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Sample records for plant dictamnus albus

  1. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    PubMed

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects. PMID:26573095

  2. Cytotoxic activity of Origanum dictamnus.

    PubMed

    Chinou, Ioanna; Liolios, Christos; Moreau, Dimitri; Roussakis, Christos

    2007-07-01

    Several extracts of Origanum dictamnus, an endemic plant of Greece growing only in the island of Crete and the bioassay-directed isolated ursolic acid, were tested in vitro against the P388 (murine leukemia) and the human bronchial epidermoid cancer NSCLC-N6 (non small cell lung cancer) cell lines. Both the initial dichloromethane extract and the isolated from it ursolic acid exhibited cytotoxic activity. Ursolic acid was also tested in vivo, on murine ascite leukemia P388, where it exhibited at a dose of 50 mg/kg a marginal antileukemic activity. PMID:17507178

  3. Essential Oil from Origanum dictamnus.

    PubMed

    Harvala, C; Menounos, P; Argyriadou, N

    1987-02-01

    The essential oil of ORIGANUM DICTAMNUS L. was obtained by steam distillation with a yield of 0.8% of dry material. The oil was investigated after fractionation on a silica gel column and separation of phenols, by combination of GLC-mass spectrometry. In the analysis, 30 components were found accounting for 98.28% of the oil, the predominating compounds being carvacrol; gamma-terpinene, P-cymene, caryophyllene, borneol, terpin-1-en-4-ol, and carvacrol methyl ether. PMID:17268981

  4. THE POTENTIAL OF THE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS, MUSCODOR ALBUS, AS A BIO-CONTROL AGENT AGAINST ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT PARASITIC NEMATODES OF VEGETABLE CROPS IN WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Muscodor albus produces a mixture of antimicrobial volatile organic chemicals with activity against post-harvest disease causing organisms, insect pests of harvested fruit and tubers, and soil-borne disease causing agents and plant parasitic nematodes. M. albus was tested for its potenti...

  5. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  6. Functional and modular analyses of diverse endoglucanases from Ruminococcus albus 8, a specialist plant cell wall degrading bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Devendran, Saravanan; Skorupski, Anna; Moon, Young Hwan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a specialist plant cell wall degrading ruminal bacterium capable of utilizing hemicellulose and cellulose. Cellulose degradation requires a suite of enzymes including endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and β-glucosidases. The enzymes employed by R. albus 8 in degrading cellulose are yet to be completely elucidated. Through bioinformatic analysis of a draft genome sequence of R. albus 8, seventeen putatively cellulolytic genes were identified. The genes were heterologously expressed in E. coli, and purified to near homogeneity. On biochemical analysis with cellulosic substrates, seven of the gene products (Ra0185, Ra0259, Ra0325, Ra0903, Ra1831, Ra2461, and Ra2535) were identified as endoglucanases, releasing predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose. Each of the R. albus 8 endoglucanases, except for Ra0259 and Ra0325, bound to the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, confirming functional carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). The polypeptides for Ra1831 and Ra2535 were found to contain distantly related homologs of CBM65. Mutational analysis of residues within the CBM65 of Ra1831 identified key residues required for binding. Phylogenetic analysis of the endoglucanases revealed three distinct subfamilies of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). Our results demonstrate that this fibrolytic bacterium uses diverse GH5 catalytic domains appended with different CBMs, including novel forms of CBM65, to degrade cellulose. PMID:27439730

  7. Composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activity of Origanum dictamnus (dittany) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Mitropoulou, Gregoria; Fitsiou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Papavassilopoulou, Eleni; Vamvakias, Manolis; Pappa, Aglaia; Oreopoulou, Antigoni; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays, there has been an increased interest in essential oils from various plant origins as potential antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative agents. This trend can be mainly attributed to the rising number and severity of food poisoning outbreaks worldwide along with the recent negative consumer perception against artificial food additives and the demand for novel functional foods with possible health benefits. Origanum dictamnus (dittany) is an aromatic, tender perennial plant that only grows wild on the mountainsides and gorges of the island of Crete in Greece. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties of O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components and assess its commercial potential in the food industry. Design O. dictamnus essential oil was initially analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to determine semi-quantitative chemical composition of the essential oils. Subsequently, the antimicrobial properties were assayed and the minimum inhibitory and non-inhibitory concentration values were determined. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic action against the hepatoma adenocarcinoma cell line HepG2 of the essential oil and its main components were further evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, respectively. Results The main constituents of O. dictamnus essential oil identified by GC–MS analysis were carvacrol (52.2%), γ-terpinene (8.4%), p-cymene (6.1%), linalool (1.4%), and caryophyllene (1.3%). O. dictamnus essential oil and its main components were effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. In addition, the estimated IC50 value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity for O. dictamnus essential oil was

  8. Antifungal alkaloids and limonoid derivatives from Dictamnus dasycarpus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Wolfender, J L; Hostettmann, K; Xu, R; Qin, G

    1998-01-01

    From the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus (Rutaceae), four limonoid derivatives, two furoquinoline alkaloids, five limonoids, two sesquiterpenes and three steroids were isolated and their structures elucidated on the basis of various spectroscopic methods. Among the identified compounds, one was determined to be a new natural product, 6 beta-hydroxyfraxinellone, while six compounds were found to be active against the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum. The relationship between the structures of limonoid derivatives and their inhibitory activity against fungal growth was investigated. PMID:9429316

  9. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus inoculation of Acacia spirorbis and Eucalyptus globulus grown in ultramafic topsoil enhances plant growth and mineral nutrition while limits metal uptake.

    PubMed

    Jourand, Philippe; Hannibal, Laure; Majorel, Clarisse; Mengant, Stéphane; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel

    2014-01-15

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) isolates of Pisolithus albus (Cooke and Massee) from nickel-rich ultramafic topsoils in New Caledonia were inoculated onto Acacia spirorbis Labill. (an endemic Fabaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (used as a Myrtaceae plant host model). The aim of the study was to analyze the growth of symbiotic ECM plants growing on the ultramafic substrate that is characterized by high and toxic metal concentrations i.e. Co, Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni, deficient concentrations of plant essential nutrients such as N, P, K, and that presents an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio (1/19). ECM inoculation was successful with a plant level of root mycorrhization up to 6.7%. ECM symbiosis enhanced plant growth as indicated by significant increases in shoot and root biomass. Presence of ECM enhanced uptake of major elements that are deficient in ultramafic substrates; in particular P, K and Ca. On the contrary, the ECM symbioses strongly reduced transfer to plants of element in excess in soils; in particular all metals. ECM-inoculated plants released metal complexing molecules as free thiols and oxalic acid mostly at lower concentrations than in controls. Data showed that ECM symbiosis helped plant growth by supplying uptake of deficient elements while acting as a protective barrier to toxic metals, in particular for plants growing on ultramafic substrate with extreme soil conditions. Isolation of indigenous and stress-adapted beneficial ECM fungi could serve as a potential tool for inoculation of ECM endemic plants for the successful restoration of ultramafic ecosystems degraded by mining activities. PMID:24331432

  11. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N

    2007-08-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in

  12. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  13. The rotation of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) with metal-accumulating plant crops: a strategy to increase the benefits of soil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Pietro; Comolli, Roberto; Ferrè, Chiara; Ghiani, Alessandra; Gentili, Rodolfo; Citterio, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    Most of the plants employed to remove metals from contaminated soils are annuals and have a seed-to-seed life cycle of a few months, usually over spring and summer. Consequently, for most of the year, fields are not actively cleaned but are completely bare and subject to erosion by water and wind. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of using Lupinus albus as a winter crop in a rotation sequence with a summer crop ideally selected for phytoextraction, such as industrial hemp. Lupin plants were grown in two alkaline soil plots (heavy metal-contaminated and uncontaminated) of approximately 400 m(2) each after the cultivation and harvest of industrial hemp. A smaller-scale parallel pot experiment was also performed to better understand the lupin behavior in increasing concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. White lupin grew well in alkaline conditions, covering the soil during the winter season. In few months plants were approximately 40-50 cm high in both control and contaminated plots. In fields where the bioavailable fraction of metals was low (less than 12%), plants showed a high tolerance to these contaminants. However, their growth was affected in some pot treatments in which the concentrations of assimilable Cu, Zn and Ni were higher, ranging from approximately 40-70% of the total concentrations. The lupin's ability to absorb heavy metals and translocate them to shoots was negligible with respect to the magnitude of contamination, suggesting that this plant is not suitable for extending the period of phytoextraction. However, it is entirely exploitable as green manure, avoiding the application of chemical amendments during phytoremediation. In addition, in polluted fields, white lupin cultivation increased the soil concentration of live bacteria and the bioavailable percentage of metals. On average live bacteria counts per gram of soil were 65×10(6)±18×10(6) and 99×10(6)±22*10(6) before and after cultivation, respectively. The percentages

  14. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India. PMID:24426163

  15. Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Katie V; Schneller, Laura C; Mulder, Christa P H; Carlson, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of abundantly flowered, highly rewarding non-native plant species is expected to have strong consequences for native plants through altered pollination services, particularly in boreal forest where the flowering season is short and the pollinator pool is small. In 18 boreal forest sites, we added flowering Melilotus albus to some sites and left some sites as controls in 2 different years to test if the invasive plant influences the pollination and reproductive success of two co-flowering ericaceous species: Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Rhododendron groenlandicum. We found that M. albus increased the pollinator diversity and tended to increase visitation rates to the focal native plant species compared to control sites. Melilotus albus facilitated greater seed production per berry in V. vitis-idaea when we added 120 plants compared to when we added 40 plants or in control sites. In R. groenlandicum, increasing numbers of M. albus inflorescences lowered conspecific pollen loads and percentage of flowers pollinated; however, no differences in fruit set were detected. The number of M. albus inflorescences had greater importance in explaining R. groenlandicum pollination compared to other environmental variables such as weather and number of native flowers, and had greater importance in lower quality black spruce sites than in mixed deciduous and white spruce sites for explaining the percentage of V. vitis-idaea flowers pollinated. Our data suggest that the identity of new pollinators attracted to the invaded sites, degree of shared pollinators between invasive and native species, and variation in resource limitation among sites are likely determining factors in the reproductive responses of boreal native plants in the presence of an invasive. PMID:26071209

  16. Unique aspects of fiber degradation by the ruminal ethanologen Ruminococcus albus 7 revealed by physiological and transcriptomic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus are important and ubiquitous members of mammalian guts. In particular, ruminococci are key contributors to the rumen ecosystem because they are capable of digesting a wide range of plant cell wall polysaccharides. In bovines, Ruminococcus albus 7 is a primary cellu...

  17. White Lupin (Lupinus albus) Response to Phosphorus Stress: Evidence for Complex Regulation of LaSAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) has a unique adaptation to phosphorus deficiency stress, such that a set of tightly coordinated physiological and morphological responses gives rise to the formation of cluster, or proteoid roots, structures that allow the plant to live in extremely infertile soils. The c...

  18. Anticoccidial effects of the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Lee, Hyun-A; Kim, Dong-Woo; Oh, Gi-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz (Rutaceae) extract (DDE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. Three-day-old chickens (n=30) were assigned to three groups (control, untreated, and DDE 0.1% treated). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without DDE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of DDE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The DDE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, DDE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that DDE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of DDE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:25628727

  19. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  20. Evaluation of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Origanum dictamnus extracts before and after encapsulation in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Gortzi, Olga; Lala, Stavros; Chinou, Ioanna; Tsaknis, John

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol or dichloromethane extracts of O. dictamnus, produced from wild and organic cultivated specimens, were determined. The Rancimat and malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC methods were used to measure the antioxidant action, in comparison with that of the common commercial antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The extracts that presented high antioxidant activity were encapsulated in liposomes and their antioxidant action was again estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermaloxidative decomposition of the samples (pure liposomes and encapsulated extracts) and the modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also studied by the DSC method. All extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Their action proved superior to alpha-tocopherol. The methanol extract of organic cultivated O. dictamnus (240 ppm) showed higher activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. After encapsulation in liposomes the antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities proved to be higher than those of the same extracts in pure form. PMID:17873829

  1. Mycofumigation by the Volatile Organic Compound-Producing Fungus Muscodor albus Induces Bacterial Cell Death through DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Alpha, Cambria J.; Campos, Manuel; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor albus belongs to a genus of endophytic fungi that inhibit and kill other fungi, bacteria, and insects through production of a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This process of mycofumigation has found commercial application for control of human and plant pathogens, but the mechanism of the VOC toxicity is unknown. Here, the mode of action of these volatiles was investigated through a series of genetic screens and biochemical assays. A single-gene knockout screen revealed high sensitivity for Escherichia coli lacking enzymes in the pathways of DNA repair, DNA metabolic process, and response to stress when exposed to the VOCs of M. albus. Furthermore, the sensitivity of knockouts involved in the repair of specific DNA alkyl adducts suggests that the VOCs may induce alkylation. Evidence of DNA damage suggests that these adducts lead to breaks during DNA replication or transcription if not properly repaired. Additional cytotoxicity profiling indicated that during VOC exposure, E. coli became filamentous and demonstrated an increase in cellular membrane fluidity. The volatile nature of the toxic compounds produced by M. albus and their broad range of inhibition make this fungus an attractive biological agent. Understanding the antimicrobial effects and the VOC mode of action will inform the utility and safety of potential mycofumigation applications for M. albus. PMID:25452287

  2. Characterization of an isoflavonoid-specific prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W; Dixon, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3' position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2'-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent K(m) of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the K(m). Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

  3. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL‑1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL‑1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin‑1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL‑1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL‑1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)‑1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius

  4. Complete Genome of the Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Garret; Stevenson, David M; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; Copeland, A; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Detter, J. Chris; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, Cliff; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Land, Miriam L; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pitluck, Sam; Tapia, Roxanne; Woyke, Tanja; Boyum, Julie; Mead, David; Weimer, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic ruminal bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome of this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology and cellulosome biology and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation products is ethanol.

  5. Complete genome of the cellulolytic ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminococcus albus 7 is a highly cellulolytic rumen bacterium that is a member of the phylum Firmicutes. Here, we describe the complete genome for this microbe. This genome will be useful for rumen microbiology, cellulosome biology, and in biofuel production, as one of its major fermentation product...

  6. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

  7. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  8. Staphylococcus albus in Wound Infection and in Septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, T. S.; Stuart, R. D.

    1965-01-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus albus was considered to be the causal agent in 53 (4.4%) of 1200 wound infections investigated in a large general hospital over the eight-year period 1957-1964. There was clinical evidence of morbidity in these patients, with fever, but the infection cleared spontaneously, usually in a week or two, and antibiotics were unnecessary. Of much greater importance was the finding of this organism in blood cultures on repeated occasions, with associated clinical septicemia. Twelve patients were so affected, of whom six died, a mortality rate of 50%. Such data emphasize the tragic mistake of dismissing the report of Staph. albus in a blood culture as “only a contaminant”, and of failure to recognize that the organism can cause serious disease. This is particularly true in poor-risk patients, and in those who have undergone cardiac surgery. PMID:14308909

  9. Eustrongylides sp. epizootic in young common egrets (Casmerodius albus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    In May 1985, epizootic mortality was reported in common egrets (Casmerodius albus) on Avery Island, Louisiana. Subsequent investigation revealed that more than 400 birds died. Severe peritoneal nematodiasis (Eustrongylides sp.) was found on postmortem examination. A nearby breeding rookery on the same island was apparently unaffected. Reasons for this selective mortality are presented. Three other reports of epizootic mortality due to Eustrongylides sp. have been reported. This is the first report of this type of epizootic in gulf-coast birds.

