to 198 hectares), and the area disturbed by highway construction in each basin ranged from 20 to 48 acres (8 to 19 hectares). Sediment discharge was measured from each basin for 3 years before construction began and for 2 years during construction. In one of the basins affected by the construction, three offstream ponds were constructed to intercept runoff from the construction area before it reached the stream. In another basin, a large onstream pond was constructed to trap runoff from the construction area after it reached the stream. In a third area, seeding, mulching, and rock dams were used to limit erosion. In the fourth area, no sediment controls were used. The effectiveness of the various sediment-control measures were determined by comparing the sediment loads transported from the basins with sediment controls to those without controls. For most storms the offstream ponds trapped about 60 percent of the sediment that reached them. The large onstream pond had a trap efficiency of about 80 percent, however, it remained turbid and kept the stream flow turbid for long periods following storm periods. Samples of runoff water from the construction area were collected above and below rock dams to determine the reduction in sediment as the flow passed through the device. Rock dams in streams had a trap efficiency of about 5 percent. Seeding and mulching may reduce sediment discharge by 20 percent during construction, and straw bales placed to trap runoff water may reduce sediment loads downstream by 5 percent.

  6. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  7. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  8. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  9. USING POTATOES IN PROPAGATION TESTS FOR NONTARGET PLANT EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current tests required for pesticide registration under the FIFRA only investigate seedling emergence and early growth. Previous research with sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides has shown that significant impacts can occur to plant reproduction with little or no visible effect on vege...

  10. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Qu, Fanzhu; Wang, Guangmei; Fu, Yuqin; Zhan, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The 26 sample sites in 7 study plots adjacent to asphalt road and earth road in coastal wetland in the Yellow River Delta were selected to quantify plant diversity using quadrat sampling method in plant bloom phase of July and August 2012. The indice of βT and Jaccard's coefficient were applied to evaluate the species diversity. The results showed that the plant diversities and alien plants were high in the range of 0–20 m to the road verge. There were more exotics and halophytes in plots of asphalt roadside than that of earth roadside. However, proportion of halophytes in habitats of asphalt roadsides was lower than that of earth roadside. By comparing β-diversity, there were more common species in the asphalt roadsides than that in the earth roadsides. The similarity of plant communities in studied plots of asphalt roadsides and earth roadsides increased with increasing the distance to road verge. The effect range of roads for plant diversity in study region was about 20 m to road verge. Our results indicate that the construction and maintenance of roads in wetland could increase the plant species diversities of communities and risk of alien species invasion. PMID:25147872

  11. Weldon Spring quarry construction staging area and water treatment plant site remedial action characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The quarry construction staging area (QCSA) and water treatment plant (WTP) are located in the areas that border the western edge of the Weldon Spring quarry (WSQ). These facilities were constructed to support bulk waste removal from the WSQ. This area was contaminated with U-238, Ra-226, and Th-230 and was remediated prior to construction in order to allow release of the area for use without radiological restrictions. This report documents the methods of characterization, the remediation activities, and the post remedial action sampling methods and analytical results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Arsenic toxicity: the effects on plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Patrick M; Chen, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    The two forms of inorganic arsenic, arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), are easily taken up by the cells of the plant root. Once in the cell, AsV can be readily converted to AsIII, the more toxic of the two forms. AsV and AsIII both disrupt plant metabolism, but through distinct mechanisms. AsV is a chemical analog of phosphate that can disrupt at least some phosphate-dependent aspects of metabolism. AsV can be translocated across cellular membranes by phosphate transport proteins, leading to imbalances in phosphate supply. It can compete with phosphate during phosphorylation reactions, leading to the formation of AsV adducts that are often unstable and short-lived. As an example, the formation and rapid autohydrolysis of AsV-ADP sets in place a futile cycle that uncouples photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, decreasing the ability of cells to produce ATP and carry out normal metabolism. AsIII is a dithiol reactive compound that binds to and potentially inactivates enzymes containing closely spaced cysteine residues or dithiol co-factors. Arsenic exposure generally induces the production of reactive oxygen species that can lead to the production of antioxidant metabolites and numerous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. Oxidative carbon metabolism, amino acid and protein relationships, and nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways are also impacted by As exposure. Readjustment of several metabolic pathways, such as glutathione production, has been shown to lead to increased arsenic tolerance in plants. Species- and cultivar-dependent variation in arsenic sensitivity and the remodeling of metabolite pools that occurs in response to As exposure gives hope that additional metabolic pathways associated with As tolerance will be identified. PMID:22685440

  13. Arsenic Toxicity: The Effects on Plant Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Patrick M.; Chen, Weihua

    2012-01-01

    The two forms of inorganic arsenic, arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), are easily taken up by the cells of the plant root. Once in the cell, AsV can be readily converted to AsIII, the more toxic of the two forms. AsV and AsIII both disrupt plant metabolism, but through distinct mechanisms. AsV is a chemical analog of phosphate that can disrupt at least some phosphate-dependent aspects of metabolism. AsV can be translocated across cellular membranes by phosphate transport proteins, leading to imbalances in phosphate supply. It can compete with phosphate during phosphorylation reactions, leading to the formation of AsV adducts that are often unstable and short-lived. As an example, the formation and rapid autohydrolysis of AsV-ADP sets in place a futile cycle that uncouples photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation, decreasing the ability of cells to produce ATP and carry out normal metabolism. AsIII is a dithiol reactive compound that binds to and potentially inactivates enzymes containing closely spaced cysteine residues or dithiol co-factors. Arsenic exposure generally induces the production of reactive oxygen species that can lead to the production of antioxidant metabolites and numerous enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. Oxidative carbon metabolism, amino acid and protein relationships, and nitrogen and sulfur assimilation pathways are also impacted by As exposure. Readjustment of several metabolic pathways, such as glutathione production, has been shown to lead to increased arsenic tolerance in plants. Species- and cultivar-dependent variation in arsenic sensitivity and the remodeling of metabolite pools that occurs in response to As exposure gives hope that additional metabolic pathways associated with As tolerance will be identified. PMID:22685440

  14. Political Skill and Work Attitudes: A Comparison of Multiple Social Effectiveness Constructs.

    PubMed

    Banister, Christina M; Meriac, John P

    2015-01-01

    In the realm of social effectiveness constructs, political skill has seen increased attention as a predictor of work performance and attitudes. However, the extent that political skill is distinct from related variables in this area remains an important question. The current study examined the proportion of variance explained by political skill in job satisfaction and turnover intentions above and beyond other social effectiveness variables (i.e., social intelligence, emotional intelligence, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results indicated that political skill was the strongest predictor of these outcomes, and explained a significant proportion of variance in them, beyond the other four social effectiveness constructs. PMID:25425484

  15. [Stress effects of simulant acid rain on three woody plants].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaolin

    2002-09-01

    Osmanthus fragrana, Chimonanthus praecox and Prunus persica were used as materials to investigate the effect of simulant acid rain on chlorophyll (Chl) content, cell membrane permeability(L%), the content of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in three woody plants with different resistance, and effects of the light and dark conditions on acid rain injury. The results showed that the change degree of four kinds of physiological and biochemical indexes for these woody plants was as sequence: Osmanthus fragrana > Chimonanthus praecox > Prunus persica. The change of chlorophyll content in these woody plants was not obviously when acid rain stress was influenced by the light and dark. PMID:12533924

  16. Effect of plants on sunspace passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Best, E.D.; McFarland, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of plants on sunspace thermal performance is investigated, based on experiments done in Los Alamos using two test rooms with attached sunspaces, which were essentially identical except for the presence of plants in one. Performance is related to plant transpiration, evaporation from the soil, condensation on the glazing and the absorbtance of solar energy by the lightweight leaves. Performance effects have been quantified by measurements of auxiliary heat consumption in the test rooms and analyzed by means of energy balance calculations. A method for estimating the transpiration rate is presented.

  17. The effects of plant diversity on nitrous oxide emissions in hydroponic microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongying; Zhang, Chongbang; Song, Changchun; Chang, Scott X.; Gu, Baojing; Chen, Zhengxin; Peng, Changhui; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that plant diversity can improve the wastewater purification efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs), but its effect on the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in CWs has been unknown. To investigate the effect of plant diversity on the N2O emission, we established four plant species richness levels (each level containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 species, respectively) by using 96 hydroponic microcosms. Results showed that plant species richness enhanced the N2O emission, ranging from 27.1 to 115.4 ?g N2O m-2 d-1, and improved nitrate removal (P < 0.001). The presence of Phalaris arundinacea within a given plant community increased the N2O emission (P < 0.001). The presence of Rumex japonicas had no influence on the N2O emissions (P > 0.05), but improved nitrogen removal (P < 0.001). Hence, our study highlights the importance of both plant species richness and species identity in mediating the N2O emission and nitrogen removal in CWs.

  18. Fast-forward generation of effective artificial small RNAs for enhanced antiviral defense in plants

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Alberto; Carrington, James C.; Dars, Jos-Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Artificial small RNAs (sRNAs) are short ?21-nt non-coding RNAs engineered to inactivate sequence complementary RNAs. In plants, they have been extensively used to silence cellular transcripts in gene function analyses and to target invading RNA viruses to induce resistance. Current artificial sRNA-based antiviral resistance in plants is mainly limited to a single virus, and is jeopardized by the emergence of mutations in the artificial sRNA target site or by the presence of co-infecting viruses. Hence, there is a need to further develop the artificial sRNA approach to generate more broad and durable antiviral resistance in plants. A recently developed toolbox allows for the time and cost-effective large-scale production of artificial sRNA constructs in plants. The toolbox includes the P-SAMS web tool for the automated design of artificial sRNAs, and a new generation of artificial microRNA and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNA (syn-tasiRNA) vectors for direct cloning and high expression of artificial sRNAs. Here we describe how the simplicity and high-throughput capability of these new technologies should accelerate the study of artificial sRNA-based antiviral resistance in plants. In particular, we discuss the potential of the syn-tasiRNA approach as a promising strategy for developing more effective, durable and broad antiviral resistance in plants. PMID:26925463

  19. "Boom and bust" cycles in power plant construction: A simulation study of the temporal and geographical aspects of the Alberta competitive electrical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seel, Kevin C.

    This dissertation describes a study undertaken to explore the potential for power plant construction to appear in the deregulated Alberta electrical system in waves of alternating under and over supply of electricity, or "boom and bust". The ultimate impact to the market in such a case would be major swings in wholesale electricity prices as the industry transitions through the phases of a construction cycle. The study begins by exploring a geographical perspective on electricity and energy in general. It then provides a brief historical context on electrical deregulation in Alberta and elsewhere, before discussing the relevant literature pertaining to simulating dynamic feedback within energy systems with a focus on electricity. The work makes extensive use of Forrester's (1961) System Dynamics methodology to construct a simulation model called "APPCON" (for Alberta Power Plant Construction model). APPCON was used to demonstrate the conditions under which "boom and bust" construction cycles might occur using an explicit theory of investor behavior. Construction cycles are a potentially serious problem but they are not inevitable. The research concludes with computer simulations demonstrating how construction cycles could be dampened or eliminated through two different policy mitigation strategies; (1) continuous capacity payment along side of the market clearing price for energy, and, (2) a conservation strategy based on price sensitive load curtailment.

  20. [Effects of plant growth regulator uniconazole on plant morphology and biomass allocation of Salvia miltiorrhiza].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-rui; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Hou, Jun-ling; Wang, Wen-quan; Song, Yan; Yan, Bin-bin; Jin, Yan-qing

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we use pot experiment to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulator on plant morphology and biomass allocation of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Different concentrations of uniconazole were supplied to S. miltioohiza by means of foliar spray. Height, breadth and stem diameter were measured dynamically, the biomass of leaf, stem, flower and fruit, root biomass and biomass ratio were also examined at the harvest time. Owing to the treatment, plant morphology showed significant changes, the height had been greatly reduced and the breadth decreased largely. Meanwhile, the biomass allocation changed too. The biomass ratio of leaf and stem had been notably reduced while the biomass ratio of root had been increased remarkably. It appears that foliar application of uniconazole during vigorous growth period in S. miltioohiza has dramatic effect on dwarfing plant and improving resistant to lodging. This measure could also be applied to condensed cultivation of S. miltioohiza to increase production. PMID:26390649

  1. EFFECTS OF PLANTS ON NEMATODE COMMUNITY STRUCTURE.

    PubMed

    Yeates, GW

    1999-01-01

    Plant-related inputs provide the resources for nematode communities. Sampling of nematode communities must be on appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Size, feeding types, food or host specificity, and chronology allow over 200 nematode species to coexist in a district. Relationships between nematode functional groups and ecological processes regulating decomposition processes have been found in field experiments. Pulse-labeling experiments have shown root-feeding nematodes to increase the flow of carbon from roots to soil microbial biomass. Soil texture is related to suitability for cropping and affects nematode communities through crop-specific infestations. Nematode diversity tends to be greatest in ecosystems with least disturbance, and bacterial-feeding nematodes make the greatest contribution to the decomposer food web in more intensively managed ecosystems. Indices of the nematode fauna reflect changes in the nematode community; these changes reflect soil and ecological processes. Understanding the role of nematodes in these processes is the key to understanding of the relationship between plants and soil nematode communities. PMID:11701819

  2. Ecological effects of feral biofuel crops in constructed oak savannah communities - June 2012

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated temperatures and drought on constructed oak savannahs were studied to determine the interactive effects of potentially invasive feral biofuel species and climate change on native grassland communities. A total of 12 sunlit mesocosm were used. Each mesoco...

  3. Effects of English Proficiency, Visualization, and Instructional Environment in Constructing the Concepts of Reflection and Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Juli K.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of a dynamic instructional environment, English proficiency, and visualization level, independently and interactively, on middle school students' construction of the concepts of reflection and rotation. The effects of a dynamic instructional environment and English proficiency on students' two-

  4. The Effects of Personal Construct Group Therapy on Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Lisbeth G.; Viney, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of a brief personal construct group therapy on breast cancer survivors (N = 42) randomly assigned to either the treatment or wait-list control condition. The Gottschalk Gleser Content Analysis Scales were used to measure the effects for group across time (preand posttreatment, pretreatment, and

  5. Learning from Instructional Explanations: Effects of Prompts Based on the Active-Constructive-Interactive Framework

    PubMed Central

    Roelle, Julian; Müller, Claudia; Roelle, Detlev; Berthold, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Although instructional explanations are commonly provided when learners are introduced to new content, they often fail because they are not integrated into effective learning activities. The recently introduced active-constructive-interactive framework posits an effectiveness hierarchy in which interactive learning activities are at the top; these are then followed by constructive and active learning activities, respectively. Against this background, we combined instructional explanations with different types of prompts that were designed to elicit these learning activities and tested the central predictions of the active-constructive-interactive framework. In Experiment 1, N = 83 students were randomly assigned to one of four combinations of instructional explanations and prompts. To test the active < constructive learning hypothesis, the learners received either (1) complete explanations and engaging prompts designed to elicit active activities or (2) explanations that were reduced by inferences and inference prompts designed to engage learners in constructing the withheld information. Furthermore, in order to explore how interactive learning activities can be elicited, we gave the learners who had difficulties in constructing the prompted inferences adapted remedial explanations with either (3) unspecific engaging prompts or (4) revision prompts. In support of the active < constructive learning hypothesis, we found that the learners who received reduced explanations and inference prompts outperformed the learners who received complete explanations and engaging prompts. Moreover, revision prompts were more effective in eliciting interactive learning activities than engaging prompts. In Experiment 2, N = 40 students were randomly assigned to either (1) a reduced explanations and inference prompts or (2) a reduced explanations and inference prompts plus adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts condition. In support of the constructive < interactive learning hypothesis, the learners who received adapted remedial explanations and revision prompts as add-ons to reduced explanations and inference prompts acquired more conceptual knowledge. PMID:25853629

  6. EFFECTS OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ON SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested soil, the effect of appl...

  7. The effect of constructing versus solving virtual patient cases on transfer of learning: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Jepsen, Rikke M H G; Rasmussen, Maria B; Kayser, Lars; Fors, Uno; Laursen, Lars C; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of actively constructing virtual patient (VP) cases compared with solving VP cases on knowledge gains, skills transfer and time spent on cases. Forty-five fourth-year medical students were randomized to constructing (VP-construction, n = 23) or solving (VP-solving, n = 22) four cardiopulmonary VP cases. Whereas the VP-solving group solved the cases, the VP-construction group only received the final diagnosis and had to complete the history, physical findings, and lab results. After a week, participants completed a transfer test involving two standardized patients representing cardiopulmonary cases. Performances on the transfer test were video-recorded and assessed by two blinded raters using the Reporter, Interpreter, Manager, Educator (RIME) framework. Thirty-nine participants completed the transfer test. The VP-construction group spent significantly more time on the VP cases compared with the VP-solving group, p = 0.002. There were no significant differences in RIME scores between the VP-construction group and VP-solving group, p = 0.54.In conclusion, engaging novice students in active VP case construction may be more time consuming than solving VP cases, without resulting in superior skills transfer. PMID:26754313

  8. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Solid Waste Treatment Facility (T Plant) Fuel Removal Project

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    2000-11-16

    This NOC describes the activities to remove all spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies from the spent fuel pool in the T Plant Complex 221-T canyon for interim storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the public hypothetical maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.7 E-6 millirem (mrem) per year for this fuel removal NOC. The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 2.9 E-9 mrem per year to the MEI.