  10. Enhanced Phytochrome Sensitivity and Its Reversal in Amaranthus albus Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chadoeuf-Hannel, Regine; Taylorson, Ray B.

    1985-01-01

    Seed of Amaranthus alus L. develop an enhanced sensitivity to the farred absorbing form of phytochrome after prolonged imbibition at temperatures >32°C. The enhanced sensitivity developed at 40°C could be reversed by subsequent treatment at 20°C and similarly reestablished by repeating a 40°C treatment. It is concluded that relative sensitivity to the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome may be readily manipulated in seeds of A. albus. PMID:16664221

  11. Strain-Level Diversity of Secondary Metabolism in Streptomyces albus

    PubMed Central

    Seipke, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty. PMID:25635820

  12. Control of common bunt of wheat under field conditions with the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the biological control potential of the fungus Muscodor albus, when applied as a seed treatment or an in furrow soil treatment, for control of common bunt (CB) of wheat caused by Tilletia caries. For seed treatments, dry rye grain culture of M. albus wa...

  13. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    PubMed Central

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-01-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G. Images PMID:977549

  14. Biochemical Analyses of Multiple Endoxylanases from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 and Their Synergistic Activities with Accessory Hemicellulose-Degrading Enzymes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Young Hwan; Iakiviak, Michael; Bauer, Stefan; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a ruminal bacterium capable of metabolizing hemicellulose and cellulose, the major components of the plant cell wall. The enzymes that allow this bacterium to capture energy from the two polysaccharides, therefore, have potential application in plant cell wall depolymerization, a process critical to biofuel production. For this purpose, a partial genome sequence of R. albus 8 was generated. The genomic data depicted a bacterium endowed with multiple forms of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The endoxylanases of R. albus 8 exhibited diverse modular architectures, including incorporation of a catalytic module, a carbohydrate binding module, and a carbohydrate esterase module in a single polypeptide. The accessory enzymes of xylan degradation were a β-xylosidase, an α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and an α-glucuronidase. We hypothesized that due to the chemical complexity of the hemicellulose encountered in the rumen, the bacterium uses multiple endoxylanases, with subtle differences in substrate specificities, to attack the substrate, while the accessory enzymes hydrolyze the products to simple sugars for metabolism. To test this hypothesis, the genes encoding the predicted endoxylanases were expressed, and the proteins were biochemically characterized either alone or in combination with accessory enzymes. The different endoxylanase families exhibited different patterns of product release, with the family 11 endoxylanases releasing more products in synergy with the accessory enzymes from the more complex substrates. Aside from the insights into hemicellulose degradation by R. albus 8, this report should enhance our knowledge on designing effective enzyme cocktails for release of fermentable sugars in the biofuel industry. PMID:21666020

  15. Functional Analyses of Multiple Lichenin-Degrading Enzymes from the Rumen Bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8▿†

    PubMed Central

    Iakiviak, Michael; Mackie, Roderick I.; Cann, Isaac K. O.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 8 is a fibrolytic ruminal bacterium capable of utilization of various plant cell wall polysaccharides. A bioinformatic analysis of a partial genome sequence of R. albus revealed several putative enzymes likely to hydrolyze glucans, including lichenin, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide of glucose linked together in β-1,3 and β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. In the present study, we demonstrate the capacity of four glycoside hydrolases (GHs), derived from R. albus, to hydrolyze lichenin. Two of the genes encoded GH family 5 enzymes (Ra0453 and Ra2830), one gene encoded a GH family 16 enzyme (Ra0505), and the last gene encoded a GH family 3 enzyme (Ra1595). Each gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity. Upon screening on a wide range of substrates, Ra0453, Ra2830, and Ra0505 displayed different hydrolytic properties, as they released unique product profiles. The Ra1595 protein, predicted to function as a β-glucosidase, preferred cleavage of a nonreducing end glucose when linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond to the next glucose residue. The major product of Ra0505 hydrolysis of lichenin was predicted to be a glucotriose that was degraded only by Ra0453 to glucose and cellobiose. Most importantly, the four enzymes functioned synergistically to hydrolyze lichenin to glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose. This lichenin-degrading enzyme mix should be of utility as an additive to feeds administered to monogastric animals, especially those high in fiber. PMID:21890664

  16. Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Houben, David; Sonnet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. Here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris L. and Lupinus albus L. on metal (Cd, Pb and Zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (Tessier's scheme). In the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming effect which subsequently promoted the metal shift into the carbonate-bound pool. However, metals were re-mobilized in the rhizosphere of both A. capillaris and L. albus due to root-induced acidification which counteracted the liming effect of biochar. As a result, the concentrations of metals in roots and shoots of both plants were not significantly reduced by the application of biochar. Although the study should be considered a worst-case scenario because experimental conditions induced the intensification of rhizosphere processes, the results highlight that changes in rhizosphere pH can impact the effectiveness of biochar to immobilize metals in soil. Biochar has thus a potential as amendment for reducing metal uptake by plants, provided the acidification of the rhizosphere is minimized. PMID:25559173

  17. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). PMID:27263113

  18. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated. PMID:16229970

  19. Chemical and biological properties in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus alter soil heavy metal fractionation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcalá, I; Walker, D J; Bernal, M P

    2010-05-01

    To understand better the suitability of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils, the effect of its roots on chemical and biological properties of the rhizosphere affecting soil metal fractionation was studied. Plants were cultivated in two similar soils, with high levels of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb but differing pH values (4.2 and 6.8). In the rhizosphere of both soils, its roots induced increases in water-soluble carbon, which influenced the fractionation of heavy metals and ultimately their uptake by plant roots. In the rhizosphere of the acid soil, the concentrations of 0.1M CaCl(2)-extractable Mn, Zn and Cu were lower than in the bulk soil, possibly due to their increased retention on Fe (III) hydroxides/oxyhydroxides, while in the neutral soil only the Zn concentration was lower. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in plants growing on the acid soil, reflecting their greater availability in this soil. The restricted transfer of heavy metals to the shoot confirms the potential role of this species in the initial phytoimmobilisation of heavy metals, particularly in neutral-alkaline soils. PMID:20060590

  20. Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.

    PubMed

    Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2014-05-01

    Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery. PMID:24633227

  1. Characterization of an Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase from Lupinus albus1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guoan; Huhman, David; Lei, Zhentian; Snyder, John; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Prenylated flavonoids and isoflavonoids possess antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens of plants. However, only a few plant flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferase genes have been identified to date. In this study, an isoflavonoid prenyltransferase gene, designated as LaPT1, was identified from white lupin (Lupinus albus). The deduced protein sequence of LaPT1 shared high homologies with known flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases. The LaPT1 gene was mainly expressed in roots, a major site for constitutive accumulation of prenylated isoflavones in white lupin. LaPT1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein with nine transmembrane regions and conserved functional domains similar to other flavonoid and isoflavonoid prenyltransferases; it has a predicted chloroplast transit peptide and is plastid localized. A microsomal fraction containing recombinant LaPT1 prenylated the isoflavone genistein at the B-ring 3′ position to produce isowighteone. The enzyme is also active with 2′-hydroxygenistein but has no activity with other flavonoid substrates. The apparent Km of recombinant LaPT1 for the dimethylallyl diphosphate prenyl donor is in a similar range to that of other flavonoid prenyltransferases, but the apparent catalytic efficiency with genistein is considerably higher. Removal of the transit peptide increased the apparent overall activity but also increased the Km. Medicago truncatula hairy roots expressing LaPT1 accumulated isowighteone, a compound that is not naturally produced in this species, indicating a strategy for metabolic engineering of novel antimicrobial compounds in legumes. PMID:22430842

  2. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Doroghazi, J. R.; Ju, K.-S.; Metcalf, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with five other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these other species, including Streptomyces almquistii NRRL B-1685T, Streptomyces flocculus NRRL B-2465T, Streptomyces gibsonii NRRL B-1335T and Streptomyces rangoonensis NRRL B-12378T are quite similar. This cluster is of particular taxonomic interest because Streptomyces albus is the type species of the genus Streptomyces. The related strains were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) utilizing partial sequences of the housekeeping genes atpD, gyrB, recA, rpoB and trpB and confirmation of previously reported phenotypic characteristics. The five strains formed a coherent cluster supported by a 100 % bootstrap value in phylogenetic trees generated from sequence alignments prepared by concatenating the sequences of the housekeeping genes, and identical tree topology was observed using various different tree-making algorithms. Moreover, all but one strain, S. flocculus NRRL B-2465T, exhibited identical sequences for all of the five housekeeping gene loci sequenced, but NRRL B-2465T still exhibited an MLSA evolutionary distance of 0.005 from the other strains, a value that is lower than the 0.007 MLSA evolutionary distance threshold proposed for species-level relatedness. These data support a proposal to reclassify S. almquistii, S. flocculus, S. gibsonii and S. rangoonensis as later heterotypic synonyms of S. albus with NRRL B-1811T as the type strain. The MLSA sequence database also demonstrated utility for quickly and conclusively confirming that numerous strains within the ARS Culture Collection had been previously misidentified as subspecies of S. albus and that Streptomyces albus subsp. pathocidicus should be redescribed as a novel species, Streptomyces

  3. Functional phylotyping approach for assessing intraspecific diversity of Ruminococcus albus within the rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Rozman Grinberg, Inna; Yin, Guohua; Borovok, Ilya; Berg Miller, Margret E; Yeoman, Carl J; Dassa, Bareket; Yu, Zhongtang; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Flint, Harry J; Bayer, Edward A; White, Bryan A; Lamed, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus, a cellulolytic bacterium, is a critical member of the rumen community. Ruminococcus albus lacks a classical cellulosome complex, but it possesses a unique family 37 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM37), which is integrated into a variety of carbohydrate-active enzymes. We developed a potential molecular tool for functional phylotyping of the R. albus population in the rumen, based on a variable region in the cel48A gene. cel48A encodes a single copy of the CBM37-associated family 48 glycoside hydrolase in all known strains of this bacterium. A segment of the cel48A gene was amplified from rumen metagenomic samples of four bovines, and its abundance and diversity were evaluated. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed the co-existence of multiple functional phylotypes of cel48A in all four animals. These included sequences identical or similar to those of R. albus isolates (reference strains), as well as several novel sequences. The dominant cel48A type varied among animals. This method can be used for detection of intraspecific diversity of R. albus in metagenomic samples. Together with scaC, a previously reported gene marker for R. flavefaciens, we present a set of two species-specific markers for phylotyping of Ruminococci in the herbivore rumen. PMID:25673657

  4. Assimilation and Transport of Nitrogen in Nonnodulated (NO3-grown) Lupinus albus L 1

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Craig A.; Pate, John S.; Layzell, David B.

    1979-01-01

    The response of nonnodulated white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Ultra) plants to a range of NO3 levels in the rooting medium was studied by in vitro assays of extracts of plant parts for NO3 reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) activity, measurements of NO3-N in plant organs, and solute analyses of root bleeding (xylem) sap and phloem sap from stems and petioles. Plants were grown for 65 days with 5 millimolar NO3 followed by 10 days with 1, 5, 15, or 30 millimolar NO3. NO3 reductase was substrate-induced in all tissues. Roots contained 76, 68, 62 and 31% of the total NO3 reductase activity of plants fed with 1, 5, 15, and 30 millimolar NO3, respectively. Stem, petioles, and leaflets contained virtually all of the NO3 reductase activity of a shoot, the activity in extracts of fruits amounting to less than 0.3% of the total enzyme recovered from the plant. Xylem sap from NO3-grown nonnodulated plants contained the same organic solutes as from nodulated plants grown in the absence of combined N. Asparagine accounted for 50 to 70% and glutamine 10 to 20% of the xylem-borne N. The level of NO3 in xylem sap amounted to 4, 13, 12, and 17% of the total xylem N at 1, 5, 15, and 30 millimolar NO3, respectively. Xylem to phloem transfer of N appeared to be quantitatively important in supplying fruits and vegetative apices with reduced N, especially at low levels of applied NO3. NO3 failed to transfer in any quantity from xylem to phloem, representing less than 0.3% of the phloem-borne N at all levels of applied NO3. Shoot organs were ineffective in storing NO3. Even when NO3 was supplied in great excess (30 millimolar level) it accounted for only 8% of the total N of stem and petioles, and only 2 and 1% of the N of leaflets and fruits, respectively. PMID:16661096

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the white char Salvelinus albus (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Parensky, Valery A; Kovalev, Mikhail Yu; Ayala, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced in two individuals of white char Salvelinus albus. The genome sequences are 16 653 bp in size, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the salmonid fish genomes published previously. The low level of sequence divergence detected between the genome of S. albus and the GenBank complete mitochondrial genomes of the Northern Dolly Varden char S. malma (KJ746618) and the Arctic char S. alpinus (AF154851) may likely be due to recent divergence of the species and/or historical hybridization and interspecific replacement of mtDNA. PMID:26358825

  6. The Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum: Two Eary Models of Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, James S.

    1989-01-01

    The Marr and Albus theories of the cerebellum are compared and contrasted. They are shown to be similar in their analysis of the function of the mossy fibers, granule cells, Golgi cells, and Purkinje cells. They both predict motor learning in the parallel fiber synapses on the Purkinje dendrites mediated by concurrent climbing fiber input. This prediction has been confirmed by experimental evidence. In contrast, Marr predicts these synapses would be facilitated by learning, while Albus predicts they would be weakened. Experimental evidence confirms synaptic weakening.

  7. Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Carro, Lorena; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, José M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-09-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8 %, 98.9 %, 97.4 % and 97.4 % similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45 % between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) ( = LMG 27296(T) = CECT 8235(T)). PMID:24928428

  8. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and applications as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47%) and oil (6-13%). It also has many secondary metabolites that are pote...

  9. Auxin mediates patterning of cluster root development induced by phosphorus deficiency in Lupinus albus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) develops cluster roots under phosphorus (P) deficiency. This species is widely used as a model system to study the morphology and physiology of cluster roots. However, the mechanism of P deficiency-induced cluster root formation is not fully understood. To evaluate the...

  10. Mortality of Tilletia spp. teliospores caused by volatiles from the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, T. indica, and T. tritici which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Ten g...

  11. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P.; White, Philip J.; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m–2 s–1 or 600 µmol m–2 s–1 light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  12. Interactions between light intensity and phosphorus nutrition affect the phosphate-mining capacity of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingyun; Tang, Xiaoyan; Vance, Carroll P; White, Philip J; Zhang, Fusuo; Shen, Jianbo

    2014-07-01

    Light intensity affects photosynthetic carbon (C) fixation and the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and phosphorus (P) supply, effects of light intensity on sucrose accumulation, root growth, cluster root formation, carboxylate exudation, and P uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically with either 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) or 600 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light and a sufficient (50 µM P) or deficient (1 µM P) P supply. Plant biomass and root:shoot ratio increased with increasing light intensity, particularly when plants were supplied with sufficient P. Both low P supply and increasing light intensity increased the production of cluster roots and citrate exudation. Transcripts of a phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene (LaPEPC3) in cluster roots (which is related to the exudation of citrate), transcripts of a phosphate transporter gene (LaPT1), and P uptake all increased with increasing light intensity, under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. Across all four experimental treatments, increased cluster root formation and carboxylate exudation were associated with lower P concentration in the shoot and greater sucrose concentration in the roots. It is suggested that C in excess of shoot growth capabilities is translocated to the roots as sucrose, which serves as both a nutritional signal and a C-substrate for carboxylate exudation and cluster root formation. PMID:24723402

  13. Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Higa, Ataru; Miyamoto, Erika; ur Rahman, Laiq; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2008-04-01

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development. By studying effects of proton-pump inhibitors, medium acidification with external organic acid, and riboflavin addition upon pH change and riboflavin productivity, we indicate that riboflavin efflux is not directly connected to active pH reduction, and more significantly active riboflavin secretion occurs as a response to an internal requirement in H. albus hairy roots under iron deficiency. PMID:18367404

  14. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae. PMID:27423548

  15. Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.