  9. Treatment of industrial wastewater with two-stage constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis.

    PubMed

    Calheiros, Cristina S C; Rangel, Antnio O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2009-07-01

    Industrial wastewater treatment comprises several processes to fulfill the discharge permits or to enable the reuse of wastewater. For tannery wastewater, constructed wetlands (CWs) may be an interesting treatment option. Two-stage series of horizontal subsurface flow CWs with Phragmites australis (UP series) and Typha latifolia (UT series) provided high removal of organics from tannery wastewater, up to 88% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) (from an inlet of 420 to 1000 mg L(-1)) and 92% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (from an inlet of 808 to 2449 mg L(-1)), and of other contaminants, such as nitrogen, operating at hydraulic retention times of 2, 5 and 7 days. No significant (P<0.05) differences in performance were found between both the series. Overall mass removals of up to 1294 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and 529 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1) were achieved for a loading ranging from 242 to 1925 kg COD ha(-1)d(-1) and from 126 to 900 kg BOD(5)ha(-1)d(-1). Plants were resilient to the conditions imposed, however P. australis exceeded T. latifolia in terms of propagation. PMID:19289277

  10. Effects of bisphenol A on chlorophyll fluorescence in five plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiazhi; Wang, Lihong; Li, Man; Jiao, Liya; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on plant photosynthesis and determine whether the photosynthetic response to BPA exposure varies in different plants. Chlorophyll fluorescence techniques were used to investigate the effects of BPA on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), soybean (Glycine max), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. Low-dose (1.5 or 3.0 mg L(-1)) BPA exposure improved photosystem II efficiency, increased the absorption and conversion efficiency of primary light energy, and accelerated photosynthetic electron transport in each plant, all of which increased photosynthesis. These effects weakened or disappeared after the withdrawal of BPA. High-dose (10.0 mg L(-1)) BPA exposure damaged the photosystem II reaction center, inhibited the photochemical reaction, and caused excess energy to be released as heat. These effects were more evident after the highest BPA dose (17.2 mg L(-1)), but they weakened after the withdrawal of BPA. The magnitude of BPA exposure effects on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the five plants followed the order: lettuce > tomato > soybean > maize > rice. The opposite order was observed following the removal of BPA. In conclusion, the chlorophyll fluorescence response in plants exposed to BPA depended on BPA dose and plant species. PMID:26154046

  11. Evaluation of composition and crosslinking effects on collagen-based composite constructs.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Krishna; Belchenko, Dmitry; Motta, Antonella; Tan, Wei

    2010-04-01

    Vascular grafts are widely used for a number of medical treatments. Strength, compliance, endothelialization and availability are issues of most concern for vascular graft materials. With current approaches, these requirements are difficult to satisfy simultaneously. To explore an alternative approach, the present study has engineered the collagen gel construct by incorporating mimetic components and crosslinking the construct with different crosslinkers. The effects of component additives, such as chitosan and elastin, have been evaluated in terms of their mechanical and biological properties. Results demonstrate that the incorporation of chitosan and/or elastin alter stress-strain curves in the low stress loading region, and significantly improve the stretching ratio and ultimate stress of gel constructs compared to collagen constructs. Electron microscopy results suggest that the mechanical improvements might be due to microstructural modifications by chitosan sheets and elastin fibers. The effects of crosslinkers, such as formaldehyde, genipin and ethyl-(dimethyl aminopropyl) and carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) have also been evaluated. Results demonstrate that formaldehyde, EDAC and genipin employ different mechanisms to crosslink collagen-based constructs, and use of genipin as a construct crosslinker exhibits improved elongation and endothelial coverage as compared to formaldehyde and EDAC. In addition, extending gelation time increased the elastic modulus but not the ultimate strength. Therefore, this study suggests that the mimicry of natural vessel tissues with properly crosslinked biopolymer composites could be a potential material design strategy for vascular graft materials. PMID:19815100

  12. Trace gases generated in closed plant cultivation systems and their effects on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tani, A; Kiyota, M; Aiga, I

    1995-12-01

    Interactions between plants and trace gases, especially ethylene, were investigated from two different viewpoints; ethylene is toxic for plant growth, whereas the ethylene release rate of plants can be utilized as a plant growth indicator. When lettuce plants and shiitake mushroom mycelium were cultivated in closed chambers, ethylene concentration increased with time. Ethylene was released both from lettuce plant and from shiitake mushroom mycelium. Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were detected, and these concentrations reached 3.7 ngL-1 for DOP and 2.4 ngL-1 for DBP 4 days after closing. Organic solvents such as xylene and toluene and organic siloxane were detected with GCMS. Visible injury was observed in lettuce plants cultivated in the chambers and it seemed to result from trace contaminants such as DOP, DBP, organic solvents, dimethylsiloxane polymer, and ethylene. In order to obtain basic data of ethylene evolution from plants, ethylene concentration in a closed chamber in which the plants were cultivated under a controlled environment (25 degrees C air temperature, 60-70% relative humidity, 250-300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)) was measured. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Okayama) released ethylene more than Brassica rapa var. pervidis, Brassica campestris var. communis, and Brassica campestris var. narinosa. Ethylene release rate of intact lettuce plant was highly correlated with plant growth parameters such as dry weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate. Ethylene release rates of intact lettuce plant were affected by cultivation conditions such as ambient CO2 concentration, light intensity and light/dark period. Increase in ambient ethylene level influenced lettuce growth even at the concentration of 0.1 microliter L-1. The level of ethylene inhibited leaf expansion and slightly accelerated chlorophyll degradation. It did not affect photosynthesis and transpiration, and also little affected dry matter accumulation. Thus, ethylene release characteristics were clarified and an effect of ethylene on lettuce growth was revealed. These findings are useful for determination of a threshold level of ethylene and a capacity of ethylene removal system in CELSS. On the other hand, a possibility of plant growth diagnosis by measuring ethylene concentrations was evaluated. As a result, it became clear that the measurement of ethylene concentration in CELSS is one of the useful non-destructive measurement methods for plant growth diagnosis. Further research is needed to investigate the applicability of the method to environmental stresses other than Ni and Co in nutrient solution. PMID:11541892

  13. Effect of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.M.; Pandey, V.; Shukla, J.; Singh, N.; Yunus, M.; Singh, S.N.; Ahmad, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Most of the industrialized nations depend largely on the combustion of fossil fuels for their energy requirements. During the past few years in India quite a few thermal power plants have been commissioned to cater to the increasing energy requirements. As most of the power plants are coal-fired, a complex mixture of several pollutants is released in the atmosphere on the combustion of coal. Leaves by virtue of their unique position on plants and their functions, experience the maximum brunt of exposure and undergo certain changes in form, structure and function with the changes in surrounding environs, and such modifications are likely to serve as markers of environmental pollution. The present paper deals with the long term exposure effects of thermal power plant emissions on Catharanthus roseus L. - a common perennial shrub, with glossy leaves and white, mauve or pink colored flowers and of great medicinal value is grown as an ornamental plant all over the country.

  14. Effects of photochemical riboflavin-mediated crosslinks on the physical properties of collagen constructs and fibrils.

    PubMed

    Rich, Harvey; Odlyha, Marianne; Cheema, Umber; Mudera, Vivek; Bozec, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The use of collagen scaffold in tissue engineering is on the rise, as modifications to mechanical properties are becoming more effective in strengthening constructs whilst preserving the natural biocompatibility. The combined technique of plastic compression and cross-linking is known to increase the mechanical strength of the collagen construct. Here, a modified protocol for engineering these collagen constructs is used to bring together a plastic compression method, combined with controlled photochemical crosslinking using riboflavin as a photoinitiator. In order to ascertain the effects of the photochemical crosslinking approach and the impact of the crosslinks created upon the properties of the engineered collagen constructs, the constructs were characterized both at the macroscale and at the fibrillar level. The resulting constructs were found to have a 2.5 fold increase in their Young's modulus, reaching a value of 650 73 kPa when compared to non-crosslinked control collagen constructs. This value is not yet comparable to that of native tendon, but it proves that combining a crosslinking methodology to collagen tissue engineering may offer a new approach to create stronger, biomimetic constructs. A notable outcome of crosslinking collagen with riboflavin is the collagen's greater affinity for water; it was demonstrated that riboflavin crosslinked collagen retains water for a longer period of time compared to non-cross-linked control samples. The affinity of the cross-linked collagen to water also resulted in an increase of individual collagen fibrils' cross-sectional area as function of the crosslinking. These changes in water affinity and fibril morphology induced by the process of crosslinking could indicate that the crosslinked chains created during the photochemical crosslinking process may act as intermolecular hydrophilic nanosprings. These intermolecular nanosprings would be responsible for a change in the fibril morphology to accommodate variable volume of water within the fibril. PMID:24006048

  15. Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III: construction. Annual report, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the construction of the 13 MW pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) pilot plant at Wood-Ridge, NJ is reported. Excavation at the site began in November 1980. Steel fabrication is continuing with steel erection scheduled for May 1981. Procurement of mechanical equipment, especially materials handling equipment is underway. Contracts have been let for the gas turbine components and for the manufacture of the PFB process components. (LCL)

  16. Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids: key constructs and measurement instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Establishing the effectiveness of patient decision aids (PtDA) requires evidence that PtDAs improve the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice made, or decision quality. The aim of this paper is to review the theoretical and empirical evidence for PtDA effectiveness and discuss emerging practical and research issues in the measurement of effectiveness. Methods This updated overview incorporates: a) an examination of the instruments used to measure five key decision-making process constructs (i.e., recognize decision, feel informed about options and outcomes, feel clear about goals and preferences, discuss goals and preferences with health care provider, and be involved in decisions) and decision quality constructs (i.e., knowledge, realistic expectations, values-choice agreement) within the 86 trials in the Cochrane review; and b) a summary of the 2011 Cochrane Collaborations review of PtDAs for these key constructs. Data on the constructs and instruments used were extracted independently by two authors from the 86 trials and any disagreements were resolved by discussion, with adjudication by a third party where required. Results The 86 studies provide considerable evidence that PtDAs improve the decision-making process and decision quality. A majority of the studies (76/86; 88%) measured at least one of the key decision-making process or decision quality constructs. Seventeen different measurement instruments were used to measure decision-making process constructs, but no single instrument covered all five constructs. The Decisional Conflict Scale was most commonly used (n = 47), followed by the Control Preference Scale (n = 9). Many studies reported one or more constructs of decision quality, including knowledge (n = 59), realistic expectation of risks and benefits (n = 21), and values-choice agreement (n = 13). There was considerable variability in how values-choice agreement was defined and determined. No study reported on all key decision-making process and decision quality constructs. Conclusions Evidence of PtDA effectiveness in improving the quality of the decision-making process and decision quality is strong and growing. There is not, however, consensus or standardization of measurement for either the decision-making process or decision quality. Additional work is needed to develop and evaluate measurement instruments and further explore theoretical issues to advance future research on PtDA effectiveness. PMID:24625035

  17. Plant Rhizosphere Effects on Metal Mobilization and Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Teresa W.-M; Crowley, David; Higashi, Richard M.

    1999-06-01

    A mechanistic understanding of mobilization or immobilization of nutrient and pollutant metal ions by plants is largely lacking. It begins with a lack of knowledge on the chemical nature of rhizosphere components that are reactive with metal ions. This fundamental knowledge is critical to the design and implementation of phytoremediation for metal-contaminated DOE sites. Therefore, the objectives of this project include (1) To obtain a comprehensive composition of major organic components in plant root exudates as a function of different metal ions and plant species; (2) To examine plant metabolic response(s) to these metal ion treatments, with emphasis on production of metal reactive compounds; (3) To investigate the effect(s) of soil microbial (e.g. mycorrhizae) association on (1) and (2).

  18. Effect of mantras on human beings and plants.

    PubMed

    Karnick, C R

    1983-01-01

    The classic texts of Indian origin record the influence of Mantras on plants and animals. Ayurveda also recognises the importance of this realm of medicine. The author during his various experiments on plants found that these from the stage of seedling to the maturity are effected by certain types of sound waves, especially the Mantras. This study reveals that the plants have shown a positive response to this type of particular sound waves regarding the growth. their efficacy in curing the diseases etc. PMID:22556970

  19. The effect of the tramway track construction on the aerosol pollution in Debrecen, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furu, E.; Katona-Szabo, I.; Angyal, A.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Török, Zs.; Kertész, Zs.

    2015-11-01

    In this study the effect of a new tramway track construction on the atmospheric aerosol concentration and composition in Debrecen, Hungary, was investigated. The tramway track construction started in 2011 and it was finished in 2013. PM2.5 and PM10 daily samples were collected with a Gent type filter unit in an urban background site 2 times a week. In addition, a sampling campaign direct next to the construction site was performed with 2-stage personal samplers between the 21st and 30th of September, 2011 - four hours a day, during working hours. We studied the change in concentration and composition of fine and coarse fraction aerosol in comparison with the average of the past 5 years. An additional goal was to investigate the personal aerosol exposure near to the construction sites. In the urban background site a significant increase could be observed both for the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations for 2012 and 2013. In the elemental composition the concentration of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cr increased significantly for the construction period. The PM10 concentrations measured direct next to the construction site were 10-20 higher than those measured at our urban background site or the data provided by the Hungarian Air Quality monitoring network. Days with very high Pb pollution level (∼3000 ng/m3) was also recorded.

  20. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    krovnkov, So?a; Miurcov, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  1. Heavy metal accumulation in rice plants. Effects on mineral nutrition and possible interaction of plant hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigo, M.; Martinez-Cortina, C.; Sanz, A. ); Escrig, I.; Lopez-Benet, F.J. )

    1993-05-01

    As a consequence of anthropogenic activities there is a constant increase in water and soil pollution by heavy metals, which may have negative effect on plants. We have studied the effects of Cd and Ni treatments on mineral nutrition of rice plants. six days after germination. Cd (0.1 mM) or Ni (0.5 mM) was added to the nutrient solution where the plants were grown. After 10 days mineral element contents were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after sample digestion with nitric acid (70[degrees]C 24 h) in erlenmeyer flasks. Cd-treated plants accumulated high quantities of this metal (2.28 mg/g DW, 30 fold the value found in controls), and most of it remained in the root (66% of total). A great increase in Ni contents was also observed in Ni-treated plants (3.06 mg/g DW, 28 fold higher than in controls). However, contrary to Cd, Ni accumulated preferentially in shoots (81% of total). Addition of ABA or GA[sub 3] (5 mg/l) to the nutrient solution together with the heavy metal, did not affect Cd uptake by the plants but caused a significant reduction in Ni accumulation in the shoots (60%). In both, Cd- and Ni-treated plants, the uptake of divalent cations (Ca[sup 2][sup +], Mg[sup 2][sup +]) decreased more than 50% with respect to controls. This effect was not modified by hormonal applications, though a trend to reverse the decrease in Ca[sup 2][sup +] caused by Ni was observed.

  2. Management and integration of engineering and construction activities: Lessons learned from the AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant China project

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, M. C.; Ebeling-Koning, D.; Evans, M. C.

    2012-07-01

    The lessons learned during the early phase of design engineering and construction activities for the AP1000 China Project can be applied to any project involving multiple disciplines and multiple organizations. Implementation of a first-of-a-kind design to directly support construction activities utilizing resources assigned to design development and design delivery creates challenges with prioritization of activities, successful closure of issues, and communication between site organizations and the home office. To ensure successful implementation, teams were assigned and developed to directly support construction activities including prioritization of activities, site communication and ensuring closure of site emergent issues. By developing these teams, the organization is better suited to meet the demands of the construction schedule while continuing with design evolution of a standard plant and engineering delivery for multiple projects. For a successful project, proper resource utilization and prioritization are key for overcoming obstacles and ensuring success of the engineering organization. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of PPCPs removal in a combined anaerobic digester-constructed wetland pilot plant treating urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Contreras, C; Matamoros, V; Ruiz, I; Soto, M; Bayona, J M

    2011-08-01

    The removal efficiency of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater (dissolved and particulate phases) was evaluated for the first time in a hybrid pilot plant consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by two sequentially connected horizontal flow constructed wetlands: a surface flow wetland (SF CW) and a subsurface flow wetland (SSF CW). Whereas the PPCP removal associated with the dissolved phase exhibited a seasonal pattern, the fraction associated with the suspended solids showed less seasonality. In the dissolved phase, the overall removal efficiency in summer ranged from 70% to 85% for salicylic acid (SAL), methyl dihydrojasmonate, caffeine (CAF), ketoprofen and triclosan, whereas in winter it declined for most of the PPCPs to between 30% and 50%, except for CAF and SAL (>80%) and carbamazepine and butylated hydroxyl toluene (11-18%). In the suspended solids, the removal exceeded 80% for most of the target PPCPs. The efficiency of the different treatment steps was also compound-dependent, but the SF CW generally exhibited the highest removal efficiency for most of the contaminants analyzed. The characterization of the organic matter retained in the wetland gravel beds revealed the occurrence of hydrophobic contaminants such as phthalate esters and fragrances at moderate concentrations (i.e., up to 3.5 ?g kg(-1)), which declined strongly over the course of the different treatment steps. In the SF CW, the net mass accumulation rates of tonalide and galaxolide were 4 and 23 gy(-1) respectively, whereas in the SSF CW they were 0.3 and 1.8 gy(-1) respectively. PMID:21719067

  4. Complex Effects of Fertilization on Plant and Herbivore Performance in the Presence of a Plant Competitor and Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plants growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both perspectives in plant herbivore interactions and characterize the effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance and their respective feedbacks. PMID:25078980

  5. ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF LATIN SQUARES COUNTERBALANCED FOR IMMEDIATE SEQUENTIAL EFFECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOUSTON, TOM R., JR.

    THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESCRIBING NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE AREA OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. IT DEALS WITH LATIN SQUARES AS A CONTROL FOR PROGRESSIVE AND ADJACENCY EFFECTS IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS. THE HISTORY OF LATIN SQUARES IS ALSO REVIEWED, AND SEVERAL ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF LATIN AND GRECO-LATIN SQUARES ARE PROPOSED. THE REPORT

  6. The Effect of Examinee Motivation on Test Construction within an IRT Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Barneveld, Christina

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of a false assumption regarding the motivation of examinees on test construction. Simulated data were generated using two models of item responses (the three-parameter logistic item response model alone and in combination with Wise's examinee persistence model) and were calibrated using a

  7. Personal Factors Impacting College Student Success: Constructing College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhee; Newton, Fred B.; Downey, Ronald G.; Benton, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    The College Learning Effectiveness Inventory, a new assessment tool identifying personal variables important to college student success, was constructed using empirical approaches grounded in a conceptual model. The exploratory and confirmatory studies revealed the six-underlying factors: Academic Self-Efficacy, Organization and Attention to

  8. The Effects of Construction Probability on Word Durations during Spontaneous Incremental Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bresnan, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In a series of seven studies, this paper examines acoustic characteristics of the spontaneous speech production of the English dative alternation ("gave the book to the boy/ the boy the book") as a function of the probability of the choice between alternating constructions. Probabilistic effects on the acoustic duration were observed in the

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF RADON CONTROL FEATURES IN NEW HOUSE CONSTRUCTION - SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of two slab types (monolithic and slab-in-stem wall) in retarding radon entry in new homes built in accordance with the State of Florida's proposed radon standard for new construction over high radon potential soil...

  10. Construction Safety Training via e-Learning: Learning Effectiveness and User Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Chun-Ling; Dzeng, Ren-Jye

    2010-01-01

    In Taiwan, promoting knowledge of "Labor Safety" which relates to life and work right is very important. Safety training and learning effectiveness become essential issues of adult learning. To reduce the costs of educational training, enterprises have also started to aggressively introduce e-learning education training. Unlike the construction

  11. Effects of Constructing versus Playing an Educational Game on Student Motivation and Deep Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and drop" game,

  12. The Effects of Construction Probability on Word Durations during Spontaneous Incremental Sentence Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bresnan, Joan

    2012-01-01

    In a series of seven studies, this paper examines acoustic characteristics of the spontaneous speech production of the English dative alternation ("gave the book to the boy/ the boy the book") as a function of the probability of the choice between alternating constructions. Probabilistic effects on the acoustic duration were observed in the…

  13. Effect of intermittent drainage on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research objective was to investigate the effect of pulsed wastewater flow on swine wastewater treatment by marsh-pond-marsh (m-p-m) constructed wetlands. From June to October of 2004, each of four, m-p-m wetlands in Greensboro, North Carolina, USA, received a different application of swine wast...

  14. Transition to Work: Effects of Preparedness and Goal Construction on Employment and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Petri; Vuori, Jukka; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the mediating role of employment preparedness in improving employment, mental health, and construction of work-life goals among young vocational school graduates who participated in the School-to-Work effectiveness trial. The trial included a 1-week intervention program that focused on enhancing employment preparedness. In this

  15. Effects of Constructing versus Playing an Educational Game on Student Motivation and Deep Learning Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vos, Nienke; van der Meijden, Henny; Denessen, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of two different interactive learning tasks, in which simple games were included were described with respect to student motivation and deep strategy use. The research involved 235 students from four elementary schools in The Netherlands. One group of students (N = 128) constructed their own memory "drag and drop" game,…

  16. Collaborative Encoding and Memory Accuracy: Examining the Effects of Interactive Components of Co-Construction Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Mary Ann; Fried, Adina Rachel; Cowan, Emily; Bays, Rebecca Brooke

    2014-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the effect of collaborative encoding on memory was examined by testing 2 interactive components of co-construction processes. One component focused on the nature of the interactive exchange between collaborators: As the partners worked together to create descriptions about ways to interact with familiar objects, constraints were

  17. Impaired Wound Induction of 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) Synthase and Altered Stem Development in Transgenic Potato Plants Expressing a DAHP Synthase Antisense Construct.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. D.; Henstrand, J. M.; Handa, A. K.; Herrmann, K. M.; Weller, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cells were transformed with an antisense DNA construct encoding part of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase (EC 4.1.2.15), the first enzyme of the shikimate pathway, to examine the role(s) of this protein in plant growth and development. Chimeric DNA constructs contained the transcript start site, the first exon, and part of the first intron of the shkA gene in antisense or sense orientations under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Some, but not all, of the transgenic plants expressing antisense DAHP synthase RNA showed reduced levels of wound-induced DAHP synthase enzyme activity, polypeptide, and mRNA 12 and 24 h after wounding. No alteration in the wound induction of DAHP synthase gene expression was observed in transgenic potato tubers containing the chimeric sense construct. Reduced steady-state levels of DAHP synthase mRNA were observed in stem and shoot tip tissue. Some plants with the chimeric antisense construct had reduced stem length, stem diameter, and reduced stem lignification. PMID:12228551

  18. Postural stability effects of random vibration at the feet of construction workers in simulated elevation.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, P; Hsiao, H; Powers, J; Ammons, D; Kau, T; Amendola, A

    2011-07-01

    The risk of falls from height on a construction site increases under conditions which degrade workers' postural control. At elevation, workers depend heavily on sensory information from their feet to maintain balance. The study tested two hypotheses: "sensory enhancement"--sub-sensory (undetectable) random mechanical vibrations at the plantar surface of the feet can improve worker's balance at elevation; and "sensory suppression"--supra-sensory (detectable) random mechanical vibrations can have a degrading effect on balance in the same experimental settings. Six young (age 20-35) and six aging (age 45-60) construction workers were tested while standing in standard and semi-tandem postures on instrumented gel insoles. The insoles applied sub- or supra-sensory levels of random mechanical vibrations to the feet. The tests were conducted in a surround-screen virtual reality system, which simulated a narrow plank at elevation on a construction site. Upper body kinematics was assessed with a motion-measurement system. Postural stability effects were evaluated by conventional and statistical mechanics sway measures, as well as trunk angular displacement parameters. Analysis of variance did not confirm the "sensory enhancement" hypothesis, but provided evidence for the "sensory suppression" hypothesis. The supra-sensory vibration had a destabilizing effect, which was considerably stronger in the semi-tandem posture and affected most of the sway variables. Sensory suppression associated with elevated vibration levels on a construction site may increase the danger of losing balance. Construction workers at elevation, e.g., on a beam or narrow plank might be at increased risk of fall if they can detect vibrations under their feet. To reduce the possibility of losing balance, mechanical vibration to supporting structures used as walking/working surfaces should be minimized when performing construction tasks at elevation. PMID:21071015

  19. Space radiation effects on plant and mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Macaeva, E.; Quintens, R.

    2014-11-01

    The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on organisms is related to different research aims. The current review emphasizes the studies on the effects of different doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on living organisms, with the final purpose of highlighting specific and common effects of space radiation in mammals and plants. This topic is extremely relevant in the context of radiation protection from space environment. The response of different organisms to ionizing radiation depends on the radiation quality/dose and/or the intrinsic characteristics of the living system. Macromolecules, in particular DNA, are the critical targets of radiation, even if there is a strong difference between damages encountered by plant and mammalian cells. The differences in structure and metabolism between the two cell types are responsible for the higher resistance of the plant cell compared with its animal counterpart. In this review, we report some recent findings from studies performed in Space or on Earth, simulating space-like levels of radiation with ground-based facilities, to understand the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian and plant cells. In particular, our attention is focused on genetic alterations and repair mechanisms in mammalian cells and on structures and mechanisms conferring radioresistance to plant cells.

  20. Complex effects of fertilization on plant and herbivore performance in the presence of a plant competitor and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi-Arab, Nafiseh; Meyer, Sebastian T; Mehrparvar, Mohsen; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2014-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions are influenced by host plant quality which in turn is affected by plant growth conditions. Competition is the major biotic and nutrient availability a major abiotic component of a plant's growth environment. Yet, surprisingly few studies have investigated impacts of competition and nutrient availability on herbivore performance and reciprocal herbivore effects on plants. We studied growth of the specialist aphid, Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria, and its host plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, under experimental addition of inorganic and organic fertilizer crossed with competition by goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Because of evidence that competition by goldenrod is mediated by allelopathic compounds, we also added a treatment with activated carbon. Results showed that fertilization increased, and competition with goldenrod decreased, plant biomass, but this was likely mediated by resource competition. There was no evidence from the activated carbon treatment that allelopathy played a role which instead had a fertilizing effect. Aphid performance increased with higher plant biomass and depended on plant growth conditions, with fertilization and AC increasing, and plant competition decreasing aphid numbers. Feedbacks of aphids on plant performance interacted with plant growth conditions in complex ways depending on the relative magnitude of the effects on plant biomass and aphid numbers. In the basic fertilization treatment, tansy plants profited from increased nutrient availability by accumulating more biomass than they lost due to an increased number of aphids under fertilization. When adding additional fertilizer, aphid numbers increased so high that tansy plants suffered and showed reduced biomass compared with controls without aphids. Thus, the ecological cost of an infestation with aphids depends on the balance of effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance. These results emphasize the importance to investigate both perspectives in plant herbivore interactions and characterize the effects of growth conditions on plant and herbivore performance and their respective feedbacks. PMID:25078980

  1. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction (NOC) for Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-05-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A.'' Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants''. The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design. For the activities covered under this NOC, the unabated and abated TEDE to the hypothetical MEI is 1.67 E-03 and 8.34 E-01 millirem per year, respectively.

  2. Radioactive Air Emission Notice of Construction for (NOC) Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project W-460 Plutonium Stabilization and Handling

    SciTech Connect

    JANSKY, M.T.

    2000-03-01

    The following description and any attachments and references are provided to the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH), Division of Radiation Protection, Air Emissions & Defense Waste Section as a notice of construction (NOC) in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The WAC 246-247-060, ''Applications, registration, and licensing'', states ''This section describes the information requirements for approval to construct, modify, and operate an emission unit. Any NOC requires the submittal of information listed in Appendix A,'' Appendix A (WAC 246-247-1 IO) lists the requirements that must be addressed. Additionally, the following description, attachments, and references are provided to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an NOC, in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, ''National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants.'' The information required for submittal to the EPA is specified in 40 CFR 61.07. The potential emissions from this activity are estimated to provide greater than 0.1 millirem year total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) and commencement is needed within a short time. Therefore, this application also is intended to provide notification of the anticipated date of initial startup in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(1), and it is requested that approval of this application also constitutes EPA acceptance of this initial startup notification. Written notification of the actual date of initial startup, in accordance with the requirement listed in 40 CFR 61.09(a)(2), will be provided later. This NOC covers the activities associated with the construction and operation activities involving stabilization and/or repackaging of plutonium in the 2736-ZB Building. An operations support trailer will be installed in the proximity of the 2736-ZB Building. A new exhaust stack will be built and operated at the 2736-ZB Building to handle the effluents associated with the operation of the stabilization and repackaging process. Figures provided are based on preliminary design.

  3. Effects of medium perfusion rate on cell-seeded three-dimensional bone constructs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cartmell, Sarah H; Porter, Blaise D; García, Andrés J; Guldberg, Robert E

    2003-12-01

    Cellular activity at the center of tissue-engineered constructs in static culture is typically decreased relative to the construct periphery because of transport limitations. We have designed a tissue culture system that perfuses culture medium through three-dimensional (3D) porous cellular constructs to improve nutrient delivery and waste removal within the constructs. This study examined the effects of medium perfusion rate on cell viability, proliferation, and gene expression within cell-seeded 3D bone scaffolds. Human trabecular bone scaffolds were seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and perfused for 1 week at flow rates of 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 mL/min. Confocal microscopy after 1 week of culture indicated that a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min resulted in substantial cell death throughout the constructs whereas lowering the flow rate led to an increasing proportion of viable cells, particularly at the center of the constructs. DNA analysis showed increases in cell proliferation at a flow rate of 0.01 mL/min relative to 0.2 mL/min and static controls. Conversely, mRNA expressions of Runx2, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase were upregulated at 0.2 mL/min compared with lower flow rates as quantified by real-time RT-PCR. These data suggest that medium perfusion may benefit the development of 3-D tissues in vitro by enhancing transport of nutrients and waste within the constructs and providing flow-mediated mechanical stimuli. PMID:14670107

  4. The effect of devitalized trabecular bone on the formation of osteochondral tissue-engineered constructs

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Eric G.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Bal, B. Sonny; Cook, James L.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, evidence is presented demonstrating that devitalized trabecular bone has an inhibitory effect on in vitro chondral tissue development when used as a base material for the tissue-engineering of osteochondral constructs for cartilage repair. Chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogel constructs were cultured alone or attached to an underlying bony base in a chemically defined medium formulation that has been shown to yield engineered cartilaginous tissue with native Young's modulus (EY) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. By day 42 in culture the incorporation of a bony base significantly reduced these properties (EY = 87 12 kPa, GAG = 1.9 0.8%ww) compared to the gel-alone group (EY = 642 97 kPa, GAG = 4.6 1.4%ww). Similarly, the mechanical and biochemical properties of chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs were inhibited when co-cultured adjacent to bone (unattached), suggesting that soluble factors rather than direct cellbone interactions mediate the chondro-inhibitory bone effects. Altering the method of bone preparation, including demineralization, or the timing of bone introduction in co-culture did not ameliorate the effects. In contrast, osteochondral constructs with native cartilage properties (EY = 730 65 kPa, GAG = 5.2 0.9%ww) were achieved when a porous tantalum metal base material was adopted instead of bone. This work suggests that devitalized bone may not be a suitable substrate for long-term cultivation of osteochondral grafts. PMID:18718655

  5. A course in constructing effective displays of data for pharmaceutical research personnel.

    PubMed

    Bradstreet, Thomas E; Nessly, Michael L; Short, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Interpreting data and communicating effectively through graphs and tables are requisite skills for statisticians and non-statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. However, the quality of visual displays of data in the medical and pharmaceutical literature and at scientific conferences is severely lacking. We describe an interactive, workshop-driven, 2-day short course that we constructed for pharmaceutical research personnel to learn these skills. The examples in the course and the workshop datasets source from our professional experiences, the scientific literature, and the mass media. During the course, the participants are exposed to and gain hands-on experience with the principles of visual and graphical perception, design, and construction of both graphic and tabular displays of quantitative and qualitative information. After completing the course, with a critical eye, the participants are able to construct, revise, critique, and interpret graphic and tabular displays according to an extensive set of guidelines. PMID:23564752

  6. The Composite Effect of Transgenic Plant Volatiles for Acquired Immunity to Herbivory Caused by Inter-Plant Communications

    PubMed Central

    Muroi, Atsushi; Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Nishihara, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Ozawa, Rika; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn) by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos) including (E)-β-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2) that were constitutively overexpressing (E)-β-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai). In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants) placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications. PMID:22022359

  7. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and the most part of the study area was at the moderate ecological risk level. The ecological risk presented ring-shaped and multi-kernel patterns, and was lower in the southern part than in the northern part of the study area. PMID:26685614

  8. Men’s Condom Use Resistance: Alcohol Effects on Theory of Planned Behavior Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Danube, Cinnamon L.; Morrison, Diane M.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is a novel investigation of 1) the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict men’s condom use resistance (CUR; i.e., attempts to avoid condom use with a partner who wants to use one) and 2) the effects of alcohol on endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs. Methods Using an alcohol administration protocol, a between- and within-subjects experiment was conducted with a community sample of 312 young male non-problem drinkers who have sex with women. After assessing endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs (e.g., attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, control, and intentions) in a sober state, beverage condition was experimentally manipulated between subjects and endorsement of TPB-CUR constructs was reassessed. Results Analyses included repeated measures MANOVAs with beverage condition (no alcohol vs. alcohol) as the between-subjects factor and time (pre-beverage vs. post-beverage) as the within-subjects factor. Between-subjects, intoxicated participants reported significantly stronger CUR intentions, more favorable CUR attitudes and normative perceptions, and greater CUR self-efficacy than sober participants. There were significant within-subject changes for CUR intentions, attitudes, normative perceptions, and self-efficacy. Neither between- nor within-subjects effects were found for CUR control. An exploratory multi-group path analysis indicated that the relationships among the TPB-CUR constructs were similar for alcohol and no alcohol groups. Conclusions Findings indicated that alcohol intoxication increased men’s CUR intentions and self-efficacy and led to more positive CUR attitudes and norms, yet had no effect on CUR control. Future research should examine whether there are similar effects of intoxication on TPB constructs related to other sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26348499

  9. Multifaceted effects of host plants on entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Hazir, Selcuk; Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Hazir, Canan; Leite, Luis G; Cakmak, Ibrahim; Olson, Dawn

    2016-03-01

    The success of parasites can be impacted by multi-trophic interactions. Tritrophic interactions have been observed in parasite-herbivore-host plant systems. Here we investigate aspects of multi-trophic interactions in a system involving an entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), its insect host, and host plant. Novel issues investigated include the impact of tritrophic interactions on nematode foraging behavior, the ability of EPNs to overcome negative tritrophic effects through genetic selection, and interactions with a fourth trophic level (nematode predators). We tested infectivity of the nematode, Steinernema riobrave, to corn earworm larvae (Helicoverpa zea) in three host plants, tobacco, eggplant and tomato. Tobacco reduced nematode virulence and reproduction relative to tomato and eggplant. However, successive selection (5 passages) overcame the deficiency; selected nematodes no longer exhibited reductions in phenotypic traits. Despite the loss in virulence and reproduction nematodes, first passage S. riobrave was more attracted to frass from insects fed tobacco than insects fed on other host plants. Therefore, we hypothesized the reduced virulence and reproduction in S. riobrave infecting tobacco fed insects would be based on a self-medicating tradeoff, such as deterring predation. We tested this hypothesis by assessing predatory success of the mite Sancassania polyphyllae and the springtail Sinella curviseta on nematodes reared on tobacco-fed larvae versus those fed on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, tomato fed larvae, or eggplant fed larvae. No advantage was observed in nematodes derived from tobacco fed larvae. In conclusion, our results indicated that insect-host plant diet has an important effect on nematode foraging, infectivity and reproduction. However, negative host plant effects, might be overcome through directed selection. We propose that host plant species should be considered when designing biocontrol programs using EPNs. PMID:26896698

  10. Treatment of a sulfate-rich groundwater contaminated with perchloroethene in a hydroponic plant root mat filter and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland at pilot-scale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Kuschk, Peter; Paschke, Heidrun; Kstner, Matthias; Mller, Jochen A; Kser, Heinz

    2014-12-01

    A hydroponic plant root mat filter (HPRMF) was compared over 7months with a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF CW) regarding the removal of perchloroethene (PCE) (about 2 mg L(-1)) from a sulfate- (850 mg L(-1)) and ammonia-rich (50 mg L(-1)) groundwater with a low TOC content. At a mean area specific inflow PCE load of 56 mg m(-2)d(-1), after 4m from inlet, the mean PCE removal during summer time reached 97% in the HPRMF and almost 100% in the HSSF CW. Within the first 2m in the HSSF CW metabolites like dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride and ethene accumulated, their concentrations decreased further along the flow path. Moreover, the tidal operation (a 7-d cycle) in the HSSFCW decreased the accumulation of PCE metabolites within the first 1m of the bed. The carcinogenic degradation metabolite vinyl chloride was not detected in the HPRMF. The smaller accumulation of the degradation metabolites in the HPRMF correlated with its higher redox potential. It can be concluded from this study that HPRMF appears an interesting alternative for special water treatment tasks and that tidal operation will show some positive effects on the removal of the accumulated PCE metabolites in HSSF CW. PMID:25025478

  11. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. PMID:24703526

  12. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Corra Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; Souza, Tatiana da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Sewage treatment yields sludge, which is often used as a soil amendment in agriculture and crop production. Although the sludge contains elevated concentrations of macro and micronutrients, high levels of inorganic and organic compounds with genotoxic and mutagenic properties are present in sludge. Application of sludge in agriculture is a pathway for direct contact of crops to toxic chemicals. The objective of this study was to compile information related to the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge in different plant species. In addition, data are presented on toxicological effects in animals fed with plants grown in soils supplemented with sewage sludge. Despite the benefits of using sewage sludge as organic fertilizer, the data showcased in this review suggest that this residue can induce genetic damage in plants. This review alerts potential risks to health outcomes after the intake of food cultivated in sewage sludge-amended soils. PMID:26643763

  13. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediationusing plants to remove toxinsis an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Korean plants on HIV-1 activities.

    PubMed

    Min, B S; Kim, Y H; Tomiyama, M; Nakamura, N; Miyashiro, H; Otake, T; Hattori, M

    2001-09-01

    In the search for novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) agents from natural sources, 49 MeOH extracts of Korean plants were screened for their inhibitory effects against RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and HIV-1 protease, and anti-HIV-1 activity. Regarding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Cornus kousa (stem and leaf), Limonium tetragonum (root) and Mallotus japonicus (stem) showed significant inhibitory activity on RT activity with 50% inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of 8.9, 6.3, 7.5 and 11.9 microg/mL, respectively, whereas Agrimonia pilosa was also active against RNase H activity (IC(50) = 98.4 microg/mL). Four plants, namely Agrimonia pilosa (whole plant), Atractylodes japonica (root), Clematis heracleifolia (whole plant) and Syneilesis palmata (whole plant), were appreciably active (<35%) against recombinant HIV-1 protease at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Crinum asiaticum var. japonicum (root) showed significant anti-HIV-1 activity (ED(50) = 12.5 microg/mL) with a favourable SI value of 16. PMID:11536375

  15. Possible effect of biotechnology on plant gene pools in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid developments in biotechnology have made great contributions to the study of plant gene pools. The application of in vitro methods in freeze storage and DNA protection techniques in fast production studies has made major advances. From that aspect, biotechnology is an indispensable means for the protection of plant gene pools, which includes the insurance of sustainable agriculture and development of species. Besides all the positive developments, one of the primary risks posed by the uncontrolled spreading of genetically modified organisms is the possibility for other non-target organisms to be negatively affected. Genes of plant origin should be given priority in this type of studies by taking into consideration such negative effects that may result in disruption of ecological balance and damage to plant genetic pools. Turkey, due to its ecological conditions and history, has a very important position in terms of plant gene pools. This richness ought to be protected without corrupting its natural quality and natural evolution process in order to provide the sources of species that will be required for future sustainable agricultural applications. Thus, attention should be paid to the use of biotechnological methods, which play an important role especially in the protection and use of local and original plant gene pools. PMID:26019612

  16. Environments for Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

  17. Contrasting Effects of Different Mammalian Herbivores on Sagebrush Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Veblen, Kari E.; Nehring, Kyle C.; McGlone, Christopher M.; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg’s blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). PMID:25671428

  18. Contrasting effects of different mammalian herbivores on sagebrush plant communities.

    PubMed

    Veblen, Kari E; Nehring, Kyle C; McGlone, Christopher M; Ritchie, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Herbivory by both grazing and browsing ungulates shapes the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, and both types of herbivory have been implicated in major ecosystem state changes. Despite the ecological consequences of differences in diets and feeding habits among herbivores, studies that experimentally distinguish effects of grazing from spatially co-occurring, but temporally segregated browsing are extremely rare. Here we use a set of long-term exclosures in northern Utah, USA, to determine how domestic grazers vs. wild ungulate herbivores (including browsers and mixed feeders) affect sagebrush-dominated plant communities that historically covered ~62 million ha in North America. We sampled plant community properties and found that after 22 years grazing and browsing elicited perceptible changes in overall plant community composition and distinct responses by individual plant species. In the woody layer of the plant community, release from winter and spring wild ungulate herbivory increased densities of larger Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, ssp. wyomingensis) at the expense of small sagebrush, while disturbance associated with either cattle or wild ungulate activity alone was sufficient to increase bare ground and reduce cover of biological soil crusts. The perennial bunchgrass, bottlebrush squirretail (Elymus elymoides), responded positively to release from summer cattle grazing, and in turn appeared to competitively suppress another more grazing tolerant perennial grass, Sandberg's blue grass (Poa secunda). Grazing by domestic cattle also was associated with increased non-native species biomass. Together, these results illustrate that ungulate herbivory has not caused sagebrush plant communities to undergo dramatic state shifts; however clear, herbivore-driven shifts are evident. In a dry, perennial-dominated system where plant community changes can occur very slowly, our results provide insights into potential long-term trajectories of these plant communities under different large herbivore regimes. Our results can be used to guide long-term management strategies for sagebrush systems and improve habitat for endemic wildlife species such as sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). PMID:25671428

  19. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  20. EFFECTS OF OZONE ON PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Foliar injury to vegetation is one of the earliest and most obvious manifestations of O3 injury. However, the O3 effects are not limited to visible injury; impacts can range from reduced plant growth, decreased yield, changes in crop quality and alterations in susceptibility to a...