    PubMed

    Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus. PMID:25433433

  16. Copper excess promotes propagation and induces proteomic change in root cultures of Hyoscyamus albus L.

    PubMed

    Sako, Ari; Kandakar, Jebunnahar; Tamari, Noriko; Higa, Ataru; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2016-06-01

    Hyoscyamus albus L. seedlings respond positively to copper (Cu) excess. In the present study, to understand how roots cope with Cu excess, propagation and proteome composition in the presence of Cu were examined using a root culture system. When H. albus roots were cultured in a medium without Cu, root growth deteriorated. However, in the presence of Cu, root growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and vigorous lateral root development was observed at 200 μM Cu. Cu accumulation in the roots increased with the Cu supply. Subcellular fractionation revealed that the highest amount of Cu was present in the cell wall-containing fraction, followed by the soluble fraction. However, the highest specific incorporation of Cu, in terms of fresh weight, was in the mitochondria-rich fraction. High Cu levels enhanced respiration activity. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, de novo protein synthesis, cell division, and ATP synthesis increased in abundance, whereas the proteasome decreased. These results indicate that Cu promotes propagation of H. albus roots through the activation of the energy supply and anabolism. Newly propagated root tissues and newly generated proteins that bind to Cu may provide space and reservoirs for deposition of additional Cu. PMID:26945770

  17. Biomineralization of carbonates by Marinococcus albus and Marinococcus halophilus isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile).

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, M A; Delgado, G; Soriano, M; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Delgado, R

    1999-07-01

    We studied the precipitation of carbonates in 17 strains of moderately halophilic, Gram-positive cocci belonging to two species: Marinococcus halophilus and Marinococcus albus, isolated from the Salar de Atacama (Chile). They were cultivated in solid and liquid laboratory media for 42 days at salt concentrations (wt/vol) of 3%, 7.5%, 15%, and 20%. The bioliths precipitated were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. M. halophilus formed crystals at each of the salt concentrations, with a maximum number of strains capable of precipitating carbonates at 7.5% and 15% salt concentrations. M. albus did not precipitate at 20% and showed a maximum at 7.5%. This behavior is similar to that of other gram-positive bacteria and differs from that found in gram-negative bacteria. The bioliths precipitated were spherical, generally isolated, with a size of 10-100 microm, varying with salinity. They were of magnesium calcite (CO3 Ca1-x Mgx) with Mg content increasing with increasing salinity and Mg/Ca molar ratio of the culture medium. These results demonstrate the active role played by M. halophilus and M. albus in the precipitation of carbonates. PMID:10387118

  18. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  19. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs. PMID:25412792

  20. Pupal mortality and adult emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to the fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae).

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Lacey, Lawrence A; Bishop, Belinda J B

    2009-12-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides alone for fly control could be fumigation of the fly's overwintering habitat using the fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & Hess (Xylariales: Xylariaceae) in conjunction with reduced insecticide use. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are biocidal for a variety of organisms. In this study, the main objectives were to determine the effects of M. albus VOCs on mortality of R. indifferens pupae and on adult emergence under laboratory conditions. In fumigation chamber experiments, a 14-d exposure of pupae in soil to VOCs resulted in 61.9% control, and exposure to VOCs for 7, 10, and 14 d reduced fly emergence by 44.2, 70.0, and 86.3%, respectively, relative to controls. In an experiment using plastic covers to retain VOCs in treated soil, a concentration of 1% M. albus formulation (fungus + rye grain) did not affect pupal mortality and fly emergence, but a concentration of 5% M. albus formulation resulted in 27.4% control and reduced fly emergence by 30.1% relative to the control. Larvae of R. indifferens that were dropped onto soil with 1% M. albus formulation were not affected by the fungus. Results indicate that prolonged exposure and high concentrations of M. albus VOCs can cause significant mortality of R. indifferens pupae in soil and delay adult emergence. PMID:20069829

  1. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production. PMID:26969249

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin: Loxechinus albus (Camarodonta, Parechinidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Gila; Lee, Youn-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Chilean sea urchin Loxechinus albus, the single species of the genus Loxechinus, is determined. The circular mitogenome is 15,709 bp in length containing 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA and 13 protein coding genes as well as the control region. The gene order is identical to those of described Camarodonta species. There are 24 bp gene overlaps at 6 locations and 124 bp intergenic spacers at 17 boundaries. The nucleotide composition of the genome is 31.2% A, 22.3% C, 29.7% T, and 16.8% G. The A+T bias (60.9%) is similar to that of P. lividus (60.3%) but slightly higher than those of strongylocentrotid species (58.8-59.8%). The mitogenome sequence of L. albus will provide valuable information on the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Loxechinus in relation to other Camarodonta sea urchins. PMID:24409862

  3. Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, filamentous actinomycete of the family Glycomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Tang, Shu-Kun; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-06-01

    A novel halophilic actinobacterium, designated YIM 92370(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The strain was aerobic, Gram-positive-staining and halophilic, with an optimum NaCl concentration for growth of 8-12 % (w/v). The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of ribose, xylose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)) and the major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The phospholipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and one unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 60.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM 92370(T) can be distinguished from representatives of Glycomyces and Stackebrandtia, the two existing genera in the family Glycomycetaceae, by low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities (<93.7 %). Strain YIM 92370(T) therefore represents a novel genus and species of the family Glycomycetaceae, for which the name Haloglycomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Haloglycomyces albus is YIM 92370(T) (=DSM 45210(T) =KCTC 19481(T)). PMID:19502305

  4. Anaerobic bioconversion of cellulose by Ruminococcus albus, Methanobrevibacter smithii, and Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Currenti, E; Wolin, M J

    2000-10-01

    A system is described that combines the fermentation of cellulose to acetate, CH4, and CO2 by Ruminococcus albus and Methanobrevibacter smithii with the fermentation of acetate to CH4 and CO2 by Methanosarcina barkeri to convert cellulose to CH4 and CO2. A cellulose-containing medium was pumped into a co-culture of the cellulolytic R. albus and the H2-using methanogen, Mb. smithii. The effluent was fed into a holding reservoir, adjusted to pH 4.5, and then pumped into a culture of Ms. barkeri maintained at constant volume by pumping out culture contents. Fermentation of 1% cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was accomplished during 132 days of operation with retention times (RTs) of the Ms. barkeri culture of 7.5-3.8 days. Rates of acetate utilization were 9.5-17.3 mmol l(-1) day(-1) and increased with decreasing RT. The Ks for acetate utilization was 6-8 mM. The two-stage system can be used as a model system for studying biological and physical parameters that influence the bioconversion process. Our results suggest that manipulating the different phases of cellulose fermentation separately can effectively balance the pH and ionic requirements of the acid-producing phase with the acid-using phase of the overall fermentation. PMID:11092623

  5. Sporocarps of Pisolithus albus as an ecological niche for fluorescent pseudomonads involved in Acacia mangium Wild - Pisolithus albus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Duponnois, Robin; Lesueur, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Fresh sporocarps and root and soil samples were collected under a monospecific forest plantation of Acacia mangium in Dagana in Northern Senegal and checked for the presence of fluorescent pseudomonads. No bacteria were detected except from sporocarps collected with adhering soil and hyphal strands. Pisolithus sporocarps were dried at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks, ground, passed through a 2-mm sieve and mixed together. This dry sporocarp powder (DSP) was used to inoculate and form mycorrhizas on A. mangium seedlings in a glasshouse experiment. After 3 months culture, plant growth was increased in the DSP treatment but no ectomycorrhizas were present on the A. mangium root systems; however fluorescent pseudomonads were recorded in the cultural soil. The stimulatory effects on the plant growth were maintained for 6 months. However, fluorescent pseudomonads were no longer detected and 35% of the short roots were ectomycorrhizal. Some of the fluorescent pseudomonad isolates detected after 3 months stimulated the radial fungal growth in axenic conditions. These observations suggest that these bacteria are closely associated with the Pisolithus fructifications and could interact with the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment. PMID:15644922

  6. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5'-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3'-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  7. Overwintering strategy of wild free-ranging and enclosure-housed Japanese raccoon dogs ( Nyctereutes procyonoides albus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Masaaki; Osborne, Peter G.

    2009-03-01

    The raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, is a canid with a passive overwintering strategy in northern Europe. However, the behaviour and physiology of the Japanese subspecies, N. p. albus, which has fewer chromosomes than the other subspecies, remain unknown. We measured body temperature, body composition and blood biochemistry of wild free-ranging and fasted enclosure-housed N. p. albus during boreal winter in Hokkaido, Japan. Body temperature of N. p. albus decreased from 38°C in autumn to 35.9-36.7°C while maintaining a circadian rhythm in late February ( n = 3). A transient 18-36% decrease in resting heart rate occurred when body temperature was low ( n = 2). Despite a 33-45% decrease in body weight due to winter fasting, circulating glucose, total protein and triglyceride levels were maintained ( n = 4). Serum urea nitrogen dropped by 43-45% from autumn to spring, suggesting protein conservation during fasting. The overwintering survival strategy of N. p. albus in central Hokkaido is based upon large changes in seasonal activity patterns, winter denning and communal housing without the large decrease in body temperature that is characteristic of subarctic animals exhibiting hibernation or torpor.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression profile of the estrogen receptor α gene during different reproductive phases in Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Weidong; Cao, Liping; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism of estrogen and to evaluate the role of the estrogen receptor in mediating estrogen action, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor α (ERα) was cloned from Monopterus albus, and its expression pattern and distribution were investigated. The ERα cDNA of M. albus includes an open reading frame of 1863 bp, a 140-bp 5’-untranslated region and a 797-bp 3’-untranslated region. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that the Monopterus albus ERα has a moderate degree of similarity with Sebastes schlegelii, Zoarces viviparus and Haplochromis burtoni (81.1%, 80.7% and 80.4%, respectively). Quantitative PCR results showed that the highest level of ERα expression was in the liver; the next highest level of expression was observed in the gonads, where it was expressed at high levels particularly in the ovary in developmental stages IV and V and in the testis in developmental stage II/III. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that ERα was present as slender particles distributed mainly in the membranes of spermatocytes and oocytes in the testis and ovary, whereas no positive signal was observed in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. This report describes the first molecular characterization of full-length ERα and its tissue-specific distribution in M. albus. PMID:27295422

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans

    PubMed Central

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P.; Erickson, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producing Streptomyces strain, Streptomyces albus SM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces albus SM254, a Potent Antagonist of Bat White-Nose Syndrome Pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Erickson, Joshua D; Salomon, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced and annotated the complete 7,170,504-bp genome of a novel secondary metabolite-producingStreptomycesstrain,Streptomyces albusSM254, isolated from copper-rich subsurface fluids at ~220-m depth within the Soudan Iron Mine (Soudan, MN, USA). PMID:27081146

  11. Wood adhesives prepared from lucerne fiber fermentation residues of Ruminococcus albus and Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Koegel, R G; Lorenz, L F; Frihart, C R; Kenealy, W R

    2005-03-01

    Fermentation residues (consisting of incompletely fermented fiber, adherent bacterial cells, and a glycocalyx material that enhanced bacterial adherence) were obtained by growing the anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria Ruminococcus albus 7 or Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 on a fibrous fraction derived from lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). The dried residue was able to serve as an effective co-adhesive for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) bonding of aspen veneer sheets to one another. Testing of the resulting plywood panels revealed that the adhesive, formulated to contain 30% of its total dry weight as fermentation residue, displayed shear strength and wood failure values under both wet and dry conditions that were comparable with those of industry standards for PF that contained much smaller amounts of fillers or extenders. By contrast, PF adhesives prepared with 30% of dry weight as either unfermented lucerne fiber or conventional fillers or extenders rather than as fermentation residues, displayed poor performance, particularly under wet conditions. PMID:15735965

  12. Identification of Arthrobacter oxydans, Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov., and Arthrobacter albus sp. nov., Isolated from Human Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wauters, Georges; Charlier, Jacqueline; Janssens, Michèle; Delmée, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Five Arthrobacter isolates from clinical specimens were studied by phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genetic characterization. Two strains had characteristics consistent with those of Arthrobacter oxydans. One strain was related to A. citreus; however, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic characteristics indicated that this strain belongs to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter luteolus sp. nov. is proposed. Two strains were closely related to A. cumminsii by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, but DNA-DNA hybridization, peptidoglycan type, and some phenotypic features indicated that they should be assigned to a new species, for which the name Arthrobacter albus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. luteolus is CF25 (DSM 13067). The type strain of A. albus is CF43 (DSM 13068). PMID:10835019

  13. Mating system and size advantage of male mating in the protogynous swamp eel Monopterus albus with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Seiji; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Ohnishi, Nobuhiro; Kohda, Masanori

    2011-05-01

    In fish with paternal care, protogynous sex change (female to male) is rare and has only been reported from species with haremic polygyny. The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is a protogynous fish with paternal care, but little is known about its mating system. To understand protogyny in this species, we examined the mating system and male size advantage in mating in M. albus under semi-natural condition. Females swam over wide ranges and visited multiple male nests. Males defended a narrow territory around nests against other males that approached nests; at these nests, males courted and accepted visiting females. After spawning inside nests, caring males continued to perform courtship activities, and multiple breeding was observed. These observations suggest that the M. albus mating system is male-territory-visiting (MTV)-polygamy. Larger males had nests, and mated more frequently compared with small males. Because small initial males of this species are not found in nature, and because M. albus does not engage in sneaking tactics, larger nesting males do not suffer from reproductive parasitism. Thus, protogyny in this fish is likely consistent with the predictions of the size-advantage model. Biting attacks by territorial males of this predatory fish seriously wounded intruding males, occasionally resulting in the death of the intruder. We discuss the possibility that sexual differences in mortality rates in small fish may facilitate the evolution of protogyny in this species. Protogyny of the swamp eel is, to our knowledge, the first example of an MTV-polygamous mating system in a fish with paternal care. PMID:21557660

  14. Gene cloning and induced expression pattern of IRF4 and IRF10 in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    PubMed Central

    XU, Qiao-Qing; YANG, Dai-Qin; TUO, Rui; WAN, Jing; CHANG, Ming-Xian; NIE, Pin

    2014-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish in East Asia, but data on the immune genes of M. albus are scarce compared to other commercially important fish. A better understanding of the eel’s immune responses may help in developing strategies for disease management, potentially improving yields and mitigating losses. In mammals, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) play a vital role in both the innate and adaptive immune system; though among teleosts IRF4 and IRF10 have seldom been studied. In this study, we characterized IRF4 and IRF10 from M. albus (maIRF4 and maIRF10) and found that maIRF4 cDNA consists of 1 716 nucleotides encoding a 451 amino acid (aa) protein, while maIRF10 consists of 1 744 nucleotides including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 236 nt encoding 411 aa. The maIRF10 gene was constitutively expressed at high levels in a variety of tissues, while maIRF4 showed a very limited expression pattern. Expression of maIRF4 and maIRF10 in head kidney, and spleen tissues was significantly up-regulated from 12 h to 48 h post-stimulation with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a common pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggest that IRF4 and IRF10 play roles in immune responses to both viral and bacterial infections in M. albus. PMID:25297077

  15. [Demography and fishery of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinidae) in south-austral Chile region].