  1. Construction of Effective Electromagnetic Currents for Two-Body Quasipotential Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitri Krioukov

    1998-09-01

    A systematic algebraic approach for the construction of effective electro-magnetic currents consistent with relativistic two-body quasipotential equations is presented. This approach generalizes the Mandelstam formalism and applies it to a generic quasipotential reduction method. The use of Ward-Takahashi identities for the effective currents guarantees conservation of current matrix elements involving any combination of bound and scattering states. This approach is shown to reproduce previous results for current matrix elements for the particular cases of the Gross and Blankenbecler-Sugar equations. A generic method of truncation of the quasipotential effective current with respect to the number of boson exchanges is introduced.

  2. Rapid construction of a plant RNA interference expression vector for hairpin RNA-mediated targeting using a PCR-based method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Ren; Xiong, Xingyao; Wang, Tian-Xiang; Lü, Jing-Jing; Chen, Shou-Yi; Wang, Hua-Fang

    2009-12-01

    Here we describe a rapid and efficient PCR-mediated ligation protocol for constructing a plant RNA interference vector to express long hairpin RNA (hpRNA). In the protocol, four oligonucleotide primers were used and three rounds of PCRs performed. The product of the first PCR was used as a megaprimer for the second PCR to generate a chimeric molecule with a gene-specific sequence and a spacer spliced together. The chimeric product could be used as another megaprimer for the third PCR to ligate another gene-specific sequence to the other end of the spacer, but in the reverse orientation. Thus, within a few days, two gene-specific sequences could be ligated to a spacer in the antisense and sense orientations using the PCR-mediated ligation method, without reliance on restriction cleavage and DNA ligation. The ligated product could be inserted into the plant expression vector for plant transformation. The transcribed RNA formed hpRNA constructs containing sense/antisense arms for specific gene targeting. Overexpression of hpRNA constructed by a Medicago truncatula xyloglucan endotransglycosylase gene retarded the growth of transgenic M. truncatula roots. PMID:19754269

  3. Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

  4. Universal construction of controlled-unitary gates using dynamical decoupling and the quantum Zeno effect

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Shojun; Soeda, Akihito; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-04

    We present two new algorithms that universally construct a quantum circuit approximating a controlled-U(t) up to a global phase factor of U(t), denoted by Λ{sub θ}U(t), where U(t) = e{sup −iHt} is the unitary evolution operator of an unknown Hamiltonian H of the system, and is given as a black box with tunable parameter t. We show that it is possible to approximately construct Λ{sub θ}U(t) with arbitrarily high accuracy. This algorithm is based on the dynamical decoupling effect [1]. If another black box consisting of a time-inverted version of U(t), namely U(−t), is also available we can implement Λ{sub θ}U(t) exactly with arbitrarily high success probability. This algorithm is based on the quantum Zeno effect.

  5. Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Barnard, Neal D

    2009-10-01

    Dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke. Current guidelines recommend diet as first-line therapy for patients with elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. However, what constitutes an optimal dietary regimen remains a matter of controversy. Large prospective trials have demonstrated that populations following plant-based diets, particularly vegetarian and vegan diets, are at lower risk for ischemic heart disease mortality. The investigators therefore reviewed the published scientific research to determine the effectiveness of plant-based diets in modifying plasma lipid concentrations. Twenty-seven randomized controlled and observational trials were included. Of the 4 types of plant-based diets considered, interventions testing a combination diet (a vegetarian or vegan diet combined with nuts, soy, and/or fiber) demonstrated the greatest effects (up to 35% plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction), followed by vegan and ovolactovegetarian diets. Interventions allowing small amounts of lean meat demonstrated less dramatic reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, plant-based dietary interventions are effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations. PMID:19766762

  6. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW. PMID:26247753

  7. High-School Students' Reasoning while Constructing Plant Growth Models in a Computer-Supported Educational Environment. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergazaki, Marida; Komis, Vassilis; Zogza, Vassiliki

    2005-01-01

    This paper highlights specific aspects of high-school students' reasoning while coping with a modeling task of plant growth in a computer-supported educational environment. It is particularly concerned with the modeling levels ('macro-phenomenological' and 'micro-conceptual' level) activated by peers while exploring plant growth and with their

  8. CONSTRUCTION OF INFECTIOUS CLONES FOR DOUBLE STRANDED DNA VIRUSES OF PLANTS USING CITRUS YELLOW MOSAIC CIRUS AS AN EXAMPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses of plants are believed to be plant pararetroviruses. Their genome is replicated by reverse transcription of a larger than unit length terminally redundant RNA transcript of the viral genomic DNA using the virus-encoded replicase. In order to produce a cloned, infe...

  9. An investigation of a quantum probability model for the constructive effect of affective evaluation.

    PubMed

    White, Lee C; Barqu-Duran, Albert; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2016-01-13

    The idea that choices can have a constructive effect has received a great deal of empirical support. The act of choosing appears to influence subsequent preferences for the options available. Recent research has proposed a cognitive model based on quantum probability (QP), which suggests that whether or not a participant provides an affective evaluation for a positively or negatively valenced stimulus can also be constructive and so, for example, influence the affective evaluation of a second oppositely valenced stimulus. However, there are some outstanding methodological questions in relation to this previous research. This paper reports the results of three experiments designed to resolve these questions. Experiment 1, using a binary response format, provides partial support for the interaction predicted by the QP model; and Experiment 2, which controls for the length of time participants have to respond, fully supports the QP model. Finally, Experiment 3 sought to determine whether the key effect can generalize beyond affective judgements about visual stimuli. Using judgements about the trustworthiness of well-known people, the predictions of the QP model were confirmed. Together, these three experiments provide further support for the QP model of the constructive effect of simple evaluations. PMID:26621993

  10. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to WMF show the Ca2 + oversaturation both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged plant exposures to WMF may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ level. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2 + homeostasis. The understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between WMF and biological systems are complex and still deserve strong efforts, particular addressed to basic principles of coupling between field energy and biomolecules.

  11. Interactive Effects of Nutrient and Mechanical Stresses on Plant Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. Methods An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Key Results Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. Conclusions These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species. PMID:17913725

  12. Effect of lead and cadmium on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alka; Kumar, Chandra Shekhar; Agarwal, Abha

    2013-11-01

    Absorption of different concentrations of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) by aquatic plant Hydrilla vertcillato was measured during winter season for two different durations i.e. 3 days and 7 days. Effect of Pb and Cd was evaluated by analyzing various parameters such as biomass, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein, nitrate reductase activity, SOD (super oxide dismutase) and heavy metal uptake. Increase in biomass, total chlorophyll, protein and nitrate reductase activity was noticed at lower concentration of both metals whereas at higher metal concentrations of Pb and Cd, decrease in these parameters was observed i.e. it was concentration and duration dependent. Increase in carotenoid and SOD levels at high concentration of Pb and Cd indicated its ability of stress tolerance. Accumulation of Pb by test plant was found to be more than Cd at low concentration. Higher concentration of Cd and Pb caused toxicity which resulted in reduced plant growth and physiological activities. PMID:24555332

  13. Effects of biogas digestate on soil properties and plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyás, Miklós; Füleky, György

    2013-04-01

    Farming methods and food industries generate large amounts manure and other useful raw materials that need safe disposal. Following the international trends great numbers of biogas plants were opened during the last few years in Hungary. However this issue presents a number of new questions, including the subsequent use of anaerobic fermentation residues. So far we have only limited information about it's agricultural applications. Farmers and authorities are very skeptic because feedstocks are very different so the endproduct will be different, too. However, this endproduct can be applied as fertilizer. The aim of our work is to determine the effects of this product in plant-soil system. Digestate contains high amount of nitrogen which is present mainly ammonium form and this form can cause root depression and lower germination rates. Pot experiments were established with different rates of nitrogen content (80 kg ha-1N, 120 kg ha-1N, 170 kg ha-1N, and control). Maximum rates were determine by the Nitrate Directive. Soil moisture was 60% of maximum of water capacity. Digestate and distilled water were homogenized and added to 200g loamy soil. Rye-grass (Lolium perenne) was applied as a test plant. Treatments were randomized design and 10 replications. Three pot from each treatment were used to observe the germination and progress of plants. We investigated the effect of the digestate on nitrate- and ammonium-ion content of soil. The amount of nitrate- and ammonium-N of soil was determine with distillation. The ammonium-N levels increased with the doses on the first day but on the sixth-seventh day this amount totally falled down, because NH4-N transformed to NO3-N. Nitrate level increased continuously untill the tenth day, later decreased as the result of the plant and microbes consumption. The increasing doses inhibited the germination and root development of the plants. We experienced fewer roots, which were different form control.

  14. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, Mara Jos

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII. PMID:26360248

  15. Differential Effect of Plant Lipids on Membrane Organization

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Kevin; Mongrand, Sbastien; Beney, Laurent; Simon-Plas, Franoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The high diversity of the plant lipid mixture raises the question of their respective involvement in the definition of membrane organization. This is particularly the case for plant plasma membrane, which is enriched in specific lipids, such as free and conjugated forms of phytosterols and typical phytosphingolipids, such as glycosylinositolphosphoceramides. This question was here addressed extensively by characterizing the order level of membrane from vesicles prepared using various plant lipid mixtures and labeled with an environment-sensitive probe. Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments showed that among major phytosterols, campesterol exhibits a stronger ability than ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol to order model membranes. Multispectral confocal microscopy, allowing spatial analysis of membrane organization, demonstrated accordingly the strong ability of campesterol to promote ordered domain formation and to organize their spatial distribution at the membrane surface. Conjugated sterol forms, alone and in synergy with free sterols, exhibit a striking ability to order membrane. Plant sphingolipids, particularly glycosylinositolphosphoceramides, enhanced the sterol-induced ordering effect, emphasizing the formation and increasing the size of sterol-dependent ordered domains. Altogether, our results support a differential involvement of free and conjugated phytosterols in the formation of ordered domains and suggest that the diversity of plant lipids, allowing various local combinations of lipid species, could be a major contributor to membrane organization in particular through the formation of sphingolipid-sterol interacting domains. PMID:25575593

  16. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII. PMID:26360248

  17. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  18. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Gonzlez-Espndola, Luis Angel; Domnguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; Garca-Lujan, Concepcin; Gonzlez-Martnez, Marisela del Rocio; Gmez-Snchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castilln, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Miln, Pedro; Garca-Carranc, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

  19. Antimony contamination and its effect on Trifolium plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Isabel; Barceló, Juan; Bech, Jaume; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Antimony is not an essential element and soil Sb contents usually are low.However, soil contamination by Sb has increased in the last years due to the human activities (combustion of fossil fuels, mining, waste incineration, smelting, shooting and road traffic). The main objective of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of antimony (KSb(OH)6) in order to evaluate the effect on growth and Sb uptake on Trifolium pratense cv. Milvus and Trifolium repens. Our results show that Sb accumulated both in roots and shoots of clover without any negative effect on root growth, cellular viability and lipid peroxidation. This absence of toxicity sympthoms in clover plants could be very dangerous because Sb can be inadvertedly incorporated into the trophic chain causing toxic effects both in animals and humans. The absence of toxic effects on plants does not seem to be due to detoxification by phytochelatins because the use of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine (BSO) did not enhance Sb toxicity to plants. (Supported by the Spanish MICINN project BFU2010-14873)

  20. Plant-Based and Plant-Rich Diet Patterns during Gestation: Beneficial Effects and Possible Shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Pistollato, Francesca; Sumalla Cano, Sandra; Elio, Iñaki; Masias Vergara, Manuel; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-09-01

    Environmental and lifestyle factors are known to play an important role during gestation, determining newborns' health status and influencing their risk of being subject to certain noncommunicable diseases later in life. In particular, maternal nutritional patterns characterized by a low intake of plant-derived foods could increase the risk of gestation-related issues, such as preeclampsia and pregravid obesity, increase genotoxicant susceptibility, and contribute to the onset of pediatric diseases. In particular, the risk of pediatric wheeze, diabetes, neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and some pediatric tumors seems to be reduced by maternal intake of adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, and selected antioxidants. Nevertheless, plant-based diets, like any other diet, if improperly balanced, could be deficient in some specific nutrients that are particularly relevant during gestation, such as n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids, vitamin B-12, iron, zinc, and iodine, possibly affecting the offspring's health state. Here we review the scientific literature in this field, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, and highlight protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible issues related to maternal plant-based diets. PMID:26374180

  1. Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction: new perspectives for restoration economy, and development: the Belo Monte Power Plant case study.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, Jg; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, Jem

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Impact Assessment of reservoir construction can be viewed as a new strategic perspective for the economic development of a region. Based on the principles of a watershed approach a interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary systemic view including biogeophysiographical, economic and socio environmental studies the new vision of a EIA provides a basic substratum for the restoration economy and an advanced model for the true development much well ahead of the modernization aspects of the project of a reservoir construction. PMID:26691071

  2. An affinity-effect relationship for microbial communities in plant-soil feedback loops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-soil feedback involving soil microorganisms can regulate plant populations. To participate in plant-soil feedback, microorganisms must display an affinity for plant species, and they must produce consistent effects on plant growth. We tested the validity and strength of microbial affinity-effe...

  3. A comparative study of the effects of constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, H.; Rezasefat, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Dirks, J.-H.; Eshghi, Sh.; Shafiei, A.; Mostofi, T. Mirzababaie; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Although wings of insects show a large variation in morphology, they are all made from a network of irregular veins interconnected through membranous areas. Depending on their shape, size, and position, wing veins are usually divided into three different groups: longitudinal veins, cross-veins and ambient veins. The veins together with the membrane and some other elements such as spines, nodus and pterostigma can be considered as the wing's "constructional elements". In spite of rather extensive literature on dragonfly wing structure, the role of each of these elements in determining the wing's function remains mostly unknown. As this question is difficult to answer in vivo using biomechanical experiments on actual wings, this study was undertaken to reveal the effects of the constructional elements on the mechanical behaviour of dragonfly wings by applying numerical simulations. An image processing technique was used to develop 12 finite element models of the insect wings with different constructional elements. The mechanical behaviour of these models was then simulated under normal and shear stresses due to tension, bending and torsion. A free vibration analysis was also performed to determine the resonant frequencies and the mode shapes of the models. For the first time, a quantitative comparison was carried out between the mechanical effects selectively caused by different elements. Our results suggest that the complex interactions of veins, membranes and corrugations may considerably affect the dynamic deformation of the insect wings during flight.

  4. Effects of Hypoxia on Animal Burrow Construction and Consequent Effects on Sediment Redox Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies investigating the effects of hypoxia on benthic infauna and consequent effects on sediment chemistry provide only correlative results from the field. In order to establish causation and isolate effects of hypoxia on individual species, we conducted a laboratory ...

  5. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  6. Effects of aflatoxin on seedling growth and ultrastructure in plants.

    PubMed

    Crisan, E V

    1973-12-01

    Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B(1) on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 mug of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 mug of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B(1) exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. PMID:4767301

  7. Effects of Aflatoxin on Seeding Growth and Ultrastructure in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Eli V.

    1973-01-01

    Nineteen plants belonging to 11 species of the cruciferae were studied to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 on seed germination and seedling development. Germination was not inhibited in any test organism at a concentration of 100 ?g of aflatoxin per ml of agar substrate. Inhibition of elongation of the hypocotyls and roots in the species studied varied from 29 to 93% and from 22 to 91% in the respective tissues. Lepidium sativum was the most susceptible plant studied and exhibited the maximal inhibitory response noted above at concentrations of 8 ?g of aflatoxin per ml. The ultrastructure of Lepidium root cells treated with crystalline aflatoxin B1 exhibited morphological changes characteristic of those found in aflatoxin-treated animal cells. In addition to changes in the cytoplasmic organelles, numerous ring-shaped nucleoli with prominent nucleolar caps were produced. The effect of aflatoxin on plant cells is compared with similar effects induced by actinomycin D. Seed germination and seedling development is discussed in relation to the effects of both compounds on deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid biosynthesis. Images PMID:4767301

  8. Effective field theory and projective construction for Z{sub k} parafermion fractional quantum Hall states

    SciTech Connect

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang

    2010-04-15

    The projective construction is a powerful approach to deriving the bulk and edge field theories of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states and yields an understanding of non-Abelian FQH states in terms of the simpler integer quantum Hall states. Here we show how to apply the projective construction to the Z{sub k} parafermion (Laughlin/Moore-Read/Read-Rezayi) FQH states, which occur at filling fraction nu=k/(kM+2). This allows us to derive the bulk low-energy effective field theory for these topological phases, which is found to be a Chern-Simons theory at level 1 with a U(M)xSp(2k) gauge field. This approach also helps us understand the non-Abelian quasiholes in terms of holes of the integer quantum Hall states.

  9. Preliminary study of the effect of pumped-storage plant operation on zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Tseyeb, Y.Y.; Zhdanova, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hydromechanical effect of hydroelectric stations on zooplankton is customarily regarded as a constantly acting and comparatively harmless factor, since its destruction is inevitable when water masses are passed through hydroelectric stations, but its capacity for restoration is high (i.e., destruction of the zooplankton of the forebay is compensated by its production in the after bay). It is not known how correct such an opinion is, or what is the true balance of losses and reproduction of zooplankton in the forebays and after bays of hydroelectric stations. However, hydroelectric plants of a new type, pumped-storage plants, have been constructed in recent years and others are planned for the Dnieper reservoirs. The operational principle and purpose of these plants is that they employ special vertical turbine-electric pumps that pump water at night from the reservoirs into pumped-storage facilities at high levels, and then release this water during daytime peaks through pipes to the turbines that generate additional electric power. Such pumped-storage plants are planned, in particular, as part of the Danube-Dnieper water economy complex and for some reservoirs in the North European regions of the USSR.