    PubMed

    Arana, Patricio M

    2005-12-01

    In the Magellan Region of southern Chile (52 degrees 20'S - 55 degrees 30'S), the edible urchin Loxechinus albus is collected by 1200 artisanal fishermen, of whom 450 are divers. About 360 small fishing boats and 54 transport vessels carry the fresh product to 16 processing plants. Landings of about 27 000 tons were recorded between January and December 1995. Test diameters of urchins harvested monthly were measured for a total of 119 239 specimens, and 36 406 specimens were individually weighed; sex determination was carried out on 2 314 specimens. Field data indicate that the harvest was about 6.6 x 106 dozen urchins (this is a measuring method employed by fishermen in the region), with an extractive effort of 14 753 diver/days. The fisheries yield ranged from an annual minimum of 235 DUDD (dozen urchins per diver/day) to a maximum of 660 DUDD. In overall terms, the lowest average yields were between January and April (415-427 DUDD), and the highest yields between May and December (456-510 DUDD). Mean sizes increased from June to November and decreased from December to June. Size frequency of males and females were polymodal, with the most relevant modes at 72-84 mm in males, and at 79-88 mm in the females. The percentage of individuals below the minimum legal size (70 mm) did not exceed 4.9% for males and 3.6% for females. The size-weight records fit a power model which suggested that this species has a negative allometric growth (b = 2.007). Regarding weight, urchins in the size range from 80.0 to 84.9 mm were those with the maximum contribution to the regional landings. The highest values recorded for the utilized condition factor were: Average Condition Factor (ACF) = May to July, and November; Isometric (or Cubic) Condition Factor (ICF) = July; and Allometric Condition Factor (ACF) = June. Spawning occurred mainly between August and September, and ended by the end of October. Exploitation of this species represents one of the main sources of employment for

  16. Molecular cloning and analysis of gonadal expression of Foxl2 in the rice-field eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We isolated the complete Foxl2 (Foxl2a) cDNA from the Monopterus albus ovary. An alignment of known Foxl2 amino-acid sequences confirmed the conservation of the Foxl2 open reading frame, especially the forkhead domain and C-terminal region. The expression of Foxl2 was detected in the brain, eyes, and gonads. A high level of Foxl2 expression in the ovary before sex reversal, but its transcripts decreased sharply when the gonad developed into the ovotestis and testis. The correlation between the Foxl2 expression and the process of sex development revealed the important function of Foxl2 during the sex reversal of M. albus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Foxl2 was expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and in the interstitial cells of the ovotestis and testis. These results suggest that Foxl2 plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of ovarian function. Foxl2 may be also involved in the early development of testis and the development of ocular structures of M. albus. PMID:25363394

  17. Effects of intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on the mobility of target elements for phytoremediation and phytomining in soil solution.

    PubMed

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil. PMID:26940160

  18. Compositions and functions of the hatching froth from ricefield eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew).

    PubMed

    Yin, Shaowu; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The ricefield eel (Monopterus albus) is an economic fish species in China. To improve its artificial reproduction, we studied the compositions and functions of the hatching froth secreted by ricefield eels. The froth showed a viscosity of 2.72 mPaS, composed of glycoproteins with a sugar content of 0.156 mg/ml and a protein content of 0.250 mg/ml at a ratio of 1.60. The froth proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE as four proteins with the molecular weights of 42.5, 58.6, 65.3, and 98.2 kDa respectively. Their total amino acid content was 201.88 mg/100 ml, consisting of 16 kinds of amino acids. Filed observation revealed three beneficial effects of the froth on the hatching of the eel eggs. First, the froth increased the hatching rates of fertilized eggs at a range of water temperatures. Second, the froth decreased the rates of infection of the fertilized eggs by the water mold. Finally, the froth accelerated velum breakage in the fertilized eggs. Of the different hatching methods, froth incubation achieved the highest hatching rate and larvae survival rate. These results demonstrate the indispensable function of the froth of ricefield eels, and offer practical reasons for protecting the froth during the breeding season. PMID:18949569

  19. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat. PMID:22538454

  20. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Williams, G.E. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feather Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.

  1. The Pied Crow (Corvus albus) is insensitive to diclofenac at concentrations present in carrion.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Vinny; Mompati, Kefiloe Feliciity; Duncan, Neil; Taggart, Mark Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), kills vultures (Gyps spp.) that consume tainted carcasses. As a result, vulture populations in India, Nepal, and Pakistan have been devastated. Studies on meloxicam and ketoprofen demonstrated that the toxicity of the NSAIDs is unpredictable, thereby necessitating individual testing of all available NSAIDs. Because it is no longer practical to use vultures for toxicity testing, we evaluated the Pied Crow (Corvus albus) as a model. Pied Crows (n=6) were exposed to a dose of 0.8 and 10 mg/kg of diclofenac, with no signs of toxicity, and a rapid half-life of elimination. Using primary renal cell and hepatocyte cultures, a high tolerance was demonstrated at the cellular level. Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic data for the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus) and the African White-backed (Gyps africanus), Cape Griffon (Gyps coprotheres), and Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) showed a trend toward toxicity when the half-life of elimination increased. We conclude that the crow is not susceptible to diclofenac and, more important, that toxicity in the Gyps species is probably related to zero-order metabolism. PMID:22102664

  2. An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of orthophosphate-deficient white lupin reveals novel insights into phosphorus acclimation in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi-deficiency remains largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has evolved unique adaptation systems for gro...

  3. Might Flowers of Invasive Plants Increase Native Bees Carrying Capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the native bees visiting the flowers of three species of invasive plants (Tamarix spp., Melilotus albus, M. officinalis) with those visiting seven native plant species in mid-summer at three sites in Capitol Reef National Park, UT, USA. Overall, as many species of bees visited the flowe...

  4. Properties and Expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-Subunit Isoforms in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Which Has Unusually High Brain Ammonia Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu L.; Wee, Nicklaus L. J. E.; Hiong, Kum C.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Wong, Wai P.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2013-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l−1) and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (∼4.5 µmol g−1). Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka) is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4+ can substitute for K+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities over a range of K+/NH4+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b) were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na+/NH4+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na+/K+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4+/K+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1) lack of nkaα2 expression, (2) high K+ specificity of K+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3) down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus. PMID:24391932

  5. Pharmacokinetics and residue depletion of praziquantel in rice field eels Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Dong, Jing; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-04-12

    We investigated the pharmacokinetic characteristics of praziquantel (PZQ) in rice field eels Monopterus albus. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined following a single intravenous administration (5 mg kg(-1) body weight [bw]) and a single oral administration (10 mg kg(-1) bw) at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. We also evaluated residue depletion in tissues following daily administration of PZQ (10 mg kg(-1) bw) that was given orally for 3 consecutive days at 22.0 ± 0.7°C. Following intravenous treatment, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 3-compartment open model, with distribution half-life (t(1/2α)), elimination half-life (t(1/2β)), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 0.54 h, 17.10 h, and 14505.12 h µg l(-1), respectively. After oral administration, the plasma concentration-time curve was best described by a 1-compartment open model with first-order absorption, with absorption half-life (t(1/2Ka)), elimination half-life (t(1/2Ke)), peak concentration (C(max)), time-to-peak concentration (T(max)), and AUC estimated to be 2.28 h, 6.66 h, 361.29 µg l(-1), 5.36 h, and 6065.46 h µg l(-1), respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) was 20.9%. With respect to residue depletion of PZQ, the t(1/2β) values of muscle, skin, liver, and kidney were 20.2, 28.4, 14.9, and 54.1 h, respectively. Our results indicated rapid absorption, rapid elimination, and low bioavailability of PZQ in rice field eels at the tested dosing conditions. PMID:27068504

  6. Composition of fractional and functional properties of dietary fiber of lupines (L. luteus and L. albus).

    PubMed

    Górecka, D; Lampart-Szczapa, E; Janitz, W; Sokolowska, B

    2000-08-01

    In this study the lupine raw materials (flour and hull) of L. luteus var. Juno and L. albus var. Wat were characterized with regard to the dietary fiber content (NDF) and its fractional composition. Functional properties, i.e. water holding capacity (WHC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of lupine raw material were determined, with respect to various conditions existing in each part of the human digestive tract (pH-value, time of passage). Experimental products (shortcakes, ginger breads, pancakes, minced meat and dumplings filled with meat) with addition of 5, 10 or 15% of lupine flour or shell were processed and sensory evaluation was performed according to the 5-point scale. The NDF content ranged from 75.7% to 78% in the hull of the Wat and Juno lupine vars. respectively, and 28.8% to 33.4% in the flour. Cellulose was predominant in the hull's NDF while in the flour hemicellulose was major fraction. WHC of samples depended mainly on pH-value and was higher in lupine hulls (up to 5.14 g/g dry matter (d.m.) than in the flours (up to 3.83 g/g d.m.). The CEC of lupine ranged from 0.260 to 0.750 mEq/g d.m. and from 0.330 to 0.870 mEq/g d.m. in flour of the Wat and Juno varieties. The CEC of hull was lower in the Wat var. (0.290 to 0.650 mEq/g d.m.) in comparison with the Juno variety (0.150 to 0.750 mEq/g d.m.) Sensory evaluation showed that 10% addition of flour or hull of lupine to experimental products enables preparation of good quality foodstuffs. PMID:10996894

  7. Studies of the extracellular glycocalyx of the anaerobic cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 7.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Paul J; Price, Neil P J; Kroukamp, Otini; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Van Zyl, Willem H

    2006-12-01

    Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are thought to adhere to cellulose via several mechanisms, including production of a glycocalyx containing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As the compositions and structures of these glycocalyces have not been elucidated, variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) and chemical analysis were used to characterize the glycocalyx of the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus strain 7. VP-SEM revealed that growth of this strain was accompanied by the formation of thin cellular extensions that allowed the bacterium to adhere to cellulose, followed by formation of a ramifying network that interconnected individual cells to one another and to the unraveling cellulose microfibrils. Extraction of 48-h-old whole-culture pellets (bacterial cells plus glycocalyx [G] plus residual cellulose [C]) with 0.1 N NaOH released carbohydrate and protein in a ratio of 1:5. Boiling of the cellulose fermentation residue in a neutral detergent solution removed almost all of the adherent cells and protein while retaining a residual network of adhering noncellular material. Trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of this residue (G plus C) released primarily glucose, along with substantial amounts of xylose and mannose, but only traces of galactose, the most abundant sugar in most characterized bacterial exopolysaccharides. Linkage analysis and characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that most of the glucosyl units were not present as partially degraded cellulose. Calculations suggested that the energy demand for synthesis of the nonprotein fraction of EPS by this organism represents only a small fraction (<4%) of the anabolic ATP expenditure of the bacterium. PMID:17028224

  8. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  9. Cohnella lupini sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus.

    PubMed

    Flores-Félix, José David; Carro, Lorena; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José M; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU4B(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in León (Spain). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain showed similarities lower than 97 % with respect to species of the genus Cohnella. The strain was a Gram-variable, sporulating rod, motile by means of peritrichous flagella, and facultatively anaerobic. It was positive for oxidase, catalase and β-galactosidase production but negative for urease, amylase and gelatinase. Strain RLAHU4B(T) grew in the presence of 5 % NaCl. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid was present in the peptidoglycan. anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. Major polar lipids of strain RLAHU4B(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown aminophospholipids and one unknown lipid. The DNA G+C content was 57.8 mol%. Strain RLAHU4B(T) presented phenotypic differences from all recognized species of the genus Cohnella. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data indicated that strain RLAHU4B(T) belongs to a novel species of the genus Cohnella, for which the name Cohnella lupini sp. nov. is proposed, with strain RLAHU4B(T) ( = LMG 27416(T) = CECT 8236(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24021729

  10. Dechlorination of chlorophenols using extracellular peroxidases produced by streptomyces albus ATCC 3005.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, V T.; Rob, A; Ball, A S.; Wilson, M T.

    2001-07-01

    Streptomyces albus ATCC 3005 was found to produce higher levels of extracellular peroxidase activity (3.420 U mg(-1)) than previously reported for any other actinomycete. Maximum peroxidase activity was obtained after 72 h of incubation at a temperature of 30 degrees C in a liquid medium (pH 7.6) containing (in w/v) 0.8% to 0.9% oat spelts xylan and 0.6% yeast extract, corresponding to a C:N ratio of around 8.4:1. Characterization of the peroxidases revealed that the optimal temperature for peroxidase activity, using the standard 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) assay was 53 degrees C, when the enzyme reaction was performed at pH 7.2. A study of the effect of temperature on the stability of peroxidase over time, showed that the enzyme was stable at 40 degrees C, with a half-life of 224 min, while at higher temperatures the stability and activity was reduced such that at 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C the half-life of the enzyme was 50 min and 9 min respectively. The optimum pH for the activity of the enzyme occurred between pH 8.1 and 10.4. In terms of substrate specificity, the peroxidase was able to catalyze a broad range of substrates including 2,4-DCP, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and other chlorophenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Ion exchange chromatography was used to confirm that the enzyme was able to release chloride ions from a range of chlorophenols. PMID:11427236

  11. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  12. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Peter C; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Sepalveda, Maria S.; Williams, Gary E.; Nico, Leo G.; Robins, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish (>95% of biomass), though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and we found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. We estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. We estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish (4-year mean = 0.41 mg/kg). We estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. We estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledging mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  13. The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2014-07-01

    Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. PMID:24635386

  14. The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G. Purification, properties and comparison with the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Duez, C; Frère, J M; Klein, D; Noël, M; Ghuysen, J M; Delcambe, L; Dierickx, L

    1981-01-01

    The exocellular beta-lactamase of Streptomyces albus G has been purified to near protein homogeneity. It consists of one single polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 30 000-31 000, has a rather low isoelectric point (at pH 6.0) and contains less lysine (2.1%) and more half-cystine residues than most beta-lactamases from other Gram-positive bacteria. Penicillins are much better substrates than delta 3-cephalosporins; the catalytic-centre activity of good penicillin substrates is 333-500 s-1. The exocellular, mol.wt. 17 000 DD-carboxypeptidase of S. albus G [previously purified to protein homogeneity; Duez, Frère, Geurts, Ghuysen, Dierickx & Delcambe (1978) Biochem. J. 175, 793-800] behaves as an exceedingly poor beta-lactamase, hydrolysing benzylpenicillin into benzylpenicilloate 5 x 10(-6)-fold less rapidly than does the exocellular beta-lactamase. To all appearances, the beta-lactamase has no bivalent cation requirement whereas, as shown elsewhere [Dideberg, Charlier, Dupont, Vermeire, Frère & Ghuysen (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 212-214, and Dideberg, Joris, Frère, Ghuysen, Weber, Robaye, Delbrouck & Roelands (1980) FEBS Lett. 117, 215-218], the DD-carboxypeptidase possesses one essential Zn2+ ion per molecule. Peptide 'mapping' and immunological studies suggest that the two Streptomyces enzymes probably have very different structural and mechanistic properties. PMID:6975618

  15. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-01-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution. PMID:24575231

  16. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  17. Identification of gonadal soma-derived factor involvement in Monopterus albus (protogynous rice field eel) sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yefei; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiaowu; Guan, Guijun

    2016-07-01

    We studied molecular events and potential mechanisms underlying the process of female-to-male sex transformation in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish in which the gonad is initially a female ovary and transforms into male testes. We cloned and identified a novel gonadal soma derived factor (GSDF), which encodes a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. gsdf expression was measured in gonads of female, intersex and male with reverse transcription-PCR and gsdf's role in sex transformation was studied with qPCR, histological analysis and dual-color in situ hybridization assays and compared to other sex-related genes. gsdf was correlated to Sertoli cell differentiation, indicating involvement in testicular differentiation and sex transformation from female to male in this species. A unique expression pattern reveals a potential role of gsdf essential for the sex transformation of rice field eels. PMID:27230579

  18. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-10-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  19. Larval Gnathostoma spinigerum Detected in Asian Swamp Eels, Monopterus albus, Purchased from a Local Market in Yangon, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Park, Jong-Bok; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the infection status of swamp eels with Gnathostoma sp. larvae in Myanmar. We purchased total 37 Asian swamp eels, Monopterus albus, from a local market in Yangon in June and December 2013 and 2014. All collected eels were transferred with ice to our laboratory and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion technique. A total of 401 larval gnathostomes (1-96 larvae/eel) were detected in 33 (89.2%) swamp eels. Most of the larvae (n=383; 95.5%) were found in the muscle. The remaining 18 larvae were detected in the viscera. The advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) were 2.3-4.4 mm long and 0.25-0.425 mm wide. The characteristic head bulb (0.093 × 0.221 mm in average size) with 4 rows of hooklets, muscular long esophagus (1.025 mm), and 2 pairs of cervical sacs (0.574 mm) were observed by light microscopy. The average number of hooklets in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th rows was 41, 45, 48, and 51, respectively. As scanning electron microscopic findings, the characteristic 4-5 rows of hooklets on the head bulb, a cervical papilla, tegumental spines regularly arranged in the transverse striations, and an anus were well observed. Based on these morphological characters, they were identified as the AdL3 of Gnathostoma spinigerum. By the present study, it has been confirmed for the first time that Asian swamp eels, M. albus, from Yangon, Myanmar are heavily infected with G. spinigerum larvae. PMID:26537042

  20. White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  1. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N = 140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N = 15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9 cm to 12.2 cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51 days old (N = 13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2 cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild.

  2. Estimation of daily age and timing of hatching of exotic Asian swamp eels Monopterus albus (Zuiew, 1793) in a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, J.M.; Lafleur, C.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date of the exotic Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) captured from a backwater marsh of the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, USA. The eels were sampled using leaf litter traps (N=140) from 17 July to 28 August 2008. The captured (N=15) Asian swamp eels ranged in total length from 4.9cm to 12.2cm, and were estimated to be from 21 to 51days old (N=13), and hatched from 13 June to 7 August 2008. Assuming linear growth, these individuals grew an average rate of 0.2cm per day. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first time otoliths were used to estimate daily age, growth, and hatching date for M. albus, which can be useful for understanding the ecology of this species in the wild. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Increased temperature tolerance of the air-breathing Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus after high-temperature acclimation is not explained by improved cardiorespiratory performance.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, S; Findorf, I; Bayley, M; Huong, D T T; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that in the Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, an air-breathing fish from south-east Asia that uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for oxygen uptake, the upper critical temperature (TU) is increased by acclimation to higher temperature, and that the increased TU is associated with improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Monopterus albus were therefore acclimated to 27° C (current average) and 32° C (current maximum temperature as well as projected average within 100-200 years), and both the effect of acclimation and acute temperature increments on cardiovascular and respiratory functions were investigated. Two weeks of heat acclimation increased upper tolerated temperature (TU ) by 2° C from 36·9 ± 0·1° C to 38·9 ± 0·1° C (mean ± s.e.). Oxygen uptake (M˙O2) increased with acclimation temperature, accommodated by increases in both aerial and aquatic respiration. Overall, M˙O2 from air (M˙O2a ) was predominant, representing 85% in 27° C acclimated fish and 80% in 32° C acclimated fish. M˙O2 increased with acute increments in temperature and this increase was entirely accommodated by an increase in air-breathing frequency and M˙O2a . Monopterus albus failed to upregulate stroke volume; rather, cardiac output was maintained through increased heart rate with rising temperature. Overall, acclimation of M. albus to 32° C did not improve its cardiovascular and respiratory performance at higher temperatures, and cardiovascular adaptations, therefore, do not appear to contribute to the observed increase in TU. PMID:26563596

  4. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    PubMed Central

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  5. Scarecrow (SCR) mediates root development in Lupinus albus and Medicago truncatula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White lupin is considered an ideal crop in which to study plant response to phosphate (P) deficiency. Phosphorus is a major element limiting plant growth. White lupin has evolved several strategies to acquire scarce P including: modified root growth resulting in massive root proliferation and root e...

  6. Frigidibacter albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from lake water.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Three Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, non-pigmented, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, SP32(T) ( = SLM-1(T)), SR68 ( = SLM-3) and SP95 ( = SLM-2), were isolated from two water samples of a cold-water lake in Xinjiang province, China. Growth was observed at 4-25 °C and pH 6.0-9.0, and optimum growth occurred at 18-20 °C and at pH 7.0-7.5. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these isolates belonged to the family Rhodobacteraceae , but formed an evolutionary lineage distinct from other species of this family with validly published names. Strain SP32(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.7%) to Rhodobacter veldkampii ATCC 35703(T), and the similarity to members of the genera Defluviimonas , Haematobacter and Pseudorhodobacter was respectively 95.8-96.4, 96.0-96.1 and 95.3-96.1%. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SP32(T) was 67.6 mol%. The major fatty acids (>5%) were summed feature 8 (C(18 : 1)ω7c/C(18 : 1)ω6c) and11-methyl C(18 : 1)ω7c. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified glycolipid and one unidentified polar lipid were the main polar lipids. Ubiquinone 10 (Q-10) was the sole respiratory quinone. Strain SP32(T) did not produce photosynthetic pigments and did not contain the gene pufM, by which it differed from the phototrophic species of the family Rhodobacteraceae . Based on its distinct phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties, strain SP32(T) represents a novel species in a novel genus within the family Rhodobacteraceae , for which we propose the name Frigidibacter albus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Frigidibacter albus is strain SP32(T) ( = SLM-1(T) = CGMCC 1.13995(T) = NBRC 109671(T)). PMID:25609677

  7. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua . E-mail: hhcheng@whu.edu.cn; Zhou Rongjia . E-mail: rjzhou@whu.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes.

  8. Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) and the reliability of catch rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVries, R. J.; Hann, D. A.; Schramm, H.L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P < 0.01) and depth (D; P = 0.03) had significant effects on capture probability (Y = −1.75 − 0.06T + 0.10D). Habitat type, surface current velocity, river stage, stage change and non-sturgeon bycatch were not significant predictors (P = 0.26–0.63). Although pallid sturgeon were caught throughout the year, the model predicted that sampling should focus on times when the water temperature is less than 12°C and in deeper water to maximize capture probability; these water temperature conditions commonly occur during November to March in the lower Mississippi River. Further, the significant effect of water temperature which varies widely over time, as well as water depth indicate that any efforts to use the catch rate to infer population trends will require the consideration of temperature and depth in standardized sampling efforts or adjustment of estimates.

  9. Synthesis, Storage, and Utilization of Amino Compounds in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Pate, John S.; Atkins, Craig A.; Herridge, David F.; Layzell, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in total N and in free amino compounds were followed during growth of nodulated white lupin. Leaflets contained the greatest fraction of plant N but had lower proportions (1 to 4%) of their N in soluble amino form than stem + petioles (10 to 27%) and reproductive parts (15 to 33%). Mobilization of free amino compounds from plant parts to fruits contributed at most only 7% of the total N intake of fruits, compared with 50% in mobilization of other forms of N and 43% from fixation during fruiting. Asparagine was usually the most abundant free amino compound in plant parts, followed by glutamine and alanine. Valine, glycine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid comprised the bulk of the remaining soluble amino N. Composition of tissue pools of amino-N closely resembled that of xylem and phloem exudates. Data on N flow and utilization were combined with information on composition of transport fluids to quantify syntheses, exchanges, and consumptions of asparagine, glutamine, aspartic acid, and valine by organs of the 51- to 58-day plant. These amino compounds carried 56, 29, 5, and 2%, respectively, of the N exported from nodules and contributed in roughly commensurate proportions to transport exchanges and N increments of plant parts. There were, however, more than expected involvements of glutamine and valine in mobilization of N from lower leaves, of asparagine in xylem to phloem transfer, and of aspartic acid in cycling of N through the root, and there was a less than expected participation of aspartic acid in xylem to phloem transfer and in phloem translocation to the shoot apex. The significance of these differences is discussed. PMID:16661629

  10. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil of aerial parts of Petasites albus from Iran: a good natural source of euparin.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Maryam; Habibi, Zohreh; Dastan, Dara

    2012-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Petasites albus (known as 'Baba Adam' in Iran) was investigated by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. Twenty components were identified, accounting for 99.7% of the oil composition. The major compounds were euparin (73%), α-eudesmol (13.2%) and β-selinene (4.5%). Euparin, the main component of the essential oil, was isolated and characterised by spectroscopic techniques. The antioxidant activities of the essential oil and euparin were evaluated by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and are shown to exhibit a moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:21416453

  11. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, P.W.; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon. ?? 2008 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  12. Bycatch of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in a commercial fishery for shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Casto-Yerty, M.; Scholten, G.D.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the bycatch of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in Tennessee's shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) fishery by accompanying commercial fishers and monitoring their catch on five dates in spring 2007. Fishers were free to keep or discard any sturgeon they collected in their gillnets and trotlines and we were afforded the opportunity to collect meristic and morphometric data and tissue samples from discarded and harvested specimens. Fishers removed 327 live sturgeon from their gear in our presence, of which 93 were harvested; we also obtained the carcasses of 20 sturgeon that a fisher harvested out of our sight while we were on the water with another fisher. Two of the 113 harvested sturgeon were confirmed pallid sturgeon based on microsatellite DNA analyses. Additionally, fishers gave us five, live pallid sturgeon that they had removed from their gear. If the incidental harvest rate of pallid sturgeon (1.8% of all sturgeon harvested) was similar in the previous two commercial seasons, at least 169 adult pallid sturgeon were harvested by commercial fishers in the Tennessee waters of the Mississippi River in 2005-2007. If fishers altered their behavior because of our presence (i.e. if they were more conservative in what they harvested), the pallid sturgeon take was probably higher when they fished unaccompanied by observers. While retrieving a gill net set the previous day, a fisher we were accompanying retrieved a gillnet lost 2 days earlier; this ghost net caught 53 sturgeon whereby one fish was harvested but most fish were dead, including one confirmed pallid sturgeon.

  13. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  14. Cloning, structure, and expression pattern of the P-450 aromatase gene in rice field eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Yu, Ju-Hua; Tang, Yong-Kai; Li, Jian-Lin

    2008-06-01

    We report the cloning, tissue expression, and structural analysis of the aromatase gene in the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The ovary-derived cDNA (1,802 bp) has a 49 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 202 bp 3'-UTR, and a 1,551 bp open-reading frame, which encodes a protein of 517 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 58.2 kDa. The amino acid sequence alignment suggests that the rice field eel ovarian P-450 aromatase shares 63-80% identity with that of other fish species, reduced to 59-60% with brain-derived aromatases of other fishes and to 50% with human placenta aromatases. Between the 5' and 3' untranslated terminal regions, the rice field eel CYP19 gene contained seven introns at the same sites as in medaka and human but lacked an intron between the I-helix and the aromatase-specific conserved region. All introns conformed to the GT/AG rule. Sequence analysis of the 1,065 bp upstream of the translation start site revealed that the transcription initiation site was 51 bp upstream from the translation start site. This region had one estrogen receptor recognition half site (nt -62), five copies of an SRY/iSRY binding motif, a C/EBP (CCAAT enhancer binding protein) binding site (nt -751), chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (nt -986) and GATA-2 (nt -186, -249) recognition sequences, but no binding sequence for steroidogenic factor-1 and the cAMP response element binding protein activating transcription factor family. In females, levels of relative expression were, in descending order, hypothalamus, pituitary, forebrain, ovary, and liver. In males, P450arom was detected only in the pituitary and the liver, with half the expression found in females. In fry, the P450arom expression level increased during development and was significantly higher in the brain than in the gonad. PMID:18246459

  15. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  16. Influence of graded inclusion of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal on performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Hejdysz, M; Kubiś, M; Rutkowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of white lupin (Lupinus albus) meal (WLM) addition on the intestinal viscosity, bird performance, nutrient utilisation and villi morphology of growing broiler chicks. The experiment was conducted with 480 broiler chicks divided into 6 dietary treatments, including a maize-soybean meal control diet (CON) and 5 experimental diets containing 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 g/kg WLM. During the period from d 0 to 35, birds fed on 200 or higher WLM/kg were characterised by lower body weight gain and feed intake than CON. The use of 150 g of WLM/kg increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to CON treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy corrected to zero N balance (AMEN) and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and starch, linearly decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. There was a quadratic effect of WLM dose on sialic acid excretion. A strong negative linear correlation was found between the excretion of sialic acid and AMEN. The viscosity of ileal digesta was linearly increased as WLM increased. The effect of WLM dose on ileum villus height (VH) was linear, while that on ileum villus area (VA) was quadratic. Both parameters decreased as WLM increased from 0 to 300 g/kg. In conclusion, the use of over 150 g/kg of WLM in broiler diets depressed performance results. However, depression of nutrient utilisation was only observed when 250 or 300 g/kg of WLM was used. PMID:27025275

  17. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from Methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, R L; Haygood, M G; Lidstrom, M E

    1988-01-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes, and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs. Images PMID:3129400

  18. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L.; Haygood, M.G.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1988-05-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 expression vector was used to produce methanol dehydrogenase protein in Escherichia coli from the cloned genes,a and in each case the protein was identified by immunoblotting with antiserum against the Methylomonas albus methanol dehydrogenase. In addition, a moxF mutant of Methylobacterium strain AM1 was complemented to a methanol-positive phenotype that partially restored methanol dehydrogenase activity, using broad-host-range plasmids containing the moxF genes from each methanotroph. The partial complementation of a moxF mutant in a facultative serine pathway methanol utilizer by moxF genes from type I and type X obligate methane utilizers suggests broad functional conservation of the methanol oxidation system among gram-negative methylotrophs.