  10. Effects of host-plant population size and plant sex on a specialist leaf-miner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañuelos, María-José; Kollmann, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    Animal population density has been related to resource patch size through various hypotheses such as those derived from island biogeography and resource concentration theory. This theoretical framework can be also applied to plant-herbivore interactions, and it can be modified by the sex of the host-plant, and density-dependent relationships. Leaf-miners are specialised herbivores that leave distinct traces on infested leaves in the form of egg scars, mines, signs of predation and emergence holes. This allows the life cycle of the insect to be reconstructed and the success at the different stages to be estimated. The main stages of the leaf-miner Phytomyza ilicis were recorded in eleven populations of the evergreen host Ilex aquifolium in Denmark. Survival rates were calculated and related to population size, sex of the host plant, and egg and mine densities. Host population size was negatively related to leaf-miner prevalence, with larger egg and mine densities in small populations. Percentage of eggs hatching and developing into mines, and percentage of adult flies emerging from mines also differed among host populations, but were not related to population size or host cover. Feeding punctures left by adults were marginally more frequent on male plants, whereas egg scars and mines were more common on females. Overall survival rate from egg stage to adult emergence was higher on female plants. Egg density was negatively correlated with hatching, while mine density was positively correlated with emergence of the larvae. The inverse effects of host population size were not in line with predictions based on island biogeography and resource concentration theory. We discuss how a thorough knowledge of the immigration behaviour of this fly might help to understand the patterns found.

  11. Large-Scale SNP Discovery and Genotyping for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Tea Plant Using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Li, Chun-Fang; Wang, Rong-Kai; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic maps are important tools in plant genomics and breeding. The present study reports the large-scale discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic map construction in tea plant. We developed a total of 6,042 valid SNP markers using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and subsequently mapped them into the previous framework map. The final map contained 6,448 molecular markers, distributing on fifteen linkage groups corresponding to the number of tea plant chromosomes. The total map length was 3,965 cM, with an average inter-locus distance of 1.0 cM. This map is the first SNP-based reference map of tea plant, as well as the most saturated one developed to date. The SNP markers and map resources generated in this study provide a wealth of genetic information that can serve as a foundation for downstream genetic analyses, such as the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), map-based cloning, marker-assisted selection, and anchoring of scaffolds to facilitate the process of whole genome sequencing projects for tea plant. PMID:26035838

  12. Effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yazawa, Satoru; Nakagawa, Yasutaka; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2015-04-15

    Alkyl parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products. However, the mode of action of these chemicals has not been assessed thoroughly. In this study, we determined the effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi. All the fungi tested, were susceptible to parabens. The effect of linear alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi was related to the length of the alkyl chain. In addition, the antifungal activity was correlated with the paraben-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. The antifungal activity of linear alkyl parabens likely originates, at least in part, from their ability to inhibit the membrane respiratory chain, especially mitochondrial complex II. Additionally, we determined that some alkyl parabens inhibit Alternaria brassicicola infection of cabbage. PMID:25791450

  13. Magnetic fluids effect upon growth processes in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, F.

    1999-07-01

    The metabolic processes of plants growth and development take place according to some organic rules which are specific to their genetic potential. These processes may exhibit modifications of intensity, rhythm, sense, under the influence of the environmental conditions of agricultural systems, through certain factors and bioregulators artificially introduced by man. The results of some investigations regarding effects of biocompatible magnetic fluids (LMW 100 G) on the vegetal organism's (growth, development, fructifying, the level and quality of the yield precocity) are presented.

  14. Climate change effects on plant biomass alter dominance patterns and community evenness in an experimental old-field ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Kardol, Paul; Campany, Courtney E; Souza, Lara; Norby, Richard J; Weltzin, Jake; Classen, Aimee T

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric and climatic change can alter plant biomass production and plant community composition. However, we know little about how climate change-induced alterations in biomass production affect plant community composition. To better understand how climate change will alter both individual plant species and community biomass we manipulated atmospheric [CO2], air temperature and precipitation in a constructed old-field ecosystem. Specifically, we compared the responses of dominant and subdominant species to our treatments, and explored how changes in plant dominance patterns alter community evenness over two years. Our study resulted in four major findings: 1) All treatments, elevated [CO2], warming and increased precipitation, increased plant biomass and the effects were additive rather than interactive, 2) Plant species differed in their response to the treatments, resulting in shifts in the proportional biomass of individual species, which altered the plant community composition; however, the plant community response was largely driven by the responses of the dominant species, 3) Precipitation explained most of the variation in plant community composition among treatments, and 4) Changes in precipitation caused a shift in the dominant species proportional biomass that resulted in higher community evenness in the dry relative to wet treatments. Interestingly, compositional and evenness responses of the subdominant community to the treatments did not always follow the responses of the whole plant community. Our data suggest that changes in plant dominance patterns and community evenness are an important part of community responses to climate change, and generally, that compositional shifts can have important consequences for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Selective Effect of Pesticides on Plant-A Review.

    PubMed

    Parween, Talat; Jan, Sumira; Mahmooduzzafar, Sumira; Fatma, Tasneem; Siddiqui, Zahid Hameed

    2016-01-01

    This review represents systematic and integrated picture of pesticide exposure to plant and its effect on growth and metabolism. Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Biological chemical free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH, and Lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the application of pesticides effect early from germination to growth of the plant, leading to alteration in biochemical, physiological and different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants which ultimately affect the yield and resulted in residues in plant, vegetables, and fruits. PMID:25216296

  16. Effect on growth and nickel content of cabbage plants watered with nickel solutions.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B

    1979-07-01

    Chinese cabbage plants were watered with different concentrations of NiCl2 solutions and the effect on growth and uptake of nickel in the plants were studied. No toxic effect on plant growth was observed. A higher content of nickel was found in the plants exposed to more concentrated nickel solutions. Nickel contamination and its clinical consequences are discussed. PMID:498768

  17. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the evolution process, Earth's magnetic field (MF, about 50 μT) was a natural component of the environment for living organisms. Biological objects, flying on planned long-term interplanetary missions, would experience much weaker magnetic fields, since galactic MF is known to be 0.1-1 nT. However, the role of weak magnetic fields and their influence on functioning of biological organisms are still insufficiently understood, and is actively studied. Numerous experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in weak magnetic field have shown that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during early germination stages in comparison with control. The proliferative activity and cell reproduction in meristem of plant roots are reduced in weak magnetic field. Cell reproductive cycle slows down due to the expansion of G 1 phase in many plant species (and of G 2 phase in flax and lentil roots), while other phases of cell cycle remain relatively stabile. In plant cells exposed to weak magnetic field, the functional activity of genome at early pre-replicate period is shown to decrease. Weak magnetic field causes intensification of protein synthesis and disintegration in plant roots. At ultrastructural level, changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells were observed in pea roots exposed to weak magnetic field. Mitochondria were found to be very sensitive to weak magnetic field: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix becomes electron-transparent, and cristae reduce. Cytochemical studies indicate that cells of plant roots exposed to weak magnetic field show Ca 2+ over-saturation in all organelles and in cytoplasm unlike the control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to weak magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

  18. Lead stress effects on physiobiochemical activities of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Rakesh Singh; Gautam, Madhu; Sengar, Rajesh Singh; Garg, Sanjay Kumar; Sengar, Kalpana; Chaudhary, Reshu

    2008-01-01

    Lead is a metallic pollutant emanating from various environmental sources including industrial wastes, combustion of fossil fuels, and use of agrochemicals. Lead may exist in the atmosphere as dusts, fumes, mists, and vapors, and in soil as a mineral. Soils along roadsides are rich in lead because vehicles burn leaded gasoline, which contributes to environmental lead pollution. Other important sources of lead pollution are geological weathering, industrial processing of ores and minerals, leaching of lead from solid wastes, and animal and human excreta. Lead is nondegradable, readily enters the food chain, and can subsequently endanger human and animal health. Lead is one of the most important environment pollutants and deserves the increasing attention it has received in recent decades. The present effort was undertaken to review lead stress effects on the physiobiochemical activity of higher plants. Lead has gained considerable attention as a potent heavy metal pollutant because of growing anthropogenic pressure on the environment. Lead-contaminated soils show a sharp decline in crop productivity. Lead is absorbed by plants mainly through the root system and in minor amounts through the leaves. Within the plants, lead accumulates primarily in roots, but some is translocated to aerial plant parts. Soil pH, soil particle size, cation-exchange capacity, as well as root surface area, root exudation, and mycorrhizal transpiration rate affect the availability and uptake of lead by plants. Only a limited amount of lead is translocated from roots to other organs because there are natural plant barriers in the root endodermis. At lethal concentrations, this barrier is broken and lead may enter vascular tissues. Lead in plants may form deposits of various sizes, present mainly in intercellular spaces, cell walls, and vacuoles. Small deposits of this metal are also seen in the endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosome, and dictyosome-derived vesicles. After entering the cells, lead inhibits activities of many enzymes, upsets mineral nutrition and water balance, changes the hormonal status, and affects membrane structure and permeability. Visual, nonspecific symptoms of lead toxicity are stunted growth, chlorosis, and blackening of the root system. In most cases, lead inhibition of enzyme activities results from the interaction of the metal with enzyme -SH groups. The activities of metalloenzymes may decline as a consequence of displacement of an essential metal by lead from the active sites of the enzymes. Lead decreases the photosynthetic rate of plants by distorting chloroplast ultrastructure, diminishing chlorophyll synthesis, obstructing electron transport, and inhibiting activities of Calvin cycle enzymes. PMID:19025093

  19. DOE/EA-1517: Environmental Assessment for the Design and Construction of a Fuel Ethanol Plant, Jasper County, Indiana (April 2005)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-04-29

    Based on action by the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funding available to support a proposal by the Iroquois Bio-energy Company (IBEC), an Indiana limited liability company, to construct a fuel ethanol plant in Jasper County, Indiana (the proposed plant). Congress has acknowledged the merit of this project by providing specific funding through DOE. Consequently, DOE proposes to provide partial funding to IBEC to subsidize the design and construction of the proposed plant (the Proposed Action). In accordance with DOE and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementing regulations, DOE is required to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of DOE facilities, operations, and related funding decisions. The proposal to use Federal funds to support the project requires DOE to address NEPA requirements and related environmental documentation and permitting requirements. In compliance with NEPA (42 U.S.C. {section} 4321 et seq.) and DOE's NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR section 1021.330) and procedures, this environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Action and a No Action Alternative.

  20. Use of filler limestone and construction and demolition residues for remediating soils contaminated with heavy metals: an assessment by means of plant uptake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banegas, Ascension; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    A greenhouse trial was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (lettuce, broccoli and alfalfa), different parts of which are destined for human and animal consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). The plants were cultivated in four types of soil, one uncontaminated (T1), one soil collected in the surrounding area of Sierra Minera (T2), the third being remediated with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (T3) and the four remediated with filler limestone (T4). To determine the metal content, soil samples were first ground to a fine powder using an agate ball mill. Fresh vegetable samples were separated into root and aboveground biomass and then lyophilized. The DTPA-extractable content was also determined to calculate the bioavailable amount of metal. Finally, the translocation factor (TF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were calculated. Arsenic levels were obtained by using atomic fluorescence spectrometry with an automated continuous flow hydride generation (HG-AFS) spectrometer and Cd, Pb and Zn was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Samples of the leached water were also obtained and analyzed. According to our results, the retention of the studied elements varies with the type of plant and is strongly decreased by the incorporation of filler limestone and/or construction and demolition residues to the soils. This practice represents a suitable way to reduce the risk posed to the biota by the presence of high levels of heavy metal in soil.

  1. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. PMID:25776277

  2. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-06-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. PMID:25776277

  3. Wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleteduranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, site.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11990 (''Protection of Wetlands'') and DOE regulations for implementing this Executive Order as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements]), to evaluate potential impacts to wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Portsmouth site. Approximately 0.02 acre (0.009 ha) of a 0.08-acre (0.03-ha) palustrine emergent wetland would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material during facility construction at Location A. Portions of this wetland that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime because of the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation, and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Construction at Locations B or C would not result in direct impacts to wetlands. However, the hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. The impacts at Location A may potentially be avoided by an alternative routing of the entrance road, or mitigation may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the State of Ohio. Unavoidable impacts to isolated wetlands may require an Isolated Wetlands Permit from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor for the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found in this part of Ohio, which in many cases involve previously disturbed habitats.

  4. Effects of Temperature and Plant Carbon Supply on Soil Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easter, S. B.; Phillips, C.; Bond, B.

    2008-12-01

    Soil respiration by microbes and plants is the largest source of CO2 efflux from land to the atmosphere, and it is strongly controlled by temperature. Studies in northern temperate forests have reported a wide range in seasonal temperature sensitivity values (Q10s), and some evidence suggests that this variability may be related in part to the seasonality of plant carbon supply and whether trees are evergreen or deciduous. However, relatively little work attempts to separate the individual effects of temperature and plant carbon supply on soil respiration. In this study we examined the impacts of plant carbon supply on soil respiration at seasonal and daily timescales by measuring respiration rates in areas where roots were excluded as well as neighboring areas where roots were present. We were interested in 1) whether the presence of roots affected the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration, and 2) whether evidence for canopy controls on CO2 production were apparent in areas where roots were present. Toward this effort, we gathered 18 months of respiration data in a coniferous forest in the Central Oregon Cascades (H.J. Andrews LTER). To examine the effects of plant carbon inputs, we excluded plant roots from areas by pounding 25cm diameter PVC pipe to 50cm depth. Using survey respiration measurements taken every 2-4 weeks, we found that seasonal Q10s in bulk soil and inside of root exclosures did not differ significantly. Hence, temperature sensitivity did not differ between soil with roots and without roots over seasonal time scales at this Pacific Northwest Forest. Respiration was also measured using continuous LI-8100 data to better understand controls at shorter time steps. In contrast to our annual and seasonal data, soil respiration did not vary synchronously with temperature at the diel scale. To investigate other potential controls of diel soil respiration, we examined correlations between soil respiration and a driver of photosynthesis, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We found that in bulk soil, soil respiration correlated most strongly with PAR 3-days prior, whereas in soil where roots were excluded there were no strong positive correlations, suggesting different controls on heterotrophic respiration. The correlation between 3-day prior PAR and respiration in soils with roots suggests that plant physiological variables may be relevant in determining efflux rates on daily timescales.

  5. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a mid-Atlantic highlands watershed, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Chen, Yushun; Viadero, Stuart C.; Wei, Xinchao; Hedrick, Lara B.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (19972006) was conducted at upstream (as control,n= 3) and downstream (as impact,n= 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and pairedttests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region.

  6. Effects of highway construction on stream water quality and macroinvertebrate condition in a Mid-Atlantic Highlands watershed, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Y.; Viadero, R.C., Jr.; Wei, X.; Fortney, Ronald H.; Hedrick, Lara B.; Welsh, S.A.; Anderson, James T.; Lin, L.-S.

    2009-01-01

    Refining best management practices (BMPs) for future highway construction depends on a comprehensive understanding of environmental impacts from current construction methods. Based on a before-after-control impact (BACI) experimental design, long-term stream monitoring (1997-2006) was conducted at upstream (as control, n = 3) and downstream (as impact, n = 6) sites in the Lost River watershed of the Mid-Atlantic Highlands region, West Virginia. Monitoring data were analyzed to assess impacts of during and after highway construction on 15 water quality parameters and macroinvertebrate condition using the West Virginia stream condition index (WVSCI). Principal components analysis (PCA) identified regional primary water quality variances, and paired t tests and time series analysis detected seven highway construction-impacted water quality parameters which were mainly associated with the second principal component. In particular, impacts on turbidity, total suspended solids, and total iron during construction, impacts on chloride and sulfate during and after construction, and impacts on acidity and nitrate after construction were observed at the downstream sites. The construction had statistically significant impacts on macroinvertebrate index scores (i.e., WVSCI) after construction, but did not change the overall good biological condition. Implementing BMPs that address those construction-impacted water quality parameters can be an effective mitigation strategy for future highway construction in this highlands region. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatio-temporal variation of stream-aquifer interaction: Effect of a weir construction in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonju; Koo, Min-Ho; Kim, Kisu; Kim, Yongcheol

    2015-04-01

    The Four Major Rivers Restoration Project was conducted to secure sufficient water resources, introduce comprehensive flood control measures, and improve water quality while restore the river ecosystem in Korea. The dredging of river bed and the installation of 16 weirs were done in Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong rivers from late 2010 to early 2012 as a part of the project. Groundwater data obtained from 213 groundwater monitoring wells near the four major rivers were used to analyze the impacts of weir construction on the nearby groundwater flow system. The groundwater level and chemical characteristics were analyzed to investigate how the groundwater flow system and water quality changed after the weir construction. The results showed that groundwater level rose immediately following the rise of stream stage after the weir construction. Also, the hydrologic condition of the stream in some upland of the weirs was changed from a gaining to a losing stream. Consequently, the direction of groundwater flow was changed from perpendicular to parallel to the stream, and it swapped the groundwater in the downstream of the weir for the water recharged from the stream. Considering the results, some groundwater quality is expected to be changed and become similar to that of the stream, although the change has been not observed yet. Therefore, both further monitoring of the groundwater quality and hydrogeochemical analysis are required for quantitatively evaluating the effect of the weir.

  8. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  9. Mixing Construction, Demolition and Excavation Waste and Solid Waste Compost for the Derivation of a Planting Medium for Use in the Rehabilitation of Quarries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assaf, Eleni

    2015-04-01

    Lebanon's very high population density has been increasing since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s reaching 416.36 people per square kilometer. Furthermore, the influx of refugees from conflicts in the region has increased the resident population significantly. All these are exerting pressure on the country's natural resources, pushing the Lebanese to convert more forest and agricultural land into roads, buildings and houses. This has led to a building boom and rapid urbanization which in turn has created a demand for construction material - mainly rock, gravel, sand, etc. nearly all of which are locally acquired through quarrying to the tune of three million cubic meters annually. This boom has been interrupted by a war with Israel in 2006 which resulted in thousands of tonnes of debris. The increase in population has also led to an increase in solid waste generation with 1.57 million tonnes of solid waste generated in Lebanon per year. The combination of construction, demolition and excavation (CDE) waste along with the increase in solid waste generation has put a major stress on the country and on the management of its solid waste. Compounding this problem are the issues of quarries closure and rehabilitation and a decrease in forest and vegetative cover. The on-going research reported in this paper aims to provide an integrated solution to the stated problem by developing a "soil mix" derived from a mélange of the organic matter of the solid waste (compost), the CDE waste, and soil. Excavation and construction debris were ground to several sizes and mixed with compost and soil at different ratios. Replicates of these mixes and a set of control (regular soil) were used. In this mix, native and indicator plants are planted (in pots) from which the most productive mix will be selected for further testing at field level in later experiments. The plant species used are Mathiolla crassifolia, a native Lebanese plant and Zea mays (Corn), which is commonly used as an indicator plant due to its sensitivity to environmental conditions. To ensure sustainability and environmental friendliness of the mix, its physical and chemical characteristics are monitored and assessed. Preliminary results have shown successful growth of both corn and Mathiolla seedlings in the mixes with higher amounts of construction rubble and compost i.e. Rubble: Soil: Compost Ratio of 2:1:1 and 1:0:1. However treatments with no compost and with less quantities of rubble demonstrated the inability of the soil used to sustain plant growth alone (1:1:1 and 1:1:0). Last but not least, the control consisting of soil only ended up being the weakest mix with yellow corn leaves and small Mathiolla seedlings fifty days after planting and fertilizing. Additionally, soil analysis, rubble and compost analysis will be conducted. The samples will be tested for heavy metals, nutrient availability and values of pH and EC. Accordingly, success and failure to sustain plant growth will be justified and the most adequate mix for planting will be selected for conducting a field experiment to test the viability of the developed mix.