  19. Direct cloning and heterologous expression of the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus DSM41398 in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jia; Hoffmann, Michael; Bian, Xiaoying; Tu, Qiang; Yan, Fu; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Francis Stewart, A.; Müller, Rolf; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Youming

    2015-01-01

    Linear plus linear homologous recombination-mediated recombineering (LLHR) is ideal for obtaining natural product biosynthetic gene clusters from pre-digested bacterial genomic DNA in one or two steps of recombineering. The natural product salinomycin has a potent and selective activity against cancer stem cells and is therefore a potential anti-cancer drug. Herein, we separately isolated three fragments of the salinomycin gene cluster (salO-orf18) from Streptomyces albus (S. albus) DSM41398 using LLHR and assembled them into intact gene cluster (106 kb) by Red/ET and expressed it in the heterologous host Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) A3(2). We are the first to report a large genomic region from a Gram-positive strain has been cloned using LLHR. The successful reconstitution and heterologous expression of the salinomycin gene cluster offer an attractive system for studying the function of the individual genes and identifying novel and potential analogues of complex natural products in the recipient strain. PMID:26459865

  20. Glycocaulis albus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic dimorphic prosthecate bacterium isolated from petroleum-contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiang-Lin; Xie, Bai-Sheng; Cai, Man; Geng, Shuang; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wang, Ya-Nan; Cui, Heng-Lin; Liu, Xue-Ying; Ye, Si-Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2014-09-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2, which shared 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other, were isolated from petroleum-contaminated saline soil in Shengli Oilfield, eastern China. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, motile, aerobic, mesophilic and moderately halophilic. They could grow chemoheterotrophically with oxygen as an electron acceptor. Morphologically, cells were typical Caulobacteria-type dimorphic prosthecate bacteria. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 were 61.8 mol% and 61.6 mol% respectively. Strain SLG210-30A1(T) had Q10 as the predominant respiratory ubiquinone, and C16 : 0 (28.4 %), C17 : 0 (11.6 %), C18 : 0 (22.1 %) and C18 : 1ω7c (14.0 %) as the major cellular fatty acids. The polar lipids of the two isolates were some glycolipids, a lipid, a phospholipid, an aminoglycolipid and an aminophospholipid (all unidentified). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 showed the highest similarities with Glycocaulis abyssi MCS 33(T) (99.8-99.9 %), but low sequence similarities (<94.7 %) with type strains of other members of the family Hyphomonadaceae. However, the DNA-DNA relatedness of G. abyssi MCS 33(T) to strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 was 37.4±4.4 % and 36.1±1.1 %, respectively. Based on different physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic characteristics, strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 represent a novel species of the genus Glycocaulis. The name Glycocaulis albus is therefore proposed with strain SLG210-30A1(T) ( = LMG 27741(T) = CGMCC 1.12766(T)) as the type strain. An emended description of the genus Glycocaulis is also provided. PMID:24966201

  1. Age estimations of wild pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus, Forbes & Richardson 1905) based on pectoral fin spines, otoliths and bomb radiocarbon: inferences on recruitment in the dam-fragmented Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P. J.; Campana, S. E.; Fuller, D. B.; Lott, R. D.; Bruch, R. M.; Jordan, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    An extant stock of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus persists in the fragmented upper Missouri River basin of Montana and North Dakota. Although successful spawning and hatch of embryos has been verified, long-term catch records suggest that recruitment has not occurred for several decades as the extant stock lacks juvenile size classes and is comprised exclusively of large, presumably old individuals. Ages of 11 deceased (death years 1997–2007) wild S. albus (136–166 cm fork length) were estimated based on pectoral fin spines, sagittal otoliths and bomb radiocarbon (14C) assays of otoliths to test the hypothesis that members of this stock are old and to provide inferences on recruitment years that produced the extant stock. Age estimations based on counts of presumed annuli were about 2 years greater for otoliths (mean = 51 years, range = 43–57 years) than spines (mean = 49 years, range = 37–59 years). Based on 14C assays, confirmed birth years for all individuals occurred prior to 1957, thus establishing known longevity of at least 50 years. Estimated age based on presumed otolith annuli for one S. albus was validated to at least age 49. Although 14C assays confirmed pre-1957 birth years for all S. albus, only 56% of estimated ages from spines and 91% of estimated ages from otoliths depicted pre-1957 birth years. Both ageing structures were subject to under-ageing error (up to 15 years). Lack of or severe curtailment of S. albus recruitment in the upper Missouri River basin since the mid-1950s closely parallels the 1953–1957 timeframe when a mainstem reservoir was constructed and started to fill. This reservoir may function as a system-wide stressor to diminish recruitment success of S. albus in the upper Missouri River basin.

  2. High Brain Ammonia Tolerance and Down-Regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and Protein Expression in the Brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, Exposed to Environmental Ammonia or Terrestrial Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Yuen K.; Hou, Zhisheng; Chen, Xiu L.; Ong, Jasmine L. Y.; Chng, You R.; Ching, Biyun; Hiong, Kum C.; Chew, Shit F.

    2013-01-01

    Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g-1 and 2.7 µmol g-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance. PMID:24069137

  3. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5′ UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629 bp and a 3′ UTR of approximately 717 bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 6 days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of amh and dax1 genes and their expression during sex inversion in rice-field eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNAs of amh and dax1 in the hermaphrodite, rice-field eel (Monopterus albus), were cloned and characterized in this study. Multiple sequence alignment revealed Dax1 was well conserved among vertebrates, whereas Amh had a low degree of similarity between different vertebrates. Their expression profiles in gonads during the course of sex inversion and tissues were investigated. The tissue distribution indicated amh was expressed mostly in gonads and was scarcely detectable in other tissues, whereas the expression of dax1 was widespread among the different tissues, especially liver and gonads. amh was scarcely detectable in ovaries whereas it was abundantly expressed in both ovotestis and testis. By contrast, dax1 was highly expressed in ovaries, especially in ♀IV (ovaries in IV stage), but it was decreased significantly in ♀/♂I (ovotestis in I stage). Its expression was increased again in ♀/♂III (ovotestis in III stage), and then decreased to a low level in testis. These significant different expression patterns of amh and dax1 suggest the increase of amh expression and the decline of dax1 expression are important for the activation of testis development, and the high level of amh and a low level of dax1 expression are necessary for maintenance of testis function. PMID:26578091

  5. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  6. Effects of deep frying on proximate composition and micronutrient of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), eel (Monopterus albus) and cockle (Anadara granosa).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Zamri, M; Fadilla, N

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and four micronutrients (Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn) of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta), Eel (Monopterus albus) and Cockle (Anadara granosa). All fish and shellfish were purchased from local fish market in Kuantan city. All samples of each species were mixed and divided into two groups based on random selection. Each group were again divided into 3 sub-groups which were considered as replications. The first group were kept uncooked. The second group were fried in a beaker of 400 mL palm cooking oil capacity at a temperature approximately of 180 degrees C for a 15 min period. Both raw and fried samples were analysed following standard methods to determine protein, lipid, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents. Results showed that protein content was higher in Indian mackerel and eel than cockle while overall Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were higher in cockle than Indian mackerel and eel. Therefore, fish is better than shellfish in the nutritional point of view. Fried fish and shellfish had very high fat content. Therefore, frying cannot be recommended to prepare a healthy diet. More research is needed including all cooking methods of fish to know the nutritional changes by each cooking method. Fish contains many important fatty acids and amino acids which might be lost during frying. Therefore, future study should include the effects of different cooking methods on amino acids and fatty acids compositions of fish and shellfish. PMID:24191621

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of amh and dax1 genes and their expression during sex inversion in rice-field eel Monopterus albus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNAs of amh and dax1 in the hermaphrodite, rice-field eel (Monopterus albus), were cloned and characterized in this study. Multiple sequence alignment revealed Dax1 was well conserved among vertebrates, whereas Amh had a low degree of similarity between different vertebrates. Their expression profiles in gonads during the course of sex inversion and tissues were investigated. The tissue distribution indicated amh was expressed mostly in gonads and was scarcely detectable in other tissues, whereas the expression of dax1 was widespread among the different tissues, especially liver and gonads. amh was scarcely detectable in ovaries whereas it was abundantly expressed in both ovotestis and testis. By contrast, dax1 was highly expressed in ovaries, especially in ♀IV (ovaries in IV stage), but it was decreased significantly in ♀/♂I (ovotestis in I stage). Its expression was increased again in ♀/♂III (ovotestis in III stage), and then decreased to a low level in testis. These significant different expression patterns of amh and dax1 suggest the increase of amh expression and the decline of dax1 expression are important for the activation of testis development, and the high level of amh and a low level of dax1 expression are necessary for maintenance of testis function. PMID:26578091

  8. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana Maria

    2015-10-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactate and the changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The total SCFA at the end of fermentation was 81.52 mM for lupin seeds and 78.41 mM for broad beans accompanied by a decrease of the pH for both legumes. The microbial groups that increased significantly (P < 0.05) were Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Pretovella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. This impact on the intestinal microbiota suggests that lupin seeds and broad beans may be used in the development of novel functional foods, which can be included in dietary strategies for human health promotion. PMID:26252418

  9. New Deferoxamine Glycoconjugates Produced upon Overexpression of Pathway-Specific Regulatory Gene in the Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07.

    PubMed

    Sekurova, Olga N; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Degnes, Kristin F; Sletta, Håvard; Reyes, Fernando; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2016-01-01

    Activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria via overexpression of cluster-specific regulatory genes is a promising strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. This approach was used in an attempt to activate a cryptic gene cluster in a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07 presumably governing the biosynthesis of peptide-based secondary metabolites. While no new peptide-based metabolites were detected in the recombinant strain, it was shown to produce at least four new analogues of deferoxamine with additional acyl and sugar moieties, for which chemical structures were fully elucidated. Biological activity tests of two of the new deferoxamine analogues revealed weak activity against Escherichia coli. The gene knockout experiment in the gene cluster targeted for activation, as well as overexpression of certain genes from this cluster did not have an effect on the production of these compounds by the strain overexpressing the regulator. It seems plausible that the production of such compounds is a response to stress imposed by the production of an as-yet unidentified metabolite specified by the cryptic cluster. PMID:27618884

  10. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: A comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, S.R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r2 ??? 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both ??15N and ??13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day-1) using stable ??15N and ??13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue ??15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but ??13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species. ?? 2010 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  11. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  12. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

  13. Excess cation uptake, and extrusion of protons and organic acid anions by Lupinus albus under phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sas, L; Rengel, Z; Tang, C

    2001-05-01

    In symbiotically-grown legumes, rhizosphere acidification may be caused by a high cation/anion uptake ratio and the excretion of organic acids, the relative importance of the two processes depending on the phosphorus nutritional status of the plants. The present study examined the effect of P deficiency on extrusions of H(+) and organic acid anions (OA(-)) in relation to uptake of excess cations in N(2)-fixing white lupin (cv. Kiev Mutant). Plants were grown for 49 days in nutrient solutions treated with 1, 5 or 25 mmol P m(-3) Na(2)HPO(4) in a phytotron room. The increased formation of cluster roots occurred prior to a decrease in plant growth in response to P deficiency. The number of cluster roots was negatively correlated with tissue P concentrations below 2.0 g kg(-1) in shoots and 3 g kg(-1) in roots. Cluster roots generally had higher concentrations of Mg, Ca, N, Cu, Fe, and Mn but lower concentrations of K than non-cluster roots. Extrusion of protons and OA(-) (90% citrate and 10% malate) from roots was highly dependent on P supply. The amounts of H(+) extruded per unit root biomass decreased with time during the experiment. On the equimolar basis, H(+) extrusion by P-deficient plants (grown at 1 and 5 mmol P m(-3)) were, on average, 2-3-fold greater than OA(-) exudation. The excess cation content in plants was generally the highest at 1 mmol P m(-3) and decreased with increasing P supply. The ratio of H(+) release to excess cation uptake increased with decreasing P supply. The results suggest that increased exudation of OA(-) due to P deficiency is associated with H(+) extrusion but contributes only a part of total acidification. PMID:11337076

  14. Hydrogen Formation and Its Regulation in Ruminococcus albus: Involvement of an Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, of a Non-Electron-Bifurcating [FeFe]-Hydrogenase, and of a Putative Hydrogen-Sensing [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanning; Kahnt, Jörg; Kwon, In Hyuk; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminococcus albus 7 has played a key role in the development of the concept of interspecies hydrogen transfer. The rumen bacterium ferments glucose to 1.3 acetate, 0.7 ethanol, 2 CO2, and 2.6 H2 when growing in batch culture and to 2 acetate, 2 CO2, and 4 H2 when growing in continuous culture in syntrophic association with H2-consuming microorganisms that keep the H2 partial pressure low. The organism uses NAD+ and ferredoxin for glucose oxidation to acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and CO2, NADH for the reduction of acetyl-CoA to ethanol, and NADH and reduced ferredoxin for the reduction of protons to H2. Of all the enzymes involved, only the enzyme catalyzing the formation of H2 from NADH remained unknown. Here, we report that R. albus 7 grown in batch culture on glucose contained, besides a ferredoxin-dependent [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA2), a ferredoxin- and NAD-dependent electron-bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydABC) that couples the endergonic formation of H2 from NADH to the exergonic formation of H2 from reduced ferredoxin. Interestingly, hydA2 is adjacent to the hydS gene, which is predicted to encode an [FeFe]-hydrogenase with a C-terminal PAS domain. We showed that hydS and hydA2 are part of a larger transcriptional unit also harboring putative genes for a bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (Aad), serine/threonine protein kinase, serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and a redox-sensing transcriptional repressor. Since HydA2 and Aad are required only when R. albus grows at high H2 partial pressures, HydS could be a H2-sensing [FeFe]-hydrogenase involved in the regulation of their biosynthesis. PMID:25157086

  15. Characterization and differential expression patterns of conserved microRNAs and mRNAs in three genders of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Guo, Wei; Hu, Qing; Zou, Ming; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that can regulate target mRNAs by binding to their sequences in the 3' untranslated region. The expression of miRNAs and their biogenetic pathway are involved in sexual differentiation and in the regulation of the development of germ cells and gonadal somatic cells. The rice field eel (Monopterus albus) undergoes a natural sexual transformation from female to male via an intersex stage during its life cycle. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this sexual transformation, miRNAs present in the different sexual stages of the rice field eel were identified by high-throughput sequencing technology. A significantly differential expression among the 3 genders (p < 0.001) was observed for 48 unique miRNAs and 3 miRNAs*. Only 9 unique miRNAs showed a more than 8-fold change in their expression among the 3 genders, including mal-miR-430a and mal-miR-430c which were higher in females than in males. However, mal-miR-430b was only detected in males. Several potential miRNA target genes (cyp19a, cyp19b, nr5a1b, foxl2 amh, and vasa) were also investigated. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated highly specific expression patterns of these genes in the 3 genders of the rice field eel. Many of these genes are targets of mal-miR-430b according to the TargetScan and miRTarBase. These results suggest that the miR-430 family may be involved in the sexual transformation of the rice field eel. PMID:25427634

  16. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)). PMID:27272908

  17. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, Steven R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r² ≥ 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both δ15N and δ13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day−1) using stable δ15N and δ13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue δ15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but δ13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species.

  18. Effects of a vegetable extract from Lupinus albus (LU105) on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP1, TIMP2) by human gingival fibroblasts in culture.

    PubMed

    Gaultier, F; Foucault-Bertaud, A; Lamy, E; Ejeil, A L; Dridi, S M; Piccardi, N; Piccirilli, A; Msika, P; Godeau, G; Gogly, B

    2003-12-01

    This study examined the effects of a vegetable extract from Lupinus albus (LU105) on MMPs and TIMPs secreted by human gingival fibroblasts in culture. LU105 was extracted from seeds of L. albus and is freely soluble in water. Gelatin zymography showed that control human gingival fibroblasts maintained in culture for 48 h express pro-MMP2 (progelatinase A) in the culture medium while the active form of MMP2 (gelatinase A), the active form of MMP9 (gelatinase B), and pro-MMP9 (progelatinase B) are not detected. Fibroblasts derived from inflamed gingiva expressed in the culture medium increased amounts of pro-MMP2 (progelatinase A) compared with controls and significant amounts of pro-MMP9 (progelatinase B). LU105 diminished the expression by gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue of both pro-MMP2 and pro-MMP9. Furthermore LU105 did not modify the amount of TIMP2 expressed in culture by controls or by gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue. TIMP1 and MMP1 significantly decreased when LU105 was added in the culture media of gingival fibroblasts derived from inflamed tissue compared with control fibroblasts. Thus LU105 seems to offer an opportunity to restore a correct balance between MMP2, MMP9, MMP1, and their natural inhibitors, i.e., TIMP1 and TIMP2 in human inflamed gingiva. PMID:12802622

  19. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this

  20. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk). PMID:15619562

  1. Evidence-based innovative therapeutic medicine of Cretan plants: some encouraging specific functions and claims.

    PubMed

    Lionis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The Island of Crete was the place where the use of herbal medicine has its roots since the Bronze Age period. Although, the consumption of aromatic plants as component in curing common diseases is still on population's practices, a new interest was appeared on the basis of studies with a focus on illness behavior as a mutual collaboration between the University of Crete and the University of Leiden, The Netherlands. The antioxidant activity of certain Cretan plants has been documented and it has been shown and reported that herbal extracts are possible to decrease lipid per oxidation in cultured lung cells exposed to iron or ozon. The biological effects and bioactivity of essential oils as well as their antibacterial properties have been previously discussed in the literature. However, it was the first attempt in Europe when a double blind randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of an essential-oil extract of three Cretan aromatic plants (Origanum Dictamnus, Coridothymus Capitatus, Salvia Friticosa) designed and implemented in rural Crete on patients with upper respiratory tract infection. Descriptive differences were recently reported in favorable direction especially in the virus-positive population, while these results guide at the moment a series of actions for further research and discussion on the potentialities in the therapeutic medicine. An over-the-counter drug under the name of "Cretan Iama" and as soft-gel capsules has recently circulated in Greece by the Olvos Science SA. A recent joint attempt (Clinic of Social and Family Medicine and Department of Experimental Endocrinology at the School of Medicine, University of Crete) under the support of the National Strategic Reference Framework Program focused on the effectiveness of functional extract of Mentha Spicata encapsulated in yogurt with honey on lipids profile of health patients in rural Crete. The first reported results of a cross-over study which was designed and implemented recently

  2. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W. PMID:25708530

  3. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants. PMID:26250152

  4. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/ g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  5. Whole-Plant Gas Exchange and Reductive Biosynthesis in White Lupin1

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yan-Ping; Turpin, David H.; Layzell, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of CO2 (CER) and O2 (OER) exchange in roots and shoots of vegetative white lupin (Lupinus albus) were used to calculate the flow of reducing power to the synthesis of biomass that was more reduced per unit of carbon than carbohydrate. On a whole-plant basis, the diverted reductant utilization rate (DRUR which is: 4 × [CER + OER]) of shoot tissue was consistently higher than that of roots, and values obtained in the light were greater than those in the dark. An analysis of the biomass being synthesized over a 24-h period provided an estimate of whole-plant DRUR (3.5 mmol e− plant−1 d−1), which was similar to that measured by gas exchange (3.2 mmol e− plant−1 d−1). Given that nitrate reduction to ammonia makes up about 74% of whole-plant DRUR, root nitrate reduction in white lupin was estimated to account for less than 43% of whole-plant nitrate reduction. The approach developed here should offer a powerful tool for the noninvasive study of metabolic regulation in intact plants or plant organs. PMID:11500554

  6. Root colonization of different plants by plant-growth-promoting Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 studied with monospecific polyclonal antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Schloter, M; Wiehe, W; Assmus, B; Steindl, H; Becke, H; Höflich, G; Hartmann, A

    1997-01-01

    Monospecific polyclonal antisera raised against Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39, a bacterium which was isolated originally from red clover nodules, were used to study the colonization of roots of leguminous and nonleguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Lupinus albus, Triticúm aestivum, and Zea mays) after inoculation. Eight weeks after inoculation of soil-grown plants, between 0.1 and 1% of the total bacterial population in the rhizospheres of all inoculated plants were identified as R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39. To characterize the associative colonization of the nonleguminous plants by R.leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 in more detail, a time course study was performed with inoculated roots of Z. mays. R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 was found almost exclusively in the rhizosphere soil and on the rhizoplane 4 weeks after inoculation. Colonization of inner root tissues was detected only occasionally at this time. During the process of attachment of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 to the rhizoplane, bacterial lipopolysaccharides were overexpressed, and this may be important for plant-microbe interaction. Fourteen weeks after inoculation, microcolonies of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 were detected in lysed cells of the root cortex as well as in intracellular space of central root cylinder cells. At the beginning of flowering (18 weeks after inoculation), the number of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii R39 organisms decreased in the rhizosphere soil, rhizoplane, and inner root tissue. PMID:9143133

  7. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p < 0.05) EDTA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in the two soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71%) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer. PMID:25772873

  8. A Systemic Small RNA Signaling System in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byung-Chun; Kragler, Friedrich; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Haywood, Valerie; Archer-Evans, Sarah; Lee, Young Moo; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Systemic translocation of RNA exerts non-cell-autonomous control over plant development and defense. Long-distance delivery of mRNA has been proven, but transport of small interfering RNA and microRNA remains to be demonstrated. Analyses performed on phloem sap collected from a range of plants identified populations of small RNA species. The dynamic nature of this population was reflected in its response to growth conditions and viral infection. The authenticity of these phloem small RNA molecules was confirmed by bioinformatic analysis; potential targets for a set of phloem small RNA species were identified. Heterografting studies, using spontaneously silencing coat protein (CP) plant lines, also established that transgene-derived siRNA move in the long-distance phloem and initiate CP gene silencing in the scion. Biochemical analysis of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem sap led to the characterization of C. maxima Phloem SMALL RNA BINDING PROTEIN1 (CmPSRP1), a unique component of the protein machinery probably involved in small RNA trafficking. Equivalently sized small RNA binding proteins were detected in phloem sap from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and lupin (Lupinus albus). PSRP1 binds selectively to 25-nucleotide single-stranded RNA species. Microinjection studies provided direct evidence that PSRP1 could mediate the cell-to-cell trafficking of 25-nucleotide single-stranded, but not double-stranded, RNA molecules. The potential role played by PSRP1 in long-distance transmission of silencing signals is discussed with respect to the pathways and mechanisms used by plants to exert systemic control over developmental and physiological processes. PMID:15258266

  9. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipooligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, M; Quiclet-Sire, B; Kondorosi, E; Virelizer, H; Glushka, J N; Endre, G; Géro, S D; Kondorosi, A

    1992-01-01

    We have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain overexpressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C(16:2) or a C(16:3) acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. One of the tetrasaccharides is identical to the previously described NodRm-1 factor. The two pentasaccharides as well as NodRm-1 were purified and tested for biological activity. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 microM, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and Melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on Medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. We suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions. Images PMID:1729688

  10. Influence of copper on root exudate patterns in some metallophytes and agricultural plants.

    PubMed

    Meier, S; Alvear, M; Borie, F; Aguilera, P; Ginocchio, R; Cornejo, P

    2012-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to determine the root exudation patterns in two Cu-metallophytes (Oenothera picensis and Imperata condensata) and two agricultural plants (Lupinus albus and Helianthus annuus). Plants were grown in nutrient solution at increasing Cu doses (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2mgCuL(-1)), and plant growth, root elongation, Cu accumulation and root exudates were measured. All plants showed a decrease of over 60% in root elongation at the highest Cu supply level, being O. picensis the most sensitive specie and showing the highest shoot and root Cu concentrations (116 and 2657μgCug(-1), respectively), which were six fold higher than the other species. Differences in root exudation patterns of low molecular weight organic acids were found, with extremely high amounts of succinic acid exuded by O. picensis (1049μmolg(-1)h(-1)), and citric acid by I. condensata (164μmolg(-1)h(-1)). In metallophytes, the organic acid exudation was increased even with no root elongation, meanwhile agricultural plants exuded citric acid at constant levels. Exudation of phenolic compounds was highly species-dependent, with catechin mainly exuded by I. condensata, (2.62μmolg(-1)h(-1)) cinnamic acid by O. picensis (5.08μmolg(-1)h(-1)) and coumaric acid exclusively exuded by H. annuus (13.6μmolg(-1)h(-1)) at high Cu levels. These results indicated that differences in root exudation patterns among metallophytes and agricultural plants could affect their Cu tolerance. Particularly, the higher exudation rate showed by I. condensata can be an effective exclusion mechanism to tolerate high Cu concentrations, supporting its use in Cu phytostabilization programs. PMID:21937112

  11. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  12. Rhizobium meliloti produces a family of sulfated lipo-oligosaccharides exhibiting different degrees of plant host specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, M.; Kondorosi, E.; Quiclet-Sire, B.; Gero, S.D. ); Virelizier, H. ); Glushka, J.N. ); Endre, G.; Kondorosi, A. Inst. of Genetics, Szeged )

    1992-01-01

    The authors have shown that a Rhizobium meliloti strain over expressing nodulation genes excreted high amounts of a family of N-acylated and 6-O-sulfated N-acetyl-{beta}-1,4-D-glucosamine penta-, tetra-, and trisaccharide Nod factors. Either a C{sub 16:2} or a C{sub 16:3} acyl chain is attached to the nonreducing end subunit, whereas the sulfate group is bound to the reducing glucosamine. In the root hair deformation assay the pentasaccharides show similar activities on the host plants Medicago sativa and Melilotus albus and on the non-host plant Vicia sativa at a dilution of up to 0.01-0.001 {mu}M, in contrast to NodRm-1, which displays a much higher specific activity for Medicago and melilotus than for Vicia. The active concentration range of the pentasaccharides is more narrow on medicago than on Melilotus and Vicia. In addition to root hair deformation, the different Nod factors were shown to induce nodule formation on M. sativa. They suggest that the production of a series of active signal molecules with different degrees of specificity might be important in controlling the symbiosis of R. meliloti with several different host plants or under different environmental conditions.

  13. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  14. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  15. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  16. Electronic plants.

    PubMed

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  17. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  18. Electronic plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  19. Plant Minders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Indoor plants are automatically watered by the Aqua Trends watering system. System draws water from building outlets or from pump/reservoir module and distributes it to the plants via a network of tubes and adjustable nozzles. Key element of system is electronic controller programmed to dispense water according to the needs of various plants in an installation. Adjustable nozzle meters out exactly right amount of water at proper time to the plant it's serving. More than 100 Aqua/Trends systems are in service in the USA, from a simple residential system to a large Mirage III system integrated to water all greenery in a large office or apartment building.

  20. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  1. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  2. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  3. Plant Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are faced with defending themselves against a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc. Immunity is multi-layered and complex. Plants can induce defenses when they recognize small peptides, proteins or double-stranded RNA associated with pathogens. Recognitio...

  4. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  5. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH. PMID:27101777

  6. Where do roots take up water? Neutron radiography of water flow into the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil.

    PubMed

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kim, Yangmin X; Carminati, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Where and how fast does water flow from soil into roots? The answer to this question requires direct and in situ measurement of local flow of water into roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. We used neutron radiography to trace the transport of deuterated water (D₂O) in lupin (Lupinus albus) roots. Lupins were grown in aluminum containers (30 × 25 × 1 cm) filled with sandy soil. D₂O was injected in different soil regions and its transport in soil and roots was monitored by neutron radiography. The transport of water into roots was then quantified using a convection-diffusion model of D₂O transport into roots. The results showed that water uptake was not uniform along roots. Water uptake was higher in the upper soil layers than in the lower ones. Along an individual root, the radial flux was higher in the proximal segments than in the distal segments. In lupins, most of the water uptake occurred in lateral roots. The function of the taproot was to collect water from laterals and transport it to the shoot. This function is ensured by a low radial conductivity and a high axial conductivity. Lupin root architecture seems well designed to take up water from deep soil layers. PMID:23692148

  7. Multifunctionality and diversity of culturable bacterial communities strictly associated with spores of the plant beneficial symbiont Rhizophagus intraradices.

    PubMed

    Battini, Fabio; Cristani, Caterina; Giovannetti, Manuela; Agnolucci, Monica

    2016-02-01

    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with most crop plants and represent essential elements of soil fertility and plant nutrition and productivity, facilitating soil mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. These beneficial services may be mediated by the dense and active spore-associated bacterial communities, which sustain diverse functions, such as the promotion of mycorrhizal activity, biological control of soilborne diseases, nitrogen fixation, and the supply of nutrients and growth factors. In this work, we utilised culture-dependent methods to isolate and functionally characterize the microbiota strictly associated to Rhizophagus intraradices spores, and molecularly identified the strains with best potential plant growth promoting (PGP) activities by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. We isolated in pure culture 374 bacterial strains belonging to different functional groups-actinobacteria, spore-forming, chitinolytic and N2-fixing bacteria-and screened 122 strains for their potential PGP activities. The most common PGP trait was represented by P solubilization from phytate (69.7%), followed by siderophore production (65.6%), mineral P solubilization (49.2%) and IAA production (42.6%). About 76% of actinobacteria and 65% of chitinolytic bacteria displayed multiple PGP activities. Nineteen strains with best potential PGP activities, assigned to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Streptomyces spp., Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans, Nocardiodes albus, Bacillus sp. pumilus group, Fictibacillus barbaricus and Lysinibacillus fusiformis, showed the ability to produce IAA and siderophores and to solubilize P from mineral phosphate and phytate, representing suitable candidates as biocontrol agents, biofertilisers and bioenhancers, in the perspective of targeted management of beneficial symbionts and their associated bacteria in sustainable food production systems. PMID:26805620

  8. Uptake of intact zinc-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from soil is dependent on plant species and complex concentration.

    PubMed

    Collins, Richard N; Merrington, Graham; McLaughlin, Mike J; Knudsen, Chris

    2002-09-01

    Pot experiments were conducted with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), Indian mustard (Brassicajuncea L.), and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) to determine the nature of Zn mobilization, uptake, and root-shoot transport from a Zn-contaminated soil in the presence of increasing concentrations of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA; 0.0-3.4 mmole/kg soil). Increasing EDTA concentrations lead to a greater proportion of soil-solution Zn being detected as the ZnEDTA complex. However, a significant increase in the concentration of soil-solution Zn was only observed after the addition of 3.4 mmole EDTA/ kg soil. At this application rate, regardless of the plant species, 97 +/- 9% (+/- SD) of the increase in soil-solution Zn could be accounted for by chelation/desorption, and 89 +/- 9% of total Zn in solution was measured as ZnEDTA. Although the complex was detected in the xylem exudate of B. juncea after 0.34 mmole EDTA/kg soil had been added, ZnEDTA was only found in the xylem exudate of the other plant species following the highest application rate of EDTA. In this case, the accumulation of Zn and the concentration of ZnEDTA in the xylem sap of B. juncea were significantly greater than those of H. vulgare and S. tuberosum. Measurements of plant transpiration following the addition of EDTA indicated that B. juncea experienced greater physiological stress in the presence of high concentrations of EDTA. It was therefore concluded that two different mechanisms of ZnEDTA uptake existed for these plant species. Based on a review of the literature, it was hypothesized that uptake of ZnEDTA by B. juncea occurred only after physiological damage to its root system, whereas uptake by H. vulgare and S. tuberosum was via an apoplastic pathway (passive extracellular transport into the xylem). PMID:12206435

  9. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  10. Toxic plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance is the single most important economic animal trait to the livestock industry and is reported to be 5 and 10 times more significant than carcass quality and growth traits respectively. Poisonous plants impact livestock reproductive function in a major way and have been shown...