  10. Effect of diffusional mass transfer on the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in tropical climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Njau, K N; Gastory, L; Eshton, B; Katima, J H Y; Minja, R J A; Kimwaga, R; Shaaban, M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of mass transfer on the removal rate constants of BOD5, NH3, NO3 and TKN has been investigated in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) planted with Phragmites mauritianus. The plug flow model was assumed and the inlet and outlet concentrations were used to determine the observed removal rate constants. Mass transfer effects were studied by assessing the influence of interstitial velocity on pollutant removal rates in CW cells of different widths. The flow velocities varied between 3-46 m/d. Results indicate that the observed removal rate constants are highly influenced by the flow velocity. Correlation of dimensionless groups namely Reynolds Number (Re), Sherwood Number (Sh) and Schmidt Number (Sc) were applied and log-log plots of rate constants against velocity yielded straight lines with values beta = 0.87 for BOD5, 1.88 for NH3, 1.20 for NO3 and 0.94 for TKN. The correlation matched the expected for packed beds although the constant beta was higher than expected for low Reynolds numbers. These results indicate that the design values of rate constants used to size wetlands are influenced by flow velocity. This paper suggests the incorporation of mass transfer into CW design procedures in order to improve the performance of CW systems and reduce land requirements. PMID:22049736

  11. Development of a Constructed Brackish Tidal Marsh and its Effect on Trace Metal Immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElBishlawi, H.

    2011-12-01

    Two tidal marshes along the Hackensack River in the New Jersey Meadowlands, one constructed and the other natural and well established, were characterized to determine and compare their ability to immobilize trace metals including as Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn in their sediments. Pore-waters were sampled throughout the year, and sediment cores were collected to determine the dynamics of trace metals in sediments and their interactions with redox active species such as iron and sulfide as well as organic matter. Precipitation of metals with sulfides played a major factor in immobilizing certain metals including Pb and Zn. However, the constructed marsh, which exhibited lower dissolved sulfide concentrations, but higher dissolved iron species, removed certain dissolved trace metals including Zn and Pb more effectively than the established marsh. At both sites, the presence of sulfide did not result in the expected precipitation of elements such as Cu and Zn with sulfide and a small dissolved concentration these metals was detectable in the sediment pore water. These trace metals exhibited an association with heterogeneous dissolved organic matter, which was further confirmed through thermodynamic equilibrium modeling. The constructed high marsh immobilized the most trace metals in the region where sulfide produced through sulfate reduction reacted with but had not yet been completely titrated out of solution by dissolved iron. Additionally, the intermittently oxic/anoxic tidal zone of the high marsh removed more metals than the permanently inundated low marsh due to its higher tidal water exchange. Building constructed wetlands that maximize intertidal high marsh areas may optimize trace metal immobilization.

  12. IMPACT OF PLANT DENSITY AND MICROBIAL COMPOSITION ON WATER QUALITY FROM A FREE WATER SURFACE CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Prado Wetlands in Chino, CA is a free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland consisting of 50 shallow ponds that treats approximately 50% of Santa Ana River water prior to its passage to Orange County, CA where it is used for groundwater recharge. The main function of Prado Wetlands has been t...

  13. Legacy of earthworms' engineering effects enlarges the actual effects of earthworms on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Obdřej; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms were recognized as key factor responsible for changes from early to late successional plant communities. They incorporate organic matter into the soil and creates there persistent structures, which improves conditions for plant growth. Earthworm activity might be therefore expected to be more important in early stages of the succession, when earthworm colonization of previously earthworm free soil starts, than in the late stages of the succession, where the soil was previously modified by earthworms. However, earthworms affect plants also via other effects such as increase of nutrient availability. The relative importance of soil structure modification and other earthworm effects on plants is poorly known, despite it is important for both theoretical and applied ecology. To test the effect of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa) on plants we performed microcosm laboratory experiment, where earthworms were affecting early successional (Poa compressa, Medicago lupulina, and Daucus carota) and late successional (Arrhenatherum elatius, Lotus corniculatus, and Plantago laceolata) plat species in soil previously unaffected by earthworms and in soil with previous long term effect of earthworms. These soils were taken from the early and late successional monitoring sites of the Sokolov coal mining district with known history. Earthworms increased plant biomass proportionally more in late successional soil. It was mainly because they increased availability of nutrients (nitrate and potassium) and plants get higher advantage out of this in late successional soil. Earthworms increased plant biomass of both early and late successional species, but late successional species suppressed early successional species in competition. This suppression was more intensive in presence of earthworms and in late successional soil. We therefore found multiplicative effect between earthworm soil engineering activity and their other effects, which might be responsible for changes in plant communities during the succession.

  14. Effect of vegetation in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with a low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongbing; Wu, Shubiao; Braeckevelt, Mareike; Paschke, Heidrun; Kstner, Matthias; Kser, Heinz; Kuschk, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In order to characterize the effect of vegetation on performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) treating low and high chlorinated hydrocarbon, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) CWs (planted with Phragmites australis and unplanted) treating sulphate rich groundwater contaminated with MCB (monochlorobenzene, as a low chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 10 mg L(-1)), and PCE (perchloroethylene, as a high chlorinated hydrocarbon), (about 2 mg L(-1)), were examined. With mean MCB inflow load of 299 mg m(-2) d(-1), the removal rate was 58 and 208 mg m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted and planted wetland, respectively, after 4 m from the inlet. PCE was almost completely removed in both wetlands with mean inflow load of 49 mg m(-2) d(-1). However, toxic metabolites cis-1,2-DCE (dichloroethene) and VC (vinyl chloride) accumulated in the unplanted wetland; up to 70% and 25% of PCE was dechlorinated to cis-1,2-DCE and VC after 4 m from the inlet, respectively. Because of high sulphate concentration (around 850 mg L(-1)) in the groundwater, the plant derived organic carbon caused sulphide formation (up to 15 mg L(-1)) in the planted wetland, which impaired the MCB removal but not statistically significant. The results showed significant enhancement of vegetation on the removal of the low chlorinated hydrocarbon MCB, which is probably due to the fact that aerobic MCB degraders are benefited from the oxygen released by plant roots. Vegetation also stimulated completely dechlorination of PCE due to plant derived organic carbon, which is potentially to provide electron donor for dechlorination process. The plant derived organic carbon also stimulated dissimilatory sulphate reduction, which subsequently have negative effect on MCB removal. PMID:22832338

  15. An Effective Method for the Construction of Esters Using Cs2CO3 as Oxygen Source.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lanhui; Wang, Lianyue; Lv, Ying; Li, Guosong; Gao, Shuang

    2015-11-01

    An effective method for the construction of esters from acyl chloride and halohydrocarbon using Cs2CO3 as an oxygen source was achieved for the first time. The methodology has a wide scope of substrates and can be scaled up. The study of a preliminary reaction mechanism demonstrated that the O in the products comes from Cs2CO3 and this esterification proceeds through a free radical reaction. It was also found that CO2 can also be used in this esterification reaction as an oxygen source. PMID:26479826

  16. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent contained large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both crops when irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. Germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. Samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of effluents on canal water and its subsequent effect on crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained in both cases, the growth of plants irrigated with the downstream canal water was slightly reduced.

  17. Essential roles and hazardous effects of nickel in plants.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Aqeel; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    With the world's ever increasing human population, the issues related to environmental degradation of toxicant chemicals are becoming more serious. Humans have accelerated the emission to the environment of many organic and inorganic pollutants such as pesticides, salts, petroleum products, acids, heavy metals, etc. Among different environmental heavy-metal pollutants, Ni has gained considerable attention in recent years, because of its rapidly increasing concentrations in soil, air, and water in different parts of the world. The main mechanisms by which Ni is taken up by plants are passive diffusion and active transport. Soluble Ni compounds are preferably absorbed by plants passively, through a cation transport system; chelated Ni compounds are taken up through secondary, active-transport-mediated means, using transport proteins such as permeases. Insoluble Ni compounds primarily enter plant root cells through endocytosis. Once absorbed by roots, Ni is easily transported to shoots via the xylem through the transpiration stream and can accumulate in neonatal parts such as buds, fruits, and seeds. The Ni transport and retranslocation processes are strongly regulated by metal-ligand complexes (such as nicotianamine, histidine, and organic acids) and by some proteins that specifically bind and transport Ni. Nickel, in low concentrations, fulfills a variety of essential roles in plants, bacteria, and fungi. Therefore, Ni deficiency produces an array of effects on growth and metabolism of plants, including reduced growth, and induction of senescence, leaf and meristem chlorosis, alterations in N metabolism, and reduced Fe uptake. In addition, Ni is a constituent of several metallo-enzymes such as urease, superoxide dismutase, NiFe hydrogenases, methyl coenzyme M reductase, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, acetyl coenzyme-A synthase, hydrogenases, and RNase-A. Therefore, Ni deficiencies in plants reduce urease activity, disturb N assimilation, and reduce scavenging of superoxide free radical. In bacteria, Ni participates in several important metabolic reactions such as hydrogen metabolism, methane biogenesis, and acetogenesis. Although Ni is metabolically important in plants, it is toxic to most plant species when present at excessive amounts in soil and in nutrient solution. High Ni concentrations in growth media severely retards seed germinability of many crops. This effect of Ni is a direct one on the activities of amylases, proteases, and ribonucleases, thereby affecting the digestion and mobilization of food reserves in germinating seeds. At vegetative stages, high Ni concentrations retard shoot and root growth, affect branching development, deform various plant parts, produce abnormal flower shape, decrease biomass production, induce leaf spotting, disturb mitotic root tips, and produce Fe deficiency that leads to chlorosis and foliar necrosis. Additionally, excess Ni also affects nutrient absorption by roots, impairs plant metabolism, inhibits photosynthesis and transpiration, and causes ultrastructural modifications. Ultimately, all of these altered processes produce reduced yields of agricultural crops when such crops encounter excessive Ni exposures. PMID:21913127

  18. Determination of diffusivities in the Rustler Formation from exploratory-shaft construction at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Ken; Beyeler, Walt

    1985-01-01

    The construction of an exploratory shaft 12 feet in diameter into the Salado Formation (repository horizon for transuranic waste material) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico affected water-levels in water-bearing zones above the repository horizon. By reading the construction history of the exploratory shaft, an approximation of construction-generated hydraulic stresses at the shaft was made. The magnitude of the construction-generated stresses was calibrated using the hydrographs from one hydrologic test pad. Whereas flow rates from the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members in the Rustler Formation into the exploratory shaft were unknown, the ratio of transmissivity to storage (diffusivity) was determined by mathematically simulating the aquifers and the hydrologic stresses with flood-wave-response digital model. These results indicate that the Magenta Dolomite and Culebra Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation can be modeled as homogeneous, isotropic, and confined water-bearing zones. One simple and consistent explanation, but by no means the only explanation, of the lack of a single diffusivity value in the Culebra aquifer is that the open-hole observation wells at the hydrologic test pads dampen the amplitude of water-level changes. (USGS)

  19. General patterns of niche construction and the management of ‘wild’ plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    Niche construction efforts by small-scale human societies that involve ‘wild’ species of plants and animals are organized into a set of six general categories based on the shared characteristics of the target species and similar patterns of human management and manipulation: (i) general modification of vegetation communities, (ii) broadcast sowing of wild annuals, (iii) transplantation of perennial fruit-bearing species, (iv) in-place encouragement of economically important perennials, (v) transplantation and in-place encouragement of perennial root crops, and (vi) landscape modification to increase prey abundance in specific locations. Case study examples, mostly drawn from North America, are presented for each of the six general categories of human niche construction. These empirically documented categories of ecosystem engineering form the basis for a predictive model that outlines potential general principles and commonalities in how small-scale human societies worldwide have modified and manipulated their ‘natural’ landscapes throughout the Holocene. PMID:21320898

  20. RNAi construct of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tanya A; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominantly found in the glands. Differential screening identified a cytochrome P450 cDNA clone (CYP82D109) from a Gossypium hirsutum cultivar that hybridized to mRNA from glanded cotton but not glandless cotton. Both the D genome cotton Gossypium raimondii and A genome cotton Gossypium arboreum possessed three additional paralogs of the gene. G. hirsutum was transformed with a RNAi construct specific to this gene family and eight transgenic plants were generated stemming from at least five independent transformation events. HPLC analysis showed that RNAi plants, when compared to wild-type Coker 312 (WT) plants, had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels in the terminal leaves, respectively. Analysis of volatile terpenes by GC-MS established presence of an additional terpene (MW: 218) from the RNAi leaf extracts. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses showed this compound was ?-cadinen-2-one. Double bond rearrangement of this compound gives 7-hydroxycalamenene, a lacinilene C pathway intermediate. ?-Cadinen-2-one could be derived from ?-cadinene via a yet to be identified intermediate, ?-cadinen-2-ol. The RNAi construct of CYP82D109 blocks the synthesis of desoxyhemigossypol and increases the induction of lacinilene C pathway, showing that these pathways are interconnected. Lacinilene C precursors are not constitutively expressed in cotton leaves, and blocking the gossypol pathway by the RNAi construct resulted in a greater induction of the lacinilene C pathway compounds when challenged by pathogens. PMID:25794893

  1. Effects of glycoalkaloids from Solanum plants on cucumber root growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang; Li, Shengyu; He, Dajun; Cao, Gang; Ni, Xiuzhen; Tai, Guihua; Zhou, Yifa; Wang, Deli

    2010-09-01

    The phytotoxic effect of four glycoalkaloids and two 6-O-sulfated glycoalkaloid derivatives were evaluated by testing their inhibition of cucumber root growth. The bioassays were performed using both compounds singly and in equimolar mixtures, respectively. Cucumber root growth was reduced by chaconine (C), solanine (S), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS) with IC(50) values of 260 (C), 380 (S), 530 (SM), and 610 microM (SS). The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent. 6-O-sulfated chaconine and 6-O-sulfated solamargine had no inhibitory effects, which indicated that the carbohydrate moieties play an important role in inhibiting cucumber root growth. The equimolar mixtures of paired glycoalkaloids, both chaconine/solanine and solamargine/solasonine, produced synergistic effects on inhibition of cucumber root growth. By contrast, mixtures of unpaired glycoalkaloids from different plants had no obviously synergistic effects. The growth inhibited plant roots lacked hairs, which implied that inhibition was perhaps at the level of root hair growth. PMID:20591452

  2. Antitumor effects and cytotoxicity of recombinant plant nucleases.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Jaroslav; Podzimek, Tomás; Poucková, Pavla; Stehlík, Jan; Skvor, Jirí; Soucek, Josef; Matousek, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant plant nucleases R-TBN1 and R-HBN1 were isolated to homogeneity and examined for their antitumor effects and cytotoxicity. Although antiproliferative effects of both recombinant nucleases were not significant on the ML-2 cell culture in vitro, the nucleases were strongly cytostatic in vivo after their administration intravenously as stabilized conjugates with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recombinant nucleases were as effective against melanoma tumors as previously studied pine pollen (PN) and mung bean nucleases and their effects were reached at about 10 times lower concentrations compared to the use of bovine seminal RNase (BS-RNase). Because the recombinant nucleases R-HBN1 and R-TBN1 share only 67.4% amino acid identity and showed only partial immunochemical cross-reactivity, their similar anticancerogenic effects can be mainly explained by their catalytical similarity. Both recombinant nucleases showed lower degree of aspermatogenesis compared to BS-RNAse and PN nuclease. Unlike BS-RNase, aspermatogenesis induced by both recombinant nucleases could not be prevented by the homologous antibody complexes. Owing to relatively low cytotoxicity on the one hand, and high efficiency at low protein levels on the other, recombinant plant nucleases R-HBN1 and R-TBN1 appear to be stable biochemical agents that can be targeted as potential antitumor cytostatics. PMID:20112502

  3. Municipal solid-waste composting: Technologies, health effects, effects on plant growth and yield, regulations, and descriptions of U. S. sites

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.C.; Brenniman, G.R.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1991-06-01

    As stated in the Illinois Solid Waste Management Act, composting is considered to be an acceptable alternative to landfilling. There are nine operational municipal solid waste (MSW) composting facilities and one pilot program reviewed in the report. Other facilities in operation or under construction in the U.S. are summarized in the Appendix. The report also discusses the following topics: composting technology, potential effects of MSW compost on human health and plant growth and yield, and regulations.

  4. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure from herbaceous neighbors and less on the extent that CO{sub 2} enhances Achnatherum growth during periods of severe drought.

  5. Who Is White? Assessing Students' Perceptions of Whiteness through Active-Learning Effectiveness and the Construction of Racial Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Stephen M.; Lucas, Amy; Case, Kim A.; Hoston, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Building on previous studies on action-oriented strategies for teaching race-related courses, we explore the general effectiveness of teaching about racial stereotypes and racial/ethnic identity construction in two undergraduate race and ethnicity courses. Given that race and the term "White" are culturally constructed and serve to…

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined... to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS... this appendix must be submitted as specified in § 52.75 and 10 CFR 2.101. Each application must...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To... to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and § 50.10 of this part require a Commission...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To... to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and § 50.10 of this part require a Commission...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined... to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS... this appendix must be submitted as specified in § 52.75 and 10 CFR 2.101. Each application must...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To... to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION... of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and § 50.10 of this part require a Commission...

  11. Early herbivore alert matters: plant-mediated effects of egg deposition on higher trophic levels benefit plant fitness.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Frago, Enric; Griese, Eddie; Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-09-01

    Induction of plant defences, specifically in response to herbivore attack, can save costs that would otherwise be needed to maintain defences even in the absence of herbivores. However, plants may suffer considerable damage during the time required to mount these defences against an attacker. This could be resolved if plants could respond to early cues, such as egg deposition, that reliably indicate future herbivory. We tested this hypothesis in a field experiment and found that egg deposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae on black mustard (Brassica nigra) induced a plant response that negatively affected feeding caterpillars. The effect cascaded up to the third and fourth trophic levels (larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids) by affecting the parasitisation rate and parasitoid performance. Overall, the defences induced by egg deposition had a positive effect on plant seed production and may therefore play an important role in the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores. PMID:26147078

  12. The effect of sea-water intrusion due to the large scale construction in a coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Jin, S.; Woo, N. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    This study was carried out for estimating the seawater intrusion at the disturbed aquifer by a large scale construction when building a power plant in a coastal region, located in southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Groundwater sampling and vertical profiling of electrical conductivity(EC) for 8 monitoring wells were carried. EC profiling results shows that maximum EC for PW-5, 6 and 7 is over 40 mS/cm, for PZ-1, 3, 4 and 8 is 18.76, 4.46, 26.16, 21.42 mS/cm and for PZ-2 is 0.79 mS/cm,respectively. Chemical composition of water samples shows that water types of Na-Cl for PZ-5, 6, and 7 (excavated and backfilled area), Na-Cl-SO4 for PZ-4 and PZ-8, Na-Ca-Mg-Cl for PZ-1, Ca-Na-SO4-Cl for PZ-2, and Mg-Ca-Na-SO4 for PZ-3. In addition, the bivariate plot of SO4/Cl(meq ratios) and SO4(mmol/L) indicates that PZ-4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 appear to be seawater, PZ-1 is located at mixing zone between freshwater and seawater, and PZ-2 is freshwater. However, based on the high SO42- level and (HCO3-/Sum anions} ratio less than 0.8, groundwater at PZ-3 seems to show the gypsum dissolution. The gypsum dissolution was attributed to the effect of sea-water intrusion on ageing of lean concrete that was used for backfill around the PZ-3. Key words : large scale construction, EC profiling, hydrochemistry, sea-water intrusion, concrete ageing Acknowledgement This study has been carried out under the Nuclear R&D Program [No. 2010-0001070] supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.

  13. Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers.

    PubMed

    van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Boessen, Ruud; Spaan, Suzanne; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2015-10-01

    There is little evidence with respect to the effectiveness of intervention programs that focus on the reduction of occupational quartz exposure in the construction industry. This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. Eight companies participating in the cluster randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to the intervention (four companies) or control condition (four companies). The multidimensional intervention included engineering, organizational, and behavioural elements at both organizational and individual level. Full-shift personal quartz exposure measurements and detailed observations were conducted before and after the intervention among bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers (n = 282). About 59% of these workers measured at baseline were reassessed during follow-up. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to evaluate the intervention effect on exposure levels. Concrete drillers in the intervention group used technical control measures, particularly water suppression, for a significantly greater proportion of the time spent on abrasive tasks during follow-up compared to baseline (93 versus 62%; P < 0.05). A similar effect, although not statistically significant, was observed among demolishers. A substantial overall reduction in quartz exposure (73 versus 40% in the intervention and control group respectively; P < 0.001) was observed for concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers. The decrease in exposure in the intervention group compared to controls was significantly larger for demolishers and tuck pointers, but not for concrete drillers. The observed effect could at least partly be explained by the introduced interventions; the statistically significant increased use of control measures among concrete drillers explains the observed effect to some extent in this job category only. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the observed decrease in exposure may also partly be attributable to changes in work location and abrasiveness of the tasks performed. Despite the difficulties in assessing the exact magnitude of the intervention, this study showed that the structured intervention approach at least partly contributed to a substantial reduction in quartz exposure among high exposed construction workers. PMID:26059253

  14. The effect of mesenchymal stromal cell-hyaluronic acid hydrogel constructs on immunophenotype of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Summer E; King, Suzanne N; Kim, Jaehyup; Chen, Xia; Thibeault, Susan L; Hematti, Peiman

    2011-10-01

    During the past several years, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have rapidly moved from in vitro and animal studies into clinical trials as a therapeutic modality potentially applicable to a wide range of disorders. It has been proposed that ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs exert their tissue regeneration potential through their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, and paracrine effects more than their ability to differentiate into multiple tissue lineages. Since extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and tissue support is also one of many physiological roles of MSCs, there is increasing interest in their potential use for tissue engineering, particularly in combination with ECM-based scaffolds such as hyaluronic acid (HA). We investigated the effect of MSCs on immunophenotype of macrophages in the presence of an HA-hydrogel scaffold using a unique 3D coculture system. MSCs were encapsulated in the hydrogel and peripheral blood CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages plated in direct contact with the MSC-gel construct. To determine the immunophenotype of macrophages, we looked at the expression of cell surface markers CD14, CD16, CD206, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR by flow cytometry. MSCs and macrophages cultured on the HA-hydrogel remained viable and were able to be recovered from the construct. There was a significant difference in the immunophenotype observed between monocyte-derived macrophages cultured on the HA scaffold compared to tissue culture polystyrene. Macrophages cultured on gels with MSCs expressed lower CD16 and HLA-DR with higher expression of CD206, indicating the least inflammatory profile overall, compatible with the immunophenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. Development of macrophages, with this immunophenotype, upon interaction with the MSC-hydrogel constructs may play a potentially significant role in tissue repair when using a cellular-biomaterial therapeutic approach. PMID:21554192

  15. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  16. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

  17. Effect of cold and menthol on membrane potential in plants.

    PubMed

    Kupisz, Kamila; Trebacz, Kazimierz

    2011-04-01

    In animals, cooling substances such as menthol are perceived as cold sensation because they bind to the same receptor TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin) that activates upon temperature drops. We investigated the effect of menthol on the plant membrane potential to search for analogies between animal and plant perception systems. The study was conducted on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum- a non-vascular plant generating action potentials (APs) in response to different stimuli including cold. (+)Menthol, (-)menthol and (+/-)menthol induced one or more APs, depending on the concentration. In contrast to animal reactions to menthol, threshold concentrations of these isomers were the same (1 mM). The presence of menthol in medium shortened cold-induced APs, whereas low temperature prolonged the repolarization phase of AP evoked by menthol. Cells of C. conicum with anion and potassium channels blocked by anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl) generate short spike-like voltage transients (VTs) in response to cold and light stimulation. Membrane potential changes evoked by menthol in A9C- and TEACl-treated plants differed significantly from VTs - lasted much longer and frequently occurred in series. 5 mM LaCl(3) , 1 mM EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) (0 Ca(2+) ) but not 0.2 mM verapamil blocked the putative calcium component of AP induced by menthol. Similar inhibitory effect was observed after the application of proton pump inhibitors: 0.05 mM N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), 0.05 mM diethylstilbestrol (DES) or 0.01 mM carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP). Our results indicate that cold and menthol act independently, activating different membrane transporters in C. conicum cells. PMID:21214882

  18. Engineer, design, construct, test and evaluate a pressurized fluidized bed pilot plant using high sulfur coal for production of electric power: Phase III. Pilot plant construction. Quarterly report, September 1-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Technical progress during the period September 1-November 30, 1980 on DOE Contract DE-AC21-76ET10417 is described. The design of the material handling equipment by the various vendors continues on schedule. Coal and dolomite feed system procurement was initiated. The SWEC Field Construction Office was established and site mobilization of the contractor for Bid Package No. 1 (Substructure) was initiated. Purchase orders were placed for the fabrication of all the PFB process recycle loop components. All preparatory work for placement of Bid Package No. 2, Structural Steel Erection, has been completed. Contract funding limitations have prevented placement of this purchase order.

  19. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  20. Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takano, T.; Inada, K.; Takanashi, J.

    1987-01-01

    Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space stations. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12 hr dark may be needed for plant growth.

  1. Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Takano, T; Inada, K; Takanashi, J

    1987-01-01

    Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space station. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12-hr-dark may be needed for plant growth. PMID:11537264

  2. Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, T.; Inada, K.; Takanashi, J.

    Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space station. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12-hr-dark may be needed for plant growth.

  3. Effects of virus on plant fecundity and population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Prendeville, Holly R; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Pilson, Diana

    2014-06-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous and thought to regulate host populations. Although microorganisms can be pathogenic and affect components of fitness, few studies have examined their effects on wild plant populations. As individual traits might not contribute equally to changes in population growth rate, it is essential to examine the entire life cycle to determine how microorganisms affect host population dynamics. In this study, we used data from common garden experiments with plants from three Cucurbita pepo populations exposed to three virus treatments. These data were used to parameterize a deterministic matrix model, which allowed us to estimate the effect of virus on components of fitness and population growth rate. Virus did not reduce fruit number, but population growth rates varied among virus treatments and wild C.pepo populations. The effect of virus on population growth rate depended on virus species and wild C.pepo population. Contributions of life-history transitions and life-history traits to population growth rates varied among populations and virus treatments. However, this population-virus interaction was not evident when examining individual components of fitness. Thus, caution must be used when interpreting the effects of changes in individual traits, as single traits do not always predict population-level change accurately. PMID:24571200

  4. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    PubMed

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition. PMID:26700807

  5. Plant potassium content modifies the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on root hydraulic properties in maize plants.

    PubMed

    El-Mesbahi, Mohamed Najib; Azcón, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis helps the host plant to overcome several abiotic stresses including drought. One of the mechanisms for this drought tolerance enhancement is the higher water uptake capacity of the mycorrhizal plants. However, the effects of the AM symbiosis on processes regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant, such as root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression, and protein abundance, are not well defined. Since it is known that K(+) status is modified by AM and that it regulates root hydraulic properties, it has been tested how plant K(+) status could modify the effects of the symbiosis on root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance, using maize (Zea mays L.) plants and Glomus intraradices as a model. It was observed that the supply of extra K(+) increased root hydraulic conductivity only in AM plants. Also, the different pattern of plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance between AM and non-AM plants changed with the application of extra K(+). Thus, plant K(+) status could be one of the causes of the different observed effects of the AM symbiosis on root hydraulic properties. The present study also highlights the critical importance of AM fungal aquaporins in regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant. PMID:22370879

  6. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 ?l of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 ?g/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture. PMID:23271460

  7. Preparation of a design study for the construction of a 2 million tons/annum commercial scale hydrogenation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernert, J.; Ellinghaus, A. R.; Hoffmann, W.; Warnstaedt, C.; Dohren, H.; Holzapfel, G.; Krieger, U.; Lauer, L.

    1983-07-01

    A project study for a coal hydrogenation complex with premium gasoline as main product is presented. The plant is designed to operate at 300 bar pressure. Preheating of the coal paste was improved by utilizing process effluent heat. Applying heat integration to maximum extent a calorific yield 66 % is achieved. Hydrogen demand is covered by pressured gasification of the hydrogenation residue and by fractionation of coke-oven-gas. The coal oil product is upgraded by hydrotreating, hydrocracking and reforming processes. The plant is found to be technically feasible. Feed stocks : (in million t p.a.) coal 1.9; coke-oven gas 0.26; blend components 0.17. Products : premium gasoline 0.9; liquified petroleum gas 0.1; synthetic natural gas 0.3.

  8. Antitumor effects of two newly constructed oncolytic herpes simplex viruses against renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Nakamori, Mikihito; Tao, Lihua; Amato, Robert; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2007-06-01

    Conditionally replicating (oncolytic) herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) have shown clear potential as effective agents for the treatment of solid tumors such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To enhance the oncolytic capabilities of first-generation HSVs, we recently developed two new constructs. Synco-2D is derived from HSV-1 and contains two mechanisms to induce cell membrane fusion. FusOn-H2 is derived from HSV-2. It selectively targets the activated Ras signaling pathway in tumor cells and also has the ability to induce cell membrane fusion and apoptosis. We studied the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of both Synco-2D and FusOn-H2 against RCC. Both Synco-2D and FusOn-H2 lysed human RCC cells in vitro much more readily than did Baco-1. For in vivo studies, the oncolytic viruses were administered either intratumorally or intravenously to nude mice bearing xenografted human RCC, and the tumor growth rate and animal survival were monitored after treatment. In most instances, the results were compared with those for a first-generation non-fusogenic oncolytic HSV (Baco-1). A single intratumoral injection of either Synco-2D or FusOn-H2 produced a striking effect against xenografted human RCC, in contrast to Baco-1, which produced only moderate antitumor activity. Two intravenous injections of Synco-2D also inhibited the growth of human RCC xenografts, while Baco-1 injections via the same route lacked any measurable antitumor effect. These data demonstrate that the newly constructed oncolytic HSVs have potent activity against established RCC in animal models. Clinical trials to validate these results in cancer patients appear warranted. PMID:17487379

  9. Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

  10. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that are acceptable to the...

  11. Effect of two solanaceous plants on developmental and population parameters of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Patricia C; Snchez, Norma E

    2006-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is an important tomato pest that also feeds on other host-plants from the Solanceae family. We studied the effect of two cultivated plants, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) and potato Solanum tuberosum L. on the development and populational parameters of T. absoluta related with host-plant suitability. Larval developmental time, pupal weight, mean fecundity and an index of host-plant quality (IPQ = pupal weight / frass weight) were estimated. Age-specific survivorship and fecundity life tables were constructed in the laboratory to evaluate the following populational parameters: net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and generation time (T). Larval developmental time was shorter and pupal weight was higher (P < 0.0001) for larvae reared on tomato (P < 0.0001). Mean fecundity was not significantly different on both plants (P = 0.07) and food quality of host-plant was higher for tomato (P = 0.02). Mean population parameters on tomato were: Ro = 48.92; T = 27.98, r = 0.14; and on potato: Ro = 14.43; T = 32.35, r = 0.08. Although results showed that tomato was a more suitable host-plant and had a better nutritional quality than potato, when T. absoluta fed on potato the potential population increase requires attention. Under appropriate climatic conditions, spatial and temporal coincidence between crop and pest, T. absoluta could become a pest for the potato crop. PMID:17144141

  12. Herbivore effects on plant species density at varying productivity levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Artificially increasing primary productivity decreases plant species richness in many habitats; herbivory may affect this outcome, but it has rarely been directly addressed in fertilization studies. This experiment was conducted in two Louisiana coastal marshes to examine the effects of nutrient enrichment and sediment addition on herbaceous plant communities with and without vertebrate herbivory. After three growing seasons, fertilization increased community biomass in all plots, but decreased species density (the number of species per unit area) only in plots protected from herbivory. Herbivory alone did not alter species density at either site. At the brackish marsh, herbivory caused a shift in dominance in the fertilized plots from a species that is considered the competitive dominant, but is selectively eaten, to another less palatable species. At the fresh marsh, increased dead biomass in the absence of herbivory and in the fertilized plots probably contributed to the decrease in species density, perhaps by limiting germination of annuals. Our results support those of other fertilization studies in which plant species density decreases with increased biomass, but only in those plots protected from herbivory.

  13. Sugarcane spacing. II. Effects of spacing on the plant

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.; Benda, G.T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Intrarow spacing with 19 cm between plants on a 183-cm row produced significantly higher yields of biomass, net cane and sugar/ha when compared to intrarow spacings of 38 and 76 cm. Equidistant spacings of 19, 38, 76, and 152 cm produced significant differences in fiber % cane, stalk diameter, and leaf area index, as well as yields of biomass, net cane and sugar/ha. There was no significant effect on the sugar content of cane. Ten equidistant spacings ranging from 26.7 to 179.1 cm produced increases in plant population, biomass, net cane and sugar/ha with decreased spacing. Stalk diameter, shoot number, and plant weight decreased as interplant distance decreased. Varietal differences in yield of cane and sugar/ha were more pronounced with closer than with wider spacings. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.71*) between performance of a variety on closer and wider spacings, indicating selections made on wide rows should perform adequately on closer rows.

  14. Grassland plant composition alters vehicular disturbance effects in Kansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Timothy L; Wilsey, Brian J; Busby, Ryan R; Gebhart, Dick L

    2008-05-01

    Many "natural" areas are exposed to military or recreational off-road vehicles. The interactive effects of different types of vehicular disturbance on vegetation have rarely been examined, and it has been proposed that some vegetation types are less susceptible to vehicular disturbance than others. At Fort Riley, Kansas, we experimentally tested how different plant community types changed after disturbance from an M1A1 Abrams tank driven at different speeds and turning angles during different seasons. The greatest vegetation change was observed because of driving in the spring in wet soils and the interaction of turning while driving fast (vegetation change was measured with Bray-Curtis dissimilarity). We found that less vegetation change occurred in communities with high amounts of native prairie vegetation than in communities with high amounts of introduced C(3) grasses, which is the first experimental evidence we are aware of that suggests plant communities dominated by introduced C(3) grasses changed more because of vehicular disturbance than communities dominated by native prairie grasses. We also found that vegetation changed linearly with vehicular disturbance intensity, suggesting that at least initially there was no catastrophic shift in vegetation beyond a certain disturbance intensity threshold. Overall, the intensity of vehicular disturbance appeared to play the greatest role in vegetation change, but the plant community type also played a strong role and this should be considered in land use planning. The reasons for greater vegetation change in introduced C(3) grass dominated areas deserve further study. PMID:18204985

  15. HOST CHOICE BY APHIDIUS COLEMANI: EFFECTS OF PLANTS, PLANT-APHID COMBINATIONS AND THE PRESENCE OF INTRAGUILD PREDATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study first measured the effect of plant (radish, pepper and wheat), aphid-plant combination (the green peach aphid MYZUS PERSICAE on pepper and radish, and the bird cherry-oat aphid RHOPALOSIPHUM PADI on wheat) and the host on which A. COLEMANI was reared (the cotton aphid APHIS GOSSYPII on cu...

  16. Effects of invasive species on plant communities: an example using submersed aquatic plants at the regional level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Submerged aquatic plants have a key role in maintaining functioning aquatic ecosystems through their effects in the hydrological regime, sedimentation, nutrient cycling and habitats of associated fauna. Modifications of aquatic plant communities, as for example through the introduction of invasive s...

  17. A demographic approach to study effects of climate change in desert plants

    PubMed Central

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Siewert, Wolfgang; Casper, Brenda B.; Tielbörger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Desert species respond strongly to infrequent, intense pulses of precipitation. Consequently, indigenous flora has developed a rich repertoire of life-history strategies to deal with fluctuations in resource availability. Examinations of how future climate change will affect the biota often forecast negative impacts, but these—usually correlative—approaches overlook precipitation variation because they are based on averages. Here, we provide an overview of how variable precipitation affects perennial and annual desert plants, and then implement an innovative, mechanistic approach to examine the effects of precipitation on populations of two desert plant species. This approach couples robust climatic projections, including variable precipitation, with stochastic, stage-structured models constructed from long-term demographic datasets of the short-lived Cryptantha flava in the Colorado Plateau Desert (USA) and the annual Carrichtera annua in the Negev Desert (Israel). Our results highlight these populations' potential to buffer future stochastic precipitation. Population growth rates in both species increased under future conditions: wetter, longer growing seasons for Cryptantha and drier years for Carrichtera. We determined that such changes are primarily due to survival and size changes for Cryptantha and the role of seed bank for Carrichtera. Our work suggests that desert plants, and thus the resources they provide, might be more resilient to climate change than previously thought. PMID:23045708

  18. Effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on urban wild plant species.

    PubMed

    Bell, J N B; Honour, S L; Power, S A

    2011-01-01

    Very few investigations have examined the direct impacts of vehicle exhausts on plants and attempted to separate out the key pollutants responsible for observed effects. This paper describes a multi-phase investigation into this topic, using 12 herbaceous species typical of urban areas and representing different functional groups. Fumigations were conducted in solardomes with diesel exhaust pollutants at concentrations designed to simulate those close to a major highway in inner London. A wide range of effects were detected, including growth stimulation and inhibition, changes in gas exchange and premature leaf senescence. This was complemented by controlled fumigations with NO, NO(2) and their mixture, as well as a transect study away from a busy inner London road. All evidence suggested that NO(x) was the key phytotoxic component of exhaust emissions, and highlights the potential for detrimental effects of vehicle emissions on urban ecosystems. PMID:21458124

  19. Effects of vehicle exhaust emissions on urban wild plant species.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Bell JN; Honour SL; Power SA

    2011-08-01

    Very few investigations have examined the direct impacts of vehicle exhausts on plants and attempted to separate out the key pollutants responsible for observed effects. This paper describes a multi-phase investigation into this topic, using 12 herbaceous species typical of urban areas and representing different functional groups. Fumigations were conducted in solardomes with diesel exhaust pollutants at concentrations designed to simulate those close to a major highway in inner London. A wide range of effects were detected, including growth stimulation and inhibition, changes in gas exchange and premature leaf senescence. This was complemented by controlled fumigations with NO, NO(2) and their mixture, as well as a transect study away from a busy inner London road. All evidence suggested that NO(x) was the key phytotoxic component of exhaust emissions, and highlights the potential for detrimental effects of vehicle emissions on urban ecosystems.