  11. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  12. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  13. Plant chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B

    1978-11-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N(2) gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O(2) gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN(3) and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence.It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  14. Plant Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Leather, Gerald R.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1978-01-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N2 gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O2 gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN3 and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence. It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  15. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  16. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  17. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  18. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  19. The Essence of "Plantness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, W. Marshall

    1990-01-01

    Major differences between plants and animals are presented. Discussed are autotrophs and heterotrophs, plant growth and development, gas exchange, the evolution of plants, ecosystem components, the alleged inferiority of plants, and fungi. (CW)

  20. An RNA-Seq Transcriptome Analysis of Orthophosphate-Deficient White Lupin Reveals Novel Insights into Phosphorus Acclimation in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Jamie A.; Yang, S. Samuel; Miller, Susan S.; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Liu, Junqi; Rydeen, Ariel; Bozsoki, Zoltan; Uhde-Stone, Claudia; Tu, Zheng Jin; Allan, Deborah; Gronwald, John W.; Vance, Carroll P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus, in its orthophosphate form (Pi), is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. However, the whole-genome molecular mechanisms contributing to plant acclimation to Pi deficiency remain largely unknown. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptations for growth in Pi-deficient soils, including the development of cluster roots to increase root surface area. In this study, we utilized RNA-Seq technology to assess global gene expression in white lupin cluster roots, normal roots, and leaves in response to Pi supply. We de novo assembled 277,224,180 Illumina reads from 12 complementary DNA libraries to build what is to our knowledge the first white lupin gene index (LAGI 1.0). This index contains 125,821 unique sequences with an average length of 1,155 bp. Of these sequences, 50,734 were transcriptionally active (reads per kilobase per million reads ≥ 3), representing approximately 7.8% of the white lupin genome, using the predicted genome size of Lupinus angustifolius as a reference. We identified a total of 2,128 sequences differentially expressed in response to Pi deficiency with a 2-fold or greater change and P ≤ 0.05. Twelve sequences were consistently differentially expressed due to Pi deficiency stress in three species, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and white lupin, making them ideal candidates to monitor the Pi status of plants. Additionally, classic physiological experiments were coupled with RNA-Seq data to examine the role of cytokinin and gibberellic acid in Pi deficiency-induced cluster root development. This global gene expression analysis provides new insights into the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the acclimation to Pi deficiency. PMID:23197803

  1. Plants. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The study of plants is often limited to studying plant structure with little emphasis on the vital role plants play in our natural system and the variety of ways man uses plants. This unit, designed for intermediate level elementary students, reviews basic plant structure, discusses roles of plants in nature's system, illustrates plant…

  2. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is very little research done in the area of structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties o...

  3. THERMAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUPINUS ALBUS FLOUR MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the structure and function relationships of lupin meal or lupin native protein is limited. The scope of this work is to study lupin's native proteins' thermal and rheological properties in whole meal. The effect of pH and heat treatment on the thermal properties of lupin meal was studi...

  4. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  5. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun T.; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J.; Lee, Sang M.; Lee, Sang S.; Lee, Il D.; Lee, Su K.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 47.6%, 39.6%, 46.7%, 47.9%, and 48.8% for Punica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  6. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment.

    PubMed

    Blamey, F Pax C; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Paterson, David J; Lombi, Enzo; Wang, Wei Hong; Scheckel, Kirk G; Kopittke, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µm Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupin angustifolius), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grew well at 100 µm Mn. Differences in species' tolerance to high Mn could not be explained simply by differences in root, stem, or leaf Mn status, being 8.6, 17.1, 6.8, and 9.5 mmol kg(-1) leaf fresh mass at 100 µm Mn. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure analyses identified the predominance of Mn(II), bound mostly to malate or citrate, in roots and stems of all four species. Rather, differences in tolerance were due to variations in Mn distribution and speciation within leaves. In Mn-sensitive soybean, in situ analysis of fresh leaves using x-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure showed high Mn in the veins, and manganite [Mn(III)] accumulated in necrotic lesions apparently through low Mn sequestration in vacuoles or other vesicles. In the two lupin species, most Mn accumulated in vacuoles as either soluble Mn(II) malate or citrate. In sunflower, Mn was sequestered as manganite at the base of nonglandular trichomes. Hence, tolerance to high Mn was ascribed to effective sinks for Mn in leaves, as Mn(II) within vacuoles or through oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) in trichomes. These two mechanisms prevented Mn accumulation in the cytoplasm and apoplast, thereby ensuring tolerance to high Mn in the root environment. PMID:26395840

  7. Effects of Flavonoid-rich Plant Extracts on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis, Microbial Populations and Fermentation Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun T; Guan, Le Luo; Lee, Shin J; Lee, Sang M; Lee, Sang S; Lee, Il D; Lee, Su K; Lee, Sung S

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of flavonoid-rich plant extracts (PE) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane emission by studying their effectiveness for methanogenesis in the rumen. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. The PE (Punica granatum, Betula schmidtii, Ginkgo biloba, Camellia japonica, and Cudrania tricuspidata) known to have high concentrations of flavonoid were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid. Total gas production and microbial growth with all PE was higher than that of the control at 24 h incubation, while the methane emission was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of the control. The decrease in methane accumulation relative to the control was 47.6%, 39.6%, 46.7%, 47.9%, and 48.8% for Punica, Betula, Ginkgo, Camellia, and Cudrania treatments, respectively. Ciliate populations were reduced by more than 60% in flavonoid-rich PE treatments. The Fibrobacter succinogenes diversity in all added flavonoid-rich PE was shown to increase, while the Ruminoccocus albus and R. flavefaciens populations in all PE decreased as compared with the control. In particular, the F. succinogenes community with the addition of Birch extract increased to a greater extent than that of others. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that flavonoid-rich PE decreased ruminal methane emission without adversely affecting ruminal fermentation characteristics in vitro in 24 h incubation time, suggesting that the flavonoid-rich PE have potential possibility as bio-active regulator for ruminants. PMID:25656200

  8. Plants on Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawniczak, Stefanie; Gerber, D. Timothy; Beck, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Food, medicine, clothing--much of what people encounter every day comes from plants or plant products. However, plants often do not get as much attention in the K-12 curriculum as they deserve. Because of the essential role plants play in peoples lives, it is important to include standards-based plant units in the elementary science curriculum.…

  9. Plant-plant interactions and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rob W

    2006-01-01

    Natural systems are being subjected to unprecedented rates of change and unique pressures from a combination of anthropogenic environmental change drivers. Plant-plant interactions are an important part of the mechanisms governing the response of plant species and communities to these drivers. For example, competition plays a central role in mediating the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, climate change and invasive nonnative species. Other plant-plant interaction processes are also being recognized as important factors in determining the impacts of environmental change, including facilitation and evolutionary processes associated with plant-plant interactions. However, plant-plant interactions are not the only factors determining the response of species and communities to environmental change drivers - their activity must be placed within the context of the wide range of factors that regulate species, communities and ecosystems. A major research challenge is to understand when plant-plant interactions play a key role in regulating the impact of environmental change drivers, and the type of role that plant-plant interactions play. Although this is a considerable challenge, some areas of current research may provide the starting point to achieving these goals, and should be pursued through large-scale, integrated, multisite experiments. PMID:16866935

  10. Breeding Horticultural Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding involves selection of plants with combinations of improved traits that are inherited in a predictable manner. Collecting, understanding, and incorporating genetic variation into a horticultural breeding program are critical to success. Clearly defined goals help plant breeders choose ...

  11. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  12. The plant microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail. PMID:23805896

  13. Poinsettia plant exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  14. Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This student plant growth investigation on the International Space Station compares plant growth on the ground with plant growth in space. Brassica rapa seeds, commonly known as a turnip mustard, w...

  15. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects. PMID:12546668

  16. THE PLANT ONTOLOGY CONSORTIUM AND PLANT ONTOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the Plant OntologyTM Consortium is to produce structured controlled vocabularies, arranged in ontologies, that can be applied to plant-based database information even as knowledge of the biology of the relevant plant taxa (e.g., development, anatomy, morphology, genomics, proteomics) is ...

  17. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast plants,"…

  18. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  19. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  20. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  1. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  2. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts are eaten. ... Symptoms from eating parts of the plant or from the plant touching the eye include: Burning in the mouth or throat Damage to the outer clear ...

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOEpatents

    Srienc, Friedrich; Somers, David A.; Hahn, J. J.; Eschenlauer, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  4. GCFR plant control system

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-05-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

  5. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  6. Plants that attack plants: molecular elucidation of plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Obligate parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae, such as Striga and Orobanche (including Phelipanche) spp., parasitize important crops and cause severe agricultural damage. Recent molecular studies have begun to reveal how these parasites have adapted to hosts in a parasitic lifecycle. The parasites detect nearby host roots and germinate by a mechanism that seems to have evolved from a conserved germination system found in non-parasites. The development of a specialized infecting organ called a haustorium is a unique feature of plant parasites and is triggered by host compounds and redox signals. Newly developed genomic and genetic resources will facilitate more rapid progress toward a molecular understanding of plant parasitism. PMID:22898297

  7. Thrips management program for plants for planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips Management includes sanitation, exclusion, chemical control and biological control. Sanitation. Remove weeds, old plant debris, and growing medium from within and around the greenhouse. Eliminate old stock plants as these are a source of thrips and viruses. Removing old flowers may reduce the...

  8. Rumen microbial abundance and fermentation profile during severe subacute ruminal acidosis and its modulation by plant derived alkaloids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mickdam, Elsayed; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Chizzola, Remigius; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-06-01

    Rumen microbiota have important metabolic functions for the host animal. This study aimed at characterizing changes in rumen microbial abundances and fermentation profiles using a severe subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in vitro model, and to evaluate a potential modulatory role of plant derived alkaloids (PDA), containing quaternary benzophenanthridine and protopine alkaloids, of which sanguinarine and chelerythrine were the major bioactive compounds. Induction of severe SARA strongly affected the rumen microbial composition and fermentation variables without suppressing the abundance of total bacteria. Protozoa and fungi were more sensitive to the low ruminal pH condition than bacteria. Induction of severe SARA clearly depressed degradation of fiber (P < 0.001), which came along with a decreased relative abundance of fibrolytic Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.001). Under severe SARA conditions, the genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus group, Megasphaera elsdenii, and Entodinium spp. (P < 0.001) were more abundant, whereas Ruminobacter amylophilus was less abundant. SARA largely suppressed methane formation (-70%, P < 0.001), although total methanogenic 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected. According to principal component analysis, Methanobrevibacter spp. correlated to methane concentration. Addition of PDA modulated ruminal fermentation under normal conditions such as enhanced (P < 0.05) concentration of total SCFA, propionate and valerate, and increased (P < 0.05) degradation of crude protein compared with the unsupplemented control diet. Our results indicate strong shifts in the microbial community during severe SARA compared to normal conditions. Supplementation of PDA positively modulates ruminal fermentation under normal ruminal pH conditions. PMID:26868619

  9. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Blamey, F. Pax C.; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Paterson, David J.; Lombi, Enzo; Wang, Wei Hong; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µm Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupin angustifolius), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grew well at 100 µm Mn. Differences in species’ tolerance to high Mn could not be explained simply by differences in root, stem, or leaf Mn status, being 8.6, 17.1, 6.8, and 9.5 mmol kg–1 leaf fresh mass at 100 µm Mn. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure analyses identified the predominance of Mn(II), bound mostly to malate or citrate, in roots and stems of all four species. Rather, differences in tolerance were due to variations in Mn distribution and speciation within leaves. In Mn-sensitive soybean, in situ analysis of fresh leaves using x-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure showed high Mn in the veins, and manganite [Mn(III)] accumulated in necrotic lesions apparently through low Mn sequestration in vacuoles or other vesicles. In the two lupin species, most Mn accumulated in vacuoles as either soluble Mn(II) malate or citrate. In sunflower, Mn was sequestered as manganite at the base of nonglandular trichomes. Hence, tolerance to high Mn was ascribed to effective sinks for Mn in leaves, as Mn(II) within vacuoles or through oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) in trichomes. These two mechanisms prevented Mn accumulation in the cytoplasm and apoplast, thereby ensuring tolerance to high Mn in the root environment. PMID:26395840

  10. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude (< 300 m asl), 4 phenological stations at altitude (300 - 500 m asl) and 4 phenological stations at altitude (> 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57

  11. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  12. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Household plant food poisoning; Plant food - household - poisoning ... Belson M. Ammonia and nitrogen oxides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ...

  13. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  14. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  15. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  16. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  17. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer M.; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Preuss, Daphne

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  18. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach; Jennifer M. , Zieler; Helge , Jin; RongGuan , Keith; Kevin , Copenhaver; Gregory P. , Preuss; Daphne

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  19. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... KA. Toxic plant ingestions. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011: ... AB. Plant-induced dermatitis. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011: ...

  20. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  1. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  2. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  3. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  4. Plant Interactions With Herbivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are eaten by a tremendous array of herbivores, including almost half of known insect species. Although herbivores consume most plants to some degree, many plants are also relatively well defended, and herbivore populations are often limited by predators. The net result of these processes is t...

  5. Plant sampling guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides GRACEnet guidelines for sampling plant shoots and roots with additional guidelines and references for determining plant quality. Plant biomass including rhizodeposition provides the majority of net primary production that fuels above- and below-ground ecosystems. Thus, high ca...

  6. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  7. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  8. Antibodies in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of antibodies in plants has several promising applications that are currently being developed. Plants are being considered for the large scale production of antibodies needed for medical purposes. The benefit of using plants is that they are able to perform post-translational modifi...

  9. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  10. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  11. Cycling Through Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Children notice seeds and plants every day. But do they really understand what seeds are and how they are related to plants? Have they ever observed what is inside the seed? What happens to the "things" inside a seed when it grows? What do plants need to grow, and what do they need to stay healthy? Through a sequence of three related learning…

  12. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Living things respond to a stimulus, which is a change in the surroundings. Some common stimuli are noises, smells, and things the people see or feel, such as a change in temperature. Animals often respond to a stimulus by moving. Because plants can't move around in the same way animals do, plants have to respond in a different way. Plants can…

  13. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  14. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  16. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  17. Bumper transgenic plant crop

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1991-07-05

    Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

  18. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  19. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  20. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  1. Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed. PMID:19704553

  2. Modeling plant morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle

    2006-02-01

    Applications of computational techniques to developmental plant biology include the processing of experimental data and the construction of simulation models. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past few years. Complex image-processing techniques are used to integrate sequences of two-dimensional images into three-dimensional descriptions of development over time and to extract useful quantitative traits. Large amounts of data are integrated into empirical models of developing plant organs and entire plants. Mechanistic models link molecular-level phenomena with the resulting phenotypes. Several models shed light on the possible properties of active auxin transport and its role in plant morphogenesis. PMID:16376602

  3. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  4. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  5. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  6. Pilot plant becomes demonstration plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.

  7. ROS and Phytohormones in Plant-Plant Allelopathic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Allelopathy refers to plant-plant interference mediated mostly by plant released products of secondary metabolism. It was recently suggested that allelochamicals may influence growth of neighboring plants by induction of oxidative stress. We have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormons (ABA and ethylene) in the biochemical and molecular regulation of plant response to sunflower phytotoxins. PMID:19704634

  8. Plants Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    This study quide is intended to provide students with information about the types and functions of plants, along with some individual learning activities. The guide contains sections about: (1) the contributions of plants to life on earth and the benefits they afford to humanity; (2) the processes of photosynthesis and respiration; (3) the flow of…

  9. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  10. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)