  20. Ecological effects of transgene persistence on plant communities in the presence and absence of drift levels of glyphosate herbicide

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2005, plant communities were constructed in outdoor sunlit chambers that contained 3 round tubs having a surface area of 1.2 m2 and a depth of 0.6 m. Six plant types were planted in triplicate using the same spatial arrangement in each tub. Three of the six plant types were se...

  1. Contrasting Effects of Land Use Intensity and Exotic Host Plants on the Specialization of Interactions in Plant-Herbivore Networks

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones. PMID:25565141

  2. Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Andr; de Brito, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard). PMID:23422042

  3. Effect of microgravity on sap flow in plant stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Hiroaki; Nobol Ikeda, MR..

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental study was conducted to assess the possibility of plant growth suppression caused by poor movement of air in closed plant growth facilities in space farming. Sap water flow in plant stems, which plays an important role to transport fluid and nutrients from roots to leaves, will be suppressed through suppression of transpiration because of little natural convection of air under microgravity conditions. In this study, the sap flow in tomato stems was examined using a heat flow method at 0.01 and 1.0 g for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights in order to clarify the effect of microgravity on the sap flow in stems. Heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. The internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed with thermal images captured on stems near heated points. In results, the sap flow in stems at 0.01 g was suppressed under a retarded air condition at a wind speed of 0.1 m s-1 compared with that at 1 g. No suppression of the sap flow was observed under a stirred air condition at a wind speed of 0.5 m s-1. Suppressed sap water flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is, therefore, essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under microgravity conditions in space.

  4. Engineer, design, construct, test, and evaluate a pressurized fluidized-bed pilot plant using high-sulfur coal for production of electric power. Phase III: pilot-plant construction. Quarterly report, June 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Technical progress during the period June 1 through August 31, 1980 included the following activities: The PSD permit approval was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. The building permit was obtained from the Borough of Wood-Ridge. Installation designs incorporating modifications to the Total Energy System, Gas Turbine, Free Power Turbine and Waste Heat Boiler are in an advanced stage. Procurement has been initiated on all long lead material. The upper and lower PFB Vessel fabrication was started. Quotations for the Substructure Construction (Bid Package No. 1) are under review in preparation for issuing a purchase order in October 1980. Request for quotation on Structural Steelwork have been issued to potential bidders. Groundbreaking ceremonies took place on June 30, 1980 with the Assistant Secretary of the Department of Energy presiding and the Governor of New Jersey, a Congressional delegation and State Commissioner of Energy and Environment, Borough Officials among other dignitaries in attendance.

  5. Effects of vegetation management in constructed wetland treatment cells on water quality and mosquito production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thullen, J.S.; Sartoris, J.J.; Walton, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of three vegetation management strategies on wetland treatment function and mosquito production was assessed in eight free water surface wetland test cells in southern California during 1998-1999. The effectiveness of the strategies to limit bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus culm density within the cells was also investigated. Removing accumulated emergent biomass and physically limiting the area in which vegetation could reestablish, significantly improved the ammonia - nitrogen removal efficiency of the wetland cells, which received an ammonia-dominated municipal wastewater effluent (average loading rate = 9.88 kg/ha per day NH4-N). We determined that interspersing open water with emergent vegetation is critical for maintaining the wetland's treatment capability, particularly for systems high in NH4-N. Burning aboveground plant parts and thinning rhizomes only temporarily curtailed vegetation proliferation in shallow zones, whereas creating hummocks surrounded by deeper water successfully restricted the emergent vegetation to the shallower hummock areas. Since the hummock configuration kept open water areas interspersed throughout the stands of emergent vegetation, the strategy was also effective in reducing mosquito production. Decreasing vegetation biomass reduced mosquito refuge areas while increasing mosquito predator habitat. Therefore, the combined goals of water quality improvement and mosquito management were achieved by managing the spatial pattern of emergent vegetation to mimic an early successional growth stage, i.e. actively growing plants interspersed with open water. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amplitudes for spacetime regions and the quantum Zeno effect: pitfalls of standard path integral constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, J. J.; Yearsley, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    Path integrals appear to offer natural and intuitively appealing methods for defining quantum-mechanical amplitudes for questions involving spacetime regions. For example, the amplitude for entering a spatial region during a given time interval is typically defined by summing over all paths between given initial and final points but restricting them to pass through the region at any time. We argue that there is, however, under very general conditions, a significant complication in such constructions. This is the fact that the concrete implementation of the restrictions on paths over an interval of time corresponds, in an operator language, to sharp monitoring at every moment of time in the given time interval. Such processes suffer from the quantum Zeno effect - the continual monitoring of a quantum system in a Hilbert subspace prevents its state from leaving that subspace. As a consequence, path integral amplitudes defined in this seemingly obvious way have physically and intuitively unreasonable properties and in particular, no sensible classical limit. In this paper we describe this frequently-occurring but little-appreciated phenomenon in some detail, showing clearly the connection with the quantum Zeno effect. We then show that it may be avoided by implementing the restriction on paths in the path integral in a "softer" way. The resulting amplitudes then involve a new coarse graining parameter, which may be taken to be a timescale epsilon, describing the softening of the restrictions on the paths. We argue that the complications arising from the Zeno effect are then negligible as long as epsilon >> 1/E, where E is the energy scale of the incoming state. Our criticisms of path integral constructions largely apply to approaches to quantum theory such as the decoherent histories approach or quantum measure theory, which do not specifically involve measurements. We address some criticisms of our approach by Sokolovksi, concerning the relevance of our results to measurement-based models.

  7. Does the Port 2000 harbour construction have an effect on the Seine estuary suprabenthic community?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude; Alizier, Sandrine; Vallet, Carole; Ruellet, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Using a Before/During/After protocol, the effects of Port 2000 (the Le Havre harbour extension) on the suprabenthic communities in the Northern Channel of the Seine estuary (English Channel) were examined from March 2001 to March 2009. Since the beginning of Port 2000 construction in 2002, there have been several changes in the hydrological and sedimentary characteristics in the North Channel, including changes in current velocity, bottoms salinity and sand accumulation, as well as in the benthic communities themselves, moving from mud to medium and coarse sand communities. For the suprabenthos, changes were moderate, corresponding to an increase in species richness in the upper-part of the North Channel and a decrease in species density in the dominant mysids species (i.e., mainly Mesopodospsis slabberi) over time. Due to hydrological changes since the beginning of the Port 2000 project (several years of low freshwater input) it has been difficult to attribute the biological changes to Port 2000 construction only. In the future, the results obtained for the suprabenthos will have to be compared to those obtained for the macrobenthos. Similarly, since the suprabenthos is known to play an important role in the estuarine trophic chain, it will also be essential to estimate the fish distribution in the North Channel and to examine their stomach contents to evaluate the probable changes since the Port 2000 project began.

  8. Effect of moisture content on nest construction activity of fire ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaenkova, Daria; Gravish, Nickolas; Goldman, Daniel; Goodisman, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Large underground nests protect ants from severe weather and predators. Field observations have revealed that the soil wetness affects the nest building activity. In this work we use x-ray computed tomography to study the growth of fire ants nests as a function of soil moisture content. Because capillary cohesion in wet soils leads to the competition between tunnel stability and the labor-intensity of the excavation, we expect to find an optimal soil wetness, which allows the most effective nest construction. We prepared digging containers (3.8 cm diameter by 14.5 cm deep aluminum tubes) with 2 types of simulated soil (50 and 210 um glass particles). The prepared moisture content W varied from 0.01 to 0.18 by mass. Hundred ants were allowed to dig in the containers for 20 hours. Although, the ants were able to construct tunnels in all moisture levels, the maximum tunnel depth, H, was significantly affected by W. At moderate moisture content (W =0.1) H was at least twice greater than at the lowest moisture content (W =0.01) for all tested colonies (n =9) for both particle sizes. The increase in H mirrors the dependence of the soil cohesion on W and we therefore conclude that the tunnel stability is a key factor influencing the digging strategy of fire ants. We acknowledge the support of NSF, grant 0957659

  9. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: effect of bioreactor configuration.

    PubMed

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-03-30

    Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75-85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5h. A high calcium concentration up to 1,000 mg L(-1) did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems. PMID:24211179

  10. The effects of pipeline construction disturbance on soil properties and restoration cycle.

    PubMed

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Disturbance to the physical-chemical properties of soil caused by pipeline installation was evaluated using two soil quality indices to identify the scale of disturbance and the restoration cycle. The integrated soil quality index (SQI) was used to evaluate soil property changes in different pipeline zones (0, 10, 20, and 50m from the pipeline) at sites 1 and 2. The soil restoration index (SRI) was used to estimate soil recovery from three pipelines with different recovery periods (2, 6, and 8years) at site 3. The results showed that the adverse effects of pipeline construction on soil properties mainly occurred in the right-of-way (ROW) areas and the impaired zones were in the order trench?>?piling and working areas?>?20 and 50m. The soil restoration cycle may be complete within 6years of construction. At site 3, the SRI in the ROW area of a pipeline after 6years of restoration was close to 100%, showing full soil recovery. However, the SRI in the disturbed areas of a pipeline after 2years of restoration was much lower than that after 6years of restoration, indicating that the soil was still recovering from the disturbance. The topography may change the intensity of disturbance in different areas due to the movement patterns of heavy machinery and traffic routes. There were local variations in the SQI within the pipeline zones, with flat areas suffering greater disturbance than hilly areas, indicating that topography should be considered in a pipeline's environmental impact assessment. PMID:24141486

  11. Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable candidates for development of alternative post exposure treatment drugs against rabies. PMID:25347556

  12. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, M; Khan, M A

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were found to be alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent was found to contain large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. All the effluents were found to be responsible for altering the chemical composition of the soil. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased, probably due to being leached to the lower layers of the soil. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both the crops when the irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. The germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. The samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of the effluents on the canal water and its subsequent effect on the crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained in both the cases, the growth of the plants irrigated with the downstream canal water was found to be slightly reduced. PMID:3956466

  13. Construction Program Management: An Effective Tool for the Delivery of Educational Facilities on the International Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    All international endeavors of major size and duration have been conducted under the concept of construction program management. Examples in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Brazil, and Guyana illustrate the constancy and coordination that international construction program management provides. (MLF)

  14. Cross-kingdom effects of plant-plant signaling via volatile organic compounds emitted by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested by the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    PubMed

    Ángeles López, Yesenia Ithaí; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma Angélica; Ramírez-Romero, Ricardo; López, Mercedes G; Sánchez-Hernández, Carla; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2012-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from plants in response to insect infestation can function as signals for the attraction of predatory/parasitic insects and/or repulsion of herbivores. VOCs also may play a role in intra- and inter-plant communication. In this work, the kinetics and composition of VOC emissions produced by tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants infested with the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum was determined within a 14 days period. The VOC emission profiles varied concomitantly with the duration of whitefly infestation. A total of 36 different VOCs were detected during the experiment, 26 of which could be identified: 23 terpenoids, plus decanal, decane, and methyl salicylate (MeSA). Many VOCs were emitted exclusively by infested plants, including MeSA and 10 terpenoids. In general, individual VOC emissions increased as the infestation progressed, particularly at 7 days post-infestation (dpi). Additional tunnel experiments showed that a 3 days exposure to VOC emissions from whitefly-infested plants significantly reduced infection by a biotrophic bacterial pathogen. Infection of VOC-exposed plants induced the expression of a likely tomato homolog of a methyl salicylate esterase gene, which preceded the expression of pathogenesis-related protein genes. This expression pattern correlated with reduced susceptibility in VOC-exposed plants. The observed cross-kingdom effect of plant-plant signaling via VOCs probably represents a generalized defensive response that contributes to increased plant fitness, considering that resistance responses to whiteflies and biotrophic bacterial pathogens in tomato share many common elements. PMID:23085855

  15. Design of a RCT evaluating the (cost-) effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention for male construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: The Health under Construction study

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, Iris F; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J; van Duivenbooden, Cor; van Mechelen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Background Of all workers in Dutch construction industry, 20% has an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A major risk factor for CVD risk is an unhealthy lifestyle. The aim of our study is to design a lifestyle intervention for construction workers with an elevated CVD risk, and to evaluate its (cost-) effectiveness. Methods/Design In a RCT, 692 participants will be randomised to either the control or the intervention group. The control group will receive usual care. For the intervention group, a lifestyle intervention has been designed based on interviews and current literature. The intervention will last 6 months and will comprise 3 face-to-face and 4 telephone contacts, consisting of individual counselling aimed at increasing daily physical activity (PA) and improving dietary behaviour, and/or smoking cessation. Counselling will take place at the Occupational Health Service (OHS), and will be done according to motivational interviewing (MI). Additional written information about healthy lifestyle will also be provided to those in the intervention group. At baseline, after 6 and after 12 months, measurements will take place. Primary outcome variables will be the lifestyle behaviours of concern, i.e. daily PA, dietary intake, and smoking status. Secondary outcome variables will be body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and HDL blood cholesterol, Hba1c and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF). Sickness absenteeism and cost-effectiveness will be assessed as well. Multilevel analysis will be performed to compare all outcome measures between the intervention group and the control group. Discussion By improving lifestyle, CVD risk may be lowered, yielding benefits for both employee and employer. If proven effective, this lifestyle intervention will be implemented on a larger scale within the Occupational Health Services in construction industry. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60545588 PMID:18173844

  16. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species.

    PubMed

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-02-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  17. Antifungal Effect of Plant Essential Oils on Controlling Phytophthora Species

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Jahanshir; Farhang, Vahid; Javadi, Taimoor; Nazemi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum and two fungicides Mancozeb and Metalaxyl-Mancozeb in six different concentrations were investigated for controlling three species of Phytophthora, including P. capsici, P. drechsleri and P. melonis on pepper, cucumber and melon under in vitro and greenhouse conditions, respectively. Under the in vitro condition, the median effective concen- tration (EC50) values (ppm) of plant essential oils and fungicides were measured. In greenhouse, soil infested with Phytophthora species was treated by adding 50 ml of essential oils and fungicides (100 ppm). Disease severity was determined after 28 days. Among two tested plant essential oils, C. citratus had the lowest EC50 values for inhibition of the mycelial growth of P. capsici (31.473), P. melonis (33.097) and P. drechsleri (69.112), respectively. The mean EC50 values for Metalaxyl-Mancozeb on these pathogens were 20.87, 20.06 and 17.70, respectively. Chemical analysis of plant essential oils by GC-MS showed that, among 42 compounds identified from C. citratus, two compounds β-geranial (α-citral) (39.16%) and z-citral (30.95%) were the most abundant. Under the greenhouse condition, Metalaxyl-Mancozeb caused the greatest reduction in disease severity, 84.2%, 86.8% and 92.1% on melon, cucumber, and pepper, respectively. The C. citratus essential oil reduced disease severity from 47.4% to 60.5% compared to the untreated control (p≤0.05). Essential oils of O. basilicum had the lowest effects on the pathogens under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. These results show that essential oils may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the crops from Phytophthora diseases. PMID:26889111

  18. Plant effect on zinc isotope fractionation in soil leachates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, D.; Sonnet, P.; Mattielli, N. D.; Opfergelt, S.

    2012-12-01

    Zinc isotopes are increasingly used to better understand the biogeochemical cycle of this metal within the Earth's Critical Zone. Here we investigate experimentally the effect of plant growth on the Zn isotope compositions of leachates exported from anthropogenic Zn-contaminated soils. For this purpose, PVC-columns were filled in with 2 kg of a mixture consisting of 1900 g of quartz (500-1000 μm) and 100 g of Zn-contaminated soils (100-500 μm) originated from two former industrial sites (hereafter called soil A and soil B). Agrostis tenuis was grown in the columns for seven weeks. A control treatment, i.e. without plants, was also carried out. All columns were continuously irrigated at a slow rate with a macronutrient solution in which nitrogen was supplied as nitrate form and leachates were weekly sampled for analysis. The contaminated soils differ in their Zn isotope composition (δ66/64Zn=0.32‰ and 0.09‰ for soils A and B, respectively). In the absence of plants, the difference of isotope composition between leachates from soil A and those from soil B (Δ66/64Znleachate A-leachate B = +0.19‰) is similar to the difference of isotope composition between the two soils (i.e. Δ66/64Znsoil A-soil B = +0.23‰). Although the Zn isotope signatures of roots differ between the two soils (δ66/64Zn=0.33‰ and 0.17‰ for soils A and B, respectively), shoots are isotopically similar (δ66/64Zn = -0.07‰ and -0.06‰ for sites A and B, respectively), reflecting a potential biologically-controlled transport at the root-shoot interface. The presence of plants increases the total amount of Zn released by leaching (24.7 mg Zn for soil A and 21.7 mg Zn for soil B) compared to the control (19.3 mg Zn for soil A and 5.4 mg Zn for soil B), and this effect is much more pronounced for the soil B which indicates a higher rhizosphere-induced Zn mobilization in this soil. More importantly, leachates from planted systems are enriched in heavy Zn relative to leachates from the control (Δ66/64Znplanted systems-control = +0.04‰ and +0.14 ‰ for soils A and B, respectively). This enrichment is the highest for soil B, i.e. where the rhizosphere-induced Zn mobilization is the greatest. Using mass balance calculations, it appears that the heavy Zn enrichment in leachates cannot result from plant uptake as the Zn amounts exported by plants (1.1 mg Zn for soil A and 1.2 mg Zn for soil B) were negligible relative to the amounts lost by leaching (4% and 5% for soils A and B, respectively). This suggests an additional process fractionating Zn isotopes in the rhizosphere, likely due to Zn complexation by exudates (e.g. phytosiderophores) and secretions which induces Zn mobilization. This study highlights the potential of Zn isotopes to investigate the contribution from rhizosphere activity on the Zn biogeochemical cycle.

  19. Rootstock effects on plant vigor and watermelon fruit quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) plants were grown in Lane, Oklahoma. Fruit weight, dimensions, and quality (SSC, firmness, lycopene content) of seeded and seedless varieties were measured. Watermelons from vigorous plants (determined by plant length, width, and a visual estimate of plant...

  20. The design, effectiveness and construction of passive-thermal-control roofing shingles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, L., Jr.

    1982-09-01

    The concept of a passive thermal control roofing shingle, which is a shingle that reflects the summer sun and absorbs the winter sun, is discussed. It is indicated that it is possible to design shingles for particular latitudes and styles of roof which absorb nearly all of the winter solar energy and reflect nearly all of the summer solar energy. Calculations of the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle indicate that it is most cost effective on all south facing pitched roofs regardless of heating fuel type, and on flat or east or west facing roofs that are heated with costly fuels such as electricity or heating oil. The shingle is most effective on poorly insulated structures. The feasibility of using the passive thermal control roofing shingle in conjunction with a heat pump to pump heat absorbed by the shingle into a well insulated structure is demonstrated. Construction of a variety of models of the passive thermal control roofing shingle illustrate numerous alternate methods of manufacture. A profile extruded, plastic, glazed shingle appears to be the most promising approach. Use of a glazed shingle can increase the effectiveness of the passive thermal control roofing shingle by reducing convective heat losses.